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1

Stochastic Games. I. Foundations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper strives to provide a sound underpinning for the theory of stochastic games. Section 2 is a reworking of the Bewley-Kohlberg result integrated with Shapley's; the black magic of Tarski's principle is replaced by the gray magic of the Hilbert Nul...

C. A. Monash

1982-01-01

2

The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game  

PubMed Central

We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness.

E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong

2014-01-01

3

Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Cardaliaguet@univ-brest.fr; Rainer, Catherine [Universite de Brest, Laboratoire de Mathematique (UMR CNRS 6205) (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2009-02-15

4

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

5

Hybrid risk-sensitive mean-field stochastic differential games with application to molecular biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a class of mean-field nonlinear stochastic differential games (resulting from stochastic differential games in a large population regime) with risk-sensitive cost functions and two types of uncertainties: continuous-time disturbances (of Brownian motion type) and event-driven random switching. Under some regularity conditions, we first study the best response of the players to the mean field, and then characterize the

Quanyan Zhu; Hamidou Tembine; Tamer Basar

2011-01-01

6

Pathwise Strategies for Stochastic Differential Games with an Erratum to 'Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information'  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)

Cardaliaguet, P., E-mail: cardaliaguet@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Ceremade (France); Rainer, C., E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)

2013-08-01

7

Numerical methods for control and games of regime-switching diffusion systems: Algorithms, analysis, and computations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is concerned with numerical methods for controlled regime-switching diffusions. Numerical methods using Markov chain approximation techniques are developed for stochastic control problems, and two-player differential game problems. ^ In the stochastic control problem, the approximating Markov chain has two components: One component is an approximation to the diffusion, whereas the other keeps track of the regimes. A new

Qingshuo Song

2006-01-01

8

Stochastic game approach to air operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A command and control (C2) problem for military air operations is addressed. Specifically, we consider C2 problems for air vehicles against ground-based targets and defensive systems. The problem is viewed as a stochastic game. We restrict our attention to the C2 level where the problem may consist of a few unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) or aircraft (or possibly teams

William M. McEneaney; Ben G. Fitzpatrick; Istvan G. Lauko

2004-01-01

9

Evolutionary game on a stochastic growth network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some real complex systems the structures are difficult to map or changing over time. To explore the evolution of strategies on these complex systems, it is not realistic enough to specify their structures or topological properties in advance. In this paper, we address the evolutionary game on a stochastic growth network adopting the prisoner’s dilemma game. We introduce a growing rate q to control the ratio of network growth to strategy evolution. A large q denotes that the network grows faster than strategy evolution. Simulation results show that a fast growing rate is helpful to promote the average payoffs of both cooperators and defectors. Moreover, this parameter also significantly influences the cooperation frequency on the resulting networks. The coexisting mechanisms in this paper may provide a beneficial insight for understanding the emergence of complex topological structures and game behaviors in numerous real systems.

Li, Gang; Jin, Xiao-Gang; Song, Zhi-Huan

2012-12-01

10

Stochastic multi-player pursuit–evasion differential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Autonomous aerial vehicles play an important role in military applications such as in search, surveillance and reconnaissance. Multi-player stochastic pursuit-evasion (PE) differential game is a natural model for such operations involving intelligent moving targets with uncertainties. In this paper, some fundamental issues of stochastic PE games are addressed. We first model a general stochastic multi-player PE differential game with

Dongxu Li; Jose B. Cruz Jr; Corey J. Schumacher

2008-01-01

11

Stochastic pursuit-evasion differential games in the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four stochastic pursuit-evasion differential games involving two players, P and E, moving in the plane are considered. The difference between the games lies in their information structures. In each of the games, sufficient conditions on optimal feedback strategies, in the cases of complete information, and on weak optimal feedback strategies, in the cases of incomplete information, are derived. Optimal strategies

Y. Yavin; G. Leitmann

1986-01-01

12

Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games

Hamlen, Karla R.

2012-01-01

13

A two-player stochastic pursuit-evasion differential game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increasing use of autonomous aerial vehicles in military applications such as search, surveillance and reconnaissance of mobile targets, the study of (multi-player) pursuit-evasion (PE) differential game has revived. As a basis for studying multi-player games, we focus on a two-player stochastic PE game. Based on the classical differential game theory, we derive the analytical value function for

Dongxu Li; Jose B. Cruz

2007-01-01

14

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

15

Approximate solutions of stochastic differential delay equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching (SDEwMS) have received a great deal of attention. In this paper, the Euler-Maruyama method is developed, one of the most powerful numerical schemes, for the stochastic differential delay equations with Markovian switching (SDDEwMS).

Yuan, Chenggui; Glover, William

2006-10-01

16

Stochastic pursuit-evasion differential games in 3D  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic version of Isaacs's homicidal chauffeur game in the (x, y, z)-space is considered. This is used to solve a pursuit-evasion problem in the (x, y, z)-space in which the pursuer has incomplete information on the evader motion. Optimal feedback strategies for the game, and optimal feedback guidance laws for the pursuer, which uses only the measurements available to

Y. Yavin; R. DE VILLIERS

1988-01-01

17

Stochastic Local Search for Core Membership Checking in Hedonic Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hedonic games have emerged as an important tool in economics and show promise as a useful formalism to model multi-agent coalition formation in AI as well as group formation in social networks. We consider a coNP-complete problem of core membership checking in hedonic coalition formation games. No previous algorithms to tackle the problem have been presented. In this work, we overcome this by developing two stochastic local search algorithms for core membership checking in hedonic games. We demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithms by showing experimentally that they find solutions efficiently, particularly for large agent societies.

Keinänen, Helena

18

Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.  

PubMed

Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921

Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

2014-01-01

19

Stochastic Heterogeneous Interaction Promotes Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

PubMed Central

Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games.

Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

2014-01-01

20

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks.  

PubMed

Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive functions, such as task switching and filtering out distracting information, are less well understood. In the main experiment presented here, video game players (VGPs) and nonplayers (nVGPs) switched between two tasks of unequal familiarity: a familiar task of responding in the direction indicated by an arrow, and a novel task of responding in the opposite direction. nVGPs had large response time costs for switching from the novel task to the familiar task, and small costs for switching from the familiar task to the novel task, replicating prior findings. However, as compared to the nVGPs, VGPs were more facile in switching between tasks, producing overall smaller and more symmetric switching costs, suggesting that experience with action video games produces improvements in executive functioning. In contrast, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in filtering out the irrelevant flanking stimuli or in remembering details of aurally presented stories. The lack of global differences between the groups suggests that the improved task-switching performance seen in VGPs was not due to differences in global factors, such as VGPs being more motivated than nVGPs. PMID:22415446

Cain, Matthew S; Landau, Ayelet N; Shimamura, Arthur P

2012-05-01

21

A Stochastic Multigeneration Game for Global Climate Change Impact Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a definition of intergenerational equity in a stochastic game formulation. We propose a piecewise deterministic\\u000a control model where the control is exerted by a succession of generations, each having a random life duration. Each generation\\u000a has a concern in both the expected reward received during its own life and the expected reward that will accrue to

Alain Haurie

22

Stochastic stability of Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, taking into account the structure variations at discrete time instances during the process of gene regulation, a hybrid genetic regulatory networks model based on Markov chain is proposed. Its robust stochastic stability in the case of uncertain switching probabilities and intrinsic noises is then addressed from the stochastic system point of view. It is shown that the sufficient condition for the robust stochastic stability of the genetic networks can be formulated as feasibility of a linear matrix inequality, which can be easily facilitated by Matlab LMI toolbox. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed results.

Sun, Yonghui; Feng, Gang; Cao, Jinde

2009-04-01

23

A Model of Stochastic Process Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a rational expectations exchange rate model which is capable of confronting explicitly agents' beliefs about a future switch in exogenous driving processes. In our set-up the agents know with certainty both the initial exogenous process and the new process to be adopted when the switch occurs. However, they do not know with certainty the timing

Robert P. Flood; Peter M. Garber

1983-01-01

24

Robust synthetic biology design: stochastic game theory approach  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Synthetic biology is to engineer artificial biological systems to investigate natural biological phenomena and for a variety of applications. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to uncertain initial conditions and disturbances of extra-cellular environments on the host cell. At present, how to design a robust synthetic gene network to work properly under these uncertain factors is the most important topic of synthetic biology. Results: A robust regulation design is proposed for a stochastic synthetic gene network to achieve the prescribed steady states under these uncertain factors from the minimax regulation perspective. This minimax regulation design problem can be transformed to an equivalent stochastic game problem. Since it is not easy to solve the robust regulation design problem of synthetic gene networks by non-linear stochastic game method directly, the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model is proposed to approximate the non-linear synthetic gene network via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique through the Robust Control Toolbox in Matlab. Finally, an in silico example is given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed robust gene design method. Availability: http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/bschen/SyntheticBioDesign_supplement.pdf Contact: bschen@ee.nthu.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Chia-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Ching

2009-01-01

25

Marble game with optimal ferroelectric switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low coercivity and, consequently, low hysteresis loss are desired properties for ferroelectric materials used in high-power and high-frequency actuators. The coercive field required for the onset of ferroelectric switching is shown to develop a strong directional anisotropy due to peculiarities of an energy surface associated with the polarization rotation. It is found that the ferroelectric anisotropy exhibits ‘hard’ and ‘easy’ switching axes similar to magnetic materials. The hard axis corresponds to 180° polarization reversal, whereas the easy axis favors 90° switching. Our results suggest that the intrinsic low coercivity and the full polarization reversal may not be achieved at the same time under uniaxial excitation. A rotating electric field excitation is proposed in order to circumvent this limitation and to guide the polarization switching along a curved path.

Cole, J.; Ahmed, S. J.; Curiel, L.; Pichardo, S.; Rubel, O.

2014-04-01

26

Marble game with optimal ferroelectric switching.  

PubMed

A low coercivity and, consequently, low hysteresis loss are desired properties for ferroelectric materials used in high-power and high-frequency actuators. The coercive field required for the onset of ferroelectric switching is shown to develop a strong directional anisotropy due to peculiarities of an energy surface associated with the polarization rotation. It is found that the ferroelectric anisotropy exhibits 'hard' and 'easy' switching axes similar to magnetic materials. The hard axis corresponds to 180° polarization reversal, whereas the easy axis favors 90° switching. Our results suggest that the intrinsic low coercivity and the full polarization reversal may not be achieved at the same time under uniaxial excitation. A rotating electric field excitation is proposed in order to circumvent this limitation and to guide the polarization switching along a curved path. PMID:24625783

Cole, J; Ahmed, S J; Curiel, L; Pichardo, S; Rubel, O

2014-04-01

27

On the solution of a general stochastic linear pursuit-evasion game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we have considered the existence and uniqueness of a random solution of a stochastic linear pursuit-evasion game described by a linear stochastic differential equation of the form We give only one transition equation where x( t;?) can be thought of as the distance between the pursuer and evader, Thus, by a simple transformation, a pursuit-evasion game becomes

W. G. NICHOLS; CHRIS P. TSOKOS

1976-01-01

28

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

SciTech Connect

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15

29

Exclusion rules, bottlenecks and the evolution of stochastic phenotype switching.  

PubMed

Stochastic phenotype switching--often considered a bet hedging or risk-reducing strategy--can enhance the probability of survival in fluctuating environments. A recent experiment provided direct evidence for an adaptive origin by showing the de novo evolution of switching in bacterial populations propagated under a selective regime that captured essential features of the host immune response. The regime involved strong frequency-dependent selection realized via dual imposition of an exclusion rule and population bottleneck. Applied at the point of transfer between environments, the phenotype common in the current environment was assigned a fitness of zero and was thus excluded from participating in the next round (the exclusion rule). In addition, also at the point of transfer, and so as to found the next bout of selection, a single phenotypically distinct type was selected at random from among the survivors (the bottleneck). Motivated by this experiment, we develop a mathematical model to explore the broader significance of key features of the selective regime. Through a combination of analytical and numerical results, we show that exclusion rules and population bottlenecks act in tandem as potent selective agents for stochastic phenotype switching, such that even when initially rare, and when switching engenders a cost in Malthusian fitness, organisms with the capacity to switch can invade non-switching populations and replace non-switching types. Simulations demonstrate the robustness of our findings to alterations in switching rate, fidelity of exclusion, bottleneck size, duration of environmental state and growth rate. We also demonstrate the relevance of our model to a range of biological scenarios such as bacterial persistence and the evolution of sex. PMID:21490013

Libby, Eric; Rainey, Paul B

2011-12-01

30

Slow Stochastic Switching by Collective Chaos of Fast Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled dynamical systems with one slow element and many fast elements are analyzed. By averaging over the dynamics of the fast variables, the adiabatic kinetic branch is introduced for the dynamics of the slow variable in the adiabatic limit. The dynamics without the limit are found to be represented by stochastic switching over these branches mediated by the collective chaos of the fast elements, while the switching frequency shows a complicated dependence on the ratio of the two time scales with some resonance structure. The ubiquity of the phenomena in the slow-fast dynamics is also discussed.

Aoki, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

2013-10-01

31

Markov switching and stochastic volatility di usion models of short-term interest rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper empirically compares the Markov-switching and stochastic volatility diffusion models of the short rate. The evidence supports the Markov-switching diffusion model. Estimates of the elasticity of volatility parameter for single regime models unanimously indicate an explosive volatility process, while the Markov-switching models estimates are reasonable. We find that either Markov-switching or stochastic volatility, but not both, are needed

D. R. Smith

2002-01-01

32

The stochastic behavior of a molecular switching circuit with feedback  

PubMed Central

Background Using a statistical physics approach, we study the stochastic switching behavior of a model circuit of multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation with feedback. The circuit consists of a kinase and phosphatase acting on multiple sites of a substrate that, contingent on its modification state, catalyzes its own phosphorylation and, in a symmetric scenario, dephosphorylation. The symmetric case is viewed as a cartoon of conflicting feedback that could result from antagonistic pathways impinging on the state of a shared component. Results Multisite phosphorylation is sufficient for bistable behavior under feedback even when catalysis is linear in substrate concentration, which is the case we consider. We compute the phase diagram, fluctuation spectrum and large-deviation properties related to switch memory within a statistical mechanics framework. Bistability occurs as either a first-order or second-order non-equilibrium phase transition, depending on the network symmetries and the ratio of phosphatase to kinase numbers. In the second-order case, the circuit never leaves the bistable regime upon increasing the number of substrate molecules at constant kinase to phosphatase ratio. Conclusion The number of substrate molecules is a key parameter controlling both the onset of the bistable regime, fluctuation intensity, and the residence time in a switched state. The relevance of the concept of memory depends on the degree of switch symmetry, as memory presupposes information to be remembered, which is highest for equal residence times in the switched states. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Artem Novozhilov (nominated by Eugene Koonin), Sergei Maslov, and Ned Wingreen.

Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric; Krakauer, David; Fontana, Walter

2007-01-01

33

Stochastic and photochromic switching of diarylethenes studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate switching of photochromic, thiophene-substituted diarylethene switches on gold. For this, the conjugated isomer is inserted in a dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayer. This layer is subsequently scanned by tunnelling microscopy. First, we study the statistics of stochastic switching events, using two different counting methods. One method monitors reversible switching, whereas the other counts irreversible switching events. For each STM bias voltage, we observe a saturation to a dynamic equilibrium of 'on' and 'off' state molecules. This equilibrium shifts to the 'off'-side when the voltage bias is increased. Second, we separate light-induced switching from stochastic switching. In this way, we demonstrate photochromic switching of single molecules, from the conjugated to the non-conjugated form. The switching times we measure are comparable to those found for conjugated switches self-assembled on gold colloids in solution.

van der Molen, S. J.; van der Vegte, H.; Kudernac, T.; Amin, I.; Feringa, B. L.; van Wees, B. J.

2006-01-01

34

A Pumping Algorithm for Ergodic Stochastic Mean Payoff Games with Perfect Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider two-person zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information, or BWR-games, given by a digraph G = (V = V B ? V W ? V R , E), with local rewards r: E to { R}, and three types of vertices: black V B , white V W , and random V R . The game is played by two players, White and Black: When the play is at a white (black) vertex v, White (Black) selects an outgoing arc (v,u). When the play is at a random vertex v, a vertex u is picked with the given probability p(v,u). In all cases, Black pays White the value r(v,u). The play continues forever, and White aims to maximize (Black aims to minimize) the limiting mean (that is, average) payoff. It was recently shown in [7] that BWR-games are polynomially equivalent with the classical Gillette games, which include many well-known subclasses, such as cyclic games, simple stochastic games (SSG's), stochastic parity games, and Markov decision processes. In this paper, we give a new algorithm for solving BWR-games in the ergodic case, that is when the optimal values do not depend on the initial position. Our algorithm solves a BWR-game by reducing it, using a potential transformation, to a canonical form in which the optimal strategies of both players and the value for every initial position are obvious, since a locally optimal move in it is optimal in the whole game. We show that this algorithm is pseudo-polynomial when the number of random nodes is constant. We also provide an almost matching lower bound on its running time, and show that this bound holds for a wider class of algorithms. Let us add that the general (non-ergodic) case is at least as hard as SSG's, for which no pseudo-polynomial algorithm is known.

Boros, Endre; Elbassioni, Khaled; Gurvich, Vladimir; Makino, Kazuhisa

35

Stochastic modeling hysteresis and resistive switching in bipolar oxide-based memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a stochastic model of the resistive switching mechanism in resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on electron hopping. The distribution of electron occupation probabilities obtained with our approach is in good agreement with previous work. In particular, a low occupation region is formed near the cathode for bipolar switching behavior or near the anode for unipolar switching

Alexander Makarov; Viktor Sverdlov; Siegfried Selberherr

2010-01-01

36

Stochastic two-target pursuit-evasion differential games in the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic version of a two-target homicidal chauffeur, pursuit-evasion differential game (using polar coordinates) is considered. This is used to model a dogfight between a very agile playerQ and a less maneuverable playerP. First, the case where both players have complete observation of the state of the game is considered. A numerical study is conducted, by solving numerically a nonlinear

Y. Yavin

1988-01-01

37

Convergence of numerical solutions to stochastic age-dependent population equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a class of stochastic age-dependent population equations with Markovian switching is considered. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation of stochastic age-dependent population equations with Markovian switching. It is proved that the numerical approximation solutions converge to the analytic solutions of the equations under the given conditions. An example is given for illustration.

Li, Ronghua; Leung, Ping-Kei; Pang, Wan-Kai

2009-12-01

38

Stochastic pursuit-evasion differential games in 3D: The case of variable speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic pursuit-evasion differential games involving two players moving in the (x,y,z)-space are considered. A study is conducted of the roles of the pursuer's maneuverability and of information structure restrictions imposed on the pursuer's field of view or on the magnitude of the pursuer's line-of-sight rate vector, with respect to the outcome of the encounter.

R. DE VILLIERS; T. Miloh; Y. Yavin

1988-01-01

39

Making Greed Work in Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Switch Service Disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are twobasic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrativecontrol is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfishuser behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. Thiseffect is investigated in a simple model consisting of a

Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

40

Stochastic control in a determinate differential pursuit-evasion game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, on the material of originally determinate differential game on minimax-maximin time up to the encounter of the\\u000a controlled object with the wanted target is discussed a formalization, on which the theory of probabilities plays an important\\u000a role. We tracked the way from descriptive theorems of existence of a price and saddle point in the original game to

N. N. Krasovskii; A. N. Kotel’nikova

2011-01-01

41

Switching of bound vector solitons for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.

Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao Yitian [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-12-15

42

A stochastic homicidal chauffeur pursuit-evasion differential game  

Microsoft Academic Search

A certain stochastic pursuit-evasion problem of the homicidal chauffeur type is considered. The pursuer strategy synthesized in this paper is fairly simple in contrast to the less straightforward swerve maneuver employed in the deterministic model. The analysis may partially explain why relatively simple pursuit strategies are apparently always adopted in practice.

M. Pachter; Y. Yavin

1981-01-01

43

Stochasticity as a Source of Innovation in Language Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on viewing language as a complex adaptive system has shown that self-organisation can explain how a group of distributed agents can reach a coherent set of linguistic conventions and how such a set can be preserved from one generation to the next based on cultural transmission. The paper continues these investigations by exploring the presence of stochasticity in

Luc Steels; Frédéric Kaplan

1998-01-01

44

DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games.  

PubMed

The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility. PMID:21833191

Colzato, Lorenza S; van Leeuwen, Pieter J A; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

45

Evolutionary dynamics on stochastic evolving networks for multiple-strategy games.  

PubMed

Evolutionary game theory on dynamical networks has received much attention. Most of the work has been focused on 2×2 games such as prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift, with general n×n games seldom addressed. In particular, analytical methods are still lacking. Here we generalize the stochastic linking dynamics proposed by Wu, Zhou, Fu, Luo, Wang, and Traulsen [PLoS ONE 5, e11187 (2010)] to n×n games. We analytically obtain that the fast linking dynamics results in the replicator dynamics with a rescaled payoff matrix. In the rescaled matrix, intuitively, each entry is the product of the original entry and the average duration time of the corresponding link. This result is shown to be robust to a wide class of imitation processes. As applications, we show both analytically and numerically that the biodiversity, modeled as the stability of a zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, cannot be altered by the fast linking dynamics. In addition, we show that the fast linking dynamics can stabilize tit-for-tat as an evolutionary stable strategy in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game provided the interaction between the identical strategies happens sufficiently often. Our method paves the way for an analytical study of the multiple-strategy coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:22181231

Wu, Bin; Zhou, Da; Wang, Long

2011-10-01

46

On Stochastic Hybrid Zero-Sum Games with Nonlinear Slow Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper considers a continuous-time stochastic hybrid system, controlled by two players with opposite objectives (zero-sum\\u000a game). The parameters of the system may jump at discrete moments of time according to a Markov decision process, namely, a\\u000a Markov chain that is directly controlled by both players and has finite state and action spaces. Assuming that the length\\u000a of the intervals

Minh-Tuan Nguyen Dsto; Eitan Altman Inria; Vladimir Gaitsgory

47

Stochastic Game Theory: For Playing Games, Not Just for Doing Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situation. By relaxing the assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of (i) initial decisions (ii)dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and (iii) equilibrium steady-state distributions.

Charles A. Holt; Jacob K. Goeree

1999-01-01

48

Stochastic Game Theory: For Playing Games, Not Just for Doing Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situations. By relaxing the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of initial decisions, dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and equilibrium steady-state distributions.

Jacob K. Goeree; Charles A. Holt

1999-01-01

49

Stochastic game theory: for playing games, not just for doing theory.  

PubMed

Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situations. By relaxing the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of initial decisions, dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and equilibrium steady-state distributions. PMID:10485862

Goeree, J K; Holt, C A

1999-09-14

50

pth Moment stability of impulsive stochastic delay differential systems with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the pth moment stability of impulsive stochastic delay differential systems with Markovian switching. By using the Razumikhin-type method, some stability criteria are obtained, which can loosen the constraints of the existing results and thus reduce the conservativeness. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed results.

Wu, Xiaotai; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang

2013-07-01

51

Numerical method for stationary distribution of stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In principle, once the existence of the stationary distribution of a stochastic differential equation with Markovian switching is assured, we may compute it by solving the associated system of the coupled Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations. However, this is nontrivial in practice. As a viable alternative, we use the Euler-Maruyama scheme to obtain the stationary distribution in this paper.

Mao, Xuerong; Yuan, Chenggui; Yin, G.

2005-02-01

52

Stochastic modeling of the resistive switching mechanism in oxide-based memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated a stochastic model of the resistive switching mechanism in resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on electron hopping. The distribution of electron occupation probabilities analyzed with our approach is in good agreement with previous work. In particular, a low occupation region is formed near the cathode for bipolar behavior or near the anode for unipolar behavior. Our

A. Makarov; V. Sverdlov; S. Selberherr

2010-01-01

53

Pulsar State Switching from Markov Transitions and Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

Cordes, J. M.

2013-09-01

54

The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.

Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin

2013-10-01

55

Numerical and experimental study of stochastic resistive switching.  

PubMed

In this paper we study the role of noise in the context of resistive switching phenomena by means of experiments and numerical simulations. Experiments are conducted on a manganite sample. We show that the addition of external Gaussian noise to a small amplitude driving signal yields a contrast ratio between low- and high-resistance states, comparable to that obtained by the application of a large amplitude noiseless signal. Furthermore, excellent agreement between numerical simulation and measurement allows us to study resistive switching under varying input conditions and, thus, properly characterize the beneficial role of noise. We believe these results might be of relevance in the area of memory devices where the large scale of electronic integration renders the presence of noise unavoidable. PMID:23410304

Patterson, G A; Fierens, P I; García, A A; Grosz, D F

2013-01-01

56

Development of stochastic dynamic Nash game model for reservoir operation II. The value of players’ information availability and cooperative behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic dynamic game models can be applied to derive optimal reservoir operation policies by considering interactions among water users and reservoir operator, their preferences, their levels of information availability and cooperative behaviors. The stochastic dynamic game model with perfect information (PSDNG) has been developed by [Ganji A, Khalili D, Karamouz M. Development of stochastic dynamic Nash game model for reservoir operation. I. The symmetric stochastic model with perfect information. Adv Water Resour, this issue]. This paper develops four additional versions of stochastic dynamic game model of water users interactions based on the cooperative behavior and hydrologic information availability of beneficiary sectors of reservoir systems. It is shown that the proposed models are quite capable of providing appropriate reservoir operating policies when compared with alternative operating models, as indicated by several reservoir performance characteristics. Among the proposed models, the selected model by considering cooperative behavior and additional hydrologic information (about the randomness nature of reservoir operation parameters), as exercised by reservoir operator, provides the highest attained level of performance and efficiency. Furthermore, the selected model is more realistic since it also considers actual behavior of water users and reservoir operator in the analysis.

Ganji, Arman; Karamouz, Mohammad; Khalili, Davar

2007-01-01

57

Time delay induced transition of gene switch and stochastic resonance in a genetic transcriptional regulatory model  

PubMed Central

Background Noise, nonlinear interactions, positive and negative feedbacks within signaling pathways, time delays, protein oligomerization, and crosstalk between different pathways are main characters in the regulatory of gene expression. However, only a single noise source or only delay time in the deterministic model is considered in the gene transcriptional regulatory system in previous researches. The combined effects of correlated noise and time delays on the gene regulatory model still remain not to be fully understood. Results The roles of time delay on gene switch and stochastic resonance are systematically explored based on a famous gene transcriptional regulatory model subject to correlated noise. Two cases, including linear time delay appearing in the degradation process (case I) and nonlinear time delay appearing in the synthesis process (case II) are considered, respectively. For case I: Our theoretical results show that time delay can induce gene switch, i.e., the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the high concentration state to the low concentration state ("on"?"off"). With increasing the time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further accelerated. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be enhanced by both the time delay and correlated noise intensity. However, the additive noise original from the synthesis rate restrains the stochastic resonance. It is also very interesting that a resonance bi-peaks structure appears under large additive noise intensity. The theoretical results by using small-delay time-approximation approach are consistent well with our numerical simulation. For case II: Our numerical simulation results show that time delay can also induce the gene switch, however different with case I, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the low concentration state to the high concentration state ("off"?"on"). With increasing time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further enhanced. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be weaken by the time delay. Conclusions The stochastic delay dynamic approach can identify key physiological control parameters to which the behavior of special genetic regulatory systems is particularly sensitive. Such parameters might provide targets for pharmacological intervention. Thus, it would be highly interesting to investigate if similar experimental techniques could be used to bring out the delay-induced switch and stochastic resonance in the stochastic gene transcriptional regulatory process.

2012-01-01

58

Approximations of Euler-Maruyama type for stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching, under non-Lipschitz conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the Euler-Maruyama scheme for a class of stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching (SDEwMSs) under non-Lipschitz conditions. Both L1 and L2-convergence are discussed under different non-Lipschitz conditions. To overcome the mathematical difficulties arisen from the Markovian switching as well as the non-Lipschitz coefficients, several new analytical techniques have been developed in this paper which should prove to be very useful in the numerical analysis of stochastic systems.

Mao, Xuerong; Yuan, Chenggui; Yin, G.

2007-08-01

59

Modeling and Recognition of Driving Behavior Based on Stochastic Switched ARX Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of the mod- eling and recognition of human driving behavior based on a stochastic switched auto-regressive exogenous (SS-ARX) model. First, a parameter estimation algorithm for the SS-ARX model with multiple measured input-output sequences is developed based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. This can be achieved by extending the parameter estimation technique for the conventional hidden

Shogo Sekizawa; Shinkichi Inagaki; Tatsuya Suzuki; Soichiro Hayakawa; Nuio Tsuchida; Taishi Tsuda; Hiroaki Fujinami

2007-01-01

60

Modeling and Recognition of Human Driving Behavior based on Stochastic Switched ARX model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a development of the modeling of the human driving behavior based on the expression as Stochastic Switched ARX model (SS-ARX) focusing on the driver’s collision avoidance behavior. First, the parameter estimation technique for the SS-ARX model is introduced based on the EM algorithm. This can be achieved by extending the parameter estimation technique for conventional Hidden Markov

Tatsuya Suzuki; Shogo Sekizawa; Shinkichi Inagaki; Soichiro Hayakawa; Nuio Tsuchida; Taishi Tsuda; Hiroaki Fujinami

2005-01-01

61

Stochastic modeling of bipolar resistive switching in metal-oxide based memory by Monte Carlo technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model of the resistive switching mechanism in bipolar metal-oxide based resistive random access memory (RRAM)\\u000a is presented. The distribution of electron occupation probabilities obtained is in agreement with previous work. In particular,\\u000a a low occupation region is formed near the cathode. Our simulations of the temperature dependence of the electron occupation\\u000a probability near the anode and the cathode

Alexander Makarov; Viktor Sverdlov; Siegfried Selberherr

2010-01-01

62

Stochastic Current-Induced Magnetization Switching in a Single Semiconducting Ferromagnetic Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show experimental evidence of magnetization switching in a single (Ga,Mn)(As,P) semiconducting ferromagnetic layer, attributed to a strong reduction of the magnetization and the anisotropy due to current injection. The nucleation of magnetization reversal is found to occur even in the absence of a magnetic field and to be both anisotropic and stochastic. Our findings highlight a new mechanism of magnetization manipulation based on spin accumulation in a semiconductor material.

Gorchon, J.; Curiale, J.; Lemaètre, A.; Moisan, N.; Cubukcu, M.; Malinowski, G.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Jeudy, V.

2014-01-01

63

Stochastic current-induced magnetization switching in a single semiconducting ferromagnetic layer.  

PubMed

We show experimental evidence of magnetization switching in a single (Ga,Mn)(As,P) semiconducting ferromagnetic layer, attributed to a strong reduction of the magnetization and the anisotropy due to current injection. The nucleation of magnetization reversal is found to occur even in the absence of a magnetic field and to be both anisotropic and stochastic. Our findings highlight a new mechanism of magnetization manipulation based on spin accumulation in a semiconductor material. PMID:24484033

Gorchon, J; Curiale, J; Lemaître, A; Moisan, N; Cubukcu, M; Malinowski, G; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; von Bardeleben, H J; Jeudy, V

2014-01-17

64

Passivity analysis for stochastic Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the passivity problem for the stochastic Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays is investigated. By applying control theory and mathematical tools, a sufficient condition for this problem is obtained and presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified by Matlab LMI toolbox. The obtained condition provides some insight into synthetic biology and systems biology. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed result.

Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

2011-08-01

65

DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene–mRNA–protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application.

Earnest, Tyler M.; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

2013-04-01

66

Some Classes of Imperfect Information Finite State-Space Stochastic Games with Finite-Dimensional Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.

McEneaney, William M. [Departments of Mathematics and Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States)], E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu

2004-08-15

67

Impulsive synchronization schemes of stochastic complex networks with switching topology: Average time approach.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel impulsive control law is proposed for synchronization of stochastic discrete complex networks with time delays and switching topologies, where average dwell time and average impulsive interval are taken into account. The side effect of time delays is estimated by Lyapunov-Razumikhin technique, which quantitatively gives the upper bound to increase the rate of Lyapunov function. By considering the compensation of decreasing interval, a better impulsive control law is recast in terms of average dwell time and average impulsive interval. Detailed results from a numerical illustrative example are presented and discussed. Finally, some relevant conclusions are drawn. PMID:24657849

Li, Chaojie; Yu, Wenwu; Huang, Tingwen

2014-06-01

68

Transcriptional bursting diversifies the behaviour of a toggle switch: hybrid simulation of stochastic gene expression.  

PubMed

Hybrid models for gene expression combine stochastic and deterministic representations of the underlying biophysical mechanisms. According to one of the simplest hybrid formalisms, protein molecules are produced in randomly occurring bursts of a randomly distributed size while they are degraded deterministically. Here, we use this particular formalism to study two key regulatory motifs-the autoregulation loop and the toggle switch. The distribution of burst times is determined and used as a basis for the development of exact simulation algorithms for gene expression dynamics. For the autoregulation loop, the simulations are compared to an analytic solution of a master equation. Simulations of the toggle switch reveal a number of qualitatively distinct scenarios with implications for the modelling of cell-fate selection. PMID:23354929

Bokes, Pavol; King, John R; Wood, Andrew T A; Loose, Matthew

2013-02-01

69

Differential games.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

Varaiya, P. P.

1972-01-01

70

Monty Hall Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet consists of the Monty Hall game: a car is behind one door and goats are behind the other two doors. The player makes an initial choice and the host opens a different door. The player is then given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host can be specified.

Siegrist, Kyle

71

Consensus in networks of multiagents with cooperation and competition via stochastically switching topologies.  

PubMed

In this brief, we provide some theoretical analysis of the consensus for networks of agents via stochastically switching topologies. We consider both discrete-time case and continuous-time case. The main contribution of this brief is that the underlying graph topology is more general in both cases than those appeared in previous papers. The weight matrix of the coupling graph is not assumed to be nonnegative or Metzler. That is, in the model discussed here, the off-diagonal entries of the weight matrix of the coupling graph may be negative. This means that sometimes, the coupling may not benefit, but may prevent the consensus of the coupled agents. In the continuous-time case, the switching time intervals also take a more general form of random variables than those appeared in previous works. We focus our study on such networks and give sufficient conditions that ensure almost sure consensus in both discrete-time case and continuous-time case. As applications, we give several corollaries under more specific assumptions, i.e., the switching can be some independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variable series or a Markov chain. Numerical examples are also provided in both discrete-time and continuous-time cases to demonstrate the validity of our theoretical results. PMID:19000966

Liu, Bo; Chen, Tianping

2008-11-01

72

Continuous transition of social efficiencies in the stochastic-strategy minority game.  

PubMed

We show that in a variant of the minority game problem, the agents can reach a state of maximum social efficiency, where the fluctuation between the two choices is minimum, by following a simple stochastic strategy. By imagining a social scenario where the agents can only guess about the number of excess people in the majority, we show that as long as the guessed value is sufficiently close to the reality, the system can reach a state of full efficiency or minimum fluctuation. A continuous transition to less efficient condition is observed when the guessed value becomes worse. Hence, people can optimize their guess for excess population to optimize the period of being in the majority state. We also consider the situation where a finite fraction of agents always decide completely randomly (random trader) as opposed to the rest of the population who follow a certain strategy (chartist). For a single random trader the system becomes fully efficient with majority-minority crossover occurring every 2 days on average. For just two random traders, all the agents have equal gain with arbitrarily small fluctuations. PMID:22587035

Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Naskar, Tapan; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

2012-03-01

73

A Model for the Epigenetic Switch Linking Inflammation to Cell Transformation: Deterministic and Stochastic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Recently, a molecular pathway linking inflammation to cell transformation has been discovered. This molecular pathway rests on a positive inflammatory feedback loop between NF-?B, Lin28, Let-7 microRNA and IL6, which leads to an epigenetic switch allowing cell transformation. A transient activation of an inflammatory signal, mediated by the oncoprotein Src, activates NF-?B, which elicits the expression of Lin28. Lin28 decreases the expression of Let-7 microRNA, which results in higher level of IL6 than achieved directly by NF-?B. In turn, IL6 can promote NF-?B activation. Finally, IL6 also elicits the synthesis of STAT3, which is a crucial activator for cell transformation. Here, we propose a computational model to account for the dynamical behavior of this positive inflammatory feedback loop. By means of a deterministic model, we show that an irreversible bistable switch between a transformed and a non-transformed state of the cell is at the core of the dynamical behavior of the positive feedback loop linking inflammation to cell transformation. The model indicates that inhibitors (tumor suppressors) or activators (oncogenes) of this positive feedback loop regulate the occurrence of the epigenetic switch by modulating the threshold of inflammatory signal (Src) needed to promote cell transformation. Both stochastic simulations and deterministic simulations of a heterogeneous cell population suggest that random fluctuations (due to molecular noise or cell-to-cell variability) are able to trigger cell transformation. Moreover, the model predicts that oncogenes/tumor suppressors respectively decrease/increase the robustness of the non-transformed state of the cell towards random fluctuations. Finally, the model accounts for the potential effect of competing endogenous RNAs, ceRNAs, on the dynamics of the epigenetic switch. Depending on their microRNA targets, the model predicts that ceRNAs could act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors by regulating the occurrence of cell transformation.

Gerard, Claude; Gonze, Didier; Lemaigre, Frederic; Novak, Bela

2014-01-01

74

Beyond the random coil: stochastic conformational switching in intrinsically disordered proteins.  

PubMed

Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in critical cellular functions that exploit the flexibility and rapid conformational fluctuations of their native state. Limited information about the native state of IDPs can be gained by the averaging over many heterogeneous molecules that is unavoidable in ensemble approaches. We used single molecule fluorescence to characterize native state conformational dynamics in five synaptic proteins confirmed to be disordered by other techniques. For three of the proteins, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin and complexin, their conformational dynamics could be described with a simple semiflexible polymer model. Surprisingly, two proteins, neuroligin and the NMDAR-2B glutamate receptor, were observed to stochastically switch among distinct conformational states despite the fact that they appeared intrinsically disordered by other measures. The hop-like intramolecular diffusion found in these proteins is suggested to define a class of functionality previously unrecognized for IDPs. PMID:21481779

Choi, Ucheor B; McCann, James J; Weninger, Keith R; Bowen, Mark E

2011-04-13

75

A Stochastic Single-Molecule Event Triggers Phenotype Switching of a Bacterial Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype.

