Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
2015-01-01
In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883
Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiaoying; Liu, Xinzhi; Deng, Feiqi
2011-11-01
Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established. Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained.
Digital switching noise as a stochastic process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boselli, Giorgio; Trucco, Gabriella; Liberali, Valentino
2007-06-01
Switching activity of logic gates in a digital system is a deterministic process, depending on both circuit parameters and input signals. However, the huge number of logic blocks in a digital system makes digital switching a cognitively stochastic process. Switching activity is the source of the so-called "digital noise", which can be analyzed using a stochastic approach. For an asynchronous digital network, we can model digital switching currents as a shot noise process, deriving both its amplitude distribution and its power spectral density. From spectral distribution of digital currents, we can also calculate the spectral distribution and the power of disturbances injected into the on-chip power supply lines.
Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information
Cardaliaguet, Pierre Rainer, Catherine
2009-02-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Continous-time stochastic Markov games
Nowak, A.
1994-12-31
We consider zero-sum game in which the players control a continuous-time stochastic jump process. The state space is assumed to be a Borel set. Sufficient conditions for the existence of optimal strategies for the players are to be presented. In the undiscounted case we will consider conditions which are related to geometric ergodicity. Some possible extentions to non-zero-sum games will be mentioned.
Cardaliaguet, P.; Rainer, C.
2013-08-01
We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations
Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2015-01-01
Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka–Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations.
Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2015-07-21
Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka-Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamlen, Karla R.
2012-01-01
Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…
Kang, Yu; Zhai, Di-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhao, Yun-Bo
2016-05-01
An extended asynchronous switching model is investigated for a class of switched stochastic nonlinear retarded systems in the presence of both detection delay and false alarm, where the extended asynchronous switching is described by two independent and exponentially distributed stochastic processes, and further simplified as Markovian. Based on the Razumikhin-type theorem incorporated with average dwell-time approach, the sufficient criteria for global asymptotic stability in probability and stochastic input-to-state stability are given, whose importance and effectiveness are finally verified by numerical examples. PMID:26068932
Stochastic switching induced adaptation in a starved Escherichia coli population.
Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Saburo; Ito, Yoichiro; Ying, Bei-Wen; Yomo, Tetsuya
2011-01-01
Population adaptation can be determined by stochastic switching in living cells. To examine how stochastic switching contributes to the fate decision for a population under severe stress, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain crucially dependent on the expression of a rewired gene. The gene essential for tryptophan biosynthesis, trpC, was removed from the native regulatory unit, the Trp operon, and placed under the extraneous control of the lactose utilisation network. Bistability of the network provided the cells two discrete phenotypes: the induced and suppressed level of trpC. The two phenotypes permitted the cells to grow or not, respectively, under conditions of tryptophan depletion. We found that stochastic switching between the two states allowed the initially suppressed cells to form a new population with induced trpC in response to tryptophan starvation. However, the frequency of the transition from suppressed to induced state dropped off dramatically in the starved population, in comparison to that in the nourished population. This reduced switching rate was compensated by increasing the initial population size, which probably provided the cell population more chances to wait for the rarely appearing fit cells from the unfit cells. Taken together, adaptation of a starved bacterial population because of stochasticity in the gene rewired from the ancient regulon was experimentally confirmed, and the nutritional status and the population size played a great role in stochastic adaptation. PMID:21931628
Stochastic Local Search for Core Membership Checking in Hedonic Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keinänen, Helena
Hedonic games have emerged as an important tool in economics and show promise as a useful formalism to model multi-agent coalition formation in AI as well as group formation in social networks. We consider a coNP-complete problem of core membership checking in hedonic coalition formation games. No previous algorithms to tackle the problem have been presented. In this work, we overcome this by developing two stochastic local search algorithms for core membership checking in hedonic games. We demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithms by showing experimentally that they find solutions efficiently, particularly for large agent societies.
Stochastic Heterogeneous Interaction Promotes Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game
Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi
2014-01-01
Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921
Stochastic stability of switched genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays.
Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang; Wu, Xiaotai; Fang, Jian-An
2014-09-01
This paper investigates the exponential stability problem of switched stochastic genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) with time-varying delays. Two types of switched systems are studied respectively: one is the stochastic switched delayed GRNs with only stable subsystems and the other is the stochastic switched delayed GRNs with both stable and unstable subsystems. By using switching analysis techniques and the modified Halanay differential inequality, new criteria are developed for the exponential stability of switched stochastic GRNs with time-varying delays. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the main results. PMID:25265564
Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators.
