A stochastic differential game for optimal investment of an insurer with regime switching
Robert J. Elliott; Tak Kuen Siu
2011-01-01
We introduce a model to discuss an optimal investment problem of an insurance company using a game theoretic approach. The model is general enough to include economic risk, financial risk, insurance risk, and model risk. The insurance company invests its surplus in a bond and a stock index. The interest rate of the bond is stochastic and depends on the
A stochastic differential game for optimal investment of an insurer with regime switching
Robert Elliott; Tak Kuen Siu
2010-01-01
We introduce a model to discuss an optimal investment problem of an insurance company using a game theoretic approach. The model is general enough to include economic risk, financial risk, insurance risk, and model risk. The insurance company invests its surplus in a bond and a stock index. The interest rate of the bond is stochastic and depends on the
The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game
E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong
2014-01-01
We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness. PMID:24892100
The robustness of stochastic switching networks
Po-Ling Loh; Hongchao Zhou; Jehoshua Bruck
2009-01-01
Many natural systems, including chemical and biological systems, can be modeled using stochastic switching circuits. These circuits consist of stochastic switches, called pswitches, which operate with a fixed probability of being open or closed. We study the effect caused by introducing an error of size. to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions.simple series-parallel and general series-parallel
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning
Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis Daniel Wilhelm
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
introduce a new duality property for series-parallel stochastic switching circuits. Finally, we construct on the so-called two-terminal series-parallel circuits. A two-terminal circuit is an undirected graph. A two-terminal circuit C is series-parallel (sp) iff C is: (1) a single switch, or (2) a series
Stochastic Differential Games With a Small Parameter
K. M. Ramachandran
1993-01-01
Much of stochastic game theory is concerned with diffusion models. Such models are often only idealizations of the actual physical process, which might be driven by a wide bandwidth process or be a discrete parameter system with correlated driving noises. For a two person zero-sum game, under quite general conditions, the optimal or nearly optimal strategies derived for the diffusion
Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information
Cardaliaguet, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Cardaliaguet@univ-brest.fr; Rainer, Catherine [Universite de Brest, Laboratoire de Mathematique (UMR CNRS 6205) (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr
2009-02-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
The Synthesis and Analysis of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhoua,
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
switching circuits that make them very similar to neural systems. First, randomness is inherent in neuralThe Synthesis and Analysis of Stochastic Switching Circuits Hongchao Zhoua, , Po-Ling Lohb circuits are relay circuits that consist of stochastic switch- es called pswitches. The study of stochastic
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Cardaliaguet, P., E-mail: cardaliaguet@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Ceremade (France); Rainer, C., E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)
2013-08-01
We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN Eugene A. FEINBERG INRIA, B This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that fo* *r a large class
Robust reliable stabilization of stochastic switched nonlinear systems under asynchronous switching
Zhengrong Xiang; Ronghao Wang; Qingwei Chen
2011-01-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of robust reliable control for a class of uncertain stochastic switched nonlinear systems under asynchronous switching, where the switching instants of the controller experience delays with respect to those of the system. A design scheme for the reliable controller is proposed to guarantee almost surely exponential stability for stochastic switched systems with actuator
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations.
Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2015-07-21
Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka-Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518
Fiat, Amos
Lossy Stochastic Game Abstraction with Bounds Tuomas Sandholm, Computer Science Department finding, abstraction, game abstraction, computational game theory, game solving, -equilibrium 1, and recreational games such as poker and bil- liards. Computational techniques for finding such solutions to games
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B matrix games. The main result is that for a large class of perturbations the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions of appropriate lexicographic games. We consider
Stochastic switching of microcantilever motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venstra, Warner; Westra, Hidde; van der Zant, Herre
2012-02-01
Fluctuation-induced transitions between two stable states of a strongly driven microcantilever are studied. Intrinsic geometric and inertial nonlinearities of the cantilever give rise to an amplitude-dependent resonance frequency, and at a critical point bifurcation occurs. Two states are stable, represented by vibration at a low and a high amplitude. Adding noise facilitates transitions between the states. The transition rate rises upon increasing noise intensity, as expected for noise-activated escape from a dynamic double well. Further increasing the noise intensity causes a parametric change in the dynamic double well, and results in a decay of the switching rate. Close to the onset of spontaneous transitions, the bistable cantilever is very sensitive. We demonstrate the noise-enhanced detection of weak modulations of the bistable cantilever, resulting in an optimum signal-to-noise ratio at non-minimum noise intensity.
Robust reliable stabilization of uncertain stochastic switched nonlinear systems
Zhengrong Xiang; Ronghao Wang
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the problem of robust reliable stabilization for a class of uncertain stochastic switched nonlinear systems. The parameter uncertainties are assumed to be time-varying but norm-bounded. Firstly, a criterion of mean-square exponential stability for stochastic nonlinear switched system is proposed, then a kind of design method of reliable stabilization for stochastic switched nonlinear system with actuator failures is
Distributed algorithms using a stochastic game model
Young, G.K.
1986-01-01
Modeling and analysis in a distributed environment currently receive wide interest as the trend in controlling a large scale system shifts to distributed processing. This thesis provides a basic and unified approach to the resource sharing problems in computer communication networks. A general stochastic game model is first described. Adaptive algorithms are derived in a manner that minimizes the coordination information needed for the control of the overall system. Such information may come from the environment itself or the communications among individuals in the system (game matrix and players, respectively, in a game-theoretic context). This work provides a clear insight into the nature of a distributed system and indicates major concerns of its implementation and design. Application examples on flow control problems and simulation results are also given for illustration.
MEAN-FIELD APPROXIMATION OF STOCHASTIC POPULATION PROCESSES IN GAMES
Boyer, Edmond
populations. In an earlier study, Bena¨im and Weibull (2003), we addressed this question and establishedMEAN-FIELD APPROXIMATION OF STOCHASTIC POPULATION PROCESSES IN GAMES Michel BENAÏM Jörgen W of stochastic population processes in games Michel Bena¨im Institut de Math´ematique Universit´e de Neuch
Solving Finite Time Horizon Dynkin Games by Optimal Switching
Glendinning, Paul
in con- tinuous time and on a finite horizon. An auxiliary two-mode optimal switching problem and its auxiliary optimal switching problem. Section 3 then outlines some notation and standingSolving Finite Time Horizon Dynkin Games by Optimal Switching Randall Martyr First version: 17
Qualitative Reachability in Stochastic BPA Games
Brázdil, Tomáš; Ku?era, Antonín; Obdržálek, Jan
2010-01-01
We consider a class of infinite-state stochastic games generated by stateless pushdown automata (or, equivalently, 1-exit recursive state machines), where the winning objective is specified by a regular set of target configurations and a qualitative probability constraint `>0' or `=1'. The goal of one player is to maximize the probability of reaching the target set so that the constraint is satisfied, while the other player aims at the opposite. We show that the winner in such games can be determined in PTIME for the `>0' constraint, and both in NP and coNP for the `=1' constraint. Further, we prove that the winning regions for both players are regular, and we design algorithms which compute the associated finite-state automata. Finally, we show that winning strategies can be synthesized effectively.
Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy
van Oudenaarden, Alexander
Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy Benjamin B. Kaufmann1,2[ , Qiong switching revealed by single-cell genealogy. PLoS Biol 5(9): e239. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.0050239 measurements of phenotype stability, switching, and herit- ability are rare, both because detailed genealogical
Department of Computer Science PLAYING STOCHASTIC GAMES PRECISELY
Oxford, University of
Department of Computer Science PLAYING STOCHASTIC GAMES PRECISELY Taolue Chen Vojtech Forejt Marta Taolue Chen1 , Vojtech Forejt1 , Marta Kwiatkowska1 , Aistis Simaitis1 , Ashutosh Trivedi2 , and Michael
Definable zero-sum stochastic games Jrme BOLTE
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Definable zero-sum stochastic games Jérôme BOLTE , Stéphane GAUBERT & Guillaume VIGERAL January 9 Capitole), Manufacture des Tabacs, 21 allée de Brienne, 31015 Toulouse cedex 5, France. email: jerome.bolte
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Asymmetric Stochastic Switching Driven by Intrinsic Molecular Noise
Frigola, David; Casanellas, Laura; Sancho, José M.; Ibañes, Marta
2012-01-01
Low-copy-number molecules are involved in many functions in cells. The intrinsic fluctuations of these numbers can enable stochastic switching between multiple steady states, inducing phenotypic variability. Herein we present a theoretical and computational study based on Master Equations and Fokker-Planck and Langevin descriptions of stochastic switching for a genetic circuit of autoactivation. We show that in this circuit the intrinsic fluctuations arising from low-copy numbers, which are inherently state-dependent, drive asymmetric switching. These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data that have been reported for the bistable system of the gallactose signaling network in yeast. Our study unravels that intrinsic fluctuations, while not required to describe bistability, are fundamental to understand stochastic switching and the dynamical relative stability of multiple states. PMID:22363638
Evolutionary Rotation in Switching Incentive Zero-Sum Games
Zhijian Wang; Bin Xu
2012-07-24
In a laboratory experiment, round by round, individual interactions should lead to the social evolutionary rotation in population strategy state space. Successive switching the incentive parameter should lead to successive change of the rotation ---- both of its direction and its strength. In data from a switching payoff matrix experiment of extended 2x2 games (Binmore, Swierzbinski and Proulx, 2001 [1]), we find the changing of the social evolutionary rotation can be distinguished quantitatively. The evolutionary rotation can be captured by evolutionary dynamics. With eigenvalue from the Jacobian of a constrained replicator dynamics model, an interpretation for observed rotation strength is given. In addition, equality-of-populations rank test shows that relative response coefficient of a group could persist cross the switching parameter games. The data has successively been used to support Von Neumann's minimax theory. Using the old data, with observed evolutionary rotation, this report provides a new insight into evolutionary game theory and experimental social dynamics.
Differential games with continuous, switching and impulse controls
A. J. Shaiju; Sheetal Dharmatti
2005-01-01
A two-person zero-sum differential game of infinite duration with discounted payoff involving hybrid controls is studied. The minimizing player is allowed to take continuous, switching, and impulse controls whereas the maximizing player is allowed to take continuous and switching controls. By taking strategies in the sense of Elliott–Kalton, we prove the existence of value and characterize it as the unique
Security Analysis for Online Banking System Using Hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets Model
Yuanzhuo Wang; Chuang Lin; Kun Meng; Hongkun Yang; Junjie Lv
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets, and use it to model and analyze the security issues in online banking system. Firstly, the definition and modeling algorithm of hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets are given. In which, some theorems are proved. Then we apply hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets to describe the attack and defense course in the online banking.
Stochastic stability of Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yonghui; Feng, Gang; Cao, Jinde
2009-04-01
In this Letter, taking into account the structure variations at discrete time instances during the process of gene regulation, a hybrid genetic regulatory networks model based on Markov chain is proposed. Its robust stochastic stability in the case of uncertain switching probabilities and intrinsic noises is then addressed from the stochastic system point of view. It is shown that the sufficient condition for the robust stochastic stability of the genetic networks can be formulated as feasibility of a linear matrix inequality, which can be easily facilitated by Matlab LMI toolbox. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed results.
Stochastic Games for Verification of Probabilistic Timed Automata
Oxford, University of
is the analysis method of choice, since it can be im- plemented extremely efficiently. However, for PTAs propose a new approach to the analysis of PTAs using abstraction and stochastic games. We show how that are guaranteed to improve the precision of these probability bounds, providing a fully au- tomatic method
Multiagent Reinforcement Learning: Stochastic Games With Multiple Learning Players
Boutilier, Craig
theories of learning and intelligence. Reinforcement Learning (RL) [26, 49], from a computer science pointMultiagent Reinforcement Learning: Stochastic Games With Multiple Learning Players Depth Oral@cs.toronto.edu March 25, 2003 #12; 1 Introduction Learning through interaction is a fundamental idea underlying many
Shedden, Judith M.
Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistanceINFO classification: 2300 2340 2346 Keywords: Task switching Selective attention Executive control Video games a b s t r a c t Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area
Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Dall'Asta, Luca; Galla, Tobias
2012-10-01
Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed.
Exclusion rules, bottlenecks and the evolution of stochastic phenotype switching
Libby, Eric; Rainey, Paul B.
2011-01-01
Stochastic phenotype switching—often considered a bet hedging or risk-reducing strategy—can enhance the probability of survival in fluctuating environments. A recent experiment provided direct evidence for an adaptive origin by showing the de novo evolution of switching in bacterial populations propagated under a selective regime that captured essential features of the host immune response. The regime involved strong frequency-dependent selection realized via dual imposition of an exclusion rule and population bottleneck. Applied at the point of transfer between environments, the phenotype common in the current environment was assigned a fitness of zero and was thus excluded from participating in the next round (the exclusion rule). In addition, also at the point of transfer, and so as to found the next bout of selection, a single phenotypically distinct type was selected at random from among the survivors (the bottleneck). Motivated by this experiment, we develop a mathematical model to explore the broader significance of key features of the selective regime. Through a combination of analytical and numerical results, we show that exclusion rules and population bottlenecks act in tandem as potent selective agents for stochastic phenotype switching, such that even when initially rare, and when switching engenders a cost in Malthusian fitness, organisms with the capacity to switch can invade non-switching populations and replace non-switching types. Simulations demonstrate the robustness of our findings to alterations in switching rate, fidelity of exclusion, bottleneck size, duration of environmental state and growth rate. We also demonstrate the relevance of our model to a range of biological scenarios such as bacterial persistence and the evolution of sex. PMID:21490013
Stochastic differential games with asymmetric information. Pierre Cardaliaguet and Catherine Rainer
Boyer, Edmond
Stochastic differential games with asymmetric information. Pierre Cardaliaguet and Catherine Rainer the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value-words : stochastic differential game, asymmetric information, viscosity solution. A.M.S. classification : 49N70, 49L
Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.
Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi
2014-01-01
Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921
Stability of stochastic nonlinear switched systems with average dwell time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaotai; Yan, Litan; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang
2012-03-01
This paper concerns the stability of nonlinear stochastic switched systems with delay. By using the Razumikhin method and the average dwell time approach, some sufficient criteria of stability are derived. It is shown that when the Lyapunov-like functions are decreasing in all active subsystems, the switched system is pth-moment exponentially stable. Moreover, it is also shown that under some conditions the system can be pth-moment stable and global asymptotically stable, where the Lyapunov-like functions are increasing on some intervals. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by two examples.
Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.
D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2014-09-01
A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515
THE SWITCHING GAME ON UNIONS OF ORIENTED VANESSA CHATELAIN AND JORGE LUIS RAMIREZ ALFONSIN
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
THE SWITCHING GAME ON UNIONS OF ORIENTED MATROIDS VANESSA CHATELAIN AND JORGE LUIS RAM´IREZ ALFONS this con- jecture by showing its validity for an infinity class of oriented matroids obtained as unions. If E is the union of two disjoint bases, then the directed switching game on M is winning for Maker
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau &
Shimamura, Arthur P.
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau & Arthur P. Shimamura # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012 Abstract Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive
Game Theoretic Stochastic Routing for Fault Tolerance and Security in Computer Networks
Hespanha, João Pedro
1 Game Theoretic Stochastic Routing for Fault Tolerance and Security in Computer Networks Stephan of the security/fault-tolerance/delay/throughput trade-off. We also show that a beneficial side, Stochastic Routing, Game Theory, Network Security, Fault Tolerance. I. INTRODUCTION "Traditional" routing
Lévêque, Olivier
Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL - Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules Principle of the game: 1. At the beginning of the game, a certain amount of money is given your (current) amount of money on these possible answers. - All the money put on a wrong answer
Stochastic characterization of the two band two player spectrum sharing game
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Stochastic characterization of the two band two player spectrum sharing game Ilaria Malanchini a natural spectrum sharing game for this problem and characterized the Nash equilibria as a function probability in a game where the transmitter positions form a (low density) Poisson process, which may
A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type
Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)
2012-12-15
We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.
Modeling a Fibre Channel Switch with Stochastic Petri Nets Gianfranco Ciardo
Ciardo, Gianfranco
Modeling a Fibre Channel Switch with Stochastic Petri Nets Gianfranco Ciardo Dept. of Computer Science, College of William and Mary Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, USA ciardo@cs.wm.edu Ludmila Cherkasova
Making Greed Work in Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Switch Service Disciplines
Scott Shenker
1994-01-01
This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are twobasic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrativecontrol is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfishuser behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. Thiseffect is investigated in a simple model consisting of a
Neural Mechanism for Stochastic Behavior During a Competitive Game
Soltani, Alireza; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing
2006-01-01
Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can generate highly stochastic choice behavior, especially when this is required during a competitive interaction with another agent. To understand the neural mechanism of such dynamic choice behavior, we propose a biologically plausible model of decision making endowed with synaptic plasticity that follows a reward-dependent stochastic Hebbian learning rule. This model constitutes a biophysical implementation of reinforcement learning, and it reproduces salient features of behavioral data from an experiment with monkeys playing a matching pennies game. Due to interaction with an opponent and learning dynamics, the model generates quasi-random behavior robustly in spite of intrinsic biases. Furthermore, non-random choice behavior can also emerge when the model plays against a non-interactive opponent, as observed in the monkey experiment. Finally, when combined with a meta-learning algorithm, our model accounts for the slow drift in the animal’s strategy based on a process of reward maximization. PMID:17015181
Karle, James W; Watter, Scott; Shedden, Judith M
2010-05-01
Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task switching, suggesting that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two experiments, we examined which aspects of task switching performance this VGP benefit may be localized to. With minimal trial-to-trial interference from minimally overlapping task set rules, VGPs demonstrated a task switching benefit compared to nVGPs. However, this benefit disappeared when proactive interference between tasks was increased, with substantial stimulus and response overlap in task set rules. We suggest that VGPs have no generalized benefit in task switching-related cognitive control processes compared to nVGPs, with switch cost reductions due instead to a specific benefit in controlling selective attention. PMID:20064634
On the Expressibility of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhou
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
places them in parallel, such that the probability of the resulting circuit is 1 - (1 - p1)(1 - p2) = p1 + p2 - p1p2. In this paper, we focus on simple series-parallel (ssp) switching circuits. An ssp or parallel. Shannon proved that every Boolean function can be realized by a switching relay circuit
On the Expressibility of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhou
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
circuit is p1 · p2. Connecting both terminals of two switching circuits C1 and C2 places them in parallel series-parallel (ssp) switching circuits, where an ssp circuit is either: (1) a single pswitch, or (2) an ssp circuit with an additional pswitch added in series or parallel. In [5], it is shown that ssp
Paul Miller; Anatol M. Zhabotinsky; John E. Lisman; Xiao-Jing Wang
2005-01-01
Molecular switches have been implicated in the storage of information in biological systems. For small structures such as synapses, these switches are composed of only a few molecules and stochastic fluctuations are therefore of importance. Such fluctuations could potentially lead to spontaneous switch reset that would limit the lifetime of information storage. We have analyzed a model of the calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
pth Moment stability of impulsive stochastic delay differential systems with Markovian switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaotai; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang
2013-07-01
This paper is concerned with the pth moment stability of impulsive stochastic delay differential systems with Markovian switching. By using the Razumikhin-type method, some stability criteria are obtained, which can loosen the constraints of the existing results and thus reduce the conservativeness. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed results.