Xie, Sunney; Choi, Paul; Cai, Long

2009-03-01

76

Stochastic probability landscape model for switching efficiency, robustness, and differential threshold for induction of genetic circuit in phage ?  

PubMed Central

The genetic switch of phage lambda provides a paradigm for studying developmental biology and cell fate. Although there have been numerous experimental and theoretical studies, the mechanisms for switching efficiency, stability and robustness, maintenance of lysogenic state, and the induction lytic state are not fully understood. In this paper, a new method is adopted to account for the full stochasticity typical in small copy events and the exact steady state probability landscape of the genetic circuit of the switch network is computed. The stability and sensitivity of phage ? switch and its robustness against perturbations derived from our model for wild type and mutants are consistent with experimental data. Our study has revealed likely mechanism of the phage switch network that was previously unknown.

Cao, Youfang; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Liang, Jie

2008-01-01

77

One pursuer and two evaders on the line: A stochastic pursuit-evasion differential game  

Microsoft Academic Search

A differential game of pursuit and evasion on the real line is discussed with one pursuer and two evaders, the motion of the players being affected by noise. The game of degree is considered, where the pursuer strives to maximize the probability of his winning the game, i.e., of capturing at least one of the evaders, the probability function being

M. Pachter; Y. Yavin

1983-01-01

78

Eliminating fast reactions in stochastic simulations of biochemical networks: A bistable genetic switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many stochastic simulations of biochemical reaction networks, it is desirable to ``coarse grain'' the reaction set, removing fast reactions while retaining the correct system dynamics. Various coarse-graining methods have been proposed, but it remains unclear which methods are reliable and which reactions can safely be eliminated. We address these issues for a model gene regulatory network that is particularly sensitive to dynamical fluctuations: a bistable genetic switch. We remove protein-DNA and/or protein-protein association-dissociation reactions from the reaction set using various coarse-graining strategies. We determine the effects on the steady-state probability distribution function and on the rate of fluctuation-driven switch flipping transitions. We find that protein-protein interactions may be safely eliminated from the reaction set, but protein-DNA interactions may not. We also find that it is important to use the chemical master equation rather than macroscopic rate equations to compute effective propensity functions for the coarse-grained reactions.

Morelli, Marco J.; Allen, Rosalind J.; T?nase-Nicola, Sorin; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

2008-01-01

79

On-line solution of a stochastic pursuit-evasion game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the concepts of prior-commitment and delayed-commitment strategies for zero-sum, linear-quadratic differential games with noise-corrupted measurements are applied to a detailed example of a pursuit-evasion game. Quasilinearization is used to solve the nonlinear two-point boundary-value problem of the prior-commitment game. A closed form solution is obtained for the delayed-commitment strategies. Comparison of the payoff functionals confirms the relationships

C. T. Leondes; B. Mons

1979-01-01

80

Stochastic Hybrid Control for Visibility-Based Pursuit-Evasion Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pursuit-evasion games in complex envi- ronments have a rich but disconnected history. Con- tinuous or differential pursuit-evasion games focus on optimal control methods, and rely on very intense computations in order to provide locally optimal con- trols. Discrete pursuit-evasion games on graphs are algorithmically much more appealing, but completely ignore the physical dynamics of the players, resulting in infeasible motions.

V. Isler; K. Daniilidis; G. J. Pappas; Calin Belta

81

Numerical analysis for stochastic age-dependent population equations with Poisson jump and phase semi-Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we shall examine the convergence of semi-implicit Euler approximation for stochastic age-dependent population equations with Poisson jump and phase semi-Markovian switching. Here, the main ideas from the papers Ronghua et al. (2009) [2] and Wang and Wang (2010) [3] are successfully developed to the more general cases. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the theoretical result of convergence.

Rathinasamy, A.; Yin, Baojian; Yasodha, B.

2011-01-01

82

Strategy switches and co-action equilibria in a minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an analytically tractable variation of the minority game in which rational agents use probabilistic strategies. In our model, N agents choose between two alternatives repeatedly, and those who are in the minority get a pay-off 1, others zero. The agents optimize the expectation value of their discounted future pay-off, the discount parameter being ?. We propose an alternative to the standard Nash equilibrium, called co-action equilibrium, which gives higher expected pay-off for all agents. The optimal choice of probabilities of different actions are determined exactly in terms of simple self-consistent equations. The optimal strategy is characterized by N real parameters, which are non-analytic functions of ?, even for a finite number of agents. The solution for N?7 is worked out explicitly indicating the structure of the solution for larger N. For large enough future time horizon, the optimal strategy switches from random choice to a win-stay lose-shift strategy, with the shift probability depending on the current state and ?.

Sasidevan, V.; Dhar, Deepak

2014-05-01

83

Viscosity Solutions for a System of Integro-PDEs and Connections to Optimal Switching and Control of Jump-Diffusion Processes  

SciTech Connect

We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.

Biswas, Imran H., E-mail: imran.biswas@sam.math.ethz.c [ETH-Zurich, Seminar fuer Angewandte Mathematik, D-MATH (Switzerland); Jakobsen, Espen R., E-mail: erj@math.ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Karlsen, Kenneth H., E-mail: kennethk@math.uio.n [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (Norway)

2010-08-15

84

Evolutionary computation for the design of a stochastic switch for synthetic genetic circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological systems are inherently stochastic, a fact which is often ignored when simulating genetic circuits. Synthetic biology aims to design genetic circuits de novo, and cannot therefore afford to ignore the effects of stochastic behavior. Since computational design tools will be essential for large-scale synthetic biology, it is important to develop an understanding of the role of stochasticity in molecular

J. S. Hallinan; G. Misirli; A. Wipat

2010-01-01

85

Dynamics of the quorum sensing switch: stochastic and non-stationary effects  

PubMed Central

Background A wide range of bacteria species are known to communicate through the so called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism by means of which they produce a small molecule that can freely diffuse in the environment and in the cells. Upon reaching a threshold concentration, the signalling molecule activates the QS-controlled genes that promote phenotypic changes. This mechanism, for its simplicity, has become the model system for studying the emergence of a global response in prokaryotic cells. Yet, how cells precisely measure the signal concentration and act coordinately, despite the presence of fluctuations that unavoidably affects cell regulation and signalling, remains unclear. Results We propose a model for the QS signalling mechanism in Vibrio fischeri based on the synthetic strains lux01 and lux02. Our approach takes into account the key regulatory interactions between LuxR and LuxI, the autoinducer transport, the cellular growth and the division dynamics. By using both deterministic and stochastic models, we analyze the response and dynamics at the single-cell level and compare them to the global response at the population level. Our results show how fluctuations interfere with the synchronization of the cell activation and lead to a bimodal phenotypic distribution. In this context, we introduce the concept of precision in order to characterize the reliability of the QS communication process in the colony. We show that increasing the noise in the expression of LuxR helps cells to get activated at lower autoinducer concentrations but, at the same time, slows down the global response. The precision of the QS switch under non-stationary conditions decreases with noise, while at steady-state it is independent of the noise value. Conclusions Our in silico experiments show that the response of the LuxR/LuxI system depends on the interplay between non-stationary and stochastic effects and that the burst size of the transcription/translation noise at the level of LuxR controls the phenotypic variability of the population. These results, together with recent experimental evidences on LuxR regulation in wild-type species, suggest that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to regulate the intensity of those fluctuations.

2013-01-01

86

Convergence of numerical solutions to neutral stochastic delay differential equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, numerical solutions of stochastic differential equations have received a great deal of attention. It is surprising that there are not any numerical methods established for neutral stochastic delay differential equations yet. In the paper, the Euler-Maruyama method for neutral stochastic delay differential equations is developed. The key aim is to show that the numerical solutions will converge to the true solutions under the local Lipschitz condition.

Zhou, Shaobo; Wu, Fuke

2009-07-01

87

Robust ?-stability analysis of Markovian switching uncertain stochastic genetic regulatory networks with unbounded time-varying delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the global robust stability problem of Markovian switching uncertain stochastic genetic regulatory networks with unbounded time-varying delays and norm bounded parameter uncertainties. The structure variations at discrete time instances during the process of gene regulations known as hybrid genetic regulatory networks based on Markov process is proposed. The jumping parameters considered here are generated from a continuous-time discrete-state homogeneous Markov process, which are governed by a Markov process with discrete and finite state space. The concept of global robust ?-stability in the mean square for genetic regulatory networks is given. Based on Lyapunov function, stochastic theory and Itô's differential formula, the stability criteria are presented in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the main result.

Li, Xiaodi; Rakkiyappan, R.; Pradeep, C.

2012-10-01

88

Stability of the split-step backward Euler scheme for stochastic delay integro-differential equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we concentrate on the numerical approximation of solutions of stochastic delay integro-differential equations with Markovian switching (SDIDEsMS). We establish the split-step backward Euler (SSBE) scheme for solving linear SDIDEsMS and discuss its convergence and stability. Moreover, the SSBE method is convergent with strong order ? = 1/2 in the mean-square sense. The conditions under which the SSBE method is mean-square stable and general mean-square stable are obtained. Some illustrative numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the stability of the numerical method and show that SSBE method is superior to Euler method.

Jiang, Feng; Shen, Yi; Hu, Junhao

2011-02-01

89

Optimal stochastic linear systems with exponential performance criteria and their relation to deterministic differential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stochastic optimal control problems are solved whose performance criteria are the expected values of exponential functions of quadratic forms. The optimal controller is linear in both cases but depends upon the covariance matrix of the additive process noise so that the certainty equivalence principle does not hold. The controllers are shown to be equivalent to those obtained by solving

D. Jacobson

1973-01-01

90

Local replicator dynamics: a simple link between deterministic and stochastic models of evolutionary game theory.  

PubMed

Classical replicator dynamics assumes that individuals play their games and adopt new strategies on a global level: Each player interacts with a representative sample of the population and if a strategy yields a payoff above the average, then it is expected to spread. In this article, we connect evolutionary models for infinite and finite populations: While the population itself is infinite, interactions and reproduction occurs in random groups of size N. Surprisingly, the resulting dynamics simplifies to the traditional replicator system with a slightly modified payoff matrix. The qualitative results, however, mirror the findings for finite populations, in which strategies are selected according to a probabilistic Moran process. In particular, we derive a one-third law that holds for any population size. In this way, we show that the deterministic replicator equation in an infinite population can be used to study the Moran process in a finite population and vice versa. We apply the results to three examples to shed light on the evolution of cooperation in the iterated prisoner's dilemma, on risk aversion in coordination games and on the maintenance of dominated strategies. PMID:21181502

Hilbe, Christian

2011-09-01

91

Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.

Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

2004-01-01

92

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE KNOCKOUT SWITCH UNDER BURSTY TRAFFIC BASED ON A STOCHASTIC ACTIVITY NETWORK MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of ATM-based B-ISDNs has made desirable the integration of diverse services like voice, data, and multi-media. The success of these high-speed networks is critically dependent on the availability of fast packet switches (FPS), with the capacity to switch and route at high speeds and provide the required quality of service (QoS). The diversity of the applications, however, leads

Latha Kant; William H. Sanders

93

Explicit conditions for asymptotic stability of stochastic Liénard-type equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the boundedness in probability and convergence for solutions of stochastic Liénard-type equations. Some explicit conditions to ensure that all solution is bounded in probability and convergent to some fixed sets are obtained. We also show that white noise can affect the boundedness of corresponding deterministic Liénard equations.

Zhao, Liqin; Xi, Fubao

2008-12-01

94

Circuit Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a game that tests their steadiness. Learners construct the game board by setting up an electrical circuit and a wand. The object of the game is to move the wand from one end of the wire to the other without touching the wire and setting off the buzzer. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to electrical circuits, switches, conductors, and insulators.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2012-01-01

95

Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states.  

PubMed

In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953

Li, Qingjiang; Khiat, Ali; Salaoru, Iulia; Xu, Hui; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

2014-01-01

96

Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states  

PubMed Central

In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution.

2014-01-01

97

Stochastic catastrophe analysis of switches in the perception of apparent motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical phenomena such as bistability and hysteresis have been found in a number of studies on perception of apparent motion.\\u000a We show that new developments in stochastic catastrophe theory make it possible to test models of these phenomena empirically.\\u000a Catastrophe theory explains discontinuous changes in responses caused by continuous changes in experimental parameters. We\\u000a propose catastrophe models for two experimental

Annemie Ploeger; Pascal A. I. Hartelman

2002-01-01

98

Switching dynamics of border ownership: a stochastic model for bi-stable perception.  

PubMed

A model that computes the border-ownership (BOWN) and the depth map of the image (DISC model, Kogo et al., 2010) is applied to investigate the stochastic nature of perception in "face or vase" stimuli. The 2-D integration of BOWN signals determines the figure-ground relationships in the image. In the present application of the model, BOWN signals are made stochastic and feedback connections are established between the higher level depth perception and the lower level BOWN signals. This feedback modifies the BOWN signals to further enhance the figure-ground segregation. Adaptation results in a decay of the response which leads to alternation. This triggers recovery of the adaptation. The alternation rate decreases in response to the increased levels of disambiguation. A detailed examination of the model parameters shows a prolongation of the alternation when the stimulus is presented intermittently in some conditions. In this framework, the adaptation and the recovery processes need to be perception dependent (not physical input dependent) to reproduce human perception. PMID:21864561

Kogo, Naoki; Galli, Alessandra; Wagemans, Johan

2011-09-15

99

Stochastic variation in the concentration of a repressor activates GAL genetic switch: implications in evolution of regulatory network.  

PubMed

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a recessive mutation in the signal transducer encoded by GAL3 leads to a significant lag in the induction of GAL genes, referred to as long term adaptation phenotype (LTA). Further, gal3 mutation in combination with other genetic defects leads to the non-inducibility of GAL genes. It was shown that the expression of GAL1 encoded galactokinase, a redundant GAL3 like signal transducer, eventually substitutes for the lack of GAL3 signal transduction function. However, how GAL1 gets induced in the absence of GAL3 is not clear. We hypothesize that GAL1 induction in gal3 cells exposed to galactose is due to a stochastic decrease in the repressor, Gal80p concentration, leading to heterogeneity in the population. This observation explains not only LTA observed in gal3 cells but also explains the non-inducibility of gal3 mutants in combination with other genetic defects. By recruiting a dedicated signal transducer, GAL3, S. cerevisiae GAL switch has evolved to overcome the fortuitous induction, which occurs due to low signal to noise ratio in certain mutants of Escherichia coli and Kluveromyces lactis. PMID:15670814

Bhat, Paike Jayadeva; Venkatesh, K V

2005-01-31

100

Stability and multiattractor dynamics of a toggle switch based on a two-stage model of stochastic gene expression.  

PubMed

A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the stability on a specific cell differentiation mechanism. Our model explains lineage priming and proposes the need of either high protein numbers or long-term modifications such as chromatin remodeling to achieve stable cell fate decisions. Notably, we present a system with high protein abundance that nevertheless requires a probabilistic description to exhibit multistability, complex switching dynamics, and lineage priming. PMID:22225794

Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten

2012-01-01

101

Switching Amplifiers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education, this module walks visitors through switching amplifiers. The site content is divided up into four sections: Switching Amplifiers Introduction, Class D Switching Amplifiers, Switching RF Power Amplifiers, and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each section to test what students learned in the module in the Knowledge Probe section, and the Learning Resources section contains four activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questor games, a Flash quiz that reiterates the material covered. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs to introduce and explore switching amplifiers.

2008-09-04

102

A Monetary Policy Simulation Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…

Lengwiler, Yvan

2004-01-01

103

Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction and motivation; 2. Stochastic resonance: its definitions, history and debates; 3. Stochastic quantization; 4. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: encoding; 5. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N encoding; 6. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: decoding; 7. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N decoding; 8. Optimal stochastic quantization; 9. SSR, neural coding, and performance tradeoffs; 10. Stochastic resonance in the auditory system; 11. The future of stochastic resonance and suprathreshold stochastic resonance; Appendices; References; Index.

McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

2012-10-01

104

Stochastic Resonance in Human Cognition: ACT-R Versus Game Theory, Associative Neural Networks, Recursive Neural Networks, Q-Learning, and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of cognitive noise on human game playing abilities. Human subjects played a guessing game against an ACT-R model set at different noise levels. Counter to the normal effect for noise (i.e., to increase randomness) increasing noise over certain ranges increased the win rate in both the ACT-R model and in the humans. We then attempted to

Robert L. West; Terrence C. Stewart

105

Contextual Coalitional Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

106

Antagonistic Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper defines two subsets of noncooperative, finite, two-person (bimatrix) games. The first subset, called antagonistic games, consists of bimatrix games in which if one player does better, the other player necessarily must do worse (where better and...

L. B. Anderson

1976-01-01

107

Reliable stochastic design of road network systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the continuous version of the stochastic Network Design Problem (NDP) with reliability requirements. The problem is considered as a two-stage Stackelberg game with complete information and is formulated as a stochastic bi-level programming problem, which is extended to include reliability as well as physical and budget constraints. The estimation procedure combines the use of Monte Carlo simulation

Loukas Dimitriou; Antony Stathopoulos; Theodore Tsekeris

2008-01-01

108

Backward Stochastic Differential Equations in Infinite Dimensions with Continuous Driver and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.

Fuhrman, Marco [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32 (Italy)], E-mail: marco.fuhrman@polimi.it; Hu, Ying [IRMAR, Universite Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu (France)], E-mail: ying.hu@univ-rennes1.fr

2007-09-15

109

Great Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Board games parents may use to improve their child's basic skills in reading, math, spelling, and reasoning are reviewed. The article describes eight games along with suggestions about how each game may be used to improve skills. Suggested ages and manufacturer of each game are listed. (JL)

Fox, Helen

1988-01-01

110

Geometry Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

111

Set Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper a new type of cooperative games in characteristic function form (called set games) is introduced. In a set game, the worth of a coalition is expressed by a set instead of a real number. For this class of games we will define the notion of va...

H. F. M. Aarts Y. Funaki C. Hoede

1993-01-01

112

Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material

Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole

1991-01-01

113

Minority Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple introduction to the basic Minority Game (MG) introduced\\u000aby Challet and Zhang in 1997 and discuss some of its physical properties and\\u000asubsequent developments. We also introduce some of its variants include the\\u000aEvolutionay Minority Game (EMG), the Thermal Minority Game (TMG), the simple\\u000aMinority Game without information and the Grand-canonical Minority Game (GCMG).\\u000aSome analytical

Chi Ho Yeung; Yi-cheng Zhang

2009-01-01

114

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7.5 minute video educator Ian Byrd proposes three pencil and paper math games that are simple to learn and that develop students' ability to abstract their strategies. Game of 100 and Heaps, both Nim-type games, also develop facility in adding and subtracting whole numbers, while Cram strengthens spatial reasoning. All three games can be adapted, encouraging students to generalize their strategies into algorithms. Byrd includes links to Wikipedia articles on the games.