D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2014-09-01
A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators. PMID:25314515
Partial synchronization in stochastic dynamical networks with switching communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chi; Ho, Daniel W. C.; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen
2012-06-01
In this paper, the partial synchronization problem of stochastic dynamical networks (SDNs) is investigated. Unlike the existing models, the SDN considered in this paper suffers from a class of communication constraint—only part of nodes' states can be transmitted. Thus, less nodes' states can be used to synchronize the SDN, which makes the analysis of the synchronization problem much harder. A set of channel matrices are introduced to reflect such kind of constraint. Furthermore, due to unpredictable environmental changes, the channel matrices can switch among some communication modes. The switching considered here is governed by a Markov process. To overcome the difficulty, a regrouping method is employed to derive our main results. The obtained conditions guarantee that partial synchronization can be achieved for SDNs under switching communication constraint. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and how the communication constraint influences synchronization result.
Robust synthetic biology design: stochastic game theory approach
Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Chia-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Ching
2009-01-01
Motivation: Synthetic biology is to engineer artificial biological systems to investigate natural biological phenomena and for a variety of applications. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to uncertain initial conditions and disturbances of extra-cellular environments on the host cell. At present, how to design a robust synthetic gene network to work properly under these uncertain factors is the most important topic of synthetic biology. Results: A robust regulation design is proposed for a stochastic synthetic gene network to achieve the prescribed steady states under these uncertain factors from the minimax regulation perspective. This minimax regulation design problem can be transformed to an equivalent stochastic game problem. Since it is not easy to solve the robust regulation design problem of synthetic gene networks by non-linear stochastic game method directly, the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model is proposed to approximate the non-linear synthetic gene network via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique through the Robust Control Toolbox in Matlab. Finally, an in silico example is given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed robust gene design method. Availability: http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/bschen/SyntheticBioDesign_supplement.pdf Contact: bschen@ee.nthu.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19435742
Stochastic differential game formulation on the reinsurance and investment problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Danping; Rong, Ximin; Zhao, Hui
2015-09-01
This paper focuses on a stochastic differential game between two insurance companies, a big one and a small one. The big company has sufficient asset to invest in a risk-free asset and a risky asset and is allowed to purchase proportional reinsurance or acquire new business, and the small company can transfer part of the risk to a reinsurer via proportional reinsurance. The game studied here is zero-sum, where the big company is trying to maximise the expected exponential utility of the difference between two insurance companies' surpluses at the terminal time to keep its advantage on surplus, while simultaneously the small company is trying to minimise the same quantity to reduce its disadvantage. Particularly, the relationships between the surplus processes and the price process of the risky asset are considered. By applying stochastic control theory, we provide and prove the verification theorem and obtain the Nash equilibrium strategy of the game, explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the effects of parameters on the equilibrium strategy as well as the economic meanings behind.
Distributed Consensus of Stochastic Delayed Multi-agent Systems Under Asynchronous Switching.
Wu, Xiaotai; Tang, Yang; Cao, Jinde; Zhang, Wenbing
2016-08-01
In this paper, the distributed exponential consensus of stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics is investigated under asynchronous switching. The asynchronous switching considered here is to account for the time of identifying the active modes of multi-agent systems. After receipt of confirmation of mode's switching, the matched controller can be applied, which means that the switching time of the matched controller in each node usually lags behind that of system switching. In order to handle the coexistence of switched signals and stochastic disturbances, a comparison principle of stochastic switched delayed systems is first proved. By means of this extended comparison principle, several easy to verified conditions for the existence of an asynchronously switched distributed controller are derived such that stochastic delayed multi-agent systems with asynchronous switching and nonlinear dynamics can achieve global exponential consensus. Two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26292354
A stochastic transcriptional switch model for single cell imaging data
Hey, Kirsty L.; Momiji, Hiroshi; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R.E.; White, Michael R.H.; Rand, David A.; Finkenstädt, Bärbel
2015-01-01
Gene expression is made up of inherently stochastic processes within single cells and can be modeled through stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). In particular, SRNs capture the features of intrinsic variability arising from intracellular biochemical processes. We extend current models for gene expression to allow the transcriptional process within an SRN to follow a random step or switch function which may be estimated using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This stochastic switch model provides a generic framework to capture many different dynamic features observed in single cell gene expression. Inference for such SRNs is challenging due to the intractability of the transition densities. We derive a model-specific birth–death approximation and study its use for inference in comparison with the linear noise approximation where both approximations are considered within the unifying framework of state-space models. The methodology is applied to synthetic as well as experimental single cell imaging data measuring expression of the human prolactin gene in pituitary cells. PMID:25819987
A stochastic transcriptional switch model for single cell imaging data.