From Simple Stochastic Games to Bisimulation Pseudometrics on Markov Decision Processes
van Breugel, Franck
;2 Franck van Breugel and James Worrell provided a logical characterization of this pseudometric in [13From Simple Stochastic Games to Bisimulation Pseudometrics on Markov Decision Processes Franck van Breugel1,2 and James Worrell1 1 Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, UK 2 Department
K. M. Ramachandran; A. N. V. Rao
2005-01-01
A two person differential game model in which the state process is described by a stochastic differential equation with respect to a martingale and parametrized by a small parameter is considered. The drift term is affected by both policies of each player as well as a rapidly fluctuating exogenous process. When the ‘intensity’ of the random noise becomes small with
A Stochastic Game Model for Jamming in MultiChannel Cognitive Radio Systems
Quanyan Zhu; Husheng Li; Zhu Han; Tamer Basar
2010-01-01
The security issue in collaborative sensing in cognitive radio networks can be modeled as attackers and secondary users in a jamming and anti-jamming scenario. In this paper, we introduce a stochastic zero-sum game model to study the strategies. Primary users, secondary users and jammers are the three types of agents in the system. The primary users dictate the system states
Stochastic gene expression modeling with Hill function for switch-like gene responses.
Kim, Haseong; Gelenbe, Erol
2012-01-01
Gene expression models play a key role to understand the mechanisms of gene regulation whose aspects are grade and switch-like responses. Though many stochastic approaches attempt to explain the gene expression mechanisms, the Gillespie algorithm which is commonly used to simulate the stochastic models requires additional gene cascade to explain the switch-like behaviors of gene responses. In this study, we propose a stochastic gene expression model describing the switch-like behaviors of a gene by employing Hill functions to the conventional Gillespie algorithm. We assume eight processes of gene expression and their biologically appropriate reaction rates are estimated based on published literatures. We observed that the state of the system of the toggled switch model is rarely changed since the Hill function prevents the activation of involved proteins when their concentrations stay below a criterion. In ScbA-ScbR system, which can control the antibiotic metabolite production of microorganisms, our modified Gillespie algorithm successfully describes the switch-like behaviors of gene responses and oscillatory expressions which are consistent with the published experimental study. PMID:22144531
The Robustness of Stochastic Switching Networks Po-Ling Loh
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions--simple series-parallel and general series-parallel circuits--and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robust to small error perturbations, while general series-parallel circuits are not. Specifically, the total error introduced
Robust Stable Payoff Distribution in Stochastic Cooperative Games
2014-03-15
Decision making under uncertainty has been traditionally handled by using stochastic ..... occur when w needs to be estimated; for example, through surveys. ...... of the 21st International Jont Conference on Artifical Intelligence, pages 85–
The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin
2013-10-01
Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.
Game-Theoretic Analysis of Internet Switching with Selfish Users
Alexander Kesselman; Stefano Leonardi; Vincenzo Bonifaci
2005-01-01
We consider the problem of Internet switching, where trafc is gen- erated by selsh users. We study a packetized (TCP-like) trafc model, which is more realistic than the widely used uid model. We assume that routers have First-In-First-Out (FIFO) buffers of bounded capacity managed by the drop-tail policy. The utility of each user depends on its transmission rate and the
Slotted Aloha as a stochastic game with partial information Eitan Altman #3; , Rachid El Azouzi #3 in slotted ALOHA. Both the cooperative team problem as well as the noncoop- erative game problem to make the equilibrium throughput coincide with the optimal team throughput. 1 Introduction Aloha [4
2012-01-01
Background Noise, nonlinear interactions, positive and negative feedbacks within signaling pathways, time delays, protein oligomerization, and crosstalk between different pathways are main characters in the regulatory of gene expression. However, only a single noise source or only delay time in the deterministic model is considered in the gene transcriptional regulatory system in previous researches. The combined effects of correlated noise and time delays on the gene regulatory model still remain not to be fully understood. Results The roles of time delay on gene switch and stochastic resonance are systematically explored based on a famous gene transcriptional regulatory model subject to correlated noise. Two cases, including linear time delay appearing in the degradation process (case I) and nonlinear time delay appearing in the synthesis process (case II) are considered, respectively. For case I: Our theoretical results show that time delay can induce gene switch, i.e., the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the high concentration state to the low concentration state ("on"?"off"). With increasing the time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further accelerated. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be enhanced by both the time delay and correlated noise intensity. However, the additive noise original from the synthesis rate restrains the stochastic resonance. It is also very interesting that a resonance bi-peaks structure appears under large additive noise intensity. The theoretical results by using small-delay time-approximation approach are consistent well with our numerical simulation. For case II: Our numerical simulation results show that time delay can also induce the gene switch, however different with case I, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the low concentration state to the high concentration state ("off"?"on"). With increasing time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further enhanced. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be weaken by the time delay. Conclusions The stochastic delay dynamic approach can identify key physiological control parameters to which the behavior of special genetic regulatory systems is particularly sensitive. Such parameters might provide targets for pharmacological intervention. Thus, it would be highly interesting to investigate if similar experimental techniques could be used to bring out the delay-induced switch and stochastic resonance in the stochastic gene transcriptional regulatory process. PMID:23046840
Zahiripour, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Ali Akbar
2014-09-01
A novel switching function based on an optimization strategy for the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been provided for uncertain stochastic systems subject to actuator degradation such that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable with probability one. In the previous researches the focus on sliding surface has been on proportional or proportional-integral function of states. In this research, from a degree of freedom that depends on designer choice is used to meet certain objectives. In the design of the switching function, there is a parameter which the designer can regulate for specified objectives. A sliding-mode controller is synthesized to ensure the reachability of the specified switching surface, despite actuator degradation and uncertainties. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24954808
Stochastic switching in slow-fast systems: a large-fluctuation approach.
Heckman, Christoffer R; Schwartz, Ira B
2014-02-01
In this paper we develop a perturbation method to predict the rate of occurrence of rare events for singularly perturbed stochastic systems using a probability density function approach. In contrast to a stochastic normal form approach, we model rare event occurrences due to large fluctuations probabilistically and employ a WKB ansatz to approximate their rate of occurrence. This results in the generation of a two-point boundary value problem that models the interaction of the state variables and the most likely noise force required to induce a rare event. The resulting equations of motion of describing the phenomenon are shown to be singularly perturbed. Vastly different time scales among the variables are leveraged to reduce the dimension and predict the dynamics on the slow manifold in a deterministic setting. The resulting constrained equations of motion may be used to directly compute an exponent that determines the probability of rare events. To verify the theory, a stochastic damped Duffing oscillator with three equilibrium points (two sinks separated by a saddle) is analyzed. The predicted switching time between states is computed using the optimal path that resides in an expanded phase space. We show that the exponential scaling of the switching rate as a function of system parameters agrees well with numerical simulations. Moreover, the dynamics of the original system and the reduced system via center manifolds are shown to agree in an exponentially scaling sense. PMID:25353557
Stochastic Game Theory: For Playing Games, Not Just for Doing Theory
Charles A. Holt; Jacob K. Goeree
1999-01-01
Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situation. By relaxing the assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of (i) initial decisions (ii)dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and (iii) equilibrium steady-state distributions.
Stochastic Game Theory: For Playing Games, Not Just for Doing Theory
Jacob K. Goeree; Charles A. Holt
1999-01-01
Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situations. By relaxing the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of initial decisions, dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and equilibrium steady-state distributions.
Stochastic stabilization of phenotypic States: the genetic bistable switch as a case study.
Weber, Marc; Buceta, Javier
2013-01-01
We study by means of analytical calculation and stochastic simulations how intrinsic noise modifies the bifurcation diagram of gene regulatory processes that can be effectively described by the Langevin formalism. In a general context, our study raises the intriguing question of how biochemical fluctuations redesign the epigenetic landscape in differentiation processes. We have applied our findings to a general class of regulatory processes that includes the simplest case that displays a bistable behavior and hence phenotypic variability: the genetic auto-activating switch. Thus, we explain why and how the noise promotes the stability of the low-state phenotype of the switch and show that the bistable region is extended when increasing the intensity of the fluctuations. This phenomenology is found in a simple one-dimensional model of the genetic switch as well as in a more detailed model that takes into account the binding of the protein to the promoter region. Altogether, we prescribe the analytical means to understand and quantify the noise-induced modifications of the bifurcation points for a general class of regulatory processes where the genetic bistable switch is included. PMID:24039958
Stochastic Stabilization of Phenotypic States: The Genetic Bistable Switch as a Case Study
Weber, Marc; Buceta, Javier
2013-01-01
We study by means of analytical calculation and stochastic simulations how intrinsic noise modifies the bifurcation diagram of gene regulatory processes that can be effectively described by the Langevin formalism. In a general context, our study raises the intriguing question of how biochemical fluctuations redesign the epigenetic landscape in differentiation processes. We have applied our findings to a general class of regulatory processes that includes the simplest case that displays a bistable behavior and hence phenotypic variability: the genetic auto-activating switch. Thus, we explain why and how the noise promotes the stability of the low-state phenotype of the switch and show that the bistable region is extended when increasing the intensity of the fluctuations. This phenomenology is found in a simple one-dimensional model of the genetic switch as well as in a more detailed model that takes into account the binding of the protein to the promoter region. Altogether, we prescribe the analytical means to understand and quantify the noise-induced modifications of the bifurcation points for a general class of regulatory processes where the genetic bistable switch is included. PMID:24039958
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perc, Matjaž
2007-02-01
We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Kyle Siegrist
This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet consists of the Monty Hall game: a car is behind one door and goats are behind the other two doors. The player makes an initial choice and the host opens a different door. The player is then given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host can be specified.
Revisiting Dynamic Duopoly with Consumer Switching Costs
A. Jorge Padilla
1995-01-01
The degree of collusiveness of a market with consumer switching costs is analyzed in an infinite-horizon model of duopolistic competition. In contrast with previous analyses, we assume that firms compete for the demand for a homogeneous good by setting prices simultaneously in each period. This problem is formulated as a simple stochastic game, and a symmetric stationary Markovian perfect equilibrium
Switching neuronal state: optimal stimuli revealed using a stochastically-seeded gradient algorithm.
Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David
2014-12-01
Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: (1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and (2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue. PMID:25145955
Stochastic and Boltzmann-like models for behavioral changes, and their relation to game theory
Dirk Helbing
1998-05-22
In the last decade, stochastic models have shown to be very useful for quantitative modelling of social processes. Here, a configurational master equation for the description of behavioral changes by pair interactions of individuals is developed. Three kinds of social pair interactions are distinguished: Avoidance processes, compromising processes, and imitative processes. Computational results are presented for a special case of imitative processes: the competition of two equivalent strategies. They show a phase transition that describes the selforganization of a behavioral convention. This phase transition is further analyzed by examining the equations for the most probable behavioral distribution, which are Boltzmann-like equations. Special cases of Boltzmann-like equations do not obey the H-theorem and have oscillatory or even chaotic solutions. A suitable Taylor approximation leads to the socalled game dynamical equations (also known as selection-mutation equations in the theory of evolution).
McEneaney, William M. [Departments of Mathematics and Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States)], E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu
2004-08-15
Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.
Biswas, Imran H., E-mail: imran.biswas@sam.math.ethz.c [ETH-Zurich, Seminar fuer Angewandte Mathematik, D-MATH (Switzerland); Jakobsen, Espen R., E-mail: erj@math.ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Karlsen, Kenneth H., E-mail: kennethk@math.uio.n [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (Norway)
2010-08-15
We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.
Continuous transition of social efficiencies in the stochastic strategy Minority Game
Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Chatterjee, Arnab; Naskar, Tapan; Chakrabarti, Bikas K
2011-01-01
We show that in a variant of the Minority Game problem, the agents can reach a state of maximum social efficiency, where the fluctuation between the two choices is minimum, by following a simple stochastic strategy. By imagining a social scenario where the agents can only guess about the number of excess people in the majority, we show that as long as the guess value is sufficiently close to the reality, the system can reach a state of full efficiency or minimum fluctuation. A continuous transition to less efficient condition is observed when the guess value becomes worse. Hence, people can optimize their guess value for excess population to optimize the period of being in the majority state. We also consider the situation where a finite fraction of agents always decide completely randomly (noise trader) as opposed to the rest of the population that follow a certain strategy (chartist). For a single noise trader the system becomes fully efficient with majority-minority crossover occurring every two-days inter...
Dynamics of the quorum sensing switch: stochastic and non-stationary effects
2013-01-01
Background A wide range of bacteria species are known to communicate through the so called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism by means of which they produce a small molecule that can freely diffuse in the environment and in the cells. Upon reaching a threshold concentration, the signalling molecule activates the QS-controlled genes that promote phenotypic changes. This mechanism, for its simplicity, has become the model system for studying the emergence of a global response in prokaryotic cells. Yet, how cells precisely measure the signal concentration and act coordinately, despite the presence of fluctuations that unavoidably affects cell regulation and signalling, remains unclear. Results We propose a model for the QS signalling mechanism in Vibrio fischeri based on the synthetic strains lux01 and lux02. Our approach takes into account the key regulatory interactions between LuxR and LuxI, the autoinducer transport, the cellular growth and the division dynamics. By using both deterministic and stochastic models, we analyze the response and dynamics at the single-cell level and compare them to the global response at the population level. Our results show how fluctuations interfere with the synchronization of the cell activation and lead to a bimodal phenotypic distribution. In this context, we introduce the concept of precision in order to characterize the reliability of the QS communication process in the colony. We show that increasing the noise in the expression of LuxR helps cells to get activated at lower autoinducer concentrations but, at the same time, slows down the global response. The precision of the QS switch under non-stationary conditions decreases with noise, while at steady-state it is independent of the noise value. Conclusions Our in silico experiments show that the response of the LuxR/LuxI system depends on the interplay between non-stationary and stochastic effects and that the burst size of the transcription/translation noise at the level of LuxR controls the phenotypic variability of the population. These results, together with recent experimental evidences on LuxR regulation in wild-type species, suggest that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to regulate the intensity of those fluctuations. PMID:23324134
Anytime computation algorithms for stochastically parametric approach-evasion differential games
Mueller, Erich
We consider an approach-evasion differential game where the inputs of one of the players are upper bounded by a random variable. The game enjoys the order preserving property where a larger relaxation of the random variable ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qun
2015-09-01
In this paper, a stochastic n-species Gilpin-Ayala competitive model with Lévy jumps and Markovian switching is proposed and studied. Some asymptotic properties are investigated and sufficient conditions for extinction, non-persistence in the mean and weak persistence are established. The threshold between extinction and weak persistence is obtained. The results illustrate that the asymptotic properties of the considered system have close relationships with Lévy jumps and the stationary distribution of the Markovian chain. Moreover, some simulation figures are presented to confirm our main results.
Liu, K. J. Ray
IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 29, NO. 4, APRIL 2011 877 An Anti-Jamming Stochastic Game for Cognitive Radio Networks Beibei Wang, Student Member, IEEE, Yongle Wu, Student Member management schemes have been proposed in recent years to improve the spectrum utilization in cognitive radio
Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.
Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states
2014-01-01
In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953
Scholl, Brian
switching Address for : Emily Ward or Brian Scholl reprints and Department of Psychology correspondence Yale when conflicting with the current percept. These results show how the content of incoming information a corresponding lack of underlying effortful computation, phenomenological randomness should not be taken to imply
Unified Systems of FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs with Jumps/Skew Reflections and Stochastic Differential Games
Wanyang Dai
2015-06-15
We study four systems and their interactions. First, we formulate a unified system of coupled forward and backward stochastic {\\it partial} differential equations (FB-SPDEs) with L\\'evy jumps, which is vector-valued and whose drift, diffusion, and jump coefficients may involve partial differential operators. Under generalized local linear growth and Lipschitz conditions, the well-posedness concerning adapted strong solution to the FB-SPDEs is proved. Second, we consider a unified system of FB-SDEs, a special form of the FB-SPDEs, however, with {\\it skew} reflections. Under generalized linear growth and Lipschitz conditions together with a general completely-${\\cal S}$ condition on reflection matrices, we prove the well-posedness of adapted weak solution to the FB-SDEs. In particular, if the spectral radii in certain sense for both reflection matrices are strictly less than the unity, a unique adapted strong solution will be concerned. Third, we formulate a stochastic differential game (SDG) problem with general number of players based on the FB-SDEs. By a solution to the FB-SPDEs, we determine a solution to the FB-SDEs under a given control rule and then obtain a Pareto optimal Nash equilibrium point to the non-zero-sum SDG problem. Fourth, we study the application of the FB-SPDEs in a queueing system and discuss how to use the queueing system to motivate the SDG problem.
Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation in stochastic
Boucherie, Richard J.
Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation Inventory model a b s t r a c t We study cooperation strategies for companies that continuously review they provide an incentive for the companies to cooperate. We consider two natural cooperation strategies: (i
X. Zhu; L. Yin; L. Hood; D. Galas; P. Ao
2006-02-09
Phage lambda is one of the most studied biological models in modern molecular biology. Over the past 50 years quantitative experimental knowledge on this biological model has been accumulated at all levels: physics, chemistry, genomics, proteomics, functions, and more. All its components have been known to a great detail. The theoretical task has been to integrate its components to make the organism working quantitatively in a harmonic manner. This would test our biological understanding and would lay a solid fundamental for further explorations and applications, an obvious goal of systems biology. One of the outstanding challenges in doing so has been the so-called stability puzzle of lambda switch: the biologically observed robustness and its difficult mathematical reconstruction based on known experimental values. In this chapter we review the recent theoretical and experimental efforts on tackling this problem. An emphasis is put on the minimum quantitative modeling where a successful numerical agreement between experiments and modeling has been achieved. A novel method tentatively named stochastic dynamical structure analysis emerged from such study is also discussed within a broad modeling perspective.
A novel switching guidance law against hypersonic random maneuvering target
Yuzhe Wang; Xiaoping Shi; Yin Zhu
2010-01-01
The terminal guidance problem for the interception of hypersonic maneuvering targets in a stochastic environment is studied. A novel logic based switching differential game guidance law named DGL\\/S, integrated with advanced multiple model filtering algorithm named Fast UKF\\/MMAE for nonlinear system, is developed. Simulation results show fast UKF\\/MMAE has higher estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time after the identification of
Stochastic Evolving Differential Games Toward a Systems Theory of Behavioral Social Dynamics
Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Gibelli, Livio
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a systems approach to social sciences based on mathematical tools derived from a generalization of the mathematical kinetic theory and on theoretical tools of game theory. Social systems are modeled as a large living evolving ensemble of individuals, who express specific strategies, cooperate, compete, and might aggregate into groups, which pursue a common interest. A critical analysis on the complexity features of social system is developed and a general differential structure is derived to provide a general framework toward modeling. Such a structure is deemed to capture the aforesaid complexity features and provide the time evolution of a probability distribution over the microscopic state of individual entities, by means of which social systems are described.