2013-01-01

115

Pursuit–Evasion Games with incomplete information in discrete time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pursuit–Evasion Games (in discrete time) are stochastic games with nonnegative daily payoffs, with the final payoff being\\u000a the cumulative sum of payoffs during the game. We show that such games admit a value even in the presence of incomplete information\\u000a and that this value is uniform, i.e. there are $${\\\\epsilon}$$-optimal strategies for both players that are $${\\\\epsilon}$$-optimal in any long

Ori Gurel-Gurevich

2009-01-01

116

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...

Cooley, Mr.

2011-11-12

117

Strategy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to eight different math related games. The gameboards can be downloaded as pdf files. Each game contains complete instructions for playing. The subject area and recommended grade levels are given for each game. This resource is also available in Spanish.

Math, Mixing I.

2010-01-01

118

Equation Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several sites to practice solving equations. Play one of the following games: 1) algebra quiz/ alien millionaire 2) Battleship: solve equations to win! 3) connect four: solve equations to take a turn- 2 player game 4) Rags to Riches: millionaire type game asking questions about solving equations ...

Troff, Ms.

2008-06-23

119

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

120

Email Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past three years, we have designed, facilitated, and evaluated a series of Web-based games on a range of topics with over 1000 practitioners mostly within the vocational and corporate training sectors in Australia and the USA. These games incorporate research-based prescriptions from instructional design, game design, and online learning and facilitate dialogue between participants. Our observations and feedback

Marie Jasinski; Sivasailam Thiagarajan

121

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

122

Game Theory Models for Pursuit Evasion Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pursuit evasion game, the pursuer tries to capture the evader while the evader tries to prevent this capture. A classical approach is to model this game as an infinite differential game. In this report, we model a pursuit-evasion game as a finite extensive form game, and show that the differential game is a generalization of this game. We

Mohammad Emtiyaz Khan

123

Stochastic H?-control of nonlinear discrete-time partially observable systems and dissipation inequalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs an action functional approach to formulate partially observable nonlinear discrete-time stochastic minimax games. The maximizing players of the games are stochastic square summable disturbances, while the minimizing players are the control inputs. Associated with the action functional there is an information state and its adjoint, which are shown to satisfy certain recursions, derived through dynamic programming. These

C. D. Charalambous; S. M. Djouadi; N. U. Ahmed

2002-01-01

124

Variation Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners play the role of monkeys that are trying to get enough resources (food, shelter, and space) to survive. They play several simple games which involve strength, quickness, coordination, intuition, and luck in order to acquire these resources. The games focus attention on the participantsâ individual variations in these areas. There are three âroundsâ which represent three different changing environments, each of which requires different skills for survival. After the games, learners compare who got enough resources and what variations among the players may have affected how the game went.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

125

Electronic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these games to practice your electronics skills. Each game has a Study mode that reviews the relevant theory, a Practice mode that lets you practice with no time pressure, and a Challenge mode that tests your skill while the clock is running. These games require Macromedia's Flash Player, version 6 or later. If the Flash Player is not already installed in your Web browser, the game will automatically offer to download it for free. These games were created by Nick Reeder, an electronics instructor at Sinclair Community College.

Reeder, Nick

2008-10-27

126

Language, games and language games  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do social values come about and gain legitimacy? Starting from the premise that discourses of social analysis affect the ways in which social norms develop and proliferate, this article models the evolution of professional codes and dialects using Wittgenstein’s idea of a language game. A language game is formalized as a repeated game of tacit coordination played among participants

Mihnea Moldoveanu

2002-01-01

127

Stochastic pulse regulation in bacterial stress response.  

PubMed

Gene regulatory circuits can use dynamic, and even stochastic, strategies to respond to environmental conditions. We examined activation of the general stress response mediated by the alternative sigma factor, ?(B), in individual Bacillus subtilis cells. We observed that energy stress activates ?(B) in discrete stochastic pulses, with increasing levels of stress leading to higher pulse frequencies. By perturbing and rewiring the endogenous system, we found that this behavior results from three key features of the ?(B) circuit: an ultrasensitive phosphorylation switch; stochasticity ("noise"), which activates that switch; and a mixed (positive and negative) transcriptional feedback, which can both amplify a pulse and switch it off. Together, these results show how prokaryotes encode signals using stochastic pulse frequency modulation through a compact regulatory architecture. PMID:21979936

Locke, James C W; Young, Jonathan W; Fontes, Michelle; Hernández Jiménez, María Jesús; Elowitz, Michael B

2011-10-21

128

Stochastic Pulse Regulation in Bacterial Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Gene regulatory circuits can use dynamic, and even stochastic, strategies to respond to environmental conditions. We examined activation of the general stress response mediated by the alternative sigma factor, ?B, in individual Bacillus subtilis cells. We observed that energy stress activates ?B in discrete stochastic pulses, with increasing levels of stress leading to higher pulse frequencies. By perturbing and rewiring the endogenous system, we found that this behavior results from three key features of the ?B circuit: an ultrasensitive phosphorylation switch; stochasticity (“noise”), which activates that switch; and a mixed (positive and negative) transcriptional feedback, which can both amplify a pulse and switch it off. Together, these results show how prokaryotes encode signals using stochastic pulse frequency modulation through a compact regulatory architecture.

Locke, James C. W.; Young, Jonathan W.; Fontes, Michelle; Jimenez, Maria Jesus Hernandez; Elowitz, Michael B.

2014-01-01

129

Game Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sharks and fishes is both a classic playground game and a lighthearted model to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of predation, or the relationships between a predator and its prey. This game has been incorporated in a learning cycle on predation. Not only are students learning about predation in a memorable way, the game is a "teacher-sanctioned" opportunity to move around during class while collecting data.

Howell, Beverly; Marek, Edmund

2006-11-01

130

Quantum Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists studying quantum computation offer new perspectives on coin tossing, chess, and game theory. Theorists intend to apply the peculiarities of quantum behavior to game theory, two previously unrelated fields. These researchers propose that the possibility of a mixed state permits quantum-game strategies that in theory can be more successful than conventional ones. This new type of modeling using quantum computers could greatly affect fields such as economics, international relations, and computer science.

Peterson, Ivars

2007-03-03

131

A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.

Gruen, Christine, E-mail: christine.gruen@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)

2012-12-15

132

Action functional stochastic H? estimation for nonlinear discrete time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an action functional, sample path optimization technique, for formulating and solving nonlinear discrete-time stochastic H? estimation problems. These H? problems are formulated as minimax dynamic games in which the maximizing players are stochastic square summable disturbances, while the minimizing players are the state estimates. Certain action functionals are defined which play the role of information state and

C. D. Charalambous; A. Farhadi; S. M. Djouadi

2002-01-01

133

Identifying effective connectivity parameters in simulated fMRI: a direct comparison of switching linear dynamic system, stochastic dynamic causal, and multivariate autoregressive models  

PubMed Central

The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons.

Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry

2013-01-01

134

Identifying effective connectivity parameters in simulated fMRI: a direct comparison of switching linear dynamic system, stochastic dynamic causal, and multivariate autoregressive models.  

PubMed

The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define "effective connectivity" using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258

Smith, Jason F; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S; Horwitz, Barry

2013-01-01

135

Multi-player games on the cycle.  

PubMed

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games. PMID:21907215

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin A

2012-01-01

136

Multi-player games on the cycle  

PubMed Central

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games.

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin

2011-01-01

137

Promoting cooperation by local contribution under stochastic win-stay-lose-shift mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a stochastic win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS) mechanism into evolutionary Prisoner’s Dilemma on small-world networks. At each time step, after playing with all its immediate neighbors, each individual gets a score to evaluate its performance in the game. The score is a linear combination of an individual’s total payoff (i.e., individual gain from the group) and local contribution to its neighbors (i.e., individual donation to the group). If one’s actual score is not larger than its desired score aspiration, it switches current strategy to the opposite one with the probability depending on the difference between the two scores. Under this stochastic WSLS regime, we assume that each focal individual gains its fixed score aspiration under the condition of full cooperation in its neighborhood, and find that cooperation is significantly enhanced under some certain parameters of the model by studying the evolution of cooperation. We also explore the influences of different values of learning rate and intensity of deterministic switch on the evolution of cooperation. Simulation results show that cooperation level monotonically increases with the relative weight of the local contribution to the score. For much low intensity of deterministic switch, cooperation is to a large extent independent of learning rate, and full cooperation can be reached when relative weight is not less than 0.5. Otherwise, cooperation level is affected by the value of learning rate. Besides, we find that the cooperation level is not sensitive to the topological parameters. To explain these simulation results, we provide corresponding analytical results based on mean-field approximation, and find out that simulation results are in close agreement with the analytical ones. Our work may be helpful in understanding the cooperative behavior in social systems based on this stochastic WSLS mechanism.

Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

2008-09-01

138

French Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games to help you learn and practice beginning French numbers, verbs and the names of days and months! Try each game at least once. Good luck and have fun! Click here to practice your numbers --> French numbers Click here to work on your verbs and verb tenses --> French verbs: avoir et etre Click here to practice the days and months --> French days and months ...

V, Ms.

2009-02-10

139

Fun & Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

2007-01-01

140

Game Time!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

2006-01-01

141

Potential Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and discuss several notions of potential functions for games in strategic form. We characterize games that have a potential function, and we present a variety of applications.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Numbers:C72, C73.

Dov Monderer; Lloyd S. Shapley

1996-01-01

142

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tangram is an ancient game that originated in China. In the game, your goal is to try to create the shape shown using the pieces provided. You cannot overlap pieces, and they all have to be used. It is a lot harder than it looks!

2008-01-01

143

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Mathematics, National C.

2009-07-22

144

Game Warden.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Game Warden, the U.S. Navy/Vietnamese Navy river patrol operation conducted in South Vietnam's Delta Region, is described. Enemy resupply and logistic routes and infiltration options are examined. Game Warden's response to the threat and limitations of th...

J. C. Erdheim V. Daniels

1976-01-01

145

Game Over?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

Harteveld, Casper

146

Tetris Models for Multicast Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a unified approach to the analysis of schedulers for input-queued multicast ATM switches. It is shown that the general multicast scheduling problem can be mapped onto a variation of the popular blockpacking game Tetris. Within this common framework, one is able to describe and analyze any multicast scheduling policy in an intuitive and geometric fashion. One such

Balaji Prabhakar; Nick Mckeown; Jean Mairesse

1996-01-01

147

Mind games [computer game AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of other games are taking advantage of changes in computer architecture and the growth in processing power to become smarter than ever before. Although most of these games use relatively unsubtle AI techniques, a few pioneers are even showing the academic AI community a trick or two. While AI originated in the laboratory, it has now been

S. Cass

2002-01-01

148

Synchronization of coupled oscillators is a game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to understand phase transition in noncooperative dynamic games with a large number of agents. Applications are found in neuroscience, biology, economics, as well as traditional engineering applications. The focus of analysis is a variation of the large population LQG model of Huang et. al. 2007, comprised here of a controlled nonlinear N-dimensional stochastic differential

Huibing Yin; Prashant G. Mehta; Sean P. Meyn; Uday V. Shanbhag

2010-01-01

149

Synchronization of Coupled Oscillators is a Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to understand phase transition in noncooperative dynamic games with a large number of agents. Applications are found in neuroscience, biology, and economics, as well as traditional engineering applications. The focus of analysis is a variation of the large population linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) model of Huang 2007, comprised here of a controlled $N$-dimensional stochastic

Huibing Yin; Prashant G. Mehta; Sean P. Meyn; Uday V. Shanbhag

2012-01-01

150

Automata Games, Stochastic Automata and Formal Languages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is mainly concerned with the behavior of a class of learning automata operating in random environment and a preliminary study of relating automata theory to formal languages. Based on the strategies of two-armed bandit problems, two sequential ...

T. J. Li K. S. Fu

1969-01-01

151

Quantum Parrondo's game with random strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a quantum implementation of Parrondo's game with randomly switched\\u000astrategies using 1) a quantum walk as a source of ``randomness'' and 2) a\\u000acompletely positive (CP) map as a randomized evolution. The game exhibits the\\u000asame paradox as in the classical setting where a combination of two losing\\u000astrategies might result in a winning strategy. We show that

V. Bužek J. A. Miszczak J. Košík; Jaroslaw Adam Miszczak

2007-01-01

152

QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-23

153

Natural games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

2011-10-01

154

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners use seven different geometric shapes to make fun pictures. Learners use buttons to rotate, break apart, or put together pieces to create images including a rabbit, cat head, duck and more.

Wnet

2011-01-01

155

Game Proof.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author argues that adult society prohibits adolescents from attaining maturity and that, in response to such constraints, adolescents turn to games, rituals, and charades. This state of affairs is viewed as an implicit adult conspiracy against adolescents. (DB)

Mitchell, John

1980-01-01

156

Cloud Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these two matching games from the Web Weather for Kids site to pair cloud images with their names/types! Developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, this site requires Java.

Programs, University C.

2010-01-01

157

Computer Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

1992-01-01

158

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Needles Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

159

Synchronization of noisy systems by stochastic signals  

SciTech Connect

We study, in terms of synchronization, the {ital nonlinear response} of noisy bistable systems to a stochastic external signal, represented by Markovian dichotomic noise. We propose a general kinetic model which allows us to conduct a full analytical study of the nonlinear response, including the calculation of cross-correlation measures, the mean switching frequency, and synchronization regions. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations of a noisy overdamped bistable oscillator. We show that dichotomic noise can instantaneously synchronize the switching process of the system. We also show that synchronization is most pronounced at an optimal noise level{emdash}this effect connects this phenomenon with aperiodic stochastic resonance. Similar synchronization effects are observed for a stochastic neuron model stimulated by a stochastic spike train. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Moss, F. [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States)] [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, L. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)] [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Shulgin, B.; Collins, J.J. [Center for BioDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)] [Center for BioDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

1999-07-01

160

Lp-Games and Combinatorial Optimization Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many cost and reward allocation situations give rise to coalition games where the worth of each coalition is determined by solving a (combinatorial) optimization problem. Examples of such classes of games are discussed such as traveling salesman games, se...

S. Tijs

1991-01-01

161

Merton-Style Option Pricing under Regime Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper develops a valuation framework for a perpetual Ameri- can call option when the underlying asset return dynamic is modelled by a regime switching process. In particular, asset return dynamic is governed by a stochastic dividend process which randomly switches between two regimes that are characterized by dierent,rates of both drift and volatility. This regime-switching characterization of divi-

John Drill; Turalay Kenc; Martin Sola

162

Optional games on cycles and complete graphs.  

PubMed

We study stochastic evolution of optional games on simple graphs. There are two strategies, A and B, whose interaction is described by a general payoff matrix. In addition, there are one or several possibilities to opt out from the game by adopting loner strategies. Optional games lead to relaxed social dilemmas. Here we explore the interaction between spatial structure and optional games. We find that increasing the number of loner strategies (or equivalently increasing mutational bias toward loner strategies) facilitates evolution of cooperation both in well-mixed and in structured populations. We derive various limits for weak selection and large population size. For some cases we derive analytic results for strong selection. We also analyze strategy selection numerically for finite selection intensity and discuss combined effects of optionality and spatial structure. PMID:24780293

Jeong, Hyeong-Chai; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

2014-09-01

163

Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

2009-08-01

164

Dreidel Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this bilingual (English/Spanish) activity, learners play a traditional Jewish game in celebration of Hanukkah. Learners take turns spinning a special top called a dreidel. Depending on what the top says, learners take counters from the pot or put them back. The winning player is the person with the most counters at the end of a set time limit. Use this game to help learners explore probability and chance. This activity guide contains an explanation of the Hebrew letters on the dreidel.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

165

Fraction Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game provides an opportunity for students to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Players move markers a total distance that is less than or equal to the random target fraction, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board using as few fraction target cards as possible. Instructions and exploration questions are included.

2011-01-01

166

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive applet game exercises a student's factoring ability. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on grids containing the numbers 1-30, 1-49, or 1-100. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner.

Adapted with permission from "Prime Time: Factors and Multiples," Connected Mathematics Project, G. Lappan, J. Fey, W. Fitzgerald, S. Friel and E. Phillips

2000-01-01

167

Marble Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a simple game to test their hand-eye coordination and steadiness of hand. Learners draw face in a small piece of wood, drill indentations in the eyes and nose, and glue a clear cup over the face, with 3 marbles inside. Learners attach two craft sticks to create a handle and add decorations. To play, they slowly move the game board around until all marbles land in a hole. This toy can also be used to demonstrate how objects in nature tend to seek the position of lowest energy.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

168

Exploring Game Leadership and Online Game Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online games have become a major leisure activity in recent years. Players go through a variety of social experiences, building up game communities such as guilds, blood pledges, and other small teams in virtual worlds. Game communities offer similar organizational experiences to those in real life. The game environment works as the third place where we can learn and develop

YeiBeech Jang; SeoungHo Ryu

2009-01-01

169

Switching Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of switching power supplies. The content of the site is divided into four areas: SMPS Basics and Switching Regulators; DC-DC Converters: Charge Pumps, Forwards Converters and Flyback Converters; Inverters, UPS and Hysteresis Curve, and SMPS: Advantages, Disadvantages and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each area in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains five activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

2008-09-05

170

Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)

Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman

1976-01-01

171

Shell Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

Atkinson, Bill

1982-01-01

172

Got Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

Lum, Lydia

2007-01-01

173

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

174

Ordering Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in ordering sets of whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, and the sizes of circles. Students re-order a group of numbers or objects in a line from least to greatest by dragging them. The activity is timed and points are awarded.

2011-01-01

175

Math Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

Lorenzi, Natalie

2012-01-01

176

Evil games.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069

Chambers, David W

2010-01-01

177

Games & Icebreakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

178

Pattern Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your pattern making skills by trying your best at these games! How Does My Pattern Grow? Click continue on the main screen. For each new page you will be trying to figure out what the next pattern will look like. Drag the shapes at the bottom to the correct place on the ...

Ivy, Miss

2012-02-15

179

Alphabet Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with the alphabet! Watch the video How the Alphabet Got It s Order Practice matching letters with Paint by Letter. Pick the object that starts with the letter with theABC Game-Pick the letter. Order the alphabet with Alphabet Order Whac-A-Mole! Help Dog spell words with Dog s Letter Pit ...

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-02-23

180

Art Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do you do with 100 or more children who would rather be in a warm art room than outside on the cold playground for 45 minutes at noon? The solution, games: to arouse interest, to teach basic art principles, and to reinforce art concepts. (Author/RK)

Bishop, Bobbi

1978-01-01

181

Game Theory: Games and Behavior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Economics professor, Ariel Rubinstein, created this website to provide teachers some basic instruction in Game Theory along with "free user-friendly didactic tools for conducting web-based thought experiments." The materials are based on his experience in teaching a course in Game Theory using web-based experiments during the years 1988 to 1999. Sample problems are available in five languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian and Slovak. Some articles are available from the home page, but access to the instructional material requires instructors and students to register at no cost. A slide show reviews the registration process and demonstrates the web-based course.

Rubinstein, Ariel

182

Stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

1982-03-01

183

Knowledge Condition Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agents often interact strategically to meet conditions in- volving their own or other agents' knowledge. This interac- tion can be modeled using a new method of game construc- tion, knowledge condition games, introduced in this paper. Knowledge condition games are games in which a coali- tion of agents chooses its strategy in an extensive game form such that an epistemic

Sieuwert Van Otterloo; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2006-01-01

184

Teaching Using Computer Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

2011-01-01

185

Direct observation of type 1 fimbrial switching  

PubMed Central

The defining feature of bacterial phase variation is a stochastic ‘all-or-nothing' switching in gene expression. However, direct observations of these rare switching events have so far been lacking, obscuring possible correlations between switching events themselves, and between switching and other cellular events, such as division and DNA replication. We monitored the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in individual Escherichia coli in real time and simultaneously tracked the chromosome replication process. We observed distinctive patterns of fim (fimbriae) expression in multiple genealogically related lineages. These patterns could be explained by a model that combines a single switching event with chromosomal fim replication, as well as the epigenetic inheritance of expressed fim protein and RNA, and their dilution by growth. Analysis of the moment of switching at sub-cell-cycle resolution revealed a correlation between fim switching and cell age, which challenges the traditional idea of phase variation as a random Poissonian phenomenon.

Adiciptaningrum, Aileen M; Blomfield, Ian C; Tans, Sander J

2009-01-01

186

Electric Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances. Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.

Ieee

2013-07-08

187

Common and unique network dynamics in football games.  

PubMed

The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international "A" match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values ? ~ 3.1 are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of 2stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336

Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko

2011-01-01

188

Stop Playing Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how training games have changed and become more prevalent. Looks at characteristics of games and suggests how they should and should not be used in training. Describes 26 types of games and the use of icebreakers. (JOW)

Salopek, Jennifer J.

1999-01-01

189

Play the Electrocardiogram Game  

MedlinePLUS

... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

190

Play the MRI Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

191

Video game use and cognitive performance: does it vary with the presence of problematic video game use?  

PubMed

Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600

Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan

2014-03-01

192

The Awesome Game Race  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, learners design their own board games. Learners brainstorm the various components of board games, conduct research using well-known games, and then design and prototype a game. The learners' games must meet a "client's" requirements -- the games must be designed for first and second graders, must work with two to four children, and must take less than 15 minutes to play.

Television, Twin C.

2013-01-01

193

Science Game Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Science Game Center is to demonstrate to teachers, scientists, museums, and parents the myriad ways games can be used to improve education in math and science. The Science Game Center will provide a place where users can describe their experiences with math and science games, gather information on game strengths and weaknesses, and share tips on how to use games to help students reach their educational goals.

Federation of American Scientists (FAS)

194

Obliging Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graph games of infinite length provide a natural model for open reactive systems: one player (Eve) represents the controller and the other player (Adam) represents the environment. The evolution of the system depends on the decisions of both players. The specification for the system is usually given as an ?-regular language L over paths and Eve's goal is to ensure that the play belongs to L irrespective of Adam's behaviour.

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Horn, Florian; Löding, Christof

195

Deterministic dynamics in the minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minority game (MG) behaves as a stochastically disturbed deterministic system due to the coin toss invoked to resolve tied strategies. Averaging over this stochasticity yields a description of the MG's deterministic dynamics via mapping equations for the strategy score and global information. The strategy-score map contains both restoring-force and bias terms, whose magnitudes depend on the game's quenched disorder. Approximate analytical expressions are obtained and the effect of ``market impact'' is discussed. The global-information map represents a trajectory on a de Bruijn graph. For small quenched disorder, a Eulerian trail represents a stable attractor. It is shown analytically how antipersistence arises. The response to perturbations and different initial conditions is also discussed.

Jefferies, P.; Hart, M. L.; Johnson, N. F.

2002-01-01

196

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

197

Games for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

Gee, James Paul

2013-01-01

198

Video game violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of video games, especially violent video games, has reached phenomenal proportions. The theoretical line of reasoning that hypothesizes a causal relationship between violent video-game play and aggression draws on the very large literature on media violence effects. Additionally, there are theoretical reasons to believe that video game effects should be stronger than movie or television violence effects. This

Karen E. Dill; Jody C. Dill

1998-01-01

199

On Market Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'market games' -games that derive from an exchange economy in which the traders have continuous concave monetary utility functions, are shown to be the same as the 'totally balanced games' -games which with all their subgames possess cores. (The core ...

L. S. Shapley M. Shubik

1968-01-01

200

Game Birds of Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

201

The Switch Task for Children: Measuring mental flexibility in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58–156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children younger than 6 years

Pauline Dibbets; Jellemer Jolles

2006-01-01

202

Phase Description of Stochastic Oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an invariant phase description of stochastic oscillations by generalizing the concept of standard isophases. The average isophases are constructed as sections in the state space, having a constant mean first return time. The approach allows us to obtain a global phase variable of noisy oscillations, even in the cases where the phase is ill defined in the deterministic limit. A simple numerical method for finding the isophases is illustrated for noise-induced switching between two coexisting limit cycles, and for noise-induced oscillation in an excitable system. We also discuss how to determine isophases of observed irregular oscillations, providing a basis for a refined phase description in data analysis.

Schwabedal, Justus T. C.; Pikovsky, Arkady

2013-05-01

203

Ethernet Switching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Tony Castro of the Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT), this simulation demonstrates ethernet switching. The animation depicts three separate local area networks connecting to an ethernet hub. The animation also includes descriptive text. This resource would be a helpful addition to any course on information and communications technologies as it allows students to see exactly how ethernet switching works.

Castro, Tony

2012-10-25

204

Game-theoretic missile deflection in network centric warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a model for a distributed network of agents charged with defending a flotilla of ships and investigate how they can achieve their objective in a distributed manner. The dynamics of the model and the objectives are studied in detail, and a decentralized missile deflection algorithm based on solving a stochastic shortest path game is given. The main result

Michael Maskery; Vikram Krishnamurthy; Christina O'Regan

2005-01-01

205

Schumpeterian Innovation in Modelling Decisions, Games, and Economic Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Von Neumann's standard paradigm of a game in extensive form and Kolmogorov's standard model of a stochastic process both rely on con- structing a fixed state space large enough to include all possible future eventualities. This allows a typical single-person decision problem to be represented as a decision tree. Yet not all eventualities can be fore- seen. Also, any practical

Peter J. Hammond

2007-01-01

206

Evolution and Information in a Gift Giving Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an environment of anonymous random matching, Kandori (1992) showed that with a sufficiently rich class of simple information systems the folk theorem holds. We specialize to a gift-giving game and examine the stochastic stability of a process of learning and evolution in this setting. If the benefit of future altruism is too small, then there is no altruism. When

Phillip Johnson; David K. Levine; Wolfgang Pesendorfer

1999-01-01

207

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

208

Stochastic desertification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of desertification is usually modeled as a first-order transition, where a change of an external parameter (e.g., precipitation) leads to a catastrophic bifurcation followed by an ecological regime shift. However, vegetation elements like shrubs and trees undergo a stochastic birth-death process with an absorbing state; such a process supports a second-order continuous transition with no hysteresis. Here we study a minimal model of a first-order transition with an absorbing state. When the external parameter varies adiabatically the transition is indeed continuous, and we present some empirical evidence that supports this scenario. The front velocity renormalizes to zero at the extinction transition, leaving a finite “quantum” region where domain walls are stable and the desertification takes place via accumulation of local extinctions. A catastrophic regime shift may occur as a dynamical hysteresis, if the pace of environmental variations is too fast.

Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M.

2014-04-01

209

Fixation times in evolutionary games under weak selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In evolutionary game dynamics, reproductive success increases with the performance in an evolutionary game. If strategy A performs better than strategy B, strategy A will spread in the population. Under stochastic dynamics, a single mutant will sooner or later take over the entire population or go extinct. We analyze the mean exit times (or average fixation times) associated with this process. We show analytically that these times depend on the payoff matrix of the game in an amazingly simple way under weak selection, i.e. strong stochasticity: the payoff difference ?? is a linear function of the number of A individuals i, ??=u i+v. The unconditional mean exit time depends only on the constant term v. Given that a single A mutant takes over the population, the corresponding conditional mean exit time depends only on the density dependent term u. We demonstrate this finding for two commonly applied microscopic evolutionary processes.

Altrock, Philipp M.; Traulsen, Arne

2009-01-01

210

Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed ``analog'' feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level ``analog'' device for neuromorphic applications.

Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

2013-06-01

211

Gene Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

212

On Equilibria for ADM Minimization Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ADM minimization problem, the input is a set of arcs along a directed ring. The input arcs need to be partitioned into non-overlapping chains and cycles so as to minimize the total number of endpoints, where a k-arc cycle contributes k endpoints and a k-arc chain contains k + 1 endpoints. We study ADM minimization problem both as a non-cooperative and a cooperative games. In these games, each arc corresponds to a player, and the players share the cost of the ADM switches. We consider two cost allocation models, a model which was considered by Flammini et al., and a new cost allocation model, which is inspired by congestion games. We compare the price of anarchy and price of stability in the two cost allocation models, as well as the strong price of anarchy and the strong price of stability.

Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf

213

Hidden stochastic nature of a single bacterial motor.  

PubMed

The rotary flagellar motor of Escherichia coli bacterium switches stochastically between the clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) direction. We found that the CW and CCW intervals could be described by a gamma distribution, suggesting the existence of hidden Markov steps preceding each motor switch. Power spectra of time series of switching events exhibited a peaking frequency instead of the Lorentzian profile expected from standard kinetic two-state models. Our analysis indicates that the number of hidden steps may be a key dynamical parameter underlying the switching process in a single bacterial motor as well as in large cooperative molecular systems. PMID:16486999

Korobkova, Ekaterina A; Emonet, Thierry; Park, Heungwon; Cluzel, Philippe

2006-02-10

214

Hidden Stochastic Nature of a Single Bacterial Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotary flagellar motor of Escherichia coli bacterium switches stochastically between the clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW) direction. We found that the CW and CCW intervals could be described by a gamma distribution, suggesting the existence of hidden Markov steps preceding each motor switch. Power spectra of time series of switching events exhibited a peaking frequency instead of the Lorentzian profile expected from standard kinetic two-state models. Our analysis indicates that the number of hidden steps may be a key dynamical parameter underlying the switching process in a single bacterial motor as well as in large cooperative molecular systems.

Korobkova, Ekaterina A.; Emonet, Thierry; Park, Heungwon; Cluzel, Philippe

2006-02-01

215

Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing.  

PubMed

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752

Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip

2013-01-01

216

Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing  

PubMed Central

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip

2013-01-01

217

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.  

PubMed

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-11-01

218

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-10-01

219

Social Studies Games on Parade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school teachers are provided with materials and instructions for using a variety of social studies games. The 15 games described are: charades, checker states, hollywood squares, states guessing game, index relay, jeopardy, the match game, the money game, password, the states game, sequence, stump the students, track meet, famous person…

Bolger, Charlene

220

The Easiest Lights Out Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

Torrence, Bruce

2011-01-01

221

Black Hole Explorer Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game challenges players (ages 10+) to build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, players will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team (instructions are also provided for playing in large groups. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.

222

Wolf Trek Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)

DeRosa, Bill

1988-01-01

223

Braille Bug: Games  

MedlinePLUS

... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...

224

Distributed Parameter Differential Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dissertation extends some of the results known for lumped parameter differential games to differential games which involve distributed systems. The distributed system is described by a linear second order partial differential equation with appropriate...

R. J. Landy

1969-01-01

225

Nobel Prize Educational Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the Nobel Foundation you can play educational games and explore information about the Nobel Prize. The games cover a variety of science and health topics including the immune system, diabetes, DNA and laser technology.

2010-10-28

226

Linear System Control Using Stochastic Learning Automata  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.

Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.

1998-01-01

227

Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

2012-01-01

228

Quantum Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox arises when two losing games are combined to produce a winning one. A history-dependent quantum Parrondo game is studied where the rotation operators that represent the toss of a classical biased coin are replaced by general SU(2) operators to transform the game into the quantum domain. In the initial state, a superposition of qubits can be used to couple the games and produce interference leading to quite different payoffs to those in the classical case.

Flitney, A. P.; Ng, J.; Abbott, D.

2002-11-01

229

Review: Computer Language Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In language games, word meanings play a central role. This means that closed world assumptions that are so powerful in many\\u000a games cannot be depended on. This paper describes implemented systems that play the language games of American-style crosswords,\\u000a cryptic crosswords, Trivial Pursuit™, and punning riddles. These early efforts illustrate the challenge of language games,\\u000a demonstrate some emerging ideas for

Michael L. Littman

2000-01-01

230

Video Game Designer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you like to play video games? Did you know that in your future career you could design video games for youth just like you? Read the information on this site to learn what a video designer does and what classes you need to take in order to become one. You can also read about some famous current video game designers and about the games they have designed.

2005-12-05

231

Evaluating Exertion Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Games that demand exertion of the players through bodily movements are experiencing increasing commercial success and have\\u000a been attributed with many physical, mental and social benefits, thus changing the way we play computer games. However, there\\u000a is a lack of understanding of how to evaluate such exertion games, mainly because the games’ facilitated bodily movements\\u000a are believed to be responsible

Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller; Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze

232

Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO2 nanorod arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO2 nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.

Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean

2013-12-01

233

Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.  

PubMed

Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

2013-01-01

234

Kids Only Game Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These kids games from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise include: Droplet and the Water Cycle, where a droplet must be navigated through the hydrological cycle; What on Earth?, a game of earth trivia; word search puzzles, with hidden earth science words; Drag and Drop puzzles, to test one's ability to interpret satellite and composite images; a Pangaea map game; and a tectonics quiz.

235

Game of Chess.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have seen that the theory of games that emerges from this research is quite remote in both its concerns and its findings from the von Neumann Morgenstern theory. To arrive at actual strategies for the play of games as complex as chess, the game must be...

H. A. Simon J. Schaeffer

1990-01-01

236

Use of Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During nine days of camping and canoe travel, games were used to promote teamwork and forge cohesive groups out of previously unacquainted college seniors. Types of games included icebreakers, gathering, change of pace, small group closure, large group closure. Eleven games are described. Includes the program's nine-day schedule. (SAS)

Henderson, Bob

1997-01-01

237

Indian & Metis Trivia Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

238

Environmental Simulation Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two of the problems associated with games and simulations developed for environmental education (limited player participation and lack of economic relationships) are addressed by outlining a framework within which further game development and evaluation may take place. Four games illustrating the application of this framework are outlined. (BT)

Bazan, Eugene J.

1976-01-01

239

Computerized Innovation Management Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A management game is often used in testing corporate strategies with the aid of a (micro) computer. These games are also frequently applied as a tool for training of e.g. (prospective) managers. There are many varieties of management games. In general, th...

O. S. Tirtarahardja J. Eekels P. A. Slats J. Hulshoff H. Diepstraten

1984-01-01

240

Self-Assembly Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick game about self-assembly. Like the molecules of DNA, learners will self-assemble into a pattern by following a simple set of rules. The icebreaker game is part of a larger self-assembly lesson plan, and additional self-assembly game ideas and a video can be found in the related links.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

241

Reasoning about coalitional games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article history: We develop, investigate, and compare two logic-based knowledge representation formalisms for reasoning about coalitional games. The main constructs of Coalitional Game Logic (cgl) are expressions for representing the ability of coalitions, which may be combined with expressions for representing the preferences that agents have over outcomes. Modal Coalitional Game Logic (mcgl) is a normal modal logic, in which

Thomas Ågotnes; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2009-01-01

242

Foreign Language Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated list of 29 games that can be used in the foreign language classroom is provided. An introductory listing of all the game titles gives their application (vocabulary and/or grammar), a rating (on a three-point scale) of the amount of preparation time required of the teacher, and the time required to play the game. Annotations follow for…

Bradford, Suzanne, Comp.; And Others

1974-01-01

243

Developing Environmental Education Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a game format and procedures for developing teacher-prepared games in environmental education. Uses a game board, place markers, dice, and question and problem cards. Discusses development of learner objectives and preparation of evaluation procedures as well as follow-up tasks in revision. (CS)

Bedwell, Lance E.

1977-01-01

244

National Gaming Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes thirty-three simulation games discussed at the 9th Symposium of the Council in April of 1970. Those articles related to the social sciences are: 1) Teaching Economics with Competitive Games; 2) An Economic Strategy Analysis Game; 3) A Social Simulation Strategy for Researching the Israeli Arab Conflict; 4) The Use of…

House, Peter W.; And Others

245

First Video Game  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2010-01-08

246

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. Although practicing a mundane skill, learners enjoy the work because of the game scenario. Built into this game is cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2008-01-01

247

Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text introduces current evolutionary game theory--where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet--emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. The author provides an overview of the developments that have taken place in this branch of game theory, discusses the mathematical tools needed to understand the area, describes both the motivation and intuition for

Jorgen W. Weibull

1999-01-01

248

Cores of convex games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of ann-person game is the set of feasible outcomes that cannot be improved upon by any coalition of players. A convex game is defined as one that is based on a convex set function. In this paper it is shown that the core of a convex game is not empty and that it has an especially regular structure.

Lloyd S. Shapley

1971-01-01

249

Avatars in Analytical Gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC's) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of playing the supporting cast role. This new `science' of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables

Andrew J. Cowell; Amanda K. Cowell

2009-01-01

250

The Ultimate Flag Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

251

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

252

First Video Game  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

253

Being a Game Changer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

2012-01-01

254

Paper and Pencil Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains instructions for three paper and pencil games involving connecting dots with segments or curves. The games (Sprouts, Pipelayer and Capture) are tools for building a student's spatial sense and game strategies. These were collected as resources for a family math night.

2011-01-01

255

First Video Game  

SciTech Connect

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2008-10-21

256

Cores of partitioning games  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalization of assignment games, called partitioning games, is introduced. Given a finite set N of players, there is an a priori given subset pi of coalitions of N and only coalitions in pi play an essential role. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the non-emptiness of the cores of all games with essential coalitions pi are developed. These conditions appear

Mamoru Kaneko; Myrna Holtz Wooders

1982-01-01

257

Playing Design Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design is described as a social process and a game. Games provide an experience and environment in which aspects of design skill may be learned. Self-expression (involving no one else) and design (product must satisfy requirements imposed by others) are contrasted. Games described: JOIN, GAMBIT, URBISM, SPIEL, etc. (MLW)

Green, Cedric

1979-01-01

258

Gaming Gains Respect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

Richardson, Will

2012-01-01

259

Playing the Cell Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

1980-01-01

260

Getting into the Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…

Jenkins, Henry

2005-01-01

261

Optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

1987-01-01

262

Optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

Reedy, R.P.

1987-11-10

263

Index to Games Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers a variety of games which develop strategic thinking, analytical skills, and basic number skills. Three pdfs provide instructions and materials for sets of games played on reusable boards, on consumable sheets, and with number cards. The only other materials required are counters/chips, dice, and pens/pencils. The site also includes instructions for games that require only counters or paper and pencil. A short article describes the rationale for using such games in the classroom and offers suggestions for organizing and managing games and for maximizing their benefits.

Tapson, Frank

2011-01-01

264

Game Theory .net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Game Theory .net focuses on making the lessons of game theory relevant to the educator, student, business professional, or layperson. The site provides resource materials demonstrating the application of game theory to computer science, economics, business, political science, and other disciplines. It features textbooks reviews, lecture notes, and quizzes, as well as Java applets and online games to demonstrate concepts in a fun, interactive way. There are also links concerning game-theory themes in movies, books, and the popular press. Assessment materials are provided to aid educators in preparing classes and to offer students additional practice.