Game strategies in network security
Kong-wei Lye; Jeannette M. Wing
2005-01-01
Abstract This paper presents a game - theoretic method for analyzing the security of computer networks We view the interactions between an attacker and the administrator as a two - player stochastic game and construct a model for the game Using a non - linear program, we compute the Nash equilibrium or best - response strategies for the players (attacker
Frederic H. Murphy; Michael A. Toman; Howard J. Weiss
1987-01-01
In this paper we present a Nash dynamic game model of interactions among oil inventory and tariff policies for oil importing countries. The inventory policies consist of the rates for building up and drawing down strategic oil reserves, while the tariff policies consist of setting tariffs as a function of the state of the world oil market. The model represents
Applications of Stationary Anonymous Sequential Games to Multiple Access Control in Wireless
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Applications of Stationary Anonymous Sequential Games to Multiple Access Control in Wireless in smaller collision probability. We formulate this game as an anonymous sequential game with undiscounted the theory in the MAC game. Keywords: Stochastic game, Population game, Anonymous sequential game, Average
Deterministic priority mean-payoff games as limits of discounted games
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Deterministic priority mean-payoff games as limits of discounted games Hugo Gimbert1 and Wieslaw, Henzinger and Majum- dar [2] about discounted µ-calculus we show new surprising links between parity games and different classes of discounted games. 1 Introduction One of the major results in the theory of stochastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Erwin
2012-02-01
Microbial laboratory communities have become model systems for studying the complex interplay between evolutionary selection forces, stochastic fluctuations, and spatial organization. Two fundamental questions that challenge our understanding of evolution and ecology are the origin of cooperation and biodiversity. Both are ubiquitous phenomena yet conspicuously difficult to explain since the fitness of an individual or the whole community depends in an intricate way on a plethora of factors, such as spatial distribution and mobility of individuals, secretion and detection of signaling molecules, toxin secretion leading to inter-strain competition and changes in environmental conditions. We discuss two possible solutions to these questions employing concepts from evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes. Our work provides insights into some minimal requirements for the evolution of cooperation and biodiversity in simple microbial communities. It further makes predictions to be tested by new microbial experiments.
Layers of noncooperative games
Jewgeni H. Dshalalow; Hao-Jan Ke
2009-01-01
We model and analyze classes of antagonistic stochastic games of two players. The actions of the players are formalized by marked point processes recording the cumulative damage to the players at any moment of time. The processes evolve until one of the processes crosses its fixed preassigned threshold of tolerance. Once the threshold is reached or exceeded at some point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek
2012-10-01
Preface; 1. Introduction and motivation; 2. Stochastic resonance: its definitions, history and debates; 3. Stochastic quantization; 4. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: encoding; 5. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N encoding; 6. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: decoding; 7. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N decoding; 8. Optimal stochastic quantization; 9. SSR, neural coding, and performance tradeoffs; 10. Stochastic resonance in the auditory system; 11. The future of stochastic resonance and suprathreshold stochastic resonance; Appendices; References; Index.
Stochastic resonance in binocular rivalry
Yee-Joon Kim; Marcia Grabowecky; Satoru Suzuki
2006-01-01
When a different image is presented to each eye, visual awareness spontaneously alternates between the two images—a phenom- enon called binocular rivalry. Because binocular rivalry is characterized by two marginally stable perceptual states and spontaneous, apparently stochastic, switching between them, it has been speculated that switches in perceptual awareness reflect a double-well- potential type computational architecture coupled with noise. To
Robert L. West; Terrence C. Stewart
We examined the effect of cognitive noise on human game playing abilities. Human subjects played a guessing game against an ACT-R model set at different noise levels. Counter to the normal effect for noise (i.e., to increase randomness) increasing noise over certain ranges increased the win rate in both the ACT-R model and in the humans. We then attempted to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cliff, Janet M.
1990-01-01
Reviews 163 sources on Navajo games, play, and toys. Includes an annotated bibliography of those materials. Examines relationships between games and religion, origin myths, and ceremonies. Discusses attitudes toward games, gambling, and cheating; and the dichotomy between children's and adults' games. Describes specific toys, games, and play…
Reliable stochastic design of road network systems
Loukas Dimitriou; Antony Stathopoulos; Theodore Tsekeris
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the continuous version of the stochastic Network Design Problem (NDP) with reliability requirements. The problem is considered as a two-stage Stackelberg game with complete information and is formulated as a stochastic bi-level programming problem, which is extended to include reliability as well as physical and budget constraints. The estimation procedure combines the use of Monte Carlo simulation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Allen
2010-10-09
Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...
Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole
1991-01-01
This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material
IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching
Jain, Raj
Raj Jain 1 IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching Raj Jain Professor Switching vs routing q IP Switching (Ipsilon) q Tag Switching (CISCO) q Multi-protocol label switching (Cont)Routing vs Switching (Cont) On ATM networks: q IP routers use IP addresses Reassemble IP
David H. Wolpert
2005-12-08
Conventional noncooperative game theory hypothesizes that the joint strategy of a set of players in a game must satisfy an "equilibrium concept". All other joint strategies are considered impossible; the only issue is what equilibrium concept is "correct". This hypothesis violates the desiderata underlying probability theory. Indeed, probability theory renders moot the problem of what equilibrium concept is correct - every joint strategy can arise with non-zero probability. Rather than a first-principles derivation of an equilibrium concept, game theory requires a first-principles derivation of a distribution over joint (mixed) strategies. This paper shows how information theory can provide such a distribution over joint strategies. If a scientist external to the game wants to distill such a distribution to a point prediction, that prediction should be set by decision theory, using their (!) loss function. So the predicted joint strategy - the "equilibrium concept" - varies with the external scientist's loss function. It is shown here that in many games, having a probability distribution with support restricted to Nash equilibria - as stipulated by conventional game theory - is impossible. It is also show how to: i) Derive an information-theoretic quantification of a player's degree of rationality; ii) Derive bounded rationality as a cost of computation; iii) Elaborate the close formal relationship between game theory and statistical physics; iv) Use this relationship to extend game theory to allow stochastically varying numbers of players.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mr. Cooley
2011-11-12
These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-05-22
In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances.
Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.
1985-01-01
A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.
Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry
2013-01-01
The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258
Kunio Yasue; Mari Jibu; Tetsuya Misawa; Jean-Claude Zambrini
1988-01-01
Stochastic dynamics of relative membrane potential in the neural network is investigated. It is called stochastic neurodynamics. The least action principle for stochastic neurodynamics is assumed, and used to derive the fundamental equation. It is called a neural wave equation. A solution of the neural wave equation is called a neural wave function and describes stochastic neurodynamics completely. Linear superposition
Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched,
Shihada, Basem
/control ·optical 3R (Reliability, Robustness, and Resiliency) performance monitoring are hard Optical CircuitOptical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched, Packet switched Electronic vs. Optical, and then from Electronic to Optical for transmission. · Optical (photonic) switching: uses optical switching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.
Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mrs. Watts
2007-10-05
Arrays are very important in Computer Programming. An array is a way to store similar items in computer memory. The items may be numbers, words, pictures, or even sounds. Many games use an array because it is an easy way to keep track of the objects used to play the game. The Arrow Game uses an array to store arrow ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-05-20
This site provides links to eight different math related games. The gameboards can be downloaded as pdf files. Each game contains complete instructions for playing. The subject area and recommended grade levels are given for each game. This resource is also available in Spanish.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Troff
2008-06-23
Several sites to practice solving equations. Play one of the following games: 1) algebra quiz/ alien millionaire 2) Battleship: solve equations to win! 3) connect four: solve equations to take a turn- 2 player game 4) Rags to Riches: millionaire type game asking questions about solving equations ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Reeder, Nick
Play these games to practice your electronics skills. Each game has a Study mode that reviews the relevant theory, a Practice mode that lets you practice with no time pressure, and a Challenge mode that tests your skill while the clock is running. These games require Macromedia's Flash Player, version 6 or later. If the Flash Player is not already installed in your Web browser, the game will automatically offer to download it for free. These games were created by Nick Reeder, an electronics instructor at Sinclair Community College.
International Journal of Game Theory manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)
Gesbert, David
International Journal of Game Theory manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Algorithms for uniform optimal strategies in two-player zero-sum stochastic games with perfect information Konstantin games with perfect information, in each state at most one player has more than one action available. We
A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory
Gruen, Christine, E-mail: christine.gruen@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)
2012-12-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.
Optical switches and switching methods
Doty, Michael
2008-03-04
A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Castro, Tony
Created by Tony Castro of the Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT), this simulation demonstrates ethernet switching. The animation depicts three separate local area networks connecting to an ethernet hub. The animation also includes descriptive text. This resource would be a helpful addition to any course on information and communications technologies as it allows students to see exactly how ethernet switching works.
Learning through reinforcement for N-person repeated constrained games
Alexander S. Poznyak; Kaddour Najim
2002-01-01
The design and analysis of an adaptive strategy for N-person averaged constrained stochastic repeated game are addressed. Each player is modeled by a stochastic variable-structure learning automaton. Some constraints are imposed on some functions of the probabilities governing the selection of the player's actions. After each stage, the payoff to each player as well as the constraints are random variables.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Peterson, Ivars
Scientists studying quantum computation offer new perspectives on coin tossing, chess, and game theory. Theorists intend to apply the peculiarities of quantum behavior to game theory, two previously unrelated fields. These researchers propose that the possibility of a mixed state permits quantum-game strategies that in theory can be more successful than conventional ones. This new type of modeling using quantum computers could greatly affect fields such as economics, international relations, and computer science.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-07-30
In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deubel, Patricia
2006-01-01
This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Interactive game features two skill levels (novice and intermediate) that teach about water quality, watersheds, and management of this important resource. The intermediate level game is broken into four sections: National Parks, agriculture, neighborhood, and city, each with five questions. At the end of the quiz, the best choices for each question are explained.
Dov Monderer; Lloyd S. Shapley
1996-01-01
We define and discuss several notions of potential functions for games in strategic form. We characterize games that have a potential function, and we present a variety of applications.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Numbers:C72, C73.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
2009-07-22
The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.
Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)
1982-08-17
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
Francis Bloch; Geoffroy De Clippel
2008-01-01
This paper studies the core of combined games, obtained by summing two coalitional games. It is shown that the set of balanced transferable utility games can be partitioned into equivalence classes of component games whose core is equal to the core of the combined game. On the other hand, for non balanced games, the binary relation associating two component games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harteveld, Casper
This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-11-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-10-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.
Finite State Stochastic and Continuous Time Models
Kaiser, £ukasz
and Continuous Time Models 2 / 7 #12;Basic Models Basic Discrete Model Definition Basic discrete model M = (S, µ and Continuous Time Models 3 / 7 #12;Basic Models Basic Discrete Model Definition Basic discrete model M = (S, µSyn) Finite State Stochastic and Continuous Time Models 3 / 7 #12;Basic Models Basic Discrete Game Definition
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory
Lässig, Michael
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory Michael L¨assig Institut f is introduced that describes stochastic effects in game theory. In a biological context, such effects Classical game theory is a well-known mathematical formalization of competitions with rational rules and ra
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games
Kaiser, £ukasz
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games GAMES, Bordeaux 2004 Lukasz Kaiser Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen #12;Motivation I Parity games with finite number of colours are positionally determined Muller games with finite number of colours are not positionally determined Finitely
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbach, Paul
2001-01-01
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, John
1980-01-01
The author argues that adult society prohibits adolescents from attaining maturity and that, in response to such constraints, adolescents turn to games, rituals, and charades. This state of affairs is viewed as an implicit adult conspiracy against adolescents. (DB)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
2010-06-24
"A take-away game in which players alternately remove counters, and the player who takes the last counter wins." ( NCTM) Students look for patterns in the numbers on which the computer lands at each turn.
Unknown
2011-08-17
First person exploration of architectural models using video game technology holds a great deal of promise for the field of architecture. It gives architects and clients an immediate sense of a building that may not have been conveyed by traditional...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - Education and Outreach Programs
2010-01-01
Play these two matching games from the Web Weather for Kids site to pair cloud images with their names/types! Developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, this site requires Java.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.
This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
PBS presents this game in which students are asked to rearrange and rotate a set of geometric shapes to form the image of a rabbit, candle, fox, and others. Tangram "is an ancient game that originated in China" and it teaches students basic geometry and algebra concepts. It is a great beginning activity to get students in the classroom thinking about geometry and can be used as a lead in to more complex topics such as tessellations.
Stochastic linear programming games with concave preferences
2014-12-04
1989; Schulz and Uhan 2010), and inventory management (e.g. Hartman ... correspond to the optimal expected cost of managing inventory and ...... Journal of Banking and Finance ... Management Working Paper OM-2006-01, Stern School of Business, New York ... Risk measures and capital requirements for processes.
Computing Laboratory STOCHASTIC GAMES FOR VERIFICATION
Norman, Gethin
. For non-probabilistic timed automata, forwards reachability is the analysis method of choice, since it can are finite state automata extended with real-valued clocks and discrete probabilistic choice, are a natural on maximum reachability prob- abilities. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the analysis of PTAs
Stochastic Games (SG) This tutorial includes
Shwartz, Adam
Encode strategic conflict as a payoff matrix: payoffs confess deny confess -3,-3 0,-4 deny -4,0 -1 a confrontation is C Suppose C > V (think nuclear first strike) Encode strategic conflict as a payoff matrix the strategy chosen by player i Joint action: a Payoff to player i given by matrix or table Mi(a) Goal
Computer Games and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.
2011-01-01
There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…
Game Theory Social Intelligence
Polani, Daniel
Game Theory Social Intelligence Daniel Polani Game Theory p.1/11 Reminders: Dominance Def): an outcome is Pareto dominated if all players would prefer some other outcome. Game Theory p.3/11 Dominance strategy. Game The #12;Comments on Game Theory Remark: if the prisoner's dilemma game is being iterated
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer
Monderer, Dov
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer TechnionÂIsrael Institute of Technology E-mail: dov@ie.technion.ac.il July 2006 Abstract We introduce and analyze q-potential games and q-congestion games, where q is a positive integer. A 1-potential (congestion) game is a po- tential (congestion) game. We show that a game
Francis Bloch; Geoffroy de Clippel
2009-01-01
This paper studies the core of combined games, obtained by summing two coalitional games. It is shown that the set of balanced transferable utility games can be partitioned into equivalence classes of component games to determine whether the core of the combined game coincides with the sum of the cores of its components. On the other hand, for non-balanced games,
Pinning noise-induced stochastic resonance.
Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2013-06-01
This paper proposes the concept of pinning noise and then investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance of coupled complex systems driven by pinning noise, where the noise has an ?-stable distribution. Two kinds of pinning noise are taken into account: partial noise and switching noise. In particular, we establish a connection between switching noise and global noise when Gaussian noise is considered. It is shown that switching noise can not only achieve a stronger resonance effect, but it is also more robust to induce the resonance effect than partial noise. PMID:23848761
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.
Jani Anttila; Arto Annila
2011-03-05
Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, when no moves are found to consume more free energy, the extensive-form game has arrived at a solution concept that satisfies the minimax theorem. The equilibrium is Lyapunov-stable against variation in behavior within strategies but will be perturbed by a new strategy that will draw even more surrounding resources to the game. Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making.
Hysteresis Can Grant Fitness in Stochastically Varying Environment
Friedman, Gary; McCarthy, Stephen; Rachinskii, Dmitrii
2014-01-01
Although the existence of multiple stable phenotypes of living organisms enables random switching between phenotypes as well as non-random history dependent switching called hysteresis, only random switching has been considered in prior experimental and theoretical models of adaptation to variable environments. This work considers the possibility that hysteresis may also evolve together with random phenotype switching to maximize population growth. In addition to allowing the possibility that switching rates between different phenotypes may depend not only on a continuous environmental input variable, but also on the phenotype itself, the present work considers an opportunity cost of the switching events. This opportunity cost arises as a result of a lag phase experimentally observed after phenotype switching and stochastic behavior of the environmental input. It is shown that stochastic environmental variation results in maximal asymptotic growth rate when organisms display hysteresis for sufficiently slowly varying environmental input. At the same time, sinusoidal input does not cause evolution of memory suggesting that the connection between the lag phase, stochastic environmental variation and evolution of hysteresis is a result of a stochastic resonance type phenomenon. PMID:25068284
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
2014-03-01
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Miss Ivy
2012-02-15
Test your pattern making skills by trying your best at these games! How Does My Pattern Grow? Click continue on the main screen. For each new page you will be trying to figure out what the next pattern will look like. Drag the shapes at the bottom to the correct place on the ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Kim
2004-01-01
The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Hooda Math
2013-03-13
This iOS app helps develop strategic thinking and fluency with multiplication facts. Two players take turns selecting one of two factors, 1 - 9, in order to capture products on a grid. The winner is the first player to capture four in a row. This game can be played by two players or one player against the computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
2007-01-01
Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzi, Natalie
2012-01-01
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
The Rat Game and the Mouse Game Aviezri S. Fraenkel
Fraenkel, Aviezri
The Rat Game and the Mouse Game Aviezri S. Fraenkel Computer Science and Applied Mathematics define three new take-away games, the Rat game, the Mouse game and the Fat Rat game. Three winning strategies are given for the Rat game and outlined for the Mouse and Fat Rat games. The efficiencies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oblinger, Diana G.
2006-01-01
From a very early age, people learn from games and play. Parents and preschool teachers use games to teach colors, numbers, names, and shapes; the process is drill and practice. Games engage everyone, capturing their attention. People willingly spend time on task. Although students in high school and college continue to play games, games rarely…
Kurt Squire
2003-01-01
ABSTRACT Computer and video games are a maturing medium,and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences,of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat
2011-01-01
Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…
The effects of input noise on a simple biochemical switch
Hu, Bo; Kessler, David A.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert
2015-01-01
Many biological processes are controlled by biomolecular switches which themselves are regulated by various upstream chemical molecules (the input). Understanding how input noise affects the output stochastic switching process is of significant interest in various biophysical systems like gene regulation, chemosensing, and cell motility. Here, we propose an exactly solvable model where the noisy input signal arises from a simple birth-death process and directly regulates the transition rates of a downstream switch. We solve the joint master equations to analyze the statistical properties of the output switching process. Our results suggest that the conventional wisdom of an additive input-output noise rule fails to describe signaling systems containing a single molecular switch, and instead, the most important effect of input noise is to effectively reduce the on rate of the switch. PMID:22107236
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions.