Shor, Mike

265

World Wildlife Fund: Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games are a great medium for introducing kids to complex topics like biodiversity. From the World Wildlife Fund, this website offers an inventive and fun collection of biodiversity games. The interactive games are designed for middle-school students and include a Virtual Safari, a Mapping Biodiversity game, a genetic diversity game, and more. The site also features a trailer for Biodiversity 911, a movie produced by Aardman, the clever creators of Wallace and Gromit. The website's Biodiversity 911 section also links to interactive activities that address fish sustainability, soil composition, toxic elements, and the ecology of a Sumatran rain forest.

266

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

267

On stochastic inflation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this talk is to briefly review the status of the paradigm of stochastic inflation especially with regard to some fundamental issues that are still not clearly understood. Put in a nut-shell, stochastic inflation is the attempt to model infra-red quantum fluctuations in an inflationary Universe as a real-time stochastic process.

Habib, S.

1991-12-31

268

Testing Game-Theoretic Models of Price Fixing Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses price fixing by the Joint Executive Committee railroad cartel from 1880 to 1886 and develops tests of two game-theoretic models of tacit collusion. The first model, due to Abreu, Pearce and Stacchetti (1986), predicts that price will switch across regimes according to a Markov process. The second model, by Rotemberg and Saloner (1986), concludes that price wars

V A Hajivassiliou

1997-01-01

269

Testing Game Theoretic Models of Price-Fixing Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price fixing by the Joint Executive Committee railroad cartel from 1880 to 1886 and develops tests of two game-theoretic models of tacit collusion. The first model, due to Abreu, Pearce and Stacchetti (1986), predicts that price will switch across regimes according to a Markov process. The second, by Rotemberg and Saloner (1986), postulates that price wars are

Vassilis A. Hajivassiliou

1990-01-01

270

Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging

Chih-Hung Ko; Gin-Chung Liu; Sigmund Hsiao; Ju-Yu Yen; Ming-Jen Yang; Wei-Chen Lin; Cheng-Fang Yen; Cheng-Sheng Chen

2009-01-01

271

Affective Tabletop Game: A New Gaming Experience for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss various options for enhancing the gaming experience in augmented tabletop games. More specifically, we propose to incorporate psychophysiological measurements as a part of the gaming experience, and to integrate a desktop game within its real surrounding (i.e., the entire room) in order to promote more physical activity. Such design options, together with other game rules,

Abdullah Al Mahmud; Omar Mubin; Johanna Renny Octavia; Suleman Shahid; Leechin Yeo; Panos Markopoulos; Jean-bernard Martens; Dima Aliakseyeu

2007-01-01

272

Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games.

Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter

2012-01-01

273

Stochastic differential equations  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a unified treatment of both regular (or random) and Ito stochastic differential equations. It focuses on solution methods, including some developed only recently. Applications are discussed, in particular an insight is given into both the mathematical structure, and the most efficient solution methods (analytical as well as numerical). Starting from basic notions and results of the theory of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus (including Ito's stochastic integral), many principal mathematical problems and results related to stochastic differential equations are expounded here for the first time. Applications treated include those relating to road vehicles, earthquake excitations and offshore structures.

Sobczyk, K. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland))

1990-01-01

274

Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on

Gregory P. Harmer; Derek Abbott; Peter G. Taylor; Juan M. R. Parrondo

2001-01-01

275

Sex, Lies and Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

2007-01-01

276

Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

2014-02-01

277

Game Technology and Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).

278

Stochastic resonance in attention control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.

Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

2006-12-01

279

Modeling Subtilin Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic network regulating the biosynthesis of subtilin in Bacillus subtilis is modeled as a stochastic hybrid system. The con- tinuous state of the hybrid system is the concentrations of subtilin and various regulating proteins, whose productions are controlled by switches in the genetic network that are in turn modeled as Markov chains. Some preliminary results are given by both

Jianghai Hu; Wei-Chung Wu; Shankar Sastry

2004-01-01

280

Grab the Candy Corn Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog post presents a game that provides provides practice in locating positions on a coordinate grid. A downloadable PDF document includes the game board, optional game pieces, directions and a recording sheet.

Kawas, Terry

2009-10-09

281

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

282

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

283

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

284

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

285

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

286

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

287

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

288

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

289

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

290

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

291

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

292

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

293

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

294

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

295

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

296

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

297

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

298

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

299

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

300

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

301

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

302

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

303

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

304

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

305

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

306

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

307

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

308

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

309

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

310

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

311

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

312

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

313

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

314

The Distribution Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a computer simulation of retailers and wholesaler inventory systems. We play the game before we introduce EOQ and safety stock theory. The students soon get a feel for tradeoffs between ordering and inventory costs. We follow this trial and error experiment by a presentation of the theory. Students are then asked to apply the theory to the game's parameters and rerun it. The game captures several issues of inventory management as they relate to cost minimization and service level. These include order quantities, lead time, reorder points and safety stocks. This game can be used effectively to reinforce these concepts. The real strength of the game, however, is that it captures other aspects of inventory management that are typically missing from operations management text books. These are mainly the multiple echelon ordering system and pipeline stock.

Jackson, Peter L.; Muckstadt, John

2008-10-16

315

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

316

Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

Hamadene, S., E-mail: hamadene@univ-lemans.fr; Morlais, M. A., E-mail: Marie_Amelie.Morlais@univ-lemans.fr [Universite du Maine, LMM (France)

2013-04-15

317

Reset Switching Probability of Resistive Switching Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reset switching probability of resistive switching devices is characterized in array testing. The measured switching probability can be quantitatively explained based on the mecha- nism of a thermally activated reset process. An analytical model of switching probability is developed to describe the dependence of reset probability on operation parameters, including applied voltage, selection transistor gate voltage, and pulsewidth. The

An Chen; Ming-Ren Lin

2011-01-01

318

Factor Game (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses the context of a two-person game to develop the concepts of prime and composite numbers as well as strategic thinking. The game may be played on paper or with an online applet (cataloged separately). Students analyze the results of first moves to arrive at an effective game strategy. The included student worksheet (pdf) extends the range of numbers played and introduces students to abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers.

2012-01-01

319

Immersive chemistry video game  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team at Purdue University has been working on a NSF sponsored project to create a set of research-validated recommendations for the development of science video games. As a way to accomplish this task, the team created a three-dimensional first-person shooter video game that requires players to utilize chemistry knowledge to advance in the game-world. A team of chemistry, computer

Carlos Morales; Kermin Martínez-Hernández; Gabriela Weaver; Ryan Pedela; Kellen Maicher; Eugene Elkin; Doug Danforth; Naveen Nattam

2006-01-01

320

Get-Moving Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this invention challenge activity, learners create an indoor game for one or two people that gets you moving. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to play an âimagine new uses for old thingsâ game to play before the activity. Learners will also brainstorm activities that get people up and moving and follow the design process to invent a game, including the equipment and rules for playing it.

Wgbh

2009-01-01

321

Predictive Game Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

Wolpert, David H.

2005-01-01

322

Science Review Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are intended to help prepare students for the New York State Regent's Exams, but may be used by anyone to review science topics in a fun, interactive atmosphere. Subjects include Earth science, geology, astrononomy, and chemistry. Users are asked a question, and if they choose the correct answer, may attempt to score points in the game setting. A teacher's page provides information on how to search the site to locate games on specific topics.

323

The Game of Hex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…

Scott, Paul

2007-01-01

324

Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.

Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; T?llefsen, T.

2011-01-01

325

The Bibliography Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a teaching game for bibliographic formatting that emphasizes the importance of noting author, title, and publication information precisely while using accurate formatting and punctuation. (HTH)

Bivens, Leslie

1983-01-01

326

Rescue Mission Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets physics game, learners pretend they are pilots of rescue helicopters and must fly their helicopters to the top of a mountain to rescue lost hikers. Learners first explore the four forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Before playing the game, learners conduct a probability experiment with spinners and record their results in tally tables and bar graphs. They then use their findings to select spinners with the greatest probability of helping them win the game. In a portion of the game, learners use ordered pairs to plot points on the coordinate plane to show their flight path.

Mathematics, National C.

2008-01-01

327

Endangered Species Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy board game is a fun-filled way to help kids understand that once a species is extinct, it's gone forever and that there are lots of things they can do to help preserve biodiversity. The activity begins by introducing kids to the difference between endangered and extinct animals, as well as to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. A colorful game board is included as a printable PDF file. You'll need a pair of dice and a marker of your choosing for each player. Simple directions for assembling the game board and playing the game are included on a single page.

328

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

329

The Video Game Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games may now have officially reached a new level of cultural and social importance, especially since PBS (and station affiliate KCTS) have seen fit to create this very interactive and informative site to complement their recent television special, "The Video Game Revolution". The television program tells the history of video games, starting all the way back in 1952, and proceeding all the way to the current home systems. Of course, this website offers a great deal of material to delight aficionados of this cultural phenomenon, including an interactive timeline of video game history and Flash-enabled specials on the impact of gaming, and of course the somewhat forgotten (but not totally gone) phenomenon of that old shopping mall standby, the arcade. The arcade that's featured on the site offers users the ability to play an old classic game (Galaga) and a "Name that Game" feature, where visitors must guess the game based on a brief sound clip. Of course, the Scout Report would be remiss if it didn't also mention that there's a Celebrity Game Quiz, which features such questions as "Which member of the Rat Pack appeared in a 1970s commercial for Magnavox?" If you can't wait to get to the site, it was Mr. Ring a Ding Ding himself, Frances Albert Sinatra.

330

Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations  

SciTech Connect

A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.

Abdulle, Assyr, E-mail: assyr.abdulle@epfl.ch; Blumenthal, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.blumenthal@epfl.ch

2013-10-15

331

Smartphone's physiatric serious game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Games are not just fun, they can also be used to generate serious benefits for people. The current popularity of smartphones endowed with sensorial, computational and communication capabilities is generating new potential. An interesting case study regards serious games for healthcare purposes and, to this aim, we focus on physiatric rehabilitation of articulations and show how to create a smartphone's

Dario Deponti; Dario Maggiorini; Claudio E. Palazzi

2011-01-01

332

The Chain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this game, students explore the connection between climate, genetic variation and the transmission of hantavirus. A board and game pieces are provided. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessments, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 1 of the learning module, Human Health, Climate and Disease: A Critical Connection, part of the lesson series, Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

333

Food Chain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor game, learners role play populations linked in a food chain. The resource suggests a chain with plant, grasshopper, frog, and hawk, but other food chains can be role-played, for example plankton, anchovy, salmon, sea lion. The more "animals" (learners!) the merrier for this active game.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

334

Agents, games and HLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in utilising intelligent agents in computer games and virtual environments. At the same time, computer game research and development has increasingly drawn on technologies and techniques originally developed in the large scale distributed simulation community, such as the HLA IEEE standard for simulator interoperability. In this paper, we address a

Michael Lees; Brian Logan; Georgios K. Theodoropoulos

2006-01-01

335

Games for Health, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 2011, The Games for Health Project, an effort organized by Digitalmill, Inc. with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation held its 7th Annual Games for Health Conference. This three day event brought together over 400 researchers, videogame...

B. Sawyer

2011-01-01

336

Gaming and Gamification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

Mallon, Melissa

2013-01-01

337

Skill Games for Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is to assist teachers with motivational ideas for teaching elementary school mathematics. The items included are a wide variety of games (paper and pencil, verbal, and physical), jingles, contests, teaching devices, and thought provoking exercises. Suggestions for selection of mathematical games are offered. The devices are used to…

Corle, Clyde G.

338

Games Professors Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The games are Build a Reputation (REP), Confuse the Student (CON), Blame the Opposition (BOP), and Pass the Buck (BUCK). Professors play these games because they "want to show off on occasion, . . . want to get off the hook and avoid responsibility, . . . are prone to blame others, or simply because they are lazy. (WM)

Kenny, James A.; Herzing, Thomas W.

1969-01-01

339

The Campus Information Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME is to help to induct new students into their unfamiliar study environment. Typically it forms an early element of an overall induction program for their course of study. THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME has a key secondary theme of information quality that is particularly appropriate for students of…

Martin, Andrew

2006-01-01

340

Games for Decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-minute video highlights a grade 4 class using a game, Fill Two, to reinforce their understanding of decimals, specifically tenths and hundredths. Teacher Tiffani Poirier provides rationale and demonstrates implementation strategies. Downloadable support materials are included: lesson plan, game materials, teacher instructions, video transcript, and a SMART Board Notebook file.

Poirier, Tiffani

2011-01-01

341

The Guppy Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

2012-01-01

342

Vocabulary Practice Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates games that can be used for developing vocabulary in the English-as-a-Foreign-Language classroom. The games are intended to be integrated into the general language syllabus and can be an important and enjoyable way of practicing vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

Shaptoshvili, Shalva

2002-01-01

343

The Clean Air Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

Avalone-King, Deborah

2000-01-01

344

Caribbean Farming Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a game to be used with high school seniors or college freshmen studying the geography of underdeveloped nations. The game involves role playing, decision making, computations, and analysis. It should provide a platform for discussion of the prospects and problems of farming in a developing region. (CS)

Morrissey, Mike

1983-01-01

345

Fractions Dolphin Racing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive game, students are tasked with using a variety of strategies to quickly compare fractions. By choosing the largest fraction, the student's dolphin travels further faster. This game encourages students to interpret the meaning of fractions and rely on strategies that go beyond finding common denominators.

Adults, Skillwise: E.

2012-08-03

346

Games People Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

VerBruggen, Robert

2012-01-01

347

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

348

Building Fractions Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners investigate fractions by playing a game. To play, learners roll two dice and create a fraction, using the larger number rolled as the denominator and the smaller number as the numerator. Learners then build that fractional amount on the game mat with pattern block pieces. The winner is the player who builds the greatest number of hexagons.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

349

Variations on a Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical games provide wonderful opportunities to engage students in meaningful and rich mathematical investigations. This article describes three mathematical games suitable to be played by different groups of students, from young elementary school students, learning the basics of arithmetic and geometry, to older students making their first…

Landman, Greisy Winicki

2005-01-01

350

Haptics: Gaming's New Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptics technology can simulate tactile and kinesthetic sensations so that computer interfaces not only look but also feel - in the literal sense of the word - like the interfaces we are accustomed to using in the real world. Although haptics in PC gaming began by focusing on kinesthetics, while haptics in console gaming began by focusing on vibrotactile effects,

Dean Chang

2002-01-01

351

Gaming in Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

352

Digital Game-Based Learning: Towards an Experiential Gaming Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide engaging learning experiences for students. However, a model that successfully integrates educational theory and game design aspects do not exist. Thus, in this paper an experiential gaming model that is based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game

Kiili, Kristian

2005-01-01

353

In-game tactic adaptation for interactive computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer controlled characters in games typically lack the ability to adapt to situations that were not envisaged by the game artificial intelligence (AI) programmer. Consequently game characters tend to be lifeless and susceptible to repetitive and predictable behaviour. The focus of this work is to provide practical approaches to in-game learning and thus produce NPCs that are more believable and

Thomas P. Hartley; Qasim H. Mehdi

2011-01-01

354

Guess My Rule: The Function Machine Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This card game provides practice in saying and writing the function rule, given an input/output table. One student has the rule which the other student has to guess. The guesser records an input number in the table and the rule person must apply the rule and tell the output number. Student pairs repeat this until the guesser correctly identifies the rule by saying and writing it. Students then switch places and repeat the activity. There are three different levels of rules for play: simple addition & subtraction, multiplication or two-step rules.

Kawas, Terry

2000-01-01

355

Molecular Stochastics: A Study of Direct Production of Stochastic Sequences from Transducers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molecular Stochastics is an extension of stochastic computing. The main concern of Molecular Stochastics is the generation of stochastic sequences that are used as the encoded information in stochastic computing. Also, these stochastic sequences in order ...

J. R. Cutler

1975-01-01

356

Travel board game  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A camping travel board game with plurality of camping modes of travel incorporated in the board game. Players have the opportunity to choose a set of contiguous "State Cards" they wish to travel through. The chosen set of "State Cards" is to be placed on the board surface. A plurality of "State Cards" gives players a plurality of playing surface possibilities on the board. The "State Cards" have indicia thereon stating various travel attractions offered only in the state it represents, making each "State Card" uniquely different. The board game has a stack of "Nuisance Cards" and "Pleasure Cards" (pertinent to camping) to hinder or help players win the game with the most points. The board game helps players to learn contiguous states, state attractions within each state, advantages and disadvantages of different modes of travel camping, nuisances and pleasures of camping vacations, as well as provide entertainment and family togetherness.

1986-03-11

357

Game Theory Professional Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website has a wealth of resources on game theory and its applications to economics, business, political science, computer science, and other disciplines. Some of the resources include links to journals, associations, teaching resources, and major web portals. From the links provided, visitors can read about the history of game theory, experiment with games that demonstrate key concepts in a fun, interactive way, and review course syllabi and other relevant documents on game theory. The collection is intended to provide resources that make the material more approachable for students. Educators are requested to submit lecture notes, teaching strategies, comments on textbooks, or other suggestions; while students are encouraged to submit commentary on their experiences with learning game theory.

Shor, Mike

358

Avatars in Analytical Gaming  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

2009-08-29

359

Stochastic model of coliphage lambda regulatory network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic properties of the regulatory network governing the choice between lytic and lysogenic growths of coliphage lambda is studied using a Markov chain stochastic model. Our computer simulation confirms the finding by Li [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004)] on the dynamics of budding yeast: that the biological stationary states are global attractors; the biological pathways of lytic and lysogenic growths are attracting trajectories; and the network functions are robustly designed against structural perturbations. In addition, our model shows the stochastic switch from lysogen to lytic growth, which has been observed in experiments. A definition of pseudoenergy is introduced in the network dynamics to reveal a transitionlike behavior in the system.

Wang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yuping; Ouyang, Qi

2006-04-01

360

Enhanced logical stochastic resonance under periodic forcing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was demonstrated recently that noise in an optimal window allows a bistable system to operate reliably as reconfigurable logic gates (Murali et al., 2009) [1], as well as a memory device (Kohar and Sinha, 2012) [11]. Namely, in a range of moderate noise, the system can operate flexibly, both as a NAND/AND/OR/NOR gate and a Set Reset latch. Here we demonstrate how the width of the optimal noise window can be increased by utilizing the constructive interplay of noise and periodic forcing, namely noise in conjunction with a periodic drive yields consistent logic outputs for all noise strengths below a certain threshold. Thus we establish that in scenarios where noise level is below the minimum threshold required for logical stochastic resonance (or stochastic resonance in general), we can add a periodic forcing to obtain the desired effects. Lastly, we also show how periodic forcing reduces the switching time, leading to faster operation of devices and lower latency effects.

Kohar, Vivek; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna

2014-08-01

361

Multidimensional Stochastic Approximation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional stochastic approximation schemes are presented, and conditions are given for these schemes to converge a.s. (almost surely) to the solutions of $k$ stochastic equations in $k$ unknowns and to the point where a regression function in $k$ variables achieves its maximum.