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-01-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks. PMID:26020274
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-07-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.
Finite horizon H? control for a class of linear quantum systems: A dynamic game approach
Aline I. Maalouf; Ian R. Petersen
2010-01-01
In this paper, the finite horizon H? control problem is solved for a class of linear quantum systems using a dynamic game approach. The methodology adopted involves an equivalence between the quantum problem and an auxiliary classical stochastic problem. Then, by solving the finite horizon H? control problem for the equivalent stochastic problem using results from a corresponding deterministic problem
Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications.
Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei
2013-07-01
Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed "analog" feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level "analog" device for neuromorphic applications. PMID:23698627
Unknown
2011-08-17
The purpose of this dissertation is to apply behavior learning concepts to incomplete-information continuous time games. Realistic game scenarios are often incomplete-information games in which the players withhold information. A player may not know...
Play the Electrocardiogram Game
... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
The goal of the Science Game Center is to demonstrate to teachers, scientists, museums, and parents the myriad ways games can be used to improve education in math and science. The Science Game Center will provide a place where users can describe their experiences with math and science games, gather information on game strengths and weaknesses, and share tips on how to use games to help students reach their educational goals.
Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas
1995-03-01
B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.
Dynamics in atomic signaling games.
Fox, Michael J; Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S
2015-07-01
We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss. PMID:25863268
The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-09-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun
2015-06-01
Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.
Latching relay switch assembly
Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)
1991-01-01
A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.
J. G. Salvador; D. O. Pederson
1961-01-01
A group of high-speed switching circuits that use the basic current-; switching mode of operation are discussed. A dynamic analysis of the basic ; current-switching mode is presented in which it is shown that this mode is really ; an overdriven amplifier in a common-emitter configuration. Therefore the ; dominant nntural frequency, which determines the switching time, is actually f\\/;
Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson University of California at Los Angeles Contents Introduction. References. Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games. 1.1 Take-Away Games. 1.2 The Game of Nim. 1.3 Graph Games. 1.4 Sums of Combinatorial Games. 1.5 Coin Turning Games. 1.6 Green Hackenbush. References. Part II
Managing the Weakest Link A Game-Theoretic Approach
Bencsáth, Boldizsár
introduce a two-player stochastic game for modeling se- cure team selection to add resilience against address the latter dimension of the problem space. Data theft by trusted employees covers a significant destructive in nature. However, the steady rise of cyber- espionage activities strongly motivates the threat
Escape from a potential well with a randomly switching boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.
2015-06-01
We consider diffusion in a potential well with a boundary that randomly switches between absorbing and reflecting and show how the switching boundary affects the classical escape theory. Using the theory of stochastic hybrid systems, we derive boundary value problems for the mean first passage time and splitting probability and find explicit solutions in terms of the spectral decomposition of the associated differential operator. Further, using a more probabilistic approach, we prove asymptotic formulae for these statistics in the small diffusion limit. In particular, we show that the statistical behavior depends critically on the gradient of the potential near the switching boundary and we derive corrections to Kramers’ reaction rate theory.
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Naoki Kobayashi
2007-11-05
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a finite quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (3) For any finite quantum sequential game G, there exists a finite quantum simultaneous game equivalent to G.
Karen E. Dill; Jody C. Dill
1998-01-01
The popularity of video games, especially violent video games, has reached phenomenal proportions. The theoretical line of reasoning that hypothesizes a causal relationship between violent video-game play and aggression draws on the very large literature on media violence effects. Additionally, there are theoretical reasons to believe that video game effects should be stronger than movie or television violence effects. This
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.
This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekely, George
2000-01-01
Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)
Josef Hofbauer; Karl Sigmund
2003-01-01
Evolutionary game dynamics is the application of population dy- namical methods to game theory. It has been introduced by evolutionary biologists, anticipated in part by classical game theorists. In this survey, we present an overview of the many brands of deterministic dynamical systems motivated by evolutionary game theory, including ordinary dierential equa- tions (and, in particular, the replicator equation), dierential
Prestwich, Ken
Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich kprestwi@holycross.edu Department of Biology College of the Holy ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;c 1999 by Kenneth Prestwich. All
Making educational computer games \\
Shalom M. Fisch
2005-01-01
Educational computer games provide an appealing context for engaging children in activities that deliver substantive educational content and customized feedback. However, creators of such games can only take full advantage of the power of the medium if the educational content is integrated effectively into the structure of the game. Drawing upon experiences in the creation of numerous real-life games and
Tim Wenson; Reid Kimball
2012-01-01
Higher Ed technologists have been abuzz for some time now about the need to incorporate more games into teaching and learning. They cite the success of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) games like World of Warcraft for demonstrating the effectiveness of collaborative group work. But what kind of market exists out there for educational games? How do inexpensive iPad
History educational games design
Nor Azan Mat Zin; Wong Seng Yue
2009-01-01
Digital games, an interactive technology can foster learning process effectively and interestingly especially among young learners. Digital game based learning (DGBL) approach utilizes the game as a medium for conveying learning contents. The area of educational technology is still lacking of research on how to design game environment that foster knowledge construction and deepen understanding and problem solving while engaging
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Learning with Calculator Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
Stick or switch : data analysis and probability (grades 6-8)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Utah State University. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics
2003-01-01
Students can play an interactive version of the game Let's Make a Deal. Players are given a choice of three doors--one of which hides a good prize, while the other two hide loser prizes. They select, but do not see, one door. Host Monty Hall reveals a prize behind one of the remaining doors. Players can either stick with the originally selected door and prize or switch to the other door. The cumulative percentages generated by sticking or switching after playing multiple games is displayed. One button labeled Strategy leads to questions that discuss the probability of winning with each strategy. A Multiple Game option generates outcome data based on playing a large number of games. Instructions for using the game and a link to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standard for data analysis and probability are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)
1990-01-01
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.
Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Christine Chung1
Chung, Christine
Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Games Christine Chung1 and Evangelia Pyrga2 1¨ur Informatik, Saarbr¨ucken, Germany, pyrga@mpi-inf.mpg.de Abstract. Congestion control at bottleneck routers- ets from the queues of these routers so that network endpoints will be inclined to share router
Stochastic resonance in a stochastic bistable system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ai, Bao-quan; Liu, Liang-gang
2007-02-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable system is investigated in the presence of a stochastic potential. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is calculated by using the two-state approach. It is found that there exist transitions in SNR from one peak to two peaks, then to one peak again and finally to no peak on increasing the intensity of the stochastic potential. An optimal stochastic potential may induce a doubly stochastic resonance (DSR). When the intensity of the stochastic potential is too large, the effect of the double well diminishes and the SR phenomenon disappears.
The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor - Supporting Information
Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2008-11-19
In this Supporting information we provide background information on our model of the bacterial flagellar motor. We also derive the analytical solution of our coarse-grained model of the switching dynamics and explain the hybrid stochastic algorithm used for the simulations.
Linear System Control Using Stochastic Learning Automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.
1998-01-01
This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.
RF MEMS switches and switch circuits
G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin
2001-01-01
MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To
The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor
Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2008-11-14
Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. While the switching dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of flagellar motors, the mechanisms that control switching are poorly understood. We present a statistical-mechanical model of the flagellar rotary motor, which consists of a number of stator proteins that drive the rotation of a ring of rotor proteins, which in turn drives the rotation of a flagellar filament. At the heart of our model is the assumption that the rotor protein complex can exist in two conformational states corresponding to the two respective rotation directions, and that switching between these states depends on interactions with the stator proteins. This naturally couples the switching dynamics to the rotation dynamics, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element of our model is that after a switching event, it takes time for the load to build up, due to polymorphic transitions of the filament. Our model predicts that this slow relaxation dynamics of the filament, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, leads to a characteristic switching time, in agreement with recent observations.
Pathogen evolution in switching environments: a hybrid dynamical system approach
Farkas, Jozsef Z; Engelstaedter, Jan
2011-01-01
We propose a hybrid dynamical system approach to model the evolution of a pathogen that experiences different selective pressures according to a stochastic process. In every environment, the evolution of the pathogen is described by a version of the Fisher-Haldane-Wright equation while the switching between environments follows a Markov process with a given generator matrix. We investigate how the qualitative behavior of a simple single-host deterministic system changes when the stochastic switching process is added. In particular, we study the exchange of stability between monomorphic equilibria. Our results are consistent with the view that in a fluctuating environment, the genotype with the highest mean fitness will eventually become fixed. However, if the probability of host switching depends on the genotype composition of the population, polymorphism can be stably maintained.
MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research
Robin Hunicke; Marc LeBlanc; Robert Zubek
In this paper we present the MDA framework (standing for Mechanics, Dynamics, and Aesthetics), developed and taught as part of the Game Design and Tuning Workshop at the Game Developers Conference, San Jose 2001-2004. MDA is a formal approach to understanding games - one which attempts to bridge the gap between game design and development, game criticism, and technical game
To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning
Levinson, David M.
To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning with board games Arthur Huang and David Levinson Department of Civil Engineering University of Minnesota 1/23/2012 #12;#12;Why board games? Board games Transport networks Nexus between transport & land use Game economy Competition vs monopoly CE 5212
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iqbal, Azhar; Abbott, Derek
2009-01-01
A quantum version of the matching pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell’s inequality.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Levine, David K.
David Levine, Professor of Economics at the University of California, Los Angeles has created a web site devoted to game theory. This site contains many useful resources on game theory including an introductory essay and a suggested reading list. There is also a collection of working papers by David Levine and coauthors on economic theory, mathematical economics and game theory. A highlight of the site is the availability of a 348 page book by Drew Fudenberg and David K. Levine, Theory of Learning in Games, in Acrobat format. The site also contains an on-line zero-sum game solver, an on-line forecaster and cooperative learning games (Java based).
Azhar Iqbal; Derek Abbott
2008-10-21
A quantum version of the Matching Pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using the state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality.
Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games
?ukasz Pawela; Jan S?adkowski
2013-05-07
Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox in cooperative quantum games and some interesting phenomena can be observed.
Games for games: manipulating contexts in human computation games
Aneta Takhtamysheva; Robert Porzel; Markus Krause
2009-01-01
The present work and demonstration system aims at finding an efficient and cost-effective human computation method to expand the linguistic capabilities of interactive games that need it to respond appropriately to the language based input of their users. As a showcase scenario for the experiments conducted, we took interactive fiction applications and examined how the human computation game design and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torrence, Bruce
2011-01-01
The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…
Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan
2013-01-29
The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
2014-01-01
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
Eyal Shekel; Shlomo Ruschin; Daniel Majer; Jeff Levy; Guy Matmon; Lisa Koenigsberg; Jacob Vecht; Amir Geron; Rotem Harlavan; Harel Shfaram; Arnon Arbel; Tom McDermott; Tony Brewer
2005-01-01
We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router\\
Maestas, J.H.
1987-03-01
An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.
Triggered plasma opening switch
Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)
1988-01-01
A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.
Scalable electronic packet switches
Fabio M. Chiussi; Andrea Francini
2003-01-01
Due to the changed economic environment, the rush to implementing packet switches with switching capacities above 1 Tb\\/s, which had proceeded at a frantic pace for some years, has slowed down considerably. Most service providers do not foresee the deployment of switches and routers with gigantic capacities in the near future. The immediate interest does now rarely go beyond the
Monty's Dilemma: Should You Stick or Switch?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2009-02-23
Created by J. Michael Shaughnessy and Thomas Dick, this activity presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors which reveals no prize, then asks if you wish to "stick or switch." Which choice gives you the best chance to win? The approach in this activity runs from guesses to experiments to computer simulations (links to applets are provided) to theoretical models. The activity can be adapted by leaving out the "flip-a-coin" strategy presented here. This is a fun and worthwhile activity that students can easily engage with.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Roger Woodard
In this game activity, students match correlation values with plots generated by the applet. Competition in this game setting encourages students to become more involved in the classroom and attainment of learning objectives.
... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...
Games, puzzles, and computation
Hearn, Robert A. (Robert Aubrey), 1965-
2006-01-01
There is a fundamental connection between the notions of game and of computation. At its most basic level, this is implied by any game complexity result, but the connection is deeper than this. One example is the concept ...
Alfredo Banos
1968-01-01
In the definition of a two-person zero-sum game given by Von Neumann and Morgenstern it is assumed that both players know the rules of the game (e.g., the game tree, the information sets as well as the distributions of the ensuing payoffs for given strategy choices, etc.). We use the term pseudo-game to denote the case where at least one
Adrian P. Flitney; Joseph Ng; Derek Abbott
2002-02-22
Parrondo's Paradox arises when two losing games are combined to produce a winning one. A history dependent quantum Parrondo game is studied where the rotation operators that represent the toss of a classical biased coin are replaced by general SU(2) operators to transform the game into the quantum domain. In the initial state, a superposition of qubits can be used to couple the games and produce interference leading to quite different payoffs to those in the classical case.
Photoconductive power switches
Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.
1983-01-01
This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.
Stick or Switch â?? Let's Make a Deal
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brought to you by Utah State University, this probability game is an electronic version of the old TV game show "Let's Make a Deal." This virtual manipulative allows users to investigate probabilities of sticking with a decision, or switching. This is a lesson designed to develop user's understanding of theoretical probability, using a simulation, for the chance of winning what's behind door number 1, 2, or 3. A good resource for teachers of mathematics courses ranging from statistics to combinatorics, this virtual manipulative is a fun way to learn about Monte Carlo simulations, experimental and theoretical probabilities, and the Law of Large Numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dye, Bryan
2002-01-01
A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Games-To-Teach Project
This site is the archived version of the Games-to-Teach project, now hosted by The Education Arcade. The Games-to-Teach Project is a partnership between MIT and Microsoft to develop conceptual prototypes for the next generation of interactive educational entertainment. Included are details about prototype educational games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boocock, Sarane S., Ed.; Schild, E.O., Ed.
Simulation games serve many functions, but the important one to educators is that they present the student player with a real-life situation allowing him to use his knowledge and abilities while discovering decision-making skills for himself. To provide a basic reference on simulation gaming, essays on various aspects of games were collected from…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
House, Peter W.; And Others
This publication describes thirty-three simulation games discussed at the 9th Symposium of the Council in April of 1970. Those articles related to the social sciences are: 1) Teaching Economics with Competitive Games; 2) An Economic Strategy Analysis Game; 3) A Social Simulation Strategy for Researching the Israeli Arab Conflict; 4) The Use of…
Evolutionary computation and games
S. M. Lucas; G. Kendall
2006-01-01
Games provide competitive, dynamic environments that make ideal test beds for computational intelligence theories, architectures, and algorithms. Natural evolution can be considered to be a game in which the rewards for an organism that plays a good game of life are the propagation of its genetic material to its successors and its continued survival. In natural evolution, the fitness of
NSDL National Science Digital Library
These kids games from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise include: Droplet and the Water Cycle, where a droplet must be navigated through the hydrological cycle; What on Earth?, a game of earth trivia; word search puzzles, with hidden earth science words; Drag and Drop puzzles, to test one's ability to interpret satellite and composite images; a Pangaea map game; and a tectonics quiz.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…
Ellen Wolock; Craig A. Anderson
2004-01-01
Reviews the longstanding and controversial topic of the effects of video game violence on children. Examines existing research and draws on personal experience and an interview with Doug Lowenstein, President of the Entertainment Software Association, for a view from the video game industry. Reports limitations on the significance of the research: some is short-term, on one type of game only,
Nicholas A. Perry
2009-01-01
War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Allen
2010-10-09
Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
Weijun Huang; Jewgeni H. Dshalalow
2009-01-01
We study an antagonistic sequential game of two players that undergoes two phases. Each phase is modeled by multi-dimensional random walk processes. During phase 1 (or game 1), the players exchange a series of random strikes of random magnitudes. Game 1 ends whenever one of the players sustains damages in excess of some lower threshold. However, the total damage does
Peter Takacs
2010-01-08
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corbin, Sandra J.
1980-01-01
Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)
Educational Games for Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos
2014-01-01
The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…
Jorgen W. Weibull
1999-01-01
This text introduces current evolutionary game theory--where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet--emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. The author provides an overview of the developments that have taken place in this branch of game theory, discusses the mathematical tools needed to understand the area, describes both the motivation and intuition for
Lloyd S. Shapley
1971-01-01
The core of ann-person game is the set of feasible outcomes that cannot be improved upon by any coalition of players. A convex game is defined as one that is based on a convex set function. In this paper it is shown that the core of a convex game is not empty and that it has an especially regular structure.
Peter Takacs
2008-10-21
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy
This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…
Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Partington, Anthony
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…
Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games
Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter
2012-01-01
Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games. PMID:23028289
Noise-driven attractor switching device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asakawa, Naoki; Hotta, Yasushi; Kanki, Teruo; Kawai, Tomoji; Tabata, Hitoshi
2009-02-01
Problems with artificial neural networks originate from their deterministic nature and inevitable prior learnings, resulting in inadequate adaptability against unpredictable, abrupt environmental change. Here we show that a stochastically excitable threshold unit can be utilized by these systems to partially overcome the environmental change. Using an excitable threshold system, attractors were created that represent quasiequilibrium states into which a system settles until disrupted by environmental change. Furthermore, noise-driven attractor stabilization and switching were embodied by inhibitory connections. Noise works as a power source to stabilize and switch attractors, and endows the system with hysteresis behavior that resembles that of stereopsis and binocular rivalry in the human visual cortex. A canonical model of the ring network with inhibitory connections composed of class 1 neurons also shows properties that are similar to the simple threshold system.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games 1. Take-Away Games. 1.1 A Simple Take-Away Game. 1.2 What is a Combinatorial Game? 1.3 P-positions, N-positions. 1.4 Subtraction Games. 1.5 Exercises. 2. The Game of Nim. 2.1 Preliminary Analysis. 2.2 Nim-Sum. 2.3 Nim With a Larger
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mike Shor
Game Theory .net focuses on making the lessons of game theory relevant to the educator, student, business professional, or layperson. The site provides resource materials demonstrating the application of game theory to computer science, economics, business, political science, and other disciplines. It features textbooks reviews, lecture notes, and quizzes, as well as Java applets and online games to demonstrate concepts in a fun, interactive way. There are also links concerning game-theory themes in movies, books, and the popular press. Assessment materials are provided to aid educators in preparing classes and to offer students additional practice.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Games are a great medium for introducing kids to complex topics like biodiversity. From the World Wildlife Fund, this website offers an inventive and fun collection of biodiversity games. The interactive games are designed for middle-school students and include a Virtual Safari, a Mapping Biodiversity game, a genetic diversity game, and more. The site also features a trailer for Biodiversity 911, a movie produced by Aardman, the clever creators of Wallace and Gromit. The website's Biodiversity 911 section also links to interactive activities that address fish sustainability, soil composition, toxic elements, and the ecology of a Sumatran rain forest.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The online interactive GeoGame activity is provided by globalschoolnet.org. The game is intended to have students learn geography terms, learn how to read and interpret maps, and increase awareness of geographical and cultural diversity. After registering for free, users get to choose games that contain international, United States, Canadian, or seasonal questions. The games, which aren't easy, are intended to be attempted by groups of students or the entire class, and led by the educator. Students use maps, atlases, and other reference material to search for the difficult answers, making the games more involved but more learning intensive.