Julius R. Blum

1954-01-01

362

Almost Global Stochastic Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a method to prove almost global stability of stochastic dierential equations in the sense that almost every initial point (with respect to the Lebesgue measure) is asymptotically attracted to the origin with unit probability. The method can be viewed as a dual to Lyapunov's second method for stochastic dierential equations and extends the deterministic result in (A. Rantzer,

Ramon van Handel

2006-01-01

363

Stochastic chaplygin systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We mimic the stochastic Hamiltonian reduction of Lazaro-Cami and Ortega [18, 19] for the case of certain nonholonomic systems with symmetries. Using the nonholonomic connection it is shown that the drift of the stochastically perturbed n-dimensional Chaplygin ball is a certain gradient of the density of the preserved measure of the deterministic system.

Hochgerner, Simon

2010-12-01

364

Mobile educational game: adventure anywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main topic of this work is development of educational games that can be used on mobile devices. Paper describes a novel approach to educational game defining and interpretation. Idea is based on extracting knowledge, game rules and scenarios outside the program thus enabling reusability. On the other hand by applying a layered approach to educational game interpretation we enable use

Milovanovi? Miloš; Minovi? Miroslav; Lazovi? Miroslav; Star?evi? Dušan

2009-01-01

365

Adaptive game AI for Gomoku  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of game intelligence has seen an increase in player centric research. That is, machine learning techniques are employed in games with the objective of providing an entertaining and satisfying game experience for the human player. This paper proposes an adaptive game AI that can scale its level of difficulty according to the human player's level of capability for

Kuan Liang Tan; Chin Hiong Tan; Kay Chen Tan; Arthur Tay

2009-01-01

366

Teaching Game Sense in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

Pill, Shane

2012-01-01

367

The Terrific Technicolor Action Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a game that focuses on the color wheel and other topics that can be used with upper-elementary or middle school students as a test review. Includes lists of the game rules, what is needed for the game, and suggested questions for the game. (CMK)

Guhin, Paula

2002-01-01

368

Stages for Children Inventing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…

Butler, Joy

2013-01-01

369

Play Chinese Games. 1987, Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, designed to introduce all ages to a selection of popular Chinese games, describes these games and provides instructions and materials for making the items needed to play most of them. Section 1 suggests class activities that can be related to some of the games. Section 2 presents instructions for the physical or outdoor games of:…

White, Caryn

370

Simple Games . . . or Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

Arn, Susan Kyle

2006-01-01

371

Video Games and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…

Perkins-Gough, Deborah

2009-01-01

372

Video Games: Competing with Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…

Hanson, Jarice

373

Solving Stochastic Nonlinear Resource Allocation Problems Using a Hierarchy of Twofold Resource Allocation Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multitude of real-world situations, resources must be allocated based on incomplete and noisy information. However, in many cases, incomplete and noisy information render traditional resource allocation techniques ineffective. The decentralized Learning Automata Knapsack Game (LAKG) was recently proposed for solving one such class of problems, namely the class of Stochastic Nonlinear Fractional Knapsack Problems. Empirically, the LAKG was

Ole-Christoffer Granmo; B. John Oommen

2010-01-01

374

Characterization of the optimal disturbance attenuation for nonlinear stochastic uncertain systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with an abstract formulation of stochastic optimal control systems, in which uncertainty is described by a relative entropy constraint between the nominal measure and the uncertain measure, while the payoff is a functional of the uncertain measure. This is a minimax game in which the controller seeks to minimize the pay-off, while the disturbance described by

Charalambos D. Charalambous; Farzad Rezaei; S. M. Djouadi

2003-01-01

375

The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority  

PubMed Central

Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The ‘Approximate Majority’ computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

Cardelli, Luca; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila

2012-01-01

376

A pursuit-evasion differential game with noisy measurements of the evader's bearing from the pursuer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic pursuit-evasion differential game involving two players, E and P, moving in the plane is considered. It is assumed that player E (the evader) has complete observation of the position and velocity of player P, whereas player P (the pursuer) can measure the distanced (P, E) between P and E but receives noise-corrupted measurements of the bearing ß of

Y. Yavin

1986-01-01

377

A New Learning Algorithm for Cooperative Agents in General-Sum Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of multi-agent reinforcement learning in stochastic game has been slowed down in recent years. The main problem is that it is difficult to make the learning satisfy rationality and convergence at the same time. Here, the typical learning algorithms are analyzed firstly, and then a new method called Pareto-Q is prompted with the concept of Pareto optimum, which

Mei-Ping Song; Ju-Bai An; Rong Chen

2007-01-01

378

Role of defects in the kink mechanism of state switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State switching occurring via the kink mechanism in linear systems has been described considering the effect of defects forming centers of enhanced kink pair nucleation and obstacles for kink propagation. An equation describing the switching kinetics has been derived considering the stochastic nature of kink pair formation in time and the random distribution of defects in space. Using this equation, the average switching time has been calculated as a function of the defect density and delay times caused by defects, and the ranges of parameters with domination of this or that defect type have been determined. The theory has been applicable to magnetic nanowires, dislocations, biological macromolecules, and many other systems.

Petukhov, B. V.

2012-12-01

379

Stochastic Scheduling Games with Markov Decision Arrival Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dependent arrival processes MDAP (Markov Decision Arrival Processes) were introduced by Hordijk and Koole to model special arrival processes into controlled queueing networks. These were applied to solve control problems with several controllers havin...

E. Altman G. Koole

1992-01-01

380

Seville Game Theory Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jesus Mario Bilbao Arrese, a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Seville, heads the Seville Game Theory group (SGT). On this website, visitors will find a selection of publications by members of the group, including papers, preprints and PhD theses. The Blackboard section includes various position papers, mostly in Spanish, which address issues such as the value of using scientific methods to understand, design and analyze complex voting systems. The website also provides links to Economics and Mathematics associations, information on conferences on game theory, and links to related journals and book series. The Download area also provides links to online resources that address topics related to game theory.

2005-12-30

381

The Nervous System Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts (Gardner 1993). With this in mind, a team developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to model the nervous system signals. A formal test of the game led to the activities described in this article. This game is a great way to introduce such complex principles as motor versus sensory signaling, reflexes, and the effects of spinal cord injury.

Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

2006-03-01

382

Fission and Fusion Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

383

Leaps and Flutters Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive "Chutes and Ladders" type of game is for ages 7-9 and can be played with a friend or against the computer. As players land on squares, depending on the described action, they either "leap" frog ahead if they help the environment or butterfly "flutter" back if they do not. The website includes a short explanation of why we should care about frogs and butterflies, as well as some facts about some of the activities on the game board and why they are good or not good for the environment. A printable version of the board game is also available.

384

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

385

Two-Component Genetic Switch as a Synthetic Module with Tunable Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite stochastic fluctuations, some genetic switches are able to retain their expression states through multiple cell divisions, providing epigenetic memory. We propose a novel rationale for tuning the functional stability of a simple synthetic gene switch through protein dimerization. Introducing an approximation scheme to access long-time stochastic dynamics of multiple-component gene circuits, we find that the spontaneous switching rate may exhibit greater than 8 orders of magnitude variation. The manipulation of the circuit’s biochemical properties offers a practical strategy for designing robust epigenetic memory with synthetic circuits.

Ghim, C.-M.; Almaas, E.

2009-07-01

386

Two-component genetic switch as a synthetic module with tunable stability.  

PubMed

Despite stochastic fluctuations, some genetic switches are able to retain their expression states through multiple cell divisions, providing epigenetic memory. We propose a novel rationale for tuning the functional stability of a simple synthetic gene switch through protein dimerization. Introducing an approximation scheme to access long-time stochastic dynamics of multiple-component gene circuits, we find that the spontaneous switching rate may exhibit greater than 8 orders of magnitude variation. The manipulation of the circuit's biochemical properties offers a practical strategy for designing robust epigenetic memory with synthetic circuits. PMID:19659247

Ghim, C-M; Almaas, E

2009-07-10

387

Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.

Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

2013-10-01

388

The Atomic Dating Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity designed to provide students with opportunities to practice drawing atomic models and discover the logical pairings of whole families on the periodic table. Follows the format of a television game show. (DDR)

Cummo, Evelyn; Matthews, Catherine E.

2002-01-01

389

The Confidence Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are usually quick to draw conclusions about their surroundings. Their generalizations, however, are often based on a single experience or even a story recounted by a friend. As we gain more experience in the world, out ability to reason inductively improves. The ability to draw broad conclusions also improves with an understanding of likelihood and probability, and dice games are a popular way to introduce these concepts to students.One such game was developed after years of judging and discussing science-fair projects with students who had no understanding of why they should have repeated trials or treatments in their experiments. Intended for students in fourth through sixth grade, the game lets students discover why collecting repeated observations leads to greater confidence inf a conclusion. Rather than presenting the concepts of replication and certainty as facts, playing a game provides an engaging environment in which students discover these principles themselves.

Corey, Leah M.; Braude, Stan

2006-09-01

390

The Integer Product Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.

Connected Mathematics Project 2006

2010-05-17

391

Rethinking Fair Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses misconceptions related to what makes an unfair game fair and describes from a personal perspective the process of discovering for oneself when a particular mathematical method works. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Coffey, David C.; Richardson, Mary G.

2005-01-01

392

Simple Coordinates Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigate the first quadrant of the Cartesian coordinate system through identifying the coordinates of randomly generated points, or requesting that a particular point be plotted. Simple Coordinates Game is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

393

Play the Tuberculosis Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles The Genetic Code ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some ...

394

Educational board game  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An educational game comprises a planar game board having printed thereon a plurality of images of postal stamps. The educational game further comprises a plurality of player placeholders. The educational game further comprises a plurality of question cards. A first portion of the question cards contain questions of reduced difficulty having associated therewith a first quantity of points. A second portion of the question cards contain questions of intermediate difficulty having associated therewith a second quantity of points. A third portion of the question cards contain questions of increased difficulty having associated therewith a third quantity of points. A portion of the question cards contain questions having subjective answers. A portion of the question cards contain an image of a postal stamp. When a player answers a question correctly, the player's score is incremented by the quantity of points associated with that question.

2006-03-07

395

ESL computer games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun websites that will engage English language learners in learning Enlglish through fun activities, games, quizzes, trivia, etc. on the computer. I have used these websites with the students I teach and they LOVE it. They really look forward to going to the computer lab and engaging in the learning. I have found that they use English to talk about the games together. It has been highlyl effective. ESL computer games Word games, puzzles, quizzes, exercises, slang, proverbs and much more. beginning/intermediate esl This site was designed to meet the particular needs of my first-year recent immigrant students. The majority of links and activities are appropriate for students whose English ability ranges from entry-level to intermediate. This is a multimedia learning site. ...

Peterson, Miss

2006-11-15

396

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

397

A Game with Coins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet provides practice in adding denominations of US coins in the context of a simple turn-taking game of strategy. The game starts with pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters arrayed in a row or loop. One person (or the computer) picks a coin on either end of the chain. Then the computer (or the second person) selects either the new "end" coin or the unchosen one from the previous round. Play proceeds in alternating fashion until no coins remain; the player who collects the greatest dollar amount wins. Click "random numbers" to play the same game with counting numbers in lieu of coins. A discussion of optimal strategies appears below the game.

Interactive Math Miscellany And Puzzles, Alexander B.

2011-01-01

398

The Fishing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a simulation that places the student in the role of a wildlife manager who must use natural resources prudently. The site includes links to a user's guide, a fishing game simulator, and related reading material.

Exchange, The C.; Administration, Bonneville P.

399

University of Illinois: Gaming Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games have been the subject of scholarly inquiry for some time now, and disciplines such as psychology, speech communications, and information science continue to look into their use for a variety of purposes. The Gaming Initiative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) created this website to bring together actual video games, along with sponsoring campus-wide events, career resources, and other materials. Visitors can get started by reading through the "Gaming News" area, and looking through their current holdings. The sections of the site include "Gaming Research", "Gaming on Campus", and "Gaming Careers". The "Gaming Careers" section is quite useful, and it includes an extensive list of key trade and academic journals on game development and some inside advice from people in the industry.

2011-06-14

400

Biform Games: Online Appendix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proof for Example 2.1.In Example 2.1, there are two cooperative games, resulting from the two strategies the supplier can choose. To fix notation for the games, let v : P(N) R be a characteristic function. Also, given an allocation x R,, and T N, write x(T ) = P j T x,. Then the Core is the set of allocations

Adam Brandenburger; Harborne Stuart

2006-01-01

401

Rethinking the ESP game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract — The ESP Game,[15] was designed,to har- vest human,intelligence to assign labels to images - a task which,is still difficult for even the most advanced,sys- tems in image processing [2, 8]. However, the ESP Game as it is currently implemented,encourages,players to as- sign “obvious” labels, which are most likely to lead to an agreement,with the partner. But these labels

Stephen Robertson; Milan Vojnovic; Ingmar Weber

2009-01-01

402

The Natural Selection Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for the activity, students do background reading from Chapter 6 of Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs, by Anthony J. Martin (Basic Concepts in Evolutionary Theory section). In class, the day before running the activity, introduce students briefly to the rules of the game and have them prepare their game pieces. A showing of Walking With Dinosaurs: Time of the Titans would also be helpful.

Mccarville, Katherine

403

Multichoice minority game  

SciTech Connect

The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2001-06-01

404

Interactive Astronomy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two interactive astronomy games, 'Small and Large' and 'Near and Far', help to introduce important basic concepts about the size of the Universe. In 'Small and Large', students examine pictures of various astronomical objects and arrange them numerically by size. In 'Near and Far, they arrange pictures of objects by their distance from Earth. The games serve as motivators for further discussion and learning and may be used with large groups, a few students or with just one other person.

Morrow, Cherilynn

405

Biggest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners build a multi-digit number by rolling dice and deciding which place value box to place each number. This requires strategy and planning as they must consider what they may roll in the future and which boxes are still open. Learners can compete to make the largest or smallest numbers during each round of play. Educators can use this game to introduce and/or practice strategy, risk, and place value.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

406

Winning the Service Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The chapter presents a summary and extension of our book, Winning the Service Game, published in 1995 by Harvard Business School Press (Schneider\\u000a \\u000a & Bowen\\u000a \\u000a , 1995). We summarize the “rules of the game” we had presented there concerning the production and delivery primarily of consumer\\u000a services and note several advances in thinking since we wrote the book. We emphasize

Benjamin Schneider; David E. Bowen

407

The Graphing Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

2011-01-01

408

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

409

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

410

Find a Fuel Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An educational game where students choose vehicles with different propulsion systems and learn about the differences between these systems. To progress in the game, students must capture the fuel type for the propulsion system of the vehicle they chose. Propulsion systems and fuel types include the internal combustion engine (gasoline),  flex-fuel ethanol (E85), hybrid electric (gasoline and electricity), and plug-in hybrid electric (electricty or both gasoline and electricity).

Motors, General

411

Latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

412

Utilizing Video Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.

Blaize, L.

413

Quantum Stochastic Processes  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2009-04-13

414

Elementary Stochastic Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck eq...

A. V. Tollestrup G . Dugan

1983-01-01

415

Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.  

PubMed

In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that evidences neurobiologic correlates of Internet gaming addiction and the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, but also emphasizes the necessity of an indepth understanding of the meaning, context, and practices associated with gaming. PMID:24255603

Kuss, Daria J

2013-01-01

416

Stochastic Models of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.

Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

417

Strategy Logics and the Game Description Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Game Description Language (GDL) is a special purpose declarative language for defining games. GDL is used in the AAAI General Game Playing Competition, which tests the ability of computer programs to play games in general, rather than just to play a specific game. Participants in the competition are provided with a game specified in GDL, and then required to

WIEBE VAN DER HOEK; JI RUAN; MICHAEL WOOLDRIDGE

418

Affective game engines: motivation and requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous advances in gaming technologies over the past decade have focused primarily on the physical realism of the game environment and game characters, and the complexity and performance of game simulations and networking. However, current games are still lacking in the affective realism of the game characters, and the social complexity and realism of their interactions. To achieve the

Eva Hudlicka

2009-01-01

419

Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming  

SciTech Connect

We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-08-31

420

Games for Learning. Occasional Paper No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explores the utility of educational games in elementary and secondary social studies classes. Separate sections of the paper discuss types of games, similarities among formal games and social studies topics, educational game design, and examples, advantages, and limitations of educational games. Game playing in society is described as…

Abt, Clark C.

421

Proof of permutationally convexity of MCSF games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granot and Huberman (1982) showed that minimum cost spanning tree (MCST) games are permutationally convex (PC). Recently, Rosenthal (1987) gave an extension of MCST games to minimum cost spanning forest (MCSF) games and showed these games have nonempty cores. In this note we show any MCSF game is a PC game.

Bahram Alidaee

1994-01-01

422

Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of ``noise'' that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift-as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet-the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research.

Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2001-09-01

423

Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games.  

PubMed

Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of "noise" that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift-as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet-the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779509

Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2001-09-01

424

The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. Although the switching dynamics is one of their most important characteristics, the mechanisms that control it are poorly understood. We present a statistical–mechanical model of the bacterial flagellar motor. At its heart is the assumption that the rotor protein complex, which is connected to the flagellum, can exist in two conformational states and that switching between these states depends on the interactions with the stator proteins, which drive the rotor. This couples switching to rotation, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element is that after a switch, it takes time for the load to build up, due to conformational transitions of the flagellum. This slow relaxation dynamics of the filament leads, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, to a characteristic switching time, as recently observed. Hence, our model predicts that the switching dynamics is not only controlled by the chemotaxis-signaling network, but also by mechanical feedback of the flagellum.

van Albada, Siebe B; Tanase-Nicola, Sorin; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

2009-01-01

425

Monty's Dilemma: Should You Stick or Switch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by J. Michael Shaughnessy and Thomas Dick, this activity presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors which reveals no prize, then asks if you wish to "stick or switch." Which choice gives you the best chance to win? The approach in this activity runs from guesses to experiments to computer simulations (links to applets are provided) to theoretical models. The activity can be adapted by leaving out the "flip-a-coin" strategy presented here. This is a fun and worthwhile activity that students can easily engage with.

Dick, Thomas; Shaughnessy, J. M.

2009-01-01

426

Stochastic gene expression as a many-body problem  

PubMed Central

Gene expression has a stochastic component because of the single-molecule nature of the gene and the small number of copies of individual DNA-binding proteins in the cell. We show how the statistics of such systems can be mapped onto quantum many-body problems. The dynamics of a single gene switch resembles the spin-boson model of a two-site polaron or an electron transfer reaction. Networks of switches can be approximately described as quantum spin systems by using an appropriate variational principle. In this way, the concept of frustration for magnetic systems can be taken over into gene networks. The landscape of stable attractors depends on the degree and style of frustration, much as for neural networks. We show the number of attractors, which may represent cell types, is much smaller for appropriately designed weakly frustrated stochastic networks than for randomly connected networks.

Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.

2003-01-01

427

Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.

Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul

2012-02-01

428

Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.

2000-04-13

429

RF MEMS switches and switch circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To

G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin

2001-01-01

430

Computer Games Are Fun? On Professional Games and Players' Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As computer games are becoming more widespread, there is a tendency for young people to spend a growing amount of time playing games. The first part of this paper will deal with various types of computer games and their characteristic features. In the second part we show the results of our recent surveys. We examined the motivations of young…

Eglesz, Denes; Fekete, Istvan; Kiss, Orhidea Edith; Izso, Lajos

2005-01-01

431

Strategic Claim Games Corresponding to an NTU-Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper introduces a way to construct games Gamma(V) and (Gamma sup r)(V) in strategic form to a standard NTU-game V. In these so-called claim games the players are allowed to make claims on the coalition they want to participate in and the payoff they ...

P. E. M. Borm S. H. Tijs

1989-01-01

432

Digital Street Game: Location-Based Game as Research Probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Street Game (DSG) is a location based street game that is played both on a website and on the city streets. In the current socio-technical landscape, mediated interaction occurs within a variety of contexts presenting design opportunities, as well as challenges for Ubicomp. With DSG, the authors propose a hybrid game as a research tool to explore new approaches

Michele Chang; Elizabeth Goodman

433

ALTEC Learning Games: Successful Integration of Learning and Gaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of the 53 million K-12 students in the United States, 93%, or 51 million, of them play video games (Etuk, 2008). ALTEC Learning Games utilize the excitement of video games to engage students and provide teachers authentic online resources that reinforce skills in math and language arts. Our recent work was partially supported by a partnership with…

Bacon, Melanie A.; Ault, Marilyn M.

2009-01-01

434

Immersion in Game Atmospheres for the Video Game Heritage Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video game heritage is being preserved especially on the Web: comments, screenshots, sounds, videos, etc. But one important element is missing: the environment in which we play (game atmosphere) is one of our strongest memories. This article describes an investigation- based method to record game atmospheres, the four atmospheres we are archiving (one bedroom, one living room, and two

Nicolas Esposito

2005-01-01

435

Differential Games: A Critical View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A differential game is a mathematical model for a conflict situation which evolves over time. Although the subject has received considerable attention from mathematicians and engineers in recent years, the applicability of differential game theory to real...

M. D. Ciletti A. W. Starr

1970-01-01

436

Play the Blood Typing Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has created a minimalistic but, ... here! Share this: To cite this page MLA style: "The Blood Typing Game - about blood groups, blood ...

437

Get the Lead Out! Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game reinforces learning about the sources and biological hazards of lead exposure. The first file has the game and the second file has teacher notes, including background information on lead.

Freire, Edison; Waldron, Ingrid

438

Let the Brushing Games Begin  

MedlinePLUS

... Games Begin Healthy Living Listen Let the Brushing Games Begin Article Body Since it’s going to be ... Audio) More Sleep Linked to Improved Child Alertness, Behavior Home Strength Training for Young Athletes Baby & Child ...

439

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...

2010-11-09

440

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...State Compact for review and approval. The Compact increases the number of Video Gaming Machines from 76 to 816, and authorizes the operation of additional types of games including live poker and simulcast racing. The term of the Compact runs...

2012-12-28

441

ID201202961, DOE S-124,539, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

2012-01-01

442

Informal report to National Science Foundation: research on stackelberg games and electricity pricing  

SciTech Connect

Three papers on Stackelberg games and electricity pricing are presented. In the first paper, a complete solution for the two-person, deterministic Stackelberg game is developed. The problem is separated into three tractable subproblems: an optimization problem with equality constraints, a minimax problem, and an optimization problem with an inequality constraint. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of hierarchical equilibrium strategies are derived. In the second paper, sufficient and necessary conditions for single-stage, partially nested, stochastic games are presented and the effect of more information in the presence of uncertainties is considered. In the third paper, different electricity pricing schemes are analyzed from a game theoretic point of view. A philosophy, termed load adaptive pricing, in which supply and demand respond to each other through prices and consumption, and the utility company sells power at real time rates, is introduced.

Luh, P.B.

1981-08-01

443

Fuzzy Stochastic Automata for Reactive Learning and Hybrid Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy Stochastic Automata (FSA) are suitable for the modelling of the reactive (memoryless) learning and for the control of\\u000a hybrid systems. The concept of FSA is to switch between a fuzzy increase and a fuzzy decrease of the control action according\\u000a to the sign of the product e e, where e = x-x\\u000a d is the error of the system’s

Gerasimos G. Rigatos; Rion Patras

2002-01-01

444

Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

2014-01-01

445

Using Games in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this one-page article describes the pedagogical benefits of using math games in the classroom. She analyzes the game context in terms of the kinds of learning that takes place, the behaviors that students exhibit, and the social-emotional experience of students. She concludes by recommending strategies for effective introduction and management of games. [While the author's observations were in the context of geometry games, they generalize to most topics.

Hatch, Gillian

2005-09-01

446

Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.

Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

2013-01-01

447

Automatic Generation of Interesting Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer games have always been a source of entertainment for all age groups. From the point of view of game developer it has always been difficult to quantify the entertainment value of the human player, as the entertainment value is very subjective. The two factors which mainly influence the entertainment value are the type of the game and the contents

Zahid Halim; Abdul Rauf Baig

2009-01-01

448

Gaming and Gamification Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as academic gaming in general cannot be limited to any one topic or genre, the "Public Services Quarterly" Internet Resources column is not limited to a single entry on gaming and gamification in libraries. Public services librarians interested in designing their own games have many successful examples to draw from. The previous…

Mallon, Melissa

2013-01-01

449

Quantum Games and Quantum Discord  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantize prisoners dilemma and chicken game by our generalized quantization scheme to explore the role of quantum discord in quantum games. In order to establish this connection we use Werner-like state as an initial state of the game. In this quantization scheme measurement can be performed in entangled as well as in product basis. For the measurement in entangled

Ahmad Nawazand; A. H. Toor

2010-01-01

450

An Introduction to Evasion Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is devoted mainly to summarizing the work that has been done to date on Evasion Games with a time lag. It also incorporates new results on the 4-step Discrete Evasion Game, and some asymptotic formulas for an Evader enforceable bound on the game...

A. R. Washburn

1971-01-01

451

Communication Games. ELT Guide 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of 25 games, some illustrated, for English language instruction includes information exchange games for pairs and small groups (Describe and Draw, Describe and Arrange, Construct It, Describe and Construct, Find the Difference, Complete It, Ask the Right Question, Compare and Check, Rescue), linking and matching games (Use It, Picture…

Byrne, Donn; Rixon, Shelagh

452

Social characters for computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many current video games feature virtual worlds inhabited by autonomous 3D animated characters. These characters often fall short in their ability to participate in social interactions with each other or with people. Increasing the social capabilities of game characters could increase the potential of games as a platform for social learning. This article presents advances in the area of social

Bill Tomlinson

2005-01-01

453

Computerized History Games: Narrative Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

Kee, Kevin

2011-01-01

454

Games, the Socialization of Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

Sutton-Smith, Brian

455

Language games for autonomous robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration and grounding are key AI challenges for human-robot dialogue. The author and his team are tackling these issues using language games and have experimented with them on progressively more complex platforms. A language game is a sequence of verbal interactions between two agents situated in a specific environment. Language games both integrate the various activities required for dialogue and

Luc Steels

2001-01-01

456

Can Video Games Be Educational?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the biggest debates among music educators today is about whether or not video games are a valid educational tool. As far back as the early 1990s, teachers were using games such as Sid Meier's Civilization to reinforce history and social studies concepts, but until recently games that dealt with areas of music education have been few and far…

Criswell, Chad

2009-01-01

457

Violent video games and aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This

Mark Griffiths

1999-01-01

458

Video Games and Digital Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's youth are situated in a complex information ecology that includes video games and print texts. At the basic level, video game play itself is a form of digital literacy practice. If we widen our focus from the "individual player + technology" to the online communities that play them, we find that video games also lie at the nexus of a…

Steinkuehler, Constance

2010-01-01

459

The Design & Planning Games Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the next 10 months, five sections of a pack of environmental exercises will be presented (Houses Game, Planning Game, Building Designs, Planning Enquiry, Future Communities). This introduction (which includes instructions and materials for the Houses Game) suggests why such exercises are needed and describes problems they will help with.…

Bishop, Jeff; Russell, Graham

1982-01-01

460

Communication Within Infant Social Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored infants' capability to request a partner's participation in social games. Nineteen infants who were 9, 12, 15, and 18 months old played games for 30 minutes in a laboratory setting with an adult partner. Children's nonverbal behavior and vocalizations after the adult discontinued play were compared with behavior during game-playing…

Ross, Hildy S.; Lollis, Susan P.

1987-01-01

461

Designing a PC Game Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

interesting and popular game. It is worth noting that a game is really a story, and the game logic is its plot; all other elements we add are just media through which we tell the story. As such, we can regard 3D graphics, audio, data management, dynamic behavior, and more com-plex input devices as extras. These \\

Lars Bishop; Dave Eberly; Turner Whitted; Mark Finch; Michael Shantz

1998-01-01

462

Serious Gaming for Predictive Analytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a methodology and architecture to support the development of games in a predictive analytics context. These games serve as part of an overall family of systems designed to gather input knowledge, calculate results of complex predictive technical and social models, and explore those results in an engaging fashion. The games provide an environment shaped and driven in part

Roderick M. Riensche; Patrick R. Paulson; Gary R. Danielson; Stephen D. Unwin; R. Scott Butner; Sarah M. Miller; Lyndsey R. Franklin; Nino Zuljevic

2009-01-01

463

Digraph Competitions and Cooperative Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digraph games are cooperative TU-games associated to domination structures which can be modeled by directed graphs. Examples come from sports competitions or from simple majority win digraphs corresponding to preference profiles in social choice theory. The Shapley value, core, marginal vectors and selectope vectors of digraph games are characterized in terms of so-called simple score vectors. A general characterization of

René van den Brink; Peter Borm

2002-01-01

464

Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…

Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan

2008-01-01

465

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2012-12-28

466

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

467

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

468

Gaming Research for Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the use of gaming to teach Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in public education. The intent of the investigation was to identify attitudes about gaming and its use in education, as well as the need to utilize gaming as a platform to serve as an integrator of STEM subject matter. Participants included…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy

2009-01-01

469

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

470

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

471

The Grand Time Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Grand Time Game is a collection of activities that teach students about geologic time. The game elements consist of a tabletop model that demonstrates the geologic history of the Grand Canyon, a script in which students report selected events along the geologic time scale as the instructor operates the model, and a set of overhead transparencies that the instructor shows to illustrate the story. The materials also include an activity sheet for students to record important events as they progress, and a card game about fossils and geologic time, played in groups of three or four students after the script reading (the cards can also be pasted onto a calendar or timeline). Instructions for building the model are provided.

472

Leap Frog Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will demonstrate their knowledge of limits, graphing, and exact trig limits evaluated using substitution. The students will play a game in which they evaluate their own knowledge of problems in the unit, as well as the teacher evaluation the mastery of the problems in the unit. The students receive immediate feedback on their own work and review while the teacher works the problems correcting any errors or misconceptions that the student had while working the problem. This lesson gives the student a power review of the concepts in the unit because the timing is determined by the teacher. All students are engaged and focused while playing this game. Giving students access to the PowerPoint of the game after the lesson provides a good study tool for the students.

Miller, Melanie

2012-09-01

473

Stochastic quantum gravitational inflation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During inflation explicit perturbative computations of quantum field theories which contain massless, nonconformal fields exhibit secular effects that grow as powers of the logarithm of the inflationary scale factor. Starobinski?'s technique of stochastic inflation not only reproduces the leading infrared logarithms at each order in perturbation theory, it can sometimes be summed to reveal what happens when inflation has proceeded so long that the large logarithms overwhelm even very small coupling constants. It is thus a cosmological analogue of what the renormalization group does for the ultraviolet logarithms of quantum field theory, and generalizing this technique to quantum gravity is a problem of great importance. There are two significant differences between gravity and the scalar models for which stochastic formulations have so far been given: derivative interactions and the presence of constrained fields. We use explicit perturbative computations in two simple scalar models to infer a set of rules for stochastically formulating theories with these features.

Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

2005-09-01

474

Direct Sum Matrix Game with Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game  

PubMed Central

A direct sum form is proposed for constructing a composite game from two games, prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game. This kind of direct sum form game is called a multiple roles game. The replicator dynamics of the multiple roles game with will-mixed populations is explored. The dynamical behaviors on square lattice are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of population on square lattice depend on the mixing proportion of the two simple games. Mixing SD activities to pure PD population inhibits the proportion of cooperators in PD, and mixing PD activities to pure SD population stimulates the proportion of cooperators in SD. Besides spatial reciprocity, our results show that there are roles reciprocities between different types of individuals.

Ma, Chengzhang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Wangheng; Gui, Rong; Jia, Ya

2013-01-01

475

Awesome Addition Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are fun to play and will test your addition skills! Click on the links to play the games! Play in the Kitten Match and test your math skills!! Pick the grade level you want to play on. Then pick numbers that add up to equal the number that they give you. Hurry, you're being timed! Use your addition skills to win a Diaper Derby!! First decide what you want your baby to look like! Then perform the addition problem that ...

Smith, Ms.

2010-10-14

476

2000 Olympic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Summer Games draw ever closer, and fans can whet their appetites at this site, an attractive and well-crafted site from Kodak, which naturally features several exhibitions of photographs. These include a photographic history of the Summer Olympics, a photo tour of Sydney (high speed connection recommended), an excellent collection of images of athletes, and a "photo walkabout" with tips on photographing Australia. A Photoquilt of Olympic Moments is promised for the near future, and visitors can sign up to receive the "Olympic picture of the day" throughout the Games.

477

Optical switching: Capillary action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling light in optical systems quickly and easily is crucial for all-optical switching. An approach that does this by exploiting the condensation of gases in a porous structure could open up new avenues in the switching field.

Yuri Kivshar

2007-01-01

478

Stochastic optical active rheology  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a stochastic based method for performing active rheology using optical tweezers. By monitoring the displacement of an embedded particle in response to stochastic optical forces, a rapid estimate of the frequency dependent shear moduli of a sample is achieved in the range of 10?1–103?Hz. We utilize the method to probe linear viscoelastic properties of hydrogels at varied cross-linker concentrations. Combined with fluorescence imaging, our method demonstrates non-linear changes of bond strength between T cell receptors and an antigenic peptide due to force-induced cell activation.

Lee, Hyungsuk; Shin, Yongdae; Kim, Sun Taek; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

479

Hamiltonian mechanics of stochastic acceleration.  

PubMed

We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems. PMID:24266476

Burby, J W; Zhmoginov, A I; Qin, H

2013-11-01

480

Remote switch actuator  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

2013-01-29

481

Global stability of coupled nonlinear systems with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the global stability of a coupled nonlinear system with Markovian switching (CNSMS), which can be described in a graph. A theoretical framework for the construction of Lyapunov function for the CNSMS is derived in a combined method of graph theory and Lyapunov function. Furthermore, we obtain a global stochastic asymptotical stability principle, which has a close relation to the topology property of the graph. Finally, to illustrate the capabilities of the principle, the stochastic stability of a coupled oscillator system is investigated.

Li, Wenxue; Su, Huan; Wei, Dagang; Wang, Ke

2012-06-01

482

Stochastic description of delayed systems.  

PubMed

We study general stochastic birth and death processes including delay. We develop several approaches for the analytical treatment of these non-Markovian systems, valid, not only for constant delays, but also for stochastic delays with arbitrary probability distributions. The interplay between stochasticity and delay and, in particular, the effects of delay in the fluctuations and time correlations are discussed. PMID:23960216

Lafuerza, L F; Toral, R

2013-09-28

483

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard

1982-01-01

484

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard; Floyd P

1982-01-01

485

Latching type optical switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical switch on yttrium orthoferrite crystal is developed. The switch is of latching type and has an operating time of 100 ns. Matrices of switches are feasible due to the dimensions of the optical rotator of less than 2 mm3.

Didosyan, Y. S.; Hauser, H.; Fiala, W.; Nicolics, J.; Toriser, W.

2002-05-01

486

Triggered plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

487

Watermarking textures in video games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

2014-02-01

488

Marble Drop Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build your own version of a favorite carnival game, in which a marble races down a maze consisting of rows of nails. Use this activity to demonstrate the effects of gravity and Newton's Laws of Motion. Learners also observe the rules of probability. Note: this activity requires the use woodworking tools, which are not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2013-01-01

489

Partnership, Conflict and Gaming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Government policy stresses partnership as a critical organizational form of the future to support the development of schooling. This article uses intergroup conflict and gaming theory to analyse data from one partnership. The views of young people and staff are explored to establish the nature and extent of conflict and its impact on the…

Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

2006-01-01

490

Red and Black Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet allows the student to play the game of red and black, by betting on a sequence of Bernoulli trials until either a target is reached or the player is ruined. The target, initial fortune, and trial win probability can be varied.

Siegrist, Kyle

491

Games People Play.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two articles of this theme section consider problems of measurement in relation to games. "How Good was Bobby Fischer in 1992?" (John Michael Linacre) explores a Rasch analysis of the chess performance of Bobby Fischer, while "Objective Analysis of Golf" (Patrick Fisher) considers measurement problems presented by golf. (SLD)

Linacre, John Michael; Fisher, Patrick

1998-01-01

492

Environmental Gaming Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Involving students directly in decision-making through environmental gaming simulations will allow them to better understand the theoretical base of their actions, test their ideas, confirm their reality, and see the practical consequences of various alternative strategies of action. This instructional technique moves beyond the case study stage…

Swinerton, E. Nelson

1972-01-01

493

Acid rain game II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we have developed a conceptual model of the issues connected to cooperative efforts in Europe to solve acid rains problems. The basic model is a simple game theoretic model with a unique equilibrium in dominant strategies. In order to illust...

K. G. Maeler

1993-01-01

494

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

495

Exploring Size: Memory Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a card game that explores different size scales--macro, micro and nano. Learners learn about objects within these different scales and the way these objects are measured. Learners compete to find matching pairs of cards. This is a fun way for learners to explore the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

496

Normative system games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model of normative systems in which agents are as- sumed to have multiple goals of increasing priority, and investi- gate the computational complexity and game theoretic properties of this model. In the underlying model of normative systems, we use Kripke structures to represent the possible transitions of a multi- agent system. A normative system is then simply

Thomas Ågotnes; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2007-01-01

497

The Migration Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features an interactive Migration Game created by the Migratory Bird Center at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park. In it, you can help Wanda the Wood Thrush travel from her winter home in Costa Rica to her summer home in Maryland by answering questions regarding migration in general and specific migratory habits of the wood thrush.

2008-01-01

498

Games with fuzzy parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study the existence of equilibrium in non-cooperative game with fuzzy parameters. We generalize te results of Larbani and Kacher(2008, 2009) in infinite dimentional spaces. The proof is based on the Browder-Fan fixed point theorem.

Messaoud, Deghdak

2010-11-01

499

Classroom multiplayer presential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the promising results of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) for educational purposes, this paper maps the essential concepts behind MMOGs, into the classroom context. Since the number of students in this context is not massive and play takes place within a single room rather than on the Internet, we have changed the terms ldquomassivelyrdquo and ldquoonlinerdquo to ldquoclassroomrdquo and

Miguel Nussbaum; Heinz Susaeta; Felipe Jimenez; Ignacio Gajardo; Juan José Andreu; M. Villalta; J. Nordlinger

2009-01-01

500

Deterministic Differential Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optimality theory of Pontryagin is generalized to the deterministic two-player zero-sum differential games. It gives, for each value of the performance index, a systematic way to build the 'separatrix', i.e., the set lying between region of the playin...

C. Marchal

1975-01-01