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs
Zhu, Xuding
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1
FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET Di Loreto Ines Università degli Studi gouaich@lirmm.fr Pierre-Alain Laur Feerik pal@feerik.com ABSTRACT The focus on social games in recent Games) such as World of Warcraft (WoW). However, the rise of social games in social networks has also
Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter
Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)
2007-08-07
A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.
Hoefer, Martin
2008-01-01
This paper studies the effects of introducing altruistic agents into atomic congestion games. Altruistic behavior is modeled by a trade-off between selfish and social objectives. In particular, we assume agents optimize a linear combination of personal delay of a strategy and the resulting increase in social cost. Our model can be embedded in the framework of congestion games with player-specific latency functions. Stable states are the Nash equilibria of these games, and we examine their existence and the convergence of sequential best-response dynamics. Previous work shows that for symmetric singleton games with convex delays Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist. For concave delay functions we observe that there are games without Nash equilibria and provide a polynomial time algorithm to decide existence for symmetric singleton games with arbitrary delay functions. Our algorithm can be extended to compute best and worst Nash equilibria if they exist. For more general congestion games existence becomes NP...
CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines
Gordon, Scott
(); + abstract void setGameOver(boolean isOver); + abstract boolean isGameOver(); 9 SomeGame > sage.app.AbstractGame>> AbstractGame - gameWorld, displaySystem, inputMgr, gameOver sage.app.BaseGame Implementations providedCSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines 2 Basic Game
Game theoretic sensor management for target tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Douville, Philip; Yang, Chun; Kadar, Ivan
2010-04-01
This paper develops and evaluates a game-theoretic approach to distributed sensor-network management for target tracking via sensor-based negotiation. We present a distributed sensor-based negotiation game model for sensor management for multi-sensor multi-target tacking situations. In our negotiation framework, each negotiation agent represents a sensor and each sensor maximizes their utility using a game approach. The greediness of each sensor is limited by the fact that the sensor-to-target assignment efficiency will decrease if too many sensor resources are assigned to a same target. It is similar to the market concept in real world, such as agreements between buyers and sellers in an auction market. Sensors are willing to switch targets so that they can obtain their highest utility and the most efficient way of applying their resources. Our sub-game perfect equilibrium-based negotiation strategies dynamically and distributedly assign sensors to targets. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate our sensor-based negotiation approach for distributed sensor management.
A simple soft-switched switched-reluctance motor drive
Yoshihiro Murai; Ji Cheng
1998-01-01
A simple soft-switched switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive circuit was proposed, involving only three transistors. The circuit aims to drive the SRM with low EMI and with higher efficiency. The circuit performs soft switching by a simple switching method just like the usual hard switching drives. The current cut-off action of the motor windings can be done in a resonant
Security issues in online games
Jianxin Jeff Yan; Hyun-jin Choi
2002-01-01
The traditional target of computer game security is mainly copy protection. The e mergence of online games fundamentally changes the security requirements for computer games. Although computer game development often utilizes the cutting edge technology in computer graphics, artificial intelligence, human computer interaction and programming, game providers (developers or operators) do not pay much attention to security techniques. In this
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
2007-01-01
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part III. Two-Person General-Sum Games 1. Bimatrix Games -- Safety. For a couple of good references with emphasis on applications in economics, consult the books, Game Theory for Applied Economists by Robert Gibbons (1992), Princeton University Press, and Game Theory with Economic
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Fresno Community Science Workshop
2012-01-01
In this activity, learners build a switch to turn electrical circuits on and off. Learners can connect their switches to other projects they want to power and swing the popsicle stick around to control the direction of movement of the connected devices. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to electrical circuits, switches, and polarity. Note: this activity requires the use of a drill, which is not included in the cost of materials.
Thermally actuated thermionic switch
Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.
1982-09-30
A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.
Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)
1994-01-01
A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.
Guess My Rule: The Function Machine Game
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Terry Kawas
2000-01-01
This card game provides practice in saying and writing the function rule, given an input/output table. One student has the rule which the other student has to guess. The guesser records an input number in the table and the rule person must apply the rule and tell the output number. Student pairs repeat this until the guesser correctly identifies the rule by saying and writing it. Students then switch places and repeat the activity. There are three different levels of rules for play: simple addition & subtraction, multiplication or two-step rules.
Flows and Decompositions of Games: Harmonic and Potential Games
2010-05-13
distance of a game to its closest potential game to characterize the approximate equilibrium .... not required for the identification of equilibria, as long as the payoff differences are well defined. ...... wireless networks: a potential game approach.
Jeremy B. Muldavin; Gabriel M. Rebeiz
1999-01-01
This paper demonstrates the use of resonant tuning in high-isolation reflective MEMS electrostatic switches. Tuned switches can achieve higher isolation and a lower pulldown voltage than a comparable single element switch. An equivalent circuit model was developed for individual shunt capacitive membrane switches and then implemented in tuned circuits. The novel cross switch was developed on a high resistivity silicon.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game
Morrow, James A.
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game Will Johnson June 9, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Sums of Knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I Combinatorial Game Theory 23 2 Introduction 24 2.1 Combinatorial Game Theory in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2
ANDREAS FLACHE; MICHAEL W. MACY
2002-01-01
Concerns about models of cultural adaptation as analogs of genetic selection have led cognitive game theorists to explore learning-theoretic specifications. Two prominent examples, the Bush-Mosteller stochastic learning model and the Roth-Erev payoff-matching model, are aligned and integrated as special cases of a general reinforcement learning model. Both models predict stochastic collusion as a backward-looking solution to the problem of cooperation
Bounded rationality in multiobjective games
Chao Yu; Jian Yu
2007-01-01
In this paper, we will establish the connections between bounded rationality and multiobjective games. We obtain some new results for robustness to ?-equilibria and structural stability of multiobjective games and generalized multiobjective games.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jackson, Peter L.
This game is a computer simulation of retailers and wholesaler inventory systems. We play the game before we introduce EOQ and safety stock theory. The students soon get a feel for tradeoffs between ordering and inventory costs. We follow this trial and error experiment by a presentation of the theory. Students are then asked to apply the theory to the game's parameters and rerun it. The game captures several issues of inventory management as they relate to cost minimization and service level. These include order quantities, lead time, reorder points and safety stocks. This game can be used effectively to reinforce these concepts. The real strength of the game, however, is that it captures other aspects of inventory management that are typically missing from operations management text books. These are mainly the multiple echelon ordering system and pipeline stock.
National Indian Gaming Commission
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.
Combinatorial optimization games
Deng, X. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)
1997-06-01
We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.
Stochastic differential equations
Sobczyk, K. (Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland))
1990-01-01
This book provides a unified treatment of both regular (or random) and Ito stochastic differential equations. It focuses on solution methods, including some developed only recently. Applications are discussed, in particular an insight is given into both the mathematical structure, and the most efficient solution methods (analytical as well as numerical). Starting from basic notions and results of the theory of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus (including Ito's stochastic integral), many principal mathematical problems and results related to stochastic differential equations are expounded here for the first time. Applications treated include those relating to road vehicles, earthquake excitations and offshore structures.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part II. Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 1. The Strategic Form of a Game.4 The Minimax Theorem. 1.5 Exercises. 2. Matrix Games. Domination. 2.1 Saddle Points. 2.2 Solution of All 2 by 2 Matrix Games. 2.3 Removing Dominated Strategies. 2.4 Solving 2 Ã? n and m Ã? 2 Games. 2.5 Latin Square
Stochastic regulation in early immune response.
Lipniacki, Tomasz; Paszek, Pawel; Brasier, Allan R; Luxon, Bruce A; Kimmel, Marek
2006-02-01
Living cells may be considered noisy or stochastic biochemical reactors. In eukaryotic cells, in which the number of protein or mRNA molecules is relatively large, the stochastic effects originate primarily in regulation of gene activity. Transcriptional activity of a gene can be initiated by transactivator molecules binding to the specific regulatory site(s) in the target gene. The stochasticity of activator binding and dissociation is amplified by transcription and translation, since target gene activation results in a burst of mRNAs molecules, and each copy of mRNA then serves as a template for numerous protein molecules. In this article, we reformulate our model of the NF-kappaB regulatory module to analyze a single cell regulation. Ordinary differential equations, used for description of fast reaction channels of processes involving a large number of molecules, are combined with a stochastic switch to account for the activity of the genes involved. The stochasticity in gene transcription causes simulated cells to exhibit large variability. Moreover, none of them behaves like an average cell. Although the average mRNA and protein levels remain constant before tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulation, and stabilize after a prolonged TNF stimulation, in any single cell these levels oscillate stochastically in the absence of TNF and keep oscillating under the prolonged TNF stimulation. However, in a short period of approximately 90 min, most cells are synchronized by the TNF signal, and exhibit similar kinetics. We hypothesize that this synchronization is crucial for proper activation of early genes controlling inflammation. Our theoretical predictions of single cell kinetics are supported by recent experimental studies of oscillations in NF-kappaB signaling made on single cells. PMID:16284261
Stochastic Regulation in Early Immune Response
Lipniacki, Tomasz; Paszek, Pawel; Brasier, Allan R.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Kimmel, Marek
2006-01-01
Living cells may be considered noisy or stochastic biochemical reactors. In eukaryotic cells, in which the number of protein or mRNA molecules is relatively large, the stochastic effects originate primarily in regulation of gene activity. Transcriptional activity of a gene can be initiated by transactivator molecules binding to the specific regulatory site(s) in the target gene. The stochasticity of activator binding and dissociation is amplified by transcription and translation, since target gene activation results in a burst of mRNAs molecules, and each copy of mRNA then serves as a template for numerous protein molecules. In this article, we reformulate our model of the NF-?B regulatory module to analyze a single cell regulation. Ordinary differential equations, used for description of fast reaction channels of processes involving a large number of molecules, are combined with a stochastic switch to account for the activity of the genes involved. The stochasticity in gene transcription causes simulated cells to exhibit large variability. Moreover, none of them behaves like an average cell. Although the average mRNA and protein levels remain constant before tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulation, and stabilize after a prolonged TNF stimulation, in any single cell these levels oscillate stochastically in the absence of TNF and keep oscillating under the prolonged TNF stimulation. However, in a short period of ?90 min, most cells are synchronized by the TNF signal, and exhibit similar kinetics. We hypothesize that this synchronization is crucial for proper activation of early genes controlling inflammation. Our theoretical predictions of single cell kinetics are supported by recent experimental studies of oscillations in NF-?B signaling made on single cells. PMID:16284261
Analyzing Computer Game Narratives
Clark Verbrugge; Peng Zhang
2010-01-01
\\u000a In many computer games narrative is a core component with the game centering on an unfolding, interactive storyline which\\u000a both motivates and is driven by the game-play. Analyzing narratives to ensure good properties is thus important, but scalability\\u000a remains a barrier to practical use. Here we develop a formal analysis system for interactive fiction narratives. Our approach\\u000a is based on
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-10-24
In this game, which is similar to Petals Around the Rose (cataloged separately), a player rolls 5 dice and asks the participants, “How many polar bears are around the ice holes?” The participants try to figure out the riddle (rules of the game) by studying the dice arrangements and the answers that correspond. This webpage extends the game to have players also determine the number of fish and plankton.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
These games are intended to help prepare students for the New York State Regent's Exams, but may be used by anyone to review science topics in a fun, interactive atmosphere. Subjects include Earth science, geology, astrononomy, and chemistry. Users are asked a question, and if they choose the correct answer, may attempt to score points in the game setting. A teacher's page provides information on how to search the site to locate games on specific topics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
Sweeten, Mary K.
1981-01-01
-bearing animals that can be taken for their furs only during prescribed seasons. They can be taken throughout the year for food purposes. Armadillos and rattlesnakes are also popular with many hunters in Texas. Game animals, including rabbits, are usually.... Fried rattlesnake makes an interest ing treat to serve at an open house or party. Suggested Menus with Small Game The following menus suggest ways to use a variety of small game dishes in a day's meals planned to include the recommended servings...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michael Horton
2009-05-30
This activity is inquiry-based in that students will perform the activity before they formally learn about how a switch works. They will use a multimeter to discover the different settings on a triple-throw switch. The teacher should show the students how
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-06-26
This board game teaches learners about energy decision making. Players select cards that determine the transportation and home design that will influence their expenses as they play. Situations and decisions arise during the game. Deciding to bike instead of drive, for example, means a player won't have to buy gas, but only rolls a 4-sided die instead of an 8-sided one, which means slower progress. A carbon tax must be paid by all players. Discussion questions and award certificates are provided for post-game analysis. Most game materials are available as files to download and print, but some (dice, paper) must be purchased.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Computers can now compete with humans not only in chess, but also in the board game Go. Go involves two players who each try to surround a territory with stones of their color. The player who gains the most territory (mostly by surrounding his opponent these with his own stones) wins the game. Dutch researcher Erik van der Werf, with funding from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, "achieved a world first" with a program that can solve the Go game for a 5x5 playing board. This article briefly describes the game and the technique used to develop the program.
Enhanced logical stochastic resonance under periodic forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohar, Vivek; Murali, K.; Sinha, Sudeshna
2014-08-01
It was demonstrated recently that noise in an optimal window allows a bistable system to operate reliably as reconfigurable logic gates (Murali et al., 2009) [1], as well as a memory device (Kohar and Sinha, 2012) [11]. Namely, in a range of moderate noise, the system can operate flexibly, both as a NAND/AND/OR/NOR gate and a Set Reset latch. Here we demonstrate how the width of the optimal noise window can be increased by utilizing the constructive interplay of noise and periodic forcing, namely noise in conjunction with a periodic drive yields consistent logic outputs for all noise strengths below a certain threshold. Thus we establish that in scenarios where noise level is below the minimum threshold required for logical stochastic resonance (or stochastic resonance in general), we can add a periodic forcing to obtain the desired effects. Lastly, we also show how periodic forcing reduces the switching time, leading to faster operation of devices and lower latency effects.
Third-order leader-following consensus with circumstance noise under impulsive and switching control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Jia, Qiang; Wang, Yaqi
2014-02-01
This research is aimed at investigating the leader-follower problem of third-order multi-agent with noise perturbation over fixed network under impulsive and switching control. Based on stochastic differential equation theory and hybrid control theory, effective impulsive and switching controllers are proposed, and the sufficient conditions for reaching multi-agent leader-following consensus are acquired. Numerical simulations verify the validity of the theoretical research results.
Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.
Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei
2015-01-01
Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4?V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110?GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3?dB at 40?GHz), high isolation (30?dB at 40?GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35?THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890
Allen, James J.
2005-06-07
A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.
Continuum time limit and stationary states of the minority game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsili, Matteo; Challet, Damien
2001-11-01
We discuss in detail the derivation of stochastic differential equations for the continuum time limit of the minority game. We show that all properties of the minority game can be understood by a careful theoretical analysis of such equations. In particular, (i) we confirm that the stationary state properties are given by the ground state configurations of a disordered (soft) spin system, (ii) we derive the full stationary state distribution, (iii) we characterize the dependence on initial conditions in the symmetric phase, and (iv) we clarify the behavior of the system as a function of the learning rate. This leaves us with a complete and coherent picture of the collective behavior of the minority game. Strikingly we find that the temperaturelike parameter, which is introduced in the choice behavior of individual agents turns out to play the role, at the collective level, of the inverse of a thermodynamic temperature.
Diversity of contribution promotes cooperation in public goods games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Jia; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long
2010-08-01
In most previous studies of public goods game, individuals conventionally donate their contributions equally to the games they participate in. We develop an extended public goods game model, in which individuals distribute their contributions based on the groups’ qualities. Namely, the individuals are allowed to increase their investment to the superior groups at the expense of the nasty ones. The quality of a group is positively correlated with its cooperation level. In numerical simulations, synchronized stochastic strategy updating rule based on pairwise comparison for a fixed noise level is adopted. The results show that the high-quality group preference mechanism can greatly improve cooperation, compared with conventional models. Besides, the system with stronger preference toward high-quality groups performs better. Investigation of wealth distribution at equilibrium reveals that cooperators’ wealth appreciates with the increase of preference degree when cooperators take up the same fraction of the population.
Kepler, T B; Elston, T C
2001-01-01
Transcriptional regulation is an inherently noisy process. The origins of this stochastic behavior can be traced to the random transitions among the discrete chemical states of operators that control the transcription rate and to finite number fluctuations in the biochemical reactions for the synthesis and degradation of transcripts. We develop stochastic models to which these random reactions are intrinsic and a series of simpler models derived explicitly from the first as approximations in different parameter regimes. This innate stochasticity can have both a quantitative and qualitative impact on the behavior of gene-regulatory networks. We introduce a natural generalization of deterministic bifurcations for classification of stochastic systems and show that simple noisy genetic switches have rich bifurcation structures; among them, bifurcations driven solely by changing the rate of operator fluctuations even as the underlying deterministic system remains unchanged. We find stochastic bistability where the deterministic equations predict monostability and vice-versa. We derive and solve equations for the mean waiting times for spontaneous transitions between quasistable states in these switches. PMID:11720979
Y.-F. Liu; P. C. Sen
1992-01-01
The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in an SRLS voltage rectifier and an SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several DC-to-DC resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero
Yan-Fei Liu; Paresh C. Sen
1996-01-01
The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a Source Reactance Lossless Switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in a SRLS voltage rectifier and a SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several dc-to-dc resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero
Optical Circuit Switched Protocol
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.
Digital Games: Possibilities and Limitations The Spore Game Case
Lia Raquel Oliveira; Ana Castro Correia; Anabela Merrelho; Armanda Marques; Daniela Jorge Pereira
This paper discusses the educational value of digital games, its advantages and limitations. In order to present the educational potential of digital games, we proceed to the analysis and evaluation of a game, which was recently published by Electronic Arts Inc., Spore, a game that reached the market surrounded by controversy, due to the evolution of the cells that settle
Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model
Kristian Kiili
2005-01-01
Online games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide engaging learning experiences for students. However, a model that successfully integrates educational theory and game design aspects do not exist. Thus, in this paper an experiential gaming model that is based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game design is presented. The model stresses the importance of
Video game values: Human-computer interaction and games
Pippin Barr; James Noble; Robert Biddle
2007-01-01
Current human–computer interaction (HCI) research into video games rarely considers how they are different from other forms of software. This leads to research that, while useful concerning standard issues of interface design, does not address the nature of video games as games specifically. Unlike most software, video games are not made to support external, user-defined tasks, but instead define their
Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games
Kaiser, £ukasz
Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games Lukasz Kaiser kaiser@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen Computer Science Logic 2006 Lukasz Kaiser (RWTH Aachen) Game Quantifier on Automatic Structures 1 / 21 #12;Overview Introduction Logic with Game Quantifier Hierarchical
Representation of Finite Games as Network Congestion Games
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Representation of Finite Games as Network Congestion Games Igal Milchtaich Department of Economics Bar-Ilan University Israel Abstract--Weighted network congestion games are used for modeling or communication links. In spite of their special form, these games are not fundamentally special: every finite
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B.P. 93 2004 Route of South Australia The Levels, Australia, 5095 Abstract This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions
Population games, stable games, and passivity Michael J. Fox
Shamma, Jeff S.
Population games, stable games, and passivity Michael J. Fox Jeff S. Shamma March 31, 2013 July 23, 2013 (revised) September 2, 2013 (revised) Abstract The class of "stable games", introduced by Hofbauer evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback
Permissive strategies: from parity games to safety games
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Permissive strategies: from parity games to safety games Julien Bernet, David Janin, Igor {bernet|janin|igw}@labri.fr Abstract It is proposed to compare strategies in a parity game by comparing the sets of behaviours they allow. For such a game, there may be no winning strategy that encompasses all
GAME-BASED LEARNING THROUGH ONLINE COMPUTER GAMES
Berrin Dogusoy; Yavuz Inal
Computer games become one of the most attractive and enjoyable tools for people especially children in today's world. Almost all of them play in their spare time for fun. Due to these aspects and characteristics of the computer games, there have been conducted many researches on games so as to implement and integrate into educational settings for setting up game-based
Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching
nonblocking switch. I. INTRODUCTION THE transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increasing the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a sin- gle fiber. Optical burst switchingDesign of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching Jeyashankher Ramamirtham
Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching
results. We study the performance of optical burst switches using wavelength converting switches based Switches, Wavelength Routers I. INTRODUCTION The transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increas the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a single fiber. Optical burst switching
Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on
Zhong, Lin
Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made when studying resistive switching in nanosystems on oxide substrates, since oxide breakdown extrinsic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckman, Steven R.
2003-01-01
Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)
Total Enterprise Business Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keys, Bernard
1987-01-01
Describes, compares, and evaluates 10 computer-scored business games that include marketing, finance, and production functions. Methods for depicting the economy and industry are discussed, a learning model is used to explain teaching qualities of the games, and their value in the classroom is emphasized. (LRW)
C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos
1994-01-01
Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brian Petro
2004-09-28
With this interactive game students practice identifying names and values of US currency. It provides a picture of one of the U.S. coins or the dollar bill, and a question prompt, both printed and voiced, that asks the value. Sound clips reward correct responses or encourage another try. The game comprises a five question set.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
PBS
2007-12-12
Students will use a game setting to identify the properties of prime, composite, abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers. This lesson plan includes the objective, overview of the lesson, needed materials including transparency and worksheets, procedures and rules of the game, extensions and connections, resources, and ideas for discussion.
Mathematics Instruction with Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCann, Patrick H.
1977-01-01
Explores the use of games designed for the PLATO IV system in teaching mathematics skills to students required to complete Basic Electricity/Electronics (BE/E) School at the Naval Training Center, San Diego, California. It was hypothesized that ongoing game competition between the student and the PLATO IV system would be more effective than…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Skillwise: English and Maths for Adults
2012-08-03
In this online interactive game, students are tasked with using a variety of strategies to quickly compare fractions. By choosing the largest fraction, the student's dolphin travels further faster. This game encourages students to interpret the meaning of fractions and rely on strategies that go beyond finding common denominators.
Sports and Games Autobiography
DeMaio, Joe
Math 1107 Sports and Games Autobiography Due Date: Start of Class on Thursday, June 7, 2012 the lens of sports and games. For the year you were born, you must include statistics on the World Series). The web site, http://www.sports-reference.com/, is an excellent starting point for such data collection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.
2009-01-01
A number of years have passed since the development of the "Voyager: Satellites" educational card game reported in "Physics Education" in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the feedback received…
Network game traffic modelling
Johannes Färber
2002-01-01
A significant share of today's Internet traffic is generated by network gaming. This kind of traffic is interesting in regard to it's market potential as well as to it's real time requirements on the network. For the consideration of game traffic in network dimensioning, traffic models are required that allow to generate a characteristic load for analytical or simulative performance
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Liz Woodham
2014-01-01
This article highlights a number of mathematical strategy games that are available on the NRICH website. Most have interactive versions but also can be played offline. The author explains their value in the classroom, offers suggestions for implementation and extension, and provides links to the games and to other related articles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat
2015-01-01
Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
With this game, students explore the connection between climate, genetic variation and the transmission of hantavirus. A board and game pieces are provided. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessments, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 1 of the learning module, Human Health, Climate and Disease: A Critical Connection, part of the lesson series, Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…
Games on Sustainable Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara
This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials (many…
M. Zeleny
1975-01-01
The traditional theories of decision making and games are based on an assumption that prevents their broader practical utilization:a single dimensional payoff. In reality, any alternative is likely to imply more than one payoff, e.g. not only costs but also time, price, quality, safety, maintainability, productivity, etc. Similarly, the Theory of Games faces difficulties as we attempt to apply it
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Daniel; Melnychuk, Nancy
2009-01-01
In recent times, physical education teachers have become increasingly aware of the "games-understanding approach" to teaching. As more physical education teachers implement physical education programs that include a games-understanding model, they are becoming increasingly in need of appropriate and authentic assessment strategies. If one accepts…
Seasonal Game Requirements Specification
Cukic, Bojan
constraint will be determining which version of the Android OS to create the game around. The different to explain the requirements for creating a mobile game, dubbed Seasons, built for an Android device.2 Statement of Scope The scope of the application will be limited to Android cellular devices
Phase-shifts in stochastic resonance in a Chua circuit
Wojciech Korneta; Iacyel Gomes; Claudio R. Mirasso; Raul Toral
2007-10-29
We present an experimental study of stochastic resonance in an electronic Chua circuit operating in the chaotic regime. We study in detail the switch-phase distribution and the phase-shift between sinusoidal forcing for two responses of the circuit: one depending on both inter-well and intra-well dynamics and the other depending only on inter-well dynamics. We describe the two relevant de-synchronizatrion mechanisms for high and low frequencies of the forcing and present a method to detect the optimal noise intensity from switch phases which coincides with the one derived from the observation of the signal-to-noise ratio or residence times.
Photoconductive switch package
Ca[rasp, George J
2013-10-22
A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.
Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Bartelt, Terry L. M.
We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.
Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.
2010-01-01
We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.
Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.
2009-08-29
This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.
Knowledge acquisition for adaptive game AI
Marc J. V. Ponsen; Pieter Spronck; Héctor Muñoz-avila; David W. Aha
2007-01-01
Game artificial intelligence (AI) controls the decision-making process of computer- controlled opponents in computer games. Adaptive game AI (i.e., game AI that can automatically adapt the behaviour of the computer players to changes in the environment) can increase the entertainment value of computer games. Successful adaptive game AI is invariably based on the game's domain knowledge. We show that an
Game Theory and Boosting Manfred K. Warmuth
Warmuth, Manfred K.
Game Theory and Boosting Manfred K. Warmuth University of California, Santa Cruz Game Theory Class.K.Warmuth et.al. (UCSC) Game Theory and Boosting Game Theory Class, UCSC, March 3, 2009 / 45 #12;Outline 1 Zero.K.Warmuth et.al. (UCSC) Game Theory and Boosting Game Theory Class, UCSC, March 3, 2009 / 45 #12;Zero-sum games
Simulated Annealing, Vertex-Reinforced Random Walks and Learning in Games
Michel Benaim; Olivier Raimond
2007-01-01
This paper studies a class of non Markovian and non homogeneous stochastic processes on a finite state space. It provides an unified approach to simulated annealing type processes, certain vertex rein- forced random walks and certain models of learning in games including Markovian fictitious play.
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach
Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach Chenye Wu@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Due to the stochastic nature of wind power, its large-scale integration into the power grid-side resources via pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and fluctuations in wind power generation
Vikram Krishnamurthy; Minh Hanh Ngo
2005-01-01
In this paper we consider finite-size slotted ALOHA sensor networks with multiple packet reception capability and selfish sensors. Each sensor wishes to maximize its individual expected reward. We exploit decentralized channel state information (CSI) to obtain transmission policies that are optimal for each sensor The problem is formulated as a finite player finite action, non-cooperative stochastic game where each sensor
Intelligent Interfaces for Digital Games
Daniel Livingstone; Darryl Charles
Computer game design and technology continues to evolve at an incredible rate and the digital game systems which players must learn to the use and interact with are often far more complex now than in games of even a few years ago. There is an increasing need for interfaces within games that perform more advanced tasks than simply acting as
Intelligent Agents for Computer Games
Alexander Nareyek
2000-01-01
. In modern computer games --- like action, adventure, roleplaying,strategy, simulation and sports games --- artificial intelligence(AI) techniques play an important role. However, the requirements ofsuch games are very different from those of the games normally studiedin AI.This article discusses which approaches and fields of research are relevantto achieve a sophisticated goal-directed behavior for modern computergames\\
Game Trees for Decision Analysis
Shenoy, Prakash P.
1998-04-01
Game trees (or extensive-form games) were first defined by von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944. In this paper, we examine the use of game trees for representing Bayesian decision problems. We propose a method for solving game trees using local...
Video Games and Civic Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perkins-Gough, Deborah
2009-01-01
According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…
Czárán, Tamás
BOOK REVIEWS Game theory and evolutionary ecology Evolutionary Games & Population Dynamics by J 521 62365 0 / 0 521 62579 X Game Theory & Animal Behaviour edited by L.A. Dugatkin and H.K. Reeve Oxford University Press, 1998. £55.00 hbk (xiv 320 pages) ISBN 0 19 509692 4 The liaison between game
Call for Papers Game Technologies
Lau, W. H. Nynson
Call for Papers Game Technologies Special Issue of The Journal of Visualization & Computer issue, we call for technical papers that describe novel game engine technologies. In particular, we are interested in papers that address technical issues of game engines that support multiplayer online games
Evolutionary game Karl Sigmund* and
Nowak, Martin A.
Primer Evolutionary game theory Karl Sigmund* and Martin A. Nowak Ever since Darwin read Malthus, the theory of evolution has benefited from the interaction of ecology with economics. Evolutionary game theory belongs to this tradition: it merges population ecology with game theory. Game theory originally
Situating Ethics in Games Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Joy
2013-01-01
This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…
Computer Games for Visualization and
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
Games Get Serious Computer Games for Visualization and More by Tim Holt #12;The Story Historically solution Consider computer game concepts and technology to enable visualization and interaction in 3d virtual space #12;Computer games are a powerful and driving force in 3d visualization and interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pill, Shane
2012-01-01
"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…
Simple Games: Weightedness and Generalizations
Slinko, Arkadii
Simple Games: Weightedness and Generalizations A Dissertation Submitted to the Department contributes to the program of numerical characterisation and classifi- cation of simple games outlined is what makes a simple game a weighted majority game. The necessary and sufficient con- ditions
Games on graphs Milos Stojakovic
Stojakovic, Milos
Games on graphs Milos StojakoviÂ´c Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia milos.stojakovic@dmi.uns.ac.rs http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/smilos/ Abstract. Positional Games is a branch of Combinatorics which focuses on a variety of two player games, ranging from well-known games
Kosters, Walter
GC--Gadgets Game Complexity Gadgets Walter Kosters, Universiteit Leiden www.liacs.nl/home/kosters/ IPA, Eindhoven; Wednesday, January 29, 2014 1 #12;GC--Gadgets Goal We study the complexity of games reductions between approp- riate games, with the help of gadgets. Games studied include TipOver, Plank
Model-comparison Games with Algebraic Rules
-FraÃ¯ssÃ© game Fixed-point logic Pebble game #12;Games in nite model theory Logic Corresponding game First, bijection game Fixed-point logic with matrix rank Matrix-rank game #12;Games in nite model theory Logic-order logic Ehrenfeucht-FraÃ¯ssÃ© game Fixed-point logic Pebble game Fixed-point logic with counting Counting
Resonance with Stochastic Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Toru
2010-06-01
We introduce a resonant phenomenon using a model incorporating delay (temporal non-locality) and stochastic time (temporal stochasticity). Although this model is a very simple linear dynamical differential equation, the addition of these elements makes it very rich. As an illustrative example, we describe a human stick balancing experiment that includes added fluctuations. We discuss how these concepts of temporal non-locality and stochasticity could play a role in characterizing biological and physiological systems, as well as in physics.
Barbara Robertson; Fat D. Ho; Tracy D. Hudson
2001-01-01
The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as
International Journal of Game Theory (1989) 18:195-207 RegularSimple Games
Lehrer, Ehud
1989-01-01
International Journal of Game Theory (1989) 18:195-207 RegularSimple Games By E. Einy1 and E games, the regular and the strongly regular games. We show that the strongly regular games are those for the class of finite weighted majority games within the finite simple games.We alsoprove that regular games
Modeling A Fibre Channel Switch with Stochastic Petri Nets
Gianfranco Ciardo; Ludmila Cherkasova; Vadim E. Kotov; Tomas Rokicki
1995-01-01
As computing systems become increasingly complex and concurrent, performance analysis becomes more important, especially when designing an overall ar- chitecture. Simple numerical approximations can of- ten yield bounds on performance. Queueing theory and Markovian analysis can provide insight into the steady-state performance of the system. Discrete- event simulation can provide a more detailed view of the system behavior. We used
Optical switching: Excitonic interconnects
Stojanovic, V.; Baldo, Marc
2009-01-01
Interconnects and switches relying on excitons — quasiparticles consisting of bound electron–hole pairs — may offer a promising energy-efficient alternative to electrons in wires for future electronic circuitry.
Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.
1987-04-30
The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.
Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula
2013-01-01
The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. The results suggest poor attention switching, lack of response inhibition and/or poor listening effort consistent with a predominantly top-down (central) information processing deficit. A deficit in the ability to switch attention across talkers would provide the basis for this otherwise hidden listening disability, especially in noisy environments involving multiple talkers such as classrooms. PMID:23416613
Optical shutter switching matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grove, Charles H.
1991-01-01
The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.
C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.
2007-07-21
The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.
George N. Rouskas; Lisong Xu
\\u000a The concept of optical packet switching (OPS) is emerging as an alternative to coarser-grained switching in the optical domain.\\u000a Despite the significant technological challenges it faces, OPS holds the promise of a highly reconfigurable, bandwidth-efficient,\\u000a and flexible optical layer. In this chapter we study some of the architectural and design issues for OPS networks, we examine\\u000a a number of enabling
Photoconductive semiconductor switches
Guillermo M. Loubriel; Fred J. Zutavern; Albert G. Baca; H. P. Hjalmarson; Tom A. Plut; Wesley D. Helgeson; M. H. Ruebush; D. J. Brown
1997-01-01
Optically activated GaAs switches operated in their high-gain mode are being used or tested for pulsed power applications as diverse as low-impedance, high-current firing sets in munitions; high impedance, low-current Pockels cell or Q-switch drivers for lasers; high-voltage drivers for laser diode arrays; high-voltage, high-current, compact accelerators; and pulsers for ground penetrating radar. This paper will describe the properties of
Stochastic gene expression as a many-body problem
Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.
2003-01-01
Gene expression has a stochastic component because of the single-molecule nature of the gene and the small number of copies of individual DNA-binding proteins in the cell. We show how the statistics of such systems can be mapped onto quantum many-body problems. The dynamics of a single gene switch resembles the spin-boson model of a two-site polaron or an electron transfer reaction. Networks of switches can be approximately described as quantum spin systems by using an appropriate variational principle. In this way, the concept of frustration for magnetic systems can be taken over into gene networks. The landscape of stable attractors depends on the degree and style of frustration, much as for neural networks. We show the number of attractors, which may represent cell types, is much smaller for appropriately designed weakly frustrated stochastic networks than for randomly connected networks. PMID:12606710
Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul
2012-02-01
Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.
Zhang, Liye; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua
2015-04-01
Evolutionary game theory is crucial to capturing the characteristic interaction patterns among selfish individuals. In a population of coordination games of two strategies, one of the central problems is to determine the fixation probability that the system reaches a state of networkwide of only one strategy, and the corresponding expectation times. The deterministic replicator equations predict the critical value of initial density of one strategy, which separates the two absorbing states of the system. However, numerical estimations of this separatrix show large deviations from the theory in finite populations. Here we provide a stochastic treatment of this dynamic process on complex networks of finite sizes as Markov processes, showing the evolutionary time explicitly. We describe analytically the effects of network structures on the intermediate fixations as observed in numerical simulations. Our theoretical predictions are validated by various simulations on both random and scale free networks. Therefore, our stochastic framework can be helpful in dealing with other networked game dynamics. PMID:25974547
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liye; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua
2015-04-01
Evolutionary game theory is crucial to capturing the characteristic interaction patterns among selfish individuals. In a population of coordination games of two strategies, one of the central problems is to determine the fixation probability that the system reaches a state of networkwide of only one strategy, and the corresponding expectation times. The deterministic replicator equations predict the critical value of initial density of one strategy, which separates the two absorbing states of the system. However, numerical estimations of this separatrix show large deviations from the theory in finite populations. Here we provide a stochastic treatment of this dynamic process on complex networks of finite sizes as Markov processes, showing the evolutionary time explicitly. We describe analytically the effects of network structures on the intermediate fixations as observed in numerical simulations. Our theoretical predictions are validated by various simulations on both random and scale free networks. Therefore, our stochastic framework can be helpful in dealing with other networked game dynamics.
A radiation hard vacuum switch
Boettcher, G.E.
1988-07-19
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.
Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long
2013-10-01
The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-08-26
This online, interactive "Chutes and Ladders" type of game is for ages 7-9 and can be played with a friend or against the computer. As players land on squares, depending on the described action, they either "leap" frog ahead if they help the environment or butterfly "flutter" back if they do not. The website includes a short explanation of why we should care about frogs and butterflies, as well as some facts about some of the activities on the game board and why they are good or not good for the environment. A printable version of the board game is also available.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-09-28
In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Cynthia Corbitt
2006-03-01
For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts (Gardner 1993). With this in mind, a team developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to model the nervous system signals. A formal test of the game led to the activities described in this article. This game is a great way to introduce such complex principles as motor versus sensory signaling, reflexes, and the effects of spinal cord injury.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jesus Mario Bilbao Arrese, a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Seville, heads the Seville Game Theory group (SGT). On this website, visitors will find a selection of publications by members of the group, including papers, preprints and PhD theses. The Blackboard section includes various position papers, mostly in Spanish, which address issues such as the value of using scientific methods to understand, design and analyze complex voting systems. The website also provides links to Economics and Mathematics associations, information on conferences on game theory, and links to related journals and book series. The Download area also provides links to online resources that address topics related to game theory.
Innovative switching technology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosen, A.; Stabile, P. J.; Gombar, A. M.; Janton, W. M.; Gilbert, D. B.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Bahasadri, A.
1991-03-01
We have developed an all-semiconductor high-power optical switch. Potential uses include both military applications, such as ultra-wide-band impulse radar and high-frequency antenna couplers, and commercial use, such as high-power switching for utility companies. Under this three-year program, we have demonstrated various switching applications from dc to GHz frequencies. The generic switches comprise a 2-D semiconductor laser diode array and Si or GaAs devices. In the Si area (linear switches - no gain) and dc-biased network, a single two-sided PIN device, activated by two 1 kW laser arrays, has yielded a holding voltage of 1.3 kV and conducted 192 A. Similar devices have later yielded a holding voltage of 3.3 kV, demonstrating the capability of switching more than 500 kW with a single two-sided PIN device. The same generic technology was also demonstrated in high-power high-frequency antenna coupler applications as well as in mm-wave (60 GHz) attenuators and phase shifters. PIN devices tested in a RF circuit between 2-30 MHz yielded an isolation value of between 28 and 49 dB in the off-state, and insertion losses as low as 0.1 dB when illuminated with 280 W (peak) optical power at 808 nm. In the area of GaAs, PIN, and bulk devices under this project, we were able to deliver devices for experiments in both opening and closing switches. We have demonstrated a compact, all-semiconductor switch system that has switched up to 8.5 MW into a 38 (omega) load. The system uses a 2-D laser diode array with a peak power of 850 W to rigger a 1.5 cm long GaAs photoconductor into a high-gain combination mode known as 'lock on'. The highest power switch was pulse-charged to 55 kV and delivered 470 A to a 38 (omega) load in 160 ns long pulse. In the area of 2-D laser arrays, a peak power density of 7 kW/cm(exp 2) was achieved.
Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.
2007-10-01
The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.
Learning process in public goods games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amado, André; Huang, Weini; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes
2015-07-01
We propose an individual-based model to describe the effects of memory and learning in the evolution of cooperation in a public goods game (PGG) in a well-mixed population. Individuals are endowed with a set of strategies, and in every round of the game they use one strategy out of this set based on their memory and learning process. The payoff of a player using a given strategy depends on the public goods enhancement factor r and the collective action of all players. We investigate the distribution of used strategies as well as the distribution of information patterns. The outcome depends on the learning process, which can be dynamic or static. In the dynamic learning process, the players can switch their strategies along the whole game, and use the strategy providing the highest payoff at current time step. In the static learning process, there is a training period where the players randomly explore different strategies out of their strategy sets. In the rest of the game, players only use the strategy providing the highest payoff during the training period. In the dynamic learning process, we observe a transition from a non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation reaches about 50 %. As in the standard PGG, in the static learning process there is a transition from the non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation can be higher than 50% at r = N. In both learning processes the transition becomes smoother as the memory size of individuals increases, which means that the lack of information is a key ingredient causing the defection.
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
Martin Lüscher
2014-12-17
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Amplification by stochastic interference
K. Svozil; D. Felix; K. Ehrenberger
2002-11-19
A new method is introduced to obtain a strong signal by the interference of weak signals in noisy channels. The method is based on the interference of 1/f noise from parallel channels. One realization of stochastic interference is the auditory nervous system. Stochastic interference may have broad potential applications in the information transmission by parallel noisy channels.
Succession Model Landscape Stochasticity
100 1000 10000 patch sizes birth rate both Disturbance Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High" accomplished by incrementing the patch birth rate (Control: s = a = 10) A simple model of species viabilitySuccession Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High Very High ThresholdMultiplier 0.1 1 10
Richard Colombo; Weina Jiang
1999-01-01
A central problem in database marketing is how to choose which customers in the firm's database to target with an offer. This paper presents a simple stochastic RFM model to carry out such a task. By making a few straightforward assumptions about the customers in the database, the stochastic model provides a means of (1) ranking customers in terms of
Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.
2014-09-01
Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation.
Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression.
Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya
2014-01-01
Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models. PMID:24580265
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny
2011-01-01
This Java applet provides practice in adding denominations of US coins in the context of a simple turn-taking game of strategy. The game starts with pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters arrayed in a row or loop. One person (or the computer) picks a coin on either end of the chain. Then the computer (or the second person) selects either the new "end" coin or the unchosen one from the previous round. Play proceeds in alternating fashion until no coins remain; the player who collects the greatest dollar amount wins. Click "random numbers" to play the same game with counting numbers in lieu of coins. A discussion of optimal strategies appears below the game.
... this page, please enable JavaScript. Boost your health knowledge by playing these interactive health games. Go to: ... Homeland Security) Drugs and Young People Test Your Knowledge (National Institute on Drug Abuse) E E. Coli ...
... Malaria MRI Nerve Signaling Pavlov's Dog Split Brain Experiments The Cell and its Organelles The Genetic Code ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
WGBH Educational Foundation
2007-08-09
In this interactive game adapted from the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, build a food web that illustrates the flow of energy in an Antarctic ecosystem and the relationships between predators and prey.
Vedrashko, Ilya
2006-01-01
This paper suggests advertisers should experiment with in-game advertising to gain skills that could become vital in the near future. It compiles, arranges and analyzes the existing body of academic and industry knowledge ...
Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Sara Dea
Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Connected Mathematics Project 2006
2010-05-17
Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The 2004 Olympic Summer Games may be several months away, but preparations have been going on for many months, and the city of Athens is looking forward to hosting its first official Olympic Games competition since 1896. As one might expect, the site's main page offers a veritable cornucopia of information on visiting Athens, accommodations, ticket information, and a special area designed for young people. Additionally, the site also provides extensive material on the Paralympic Games, which will also take place this summer. Visitors will want to take a look at the key dates section, as it offers details on when and where each competitive event will take place, along with the ever-popular opening and closing ceremonies. The site has some nice extra features, such as volunteer applications for the Games, e-cards to send to friends and family, and information on the extensive transportation infrastructure improvements added to the urban fabric of Athens for this historic event.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Creative Learning Exchange
This site features a simulation that places the student in the role of a wildlife manager who must use natural resources prudently. The site includes links to a user's guide, a fishing game simulator, and related reading material.
Introduction Game 1: Manufacturer -Stackelberg Leader
Grigorieva, Ellina V.
Introduction Model Game 1: Manufacturer -Stackelberg Leader Game 2: Retailer -Stackelberg Leader Computer Modeling Conclusions Hierarchical Differential Games Ellina Grigorieva and Evgenii Khailov Denton, Arlington, TX Ellina Grigorieva and Evgenii Khailov Hierarchical Differential Games #12;Introduction Model
Playing Games with Quantum Mechanics
Simon J. D. Phoenix; Faisal Shah Khan
2012-02-22
We present a perspective on quantum games that focuses on the physical aspects of the quantities that are used to implement a game. If a game is to be played, it has to be played with objects and actions that have some physical existence. We call such games playable. By focusing on the notion of playability for games we can more clearly see the distinction between classical and quantum games and tackle the thorny issue of what it means to quantize a game. The approach we take can more properly be thought of as gaming the quantum rather than quantizing a game and we find that in this perspective we can think of a complete quantum game, for a given set of preferences, as representing a single family of quantum games with many different playable versions. The versions of Quantum Prisoners Dilemma presented in the literature can therefore be thought of specific instances of the single family of Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma with respect to a particular measurement. The conditions for equilibrium are given for playable quantum games both in terms of expected outcomes and a geometric approach. We discuss how any quantum game can be simulated with a classical game played with classical coins as far as the strategy selections and expected outcomes are concerned.
Todd Sandler
2003-01-01
Abstract This article examines,how game- theoretic analyses of terrorism have provided some policy insights that do not follow from nonstrategic analyses. Some new game-theoretic applications are indicated that concern terrorist targeting of businesses, officials, and the general public, where targets can work at cross-purposes as th ey attempt to deflect the attack. Other novel applications involve government choice among alternative
Rescue Mission Game (Illuminations)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
In this lesson plan students explore the four forces of flight in order to complete the "Rescue Mission". Students must use their knowledge of probability to choose the spinner that will help them win the game. Students must also use their knowledge of graphing points on a coordinate grid in order to plot the results of each spin. The game board and spinners are included (PDF).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana
2015-04-01
Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes; contribute to innovative pedagogies for scientific learning; create a scientific feedback-loop with students and teachers; implement a multi-level video game for scientific outreach.
Adam Dawes
\\u000a So your masterpiece is complete. The graphics are drawn and animating, the game logic is working, everything is sounding great,\\u000a navigation around the different sections of the game is all done, and you have all sorts of extras such as high scores, tombstoning\\u000a support, and information pages. Now it is time to share your creation with the rest of the
Martin Trautschold; Gary Mazo
\\u000a Your iPad excels at many things. It is a multimedia workhorse, and it can keep track of your busy life, as well. Two areas\\u000a where the iPad really excels are as a gaming device and for hosting iPad-specific apps that really take advantage of its large,\\u000a high resolution touch screen. You can even find versions of popular games you might
Hawick, Ken
1 Game Playing #12;2 Outline · Perfect Play · Resource Limits · Alpha-Beta pruning · Games Blue, grand master #12;14 Alpha-Beta pruning Example MAX MIN A1 A2 A3 3 3 A11 A13 A12 3 12 8 X A23 A22 2 X X A31 A33 A32 14 Alpha-Beta · pruning
Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2001-06-01
The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jennifer Doherty
This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
American Museum of Natural History
2012-06-26
In this game, learners each represent a different organism in an environment. They build a web during the activity, and discover how all the players in an ecosystem depend on each other. As they play, learners will come up with the connections between different species and their environments. At least six people are needed to play this game, and it could be played with a large group as well.
Gordon, Scott
extend sage.app.BaseGame, and override initGame() and update(). All game logic must reside inside1 CSc 165 Computer Game Architecture and Implementation Spring 2014 - Gordon Assignment #1: Building A Game Using Game Engine Components Due: Tuesday, February 25th (2 weeks) The objective
Nijholt, Anton
Let the Game do the Talking: The influence of explicitness and game behavior on comprehension in an educational computer game Erwin Bergervoet, Frans van der Sluis, Betsy van Dijk, Anton Nijholt Human Media--An endogenous educational game is a game where the educational content is integrated in the game play mechanics
Aaland, K.
1983-08-09
A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.
Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.
1984-04-05
The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.
Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives
Kuss, Daria J
2013-01-01
In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that evidences neurobiologic correlates of Internet gaming addiction and the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, but also emphasizes the necessity of an indepth understanding of the meaning, context, and practices associated with gaming. PMID:24255603
Adaptive resource management for IP/ATM hybrid switching systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che, Hao; Li, San-Qi; Lin, Arthur
1997-10-01
This paper addresses a fundamental problem in resource management for flow-based hybrid switching systems. Such systems aim at efficiently transporting layer 3 connectionless IP traffic over layer 2 connection-oriented ATM switching fabrics. One idea behind flow-based hybrid switching is first to decompose individual IP packet streams into flows and then to classify them into short-lived flows and long-lived flows. While the short-lived flows are best forwarded by the embedded software through permanent virtual connections (PVC), the long-lived flows are more effectively transmitted by hardware through to-be-established switched virtual connections (SVC). Clearly the flow classification mechanism will have great impact on the utilization of the system's resources. Unlike the traditional emphasis on resources such as link bandwidth and cell buffer size, our paper focuses on the resources which are directly associated with packet processing power, signaling capacity and routing table size. Our study indicates that the presently available static flow classification methods have a vital shortcoming in balancing the utilization of the system's resources. We propose a novel approach for adaptive flow classification which can balance the utilization of system resources to match the time varying traffic characteristics. After formulating the proposed flow adaptation as a stochastic control problem, a heuristic algorithm is developed. The simulation study based on real traces shows the viability of the proposed flow adaptation for dynamic resource management in flow-based hybrid switching system design.
Stochastic multisymplectic integrator for stochastic KdV equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Shanshan; Wang, Lijin; Hong, Jialin
2012-09-01
In this paper we investigate the stochastic multisymplectic methods to solve the stochastic partial differential equation. The stochastic KdV equations are considered. Besides conserving the multi-symplectic structure of original equation, the stochastic multi-symplectic methods are also investigated for the conservation of various conservation laws. We deduce the transit laws of the specific formal conservation laws. Numerical experiments are illustrated to verify the good behaviors of stochastic multisymplectic methods.
Stochastic Decoding of Turbo Codes
Quang Trung Dong; Matthieu Arzel; Christophe Jégo; Warren J. Gross
2010-01-01
Stochastic computation is a technique in which operations on probabilities are performed on random bit streams. Stochastic decoding of forward error-correction (FEC) codes is inspired by this technique. This paper extends the application of the stochastic decoding approach to the families of convolutional codes and turbo codes. It demonstrates that stochastic computation is a promising solution to improve the data
Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Partial Information
E. Altman; R. El Azouzi; T. Jimenez
2003-01-01
Abstract: This paper studies distributed choice of retransmissionprobabilities in slotted ALOHA. Both thecooperative team problem as well as the noncooperativegame problem are considered. Unlike someprevious work, we assume that mobiles do not knowthe number of backlogged packets at other nodes.A Markov chain analysis is used to obtain optimaland equilibrium retransmission probabilitiesand throughput. We then investigate the impactof adding retransmission costs
An Anti-Jamming Stochastic Game for Cognitive Radio Networks
Beibei Wang; Yongle Wu; K. J. Ray Liu; T. Charles Clancy
2011-01-01
Various spectrum management schemes have been proposed in recent years to improve the spectrum utilization in cognitive radio networks. However, few of them have considered the existence of cognitive attackers who can adapt their attacking strategy to the time-varying spectrum environment and the sec- ondary users' strategy. In this paper, we investigate the security mechanism when secondary users are facing
Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...
Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...
43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, N. J. (inventor)
1968-01-01
A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.
Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag
Jipsen, Peter
Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag CWI P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands logic, games and (co)algebra, stressing especially the modal logic aspects of important gameÂ theoretic concepts. There are two main possible ways of relating logic and games: logic games and game logics
Opportunities for Game Culture and Technology in
Scacchi, Walt
1 Opportunities for Game Culture and Technology in Public Libraries Walt Scacchi Institute.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi Computer Games in Libraries · A little background on game culture and technology · New game opportunities for public libraries · Libraries as community centers for games culture and technology #12;2 Game Culture
Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming
Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.
2009-08-31
We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.
Multipotential Games This version contains all proofs
Monderer, Dov
Multipotential Games This version contains all proofs Dov Monderer Faculty of Industrial@ie.technion.ac.il Abstract We introduce and analyze q-potential games and q- congestion games, where q is a positive integer. A 1-potential (congestion) game is a potential (con- gestion) game. We show that a game is a q
The Educational Potential of Modified Video Games
Andrew Moshirnia
2007-01-01
As the popularity of video game playing has increased, educators have sought to co-opt video games as an instructional tool. However, educational games have made little impact in either the commercial market place or the average game player's home library. The modification, or modding, of video games using in-game editors may be used by instructors to introduce educational content to
Developing game worlds : gaming, technology, and innovation in Peru
Marisca Alvarez, Eduardo
2014-01-01
In this work, I've documented the origins, growth and structure of the Peruvian video game industry. Because of its underground origins, the Peruvian game industry provides an alternative, more organic gateway to developing ...
Flows and Decompositions of Games: Harmonic and Potential Games
Candogan, Utku Ozan
In this paper we introduce a novel flow representation for finite games in strategic form. This representation allows us to develop a canonical direct sum decomposition of an arbitrary game into three components, which we ...
Bearingless switched reluctance motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.
Magnetic switches and circuits
Nunnally, W.C.
1982-05-01
This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Bartelt, Terry L. M.
This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, explains clearly the reasons to use switches in place of hubs when using an LAN. The animations and corresponding explanations are helpful as the user clicks through each slide at his or her own pace. Animations can be viewed again and navigation is simple. At the end, review questions test the userâ??s knowledge. This is a good resource for students and teachers alike to familiarize themselves with switches in this fast-paced technological world.
Bistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks
Bergman, Keren
network data throughput by reducing the guard times within the packet structure. The switching timeBistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur, Student is achieved using Schmitt trigger comparators in the routing decision logic. I. INTRODUCTION Optical packet
Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games.
Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.
2001-09-01
Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of "noise" that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift-as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet-the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779509
Renaud Gauthier
2014-07-25
We develop the foundations of Algebraic Stochastic Calculus, with an aim to replacing what is typically referred to as Stochastic Calculus by a purely categorical version thereof. We first give a sheaf theoretic reinterpretation of Probability Theory. We regard probability spaces (X, F, P) as Grothendieck sites (F, J_P) on which Brownian motions are defined via sheaves in symmetric monoidal infinity-categories. Due to the complex nature of such a formalism we are naturally led to considering a purely categorical, time independent formalism in which stochastic differential equations are replaced by studying problems in deformation theory.
Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (inventors)
1983-01-01
An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.
1974-01-01
Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.
Asymptotic and numerical methods for metastable events in stochastic gene networks
Jay Newby
2014-12-29
A general class of stochastic gene expression models with self regulation is considered. One or more genes randomly switch between regulatory states, each having a different mRNA transcription rate. The gene or genes are self regulating when the proteins they produce affect the rate of switching between regulatory states. Under weak noise conditions, the deterministic forces are much stronger than fluctuations from gene switching and protein synthesis. Metastable transitions, such as bistable switching, can occur under weak noise conditions, causing dramatic shifts in the expression of a gene. A general tool used to describe metastability is the quasi stationary analysis (QSA). A large deviation principle is derived so that the QSA can explicitly account for random gene switching without using an adiabatic limit or diffusion approximation, which are unreliable and inaccurate for metastable events.This allows the existing asymptotic and numerical methods that have been developed for continuous Markov processes to be used to analyze the full model.
Computer Games Are Fun? On Professional Games and Players' Motivations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eglesz, Denes; Fekete, Istvan; Kiss, Orhidea Edith; Izso, Lajos
2005-01-01
As computer games are becoming more widespread, there is a tendency for young people to spend a growing amount of time playing games. The first part of this paper will deal with various types of computer games and their characteristic features. In the second part we show the results of our recent surveys. We examined the motivations of young…
ALTEC Learning Games: Successful Integration of Learning and Gaming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Melanie A.; Ault, Marilyn M.
2009-01-01
Of the 53 million K-12 students in the United States, 93%, or 51 million, of them play video games (Etuk, 2008). ALTEC Learning Games utilize the excitement of video games to engage students and provide teachers authentic online resources that reinforce skills in math and language arts. Our recent work was partially supported by a partnership with…
Why Machine Learning and Games? Machine Learning in Video Games
Hunt, Galen
#12;Why Machine Learning and Games? Machine Learning in Video Games DrivatarsTM Reinforcement Learning Machine Learning in Online Games TrueSkillTM Halo 3 The Path of Go Conclusions #12;Test Beds for Machine Learning Â· Perfect instrumentation and measurements Â· Perfect control and manipulation Â· Reduced
Mapping Learning and Game Mechanics for Serious Games Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnab, Sylvester; Lim, Theodore; Carvalho, Maira B.; Bellotti, Francesco; de Freitas, Sara; Louchart, Sandy; Suttie, Neil; Berta, Riccardo; De Gloria, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Although there is a consensus on the instructional potential of Serious Games (SGs), there is still a lack of methodologies and tools not only for design but also to support analysis and assessment. Filling this gap is one of the main aims of the Games and Learning Alliance (http://www.galanoe.eu) European Network of Excellence on Serious Games,…
Mathematically Rich, Equitable Game Software.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Megan; Mokros, Jan; Rubin, Andee
1999-01-01
Identifies characteristics of mathematically rich, equitable game software for middle school students. Introduces and compares two games called Math Blaster and Logical Journey of the Zoombinis. Contains 15 references. (ASK)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Edison Freire
This board game reinforces learning about the sources and biological hazards of lead exposure. The first file has the game and the second file has teacher notes, including background information on lead.
Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devaney, Robert L.
2004-01-01
Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.
Computer Games in the Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunter, C. Bruce; Wold, Allen L.
1982-01-01
Describes the use of computer games in the classroom as tools which foster logical reasoning, perserverance, goal setting, and attention to detail. Names and addresses of six magazines containing computer games information are included. (JJD)
Illuminated push-button switch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwagiri, T.
1983-01-01
An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.
Vincent W. S. Chan; Claude E. Shannon; J. Jacobs; I. Jacobs
2010-01-01
We will explore a new network transport ”optical flow switching-OFS”, that will enable significant data rate growth and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks. The talk will concentrate on the tough network management\\/control issues of OFS.
Vincent W. S. Chan; Irwin Jacobs; Claude E. Shannon
2010-01-01
Present-day networks are being challenged by dramatic increases in bandwidth demand of emerging applications. We will explore a new transport, ¿optical flow switching¿, that will enable significant growth, power-efficiency and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks.
J. Mellor
The imitation switch (ISWI) family of chromatin remodelling ATPases is found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ISWI ATPases assemble chromatin and slide and space nucleosomes, making the chromatin template fluid and allowing appropriate regulation of events such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. The site of action of the ATPases is determined, in part by the tissue
G. A. Farrall
1973-01-01
This paper is a review of vacuum-arc phenomena which are related to switching devices. Despite the device overtones, the approach adopted for this paper is fundamental. Topics discussed include the drawn arc, the triggered arc, the power input to the cathode spot, cathode-spot division, arc stability, substructure of the cathode spot, dielectric recovery processes, and breakdown between electrodes subjected to
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 6 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 3 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 2 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 4 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 5 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
2009-11-18
Children’s Games 9 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.
2012-01-01
The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.
Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
She's Game: Women Making Australian Sporting History
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Australian Women's Archives Project has successfully challenged the dearth of coverage of Australian women athletes, from the past to the present, by creating this website. Visitors should definitely read the "Introduction" to gain a better understanding of why women's sports coverage is lacking or buried deeply in the sports section. The "Stories" section of the site should be required reading for all young girls interested in sports, whether Australian or Argentinian. There are over one dozen stories of Australian women athletes, from as far back as 1916 to the present. There are also several women's teams whose stories are presented. The "Medalists" section includes not only gold medalists at the Commonwealth or Empire Games, but by clicking on the "Switch to Olympic Medalists and Participants" link on the top left or bottom of the page, visitors can see that Australian women were taking medals in swimming as early as the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm.
Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)
1983-01-01
A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.
Loefstedt, R.; Coppersmith, S.N. (AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States))
1994-03-28
We demonstrate that stochastic resonance, where an increase in the noise acting on a nonlinear dynamical system increases the signal-to-noise ratio describing the response to periodic driving, can occur in quantum systems as well as classical ones. We show that quantum stochastic resonance can be observed experimentally by measuring conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic metals and describe the experimental parameters for which it occurs.
High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity
Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A. [and others
1998-07-01
Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.
Digital Games: A Motivational Perspective
Eliana Medina
2005-01-01
Information technologies have improved dramatically in the last decade, enhancing the potential of digital games to create realistic and engaging environments where players use different cognitive approaches to solve problems, such as, thinking outside of the box, collaborating in groups and searching for information. Unfortunately not all genres of digital games have taken advantage of the new technology and game
"Voyager": An Educational Card Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, David Ryan
2003-01-01
"Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced…
Classroom Games: A Prisoner's Dilemma.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holt, Charles A.; Capra, Monica
2000-01-01
Describes a classroom game called the prisoner's dilemma that illustrates the conflict between social incentives to cooperate and private incentives to defect. Explains that it is a simple card game involving a large number of students. States that the students should be introduced to the real-world applications of the game. (CMK)
Intelligent Agents in Computer Games
Michael Van Lent; John E. Laird; Josh Buckman; Joe Hartford; Steve Houchard; Kurt Steinkraus; Russ Tedrake
1999-01-01
As computer games become more complex and consumers demand more sophisticated computer controlled opponents, game developers are required to place a greater emphasis on the artificial intelligence aspects of their games. Our experience developing intelligent air combat agents for DARPA (Laird and Jones 1998, Jones at al. 1999) has suggested a number of areas of AI research that are applicable
Violent video games and forgiveness
William Stone Iii
2010-01-01
The effect of playing a violent video game on forgiveness was investigated. A transgression context was created in an experimental setting and video game violence was manipulated in two levels (violence or no violence). Subsequent measures of empathy, hostility, and forgiveness were made. No evidence was found of an effect of video game violence on forgiveness or hostility. Empathy was
Violent video games and aggression
Mark Griffiths
1999-01-01
One of the main concerns that has constantly been raised against video games is that most of the games feature aggressive elements. This has led many people to assert that this may have a detrimental effect on individuals who play such games. Despite continuing controversy for over 15 years, there has been little in the way of systematic research. This
Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
2008-01-01
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…
Gaming and Gamification Part II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
Just as academic gaming in general cannot be limited to any one topic or genre, the "Public Services Quarterly" Internet Resources column is not limited to a single entry on gaming and gamification in libraries. Public services librarians interested in designing their own games have many successful examples to draw from. The previous…
An Education System Planning Game.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abt, Clark C.
Although games are not usually thought of as aids to planning, a special type of game can be helpful when problems are complex, factors determining resolution are imperfectly understood, and numerous views coexist. Objectives of the education system planning game are to illuminate major issues of educational planning, to increase the participants'…
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-06
...the compact is four years calculated from the date of commencement of gaming. The compact permits the Tribe to offer the full gamut of casino-style gaming authorized by the Nevada Gaming Commission and/or lawfully permitted to be played by the...
Teaching Statistics with Nonsimulation Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dukes, Richard L.
1987-01-01
Defines a nonsimulation game as a game dealing with a mathematical or scientific topic which is superior to the typical simulation in that it provides an optimal mix of competition and cooperation. Describes two variations of Allen's 1969 Equations nonsimulation game, which may be used to teach various statistical concepts. (JDH)
Optional Games for Racquetball Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maughan, Robert J.
1989-01-01
Several optional game ideas are offered to help teachers of intermediate and advanced racquetball classes by providing a break in the monotony of teaching the traditional games. These optional games help students develop skills and enable them to observe and play individuals of different skill levels and playing styles. (IAH)
Alliances in "The Hunger Games"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Painter, Judith
2012-01-01
This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…
Sexuality Education in Video Games
M. Scott Gross
2005-01-01
This article provides a review of some of the currently available literature surrounding the academic study of video games. Many of these theoretical methods have been used to study film and television and are discussed here in order to frame the need for further examination of video games. Suggestions for the use of video games in the classroom and suggestions
Continuous Box game Dan Hefetz
Krivelevich, Michael
Continuous Box game Dan Hefetz Michael Krivelevich Milos Stojakovi´c Tibor Szab´o § February 16, 2011 Abstract The classical positional game Box was introduced by Chv´atal and Erdos in 1978 by Hamidoune and Las Vergnas. The board of the Box game consists of elements of n disjoint sets (boxes), which
PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck
Spronck, Pieter
PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck Universiteit Maastricht IKAT/Infonomics P.O. Box 616 NL-6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands E-mail: p.spronck@cs.unimaas.nl KEYWORDS Gaming, handheld computers, software engineering, design. ABSTRACT Though the Palm is mainly a business tool, many games have been developed
Applied Game Theory Syllabus Instructors
Jagannatham, Aditya K.
Applied Game Theory Syllabus Instructors Aditya K. Jagannatham Electrical Engineering IIT Kanpur Vimal Kumar Economics, Humanities and Social Sciences IIT Kanpur Title APPLIED GAME THEORY Course Website http://home.iitk.ac.in/~adityaj/EE698A_2012/ Objectives Game theory is a branch of Mathematical
Game Coloring the Cartesian Product
Zhu, Xuding
Game Coloring the Cartesian Product of Graphs Xuding Zhu1,2 1DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED MATHEMATICS to each vertex a set of n degree 1 neighbors. If G has game coloring number m and G has acyclic chromatic number k, then the Cartesian product G G has game chromatic number at most k(k+m - 1). As a consequence
Paulo Benicio Melo de Sousa; Rubens Viana Ramos; Jose Tarcisio Costa filho
2006-10-06
In this work we propose and develop modified quantum games (zero and non-zero sum) in which payoffs and strategies are entangled. For the games studied, Nash and Pareto equilibriums are always obtained indicating that there are some interesting cases where quantum games can be applied.
Computerized History Games: Narrative Options
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kee, Kevin
2011-01-01
How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…
COOPERATIVE GAMES ON COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES
Bilbao Arrese, JesÃºs Mario
COOPERATIVE GAMES ON COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES JESÃ?S MARIO BILBAO University of Seville Spain KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS #12;Contents Preface ix 1 Structures 1 1.1 Cooperative games of cooperative games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Closure spaces and convex geometries
Hamiltotian Formalism of Game Theory
Jinshan Wu
2005-04-12
A new representation of Game Theory is developed in this paper. State of players is represented by a density matrix, and payoff function is a set of hermitian operators, which when applied onto the density matrix give the payoff of players. By this formulism, a new way to find the equilibria of games is given by generalizing the thermodynamical evolutionary process leading to equilibrium in Statistical Mechanics. And in this formulism, when quantum objects instead of classical objects are used as the objects in the game, it's naturally leads to the so-called Quantum Game Theory, but with a slight difference in the definition of strategy state of players: the probability distribution is replaced with a density matrix. Further more, both games of correlated and independent players can be reached in this single framework, while traditionally, they are treated separately by Non-cooperative Game Theory and Coalitional Game Theory. Because of the density matrix is used as state of players, besides classical correlated strategy, quantum entangled states can also be used as strategies, which is an entanglement of strategies between players, and it is different with the entanglement of objects' states as in the so-called Quantum Game Theory. At last, in the form of density matrix, a class of quantum games, where the payoff matrixes are commutative, can be reduced into classical games. In this sense, it will put the classical game as a special case of our quantum game.
Is Gaming Sufficient for Learning?
Kai Halttunen; Eero Sormunen
Computer-supported learning environment (CSLE) Information Retrieval Game (IR Game) is described and evaluated. The IR Game is based on idea that test collections used in laboratory- based IR experiments could be used in instruction as a rapid query analysis tool. The goal is to provide a realistic environment for demonstrating the performance of queries in different types of search situations.
Razumikhin method and exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Xuerong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan; Gao, Huijun
2006-02-01
This paper deals with the exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems (also known as stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching). The known results in this area (see, e.g., [X., Mao, Exponential stability of stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 47 (10) (2002) 1604-1612]) require the time delay to be a constant or a differentiable function and the main reason for such a restriction is due to the analysis of mathematics. The main aim of this paper is to remove this restriction to allow the time delay to be a bounded variable only. The Razumikhin method is developed to cope with the difficulty arisen from the nondifferentiability of the time delay.
Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance.
Badzey, Robert L; Mohanty, Pritiraj
2005-10-13
Stochastic resonance is a counterintuitive concept: the addition of noise to a noisy system induces coherent amplification of its response. First suggested as a mechanism for the cyclic recurrence of ice ages, stochastic resonance has been seen in a wide variety of macroscopic physical systems: bistable ring lasers, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), magnetoelastic ribbons and neurophysiological systems such as the receptors in crickets and crayfish. Although fundamentally important as a mechanism of coherent signal amplification, stochastic resonance has yet to be observed in nanoscale systems. Here we report the observation of stochastic resonance in bistable nanomechanical silicon oscillators. Our nanomechanical systems consist of beams that are clamped at each end and driven into transverse oscillation with the use of a radiofrequency source. Modulation of the source induces controllable switching of the beams between two stable, distinct states. We observe that the addition of white noise causes a marked amplification of the signal strength. Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems could have a function in the realization of controllable high-speed nanomechanical memory cells, and paves the way for exploring macroscopic quantum coherence and tunnelling. PMID:16222295
Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility
Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Fiebach, Christian J.
2015-01-01
Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and dopaminergic modulation of cognitive flexibility. These results show that stochastic dynamical systems can implement the basic computations underlying cognitive stability and flexibility and explain neurobiological bases of individual differences. PMID:26068119
Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility.
Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J N; Fiebach, Christian J
2015-06-01
Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and dopaminergic modulation of cognitive flexibility. These results show that stochastic dynamical systems can implement the basic computations underlying cognitive stability and flexibility and explain neurobiological bases of individual differences. PMID:26068119
Simulation and Game Development
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Simulation and Game Development Department, a project of NSF's Advanced Technological Education program, of Wake Technical Community college strives to "ensure that our students receive practical training in the use of industry standard software, to provide them with the skills necessary to succeed in the highly competitive video game and simulation industry." On this site, visitors will find information about the project, how to become involved, a virtual tour, a student gallery of projects, and upcoming events. The Speaker Series section, which the department hosted in 2006-2007, contains five audio recordings of lectures on the gaming industry on topics such as the economics of the industry and how to get started in it.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Johanna Voolich
2003-01-01
This chaos game applet features a game board with the Sierpinski triangle computed down to level 2 with nine smaller triangles. One smaller triangle appears green and is the target. The game requires the student to move a point found on the lower right corner of the Sierpinski triangle to the target's interior. Each move consists of clicking one vertex of the large triangle to move the point half the distance to that vertex. The goal is to get the point to the interior of the target in four moves. The student is challenged to find the algorithm for successfully moving the point to the target's interior in four moves. The applet keeps a record of moves and is playable in progressively harder modes and in several variations. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Melanie Miller
2012-09-01
In this lesson students will demonstrate their knowledge of limits, graphing, and exact trig limits evaluated using substitution. The students will play a game in which they evaluate their own knowledge of problems in the unit, as well as the teacher evaluation the mastery of the problems in the unit. The students receive immediate feedback on their own work and review while the teacher works the problems correcting any errors or misconceptions that the student had while working the problem. This lesson gives the student a power review of the concepts in the unit because the timing is determined by the teacher. All students are engaged and focused while playing this game. Giving students access to the PowerPoint of the game after the lesson provides a good study tool for the students.
He, Sheng
Non-stationary Policy Learning in 2-player Zero Sum Games Content Areas: machine learning, Markov over the space of stochastic actions. Many previous machine learning approaches apply to single agent decision processes, reinforcement learning Abstract A key challenge in multiagent environments is the con
Alavi, Ali
Fermion Monte Carlo without fixed nodes: A Game of Life, death and annihilation in Slater Monte Carlo method for the simulation of correlated many- electron systems in Full Configuration of many- electron systems via stochastic methods such as Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) [1
Zhang, Wei; Tian, Tianhai; Zou, Xiufen
2015-07-01
Type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways play an essential role in the defense against early viral infections; however, the diverse and intricate molecular mechanisms of virus-triggered type I IFN responses are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed and compared two classes of models i.e., deterministic ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and stochastic models to elucidate the dynamics and stochasticity of type I IFN signaling pathways. Bifurcation analysis based on an ODE model reveals that the system exhibits a bistable switch and a one-way switch at high or low levels when the strengths of the negative and positive feedbacks are tuned. Furthermore, we compared the stochastic simulation results under the Master and Langevin equations. Both of the stochastic equations generate the bistable switch phenomenon, and the distance between two stable states are smaller than normal under the simulation of the Langevin equation. The quantitative computations also show that a moderate ratio between positive and negative feedback strengths is required to ensure a reliable switch between the different IFN concentrations that regulate the immune response. Moreover, we propose a multi-state stochastic model based on the above deterministic model to describe the multi-cellular system coupled with the diffusion of IFNs. The perturbation and inhibition analysis showed that the positive feedback, as well as noises, has little effect on the stochastic expression of IFNs, but the negative feedback of ISG56 on the activation of IRF7 has a great influence on IFN stochastic expression. Together, these results reveal that positive feedback stabilizes IFN gene expression, and negative feedback may be the main contribution to the stochastic expression of the IFN gene in the virus-triggered type I IFN response. These findings will provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling pathways. PMID:25892253
Seasonally forced disease dynamics explored as switching between attractors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keeling, Matt J.; Rohani, Pejman; Grenfell, Bryan T.
2001-01-01
Biological phenomena offer a rich diversity of problems that can be understood using mathematical techniques. Three key features common to many biological systems are temporal forcing, stochasticity and nonlinearity. Here, using simple disease models compared to data, we examine how these three factors interact to produce a range of complicated dynamics. The study of disease dynamics has been amongst the most theoretically developed areas of mathematical biology; simple models have been highly successful in explaining the dynamics of a wide variety of diseases. Models of childhood diseases incorporate seasonal variation in contact rates due to the increased mixing during school terms compared to school holidays. This ‘binary’ nature of the seasonal forcing results in dynamics that can be explained as switching between two nonlinear spiral sinks. Finally, we consider the stability of the attractors to understand the interaction between the deterministic dynamics and demographic and environmental stochasticity. Throughout attention is focused on the behaviour of measles, whooping cough and rubella.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Summer Games draw ever closer, and fans can whet their appetites at this site, an attractive and well-crafted site from Kodak, which naturally features several exhibitions of photographs. These include a photographic history of the Summer Olympics, a photo tour of Sydney (high speed connection recommended), an excellent collection of images of athletes, and a "photo walkabout" with tips on photographing Australia. A Photoquilt of Olympic Moments is promised for the near future, and visitors can sign up to receive the "Olympic picture of the day" throughout the Games.