Hey, Kirsty L; Momiji, Hiroshi; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R E; White, Michael R H; Rand, David A; Finkenstädt, Bärbel
2015-10-01
Gene expression is made up of inherently stochastic processes within single cells and can be modeled through stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). In particular, SRNs capture the features of intrinsic variability arising from intracellular biochemical processes. We extend current models for gene expression to allow the transcriptional process within an SRN to follow a random step or switch function which may be estimated using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This stochastic switch model provides a generic framework to capture many different dynamic features observed in single cell gene expression. Inference for such SRNs is challenging due to the intractability of the transition densities. We derive a model-specific birth-death approximation and study its use for inference in comparison with the linear noise approximation where both approximations are considered within the unifying framework of state-space models. The methodology is applied to synthetic as well as experimental single cell imaging data measuring expression of the human prolactin gene in pituitary cells. PMID:25819987
A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type
Hosking, John Joseph Absalom
2012-12-15
We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.
Stability analysis of switched stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays.
Wu, Xiaotai; Tang, Yang; Zhang, Wenbing
2014-03-01
This paper is concerned with the global exponential stability of switched stochastic neural networks with time-varying delays. Firstly, the stability of switched stochastic delayed neural networks with stable subsystems is investigated by utilizing the mathematical induction method, the piecewise Lyapunov function and the average dwell time approach. Secondly, by utilizing the extended comparison principle from impulsive systems, the stability of stochastic switched delayed neural networks with both stable and unstable subsystems is analyzed and several easy to verify conditions are derived to ensure the exponential mean square stability of switched delayed neural networks with stochastic disturbances. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by two simulation examples. PMID:24365535
Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game
Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long
2013-01-01
In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Huai-nian; Zhang, Cheng-ke; Bin, Ning
2014-05-01
In this paper, we deal with the problem of stochastic Nash differential games of Markov jump linear systems governed by Itô-type equation. Combining the stochastic stabilizability with the stochastic systems, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the Nash strategy is presented by means of a set of cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations. Moreover, the stochastic H2/H∞ control for stochastic Markov jump linear systems is discussed as an immediate application and an illustrative example is presented.
Terebus, Anna; Cao, Youfang; Liang, Jie
2016-01-01
Gene regulatory networks depict the interactions between genes, proteins, and other components of the cell. These interactions often are stochastic that can influence behavior of the cells. Discrete Chemical Master Equation (dCME) provides a general framework for understanding the stochastic nature of these networks. However solving dCME is challenging due to the enormous state space, one effective approach is to study the behavior of individual modules of the stochastic network. Here we used the finite buffer dCME method and directly calculated the exact steady state probability landscape for the two stochastic networks of Single Input and Coupled Toggle Switch Modules. The first example is a switch network consisting of three genes, and the second example is a double switching network consisting of four coupled genes. Our results show complex switching behavior of these networks can be quantified. PMID:25571172
Stochastic Games for Verification of Probabilistic Timed Automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwiatkowska, Marta; Norman, Gethin; Parker, David
Probabilistic timed automata (PTAs) are used for formal modelling and verification of systems with probabilistic, nondeterministic and real-time behaviour. For non-probabilistic timed automata, forwards reachability is the analysis method of choice, since it can be implemented extremely efficiently. However, for PTAs, such techniques are only able to compute upper bounds on maximum reachability probabilities. In this paper, we propose a new approach to the analysis of PTAs using abstraction and stochastic games. We show how efficient forwards reachability techniques can be extended to yield both lower and upper bounds on maximum (and minimum) reachability probabilities. We also present abstraction-refinement techniques that are guaranteed to improve the precision of these probability bounds, providing a fully automatic method for computing the exact values. We have implemented these techniques and applied them to a set of large case studies. We show that, in comparison to alternative approaches to verifying PTAs, such as backwards reachability and digital clocks, our techniques exhibit superior performance and scalability.
Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying; Gao Yitian
2012-12-15
We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Rashid, Md Mamun; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2015-03-01
Switching of single domain multiferroic nanomagnets with electrically generated mechanical strain and with spin torque due to spin current generated via the giant spin Hall effect are two promising energy-efficient methods to switch nanomagnets in magnetic computing devices. However, switching of nanomagnets is always error-prone at room temperature owing to the effect of thermal noise. In this work, we model the strain-based and spin-Hall-effect-based switching of nanomagnetic devices using stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and present a quantitative comparison in terms of switching time, reliability and energy dissipation. This work is supported by the US National Science Foundation under the SHF-Small Grant CCF-1216614, CAREER Grant CCF-1253370, NEB 2020 Grant ECCS-1124714 and SRC under NRI Task 2203.001.
Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long
2016-08-01
The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.
Robust stability of stochastic delayed additive neural networks with Markovian switching.
Huang, He; Ho, Daniel W C; Qu, Yuzhong
2007-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of robust stability for stochastic interval delayed additive neural networks (SIDANN) with Markovian switching. The time delay is assumed to be time-varying. In such neural networks, the features of stochastic systems, interval systems, time-varying delay systems and Markovian switching are taken into account. The mathematical model of this kind of neural networks is first proposed. Secondly, the global exponential stability in the mean square is studied for the SIDANN with Markovian switching. Based on the Lyapunov method, several stability conditions are presented, which can be expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. As a subsequent result, the stochastic interval additive neural networks with time-varying delay are also discussed. A sufficient condition is given to determine its stability. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the results developed. PMID:17714914
The Stochastic Evolutionary Game for a Population of Biological Networks Under Natural Selection
Chen, Bor-Sen; Ho, Shih-Ju
2014-01-01
In this study, a population of evolutionary biological networks is described by a stochastic dynamic system with intrinsic random parameter fluctuations due to genetic variations and external disturbances caused by environmental changes in the evolutionary process. Since information on environmental changes is unavailable and their occurrence is unpredictable, they can be considered as a game player with the potential to destroy phenotypic stability. The biological network needs to develop an evolutionary strategy to improve phenotypic stability as much as possible, so it can be considered as another game player in the evolutionary process, ie, a stochastic Nash game of minimizing the maximum network evolution level caused by the worst environmental disturbances. Based on the nonlinear stochastic evolutionary game strategy, we find that some genetic variations can be used in natural selection to construct negative feedback loops, efficiently improving network robustness. This provides larger genetic robustness as a buffer against neutral genetic variations, as well as larger environmental robustness to resist environmental disturbances and maintain a network phenotypic traits in the evolutionary process. In this situation, the robust phenotypic traits of stochastic biological networks can be more frequently selected by natural selection in evolution. However, if the harbored neutral genetic variations are accumulated to a sufficiently large degree, and environmental disturbances are strong enough that the network robustness can no longer confer enough genetic robustness and environmental robustness, then the phenotype robustness might break down. In this case, a network phenotypic trait may be pushed from one equilibrium point to another, changing the phenotypic trait and starting a new phase of network evolution through the hidden neutral genetic variations harbored in network robustness by adaptive evolution. Further, the proposed evolutionary game is extended to
Age matters: The effect of onset age of video game play on task-switching abilities.
Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin
2016-05-01
Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience. PMID:26860712
Learning Stationary Correlated Equilibria in Constrained General-Sum Stochastic Games.
Hakami, Vesal; Dehghan, Mehdi
2016-07-01
We study constrained general-sum stochastic games with unknown Markovian dynamics. A distributed constrained no-regret Q -learning scheme (CNR Q ) is presented to guarantee convergence to the set of stationary correlated equilibria of the game. Prior art addresses the unconstrained case only, is structured with nested control loops, and has no convergence result. CNR Q is cast as a single-loop three-timescale asynchronous stochastic approximation algorithm with set-valued update increments. A rigorous convergence analysis with differential inclusion arguments is given which draws on recent extensions of the theory of stochastic approximation to the case of asynchronous recursive inclusions with set-valued mean fields. Numerical results are given for the exemplary application of CNR Q to decentralized resource control in heterogeneous wireless networks. PMID:26259228
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Donnelly, Catherine
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Tieyan
2012-11-01
An optical model of classical photons propagating through array of many beam splitters is developed to give a physical analogy of Parrondo's game and Parrondo-Harmer-Abbott game. We showed both the two games are reasonable game without so-called game paradox and they are essentially the same. We designed the games with long-term memory on loop lattice and history-entangled game. The strong correlation between nearest two rounds of game can make the combination of two losing game win, lose or oscillate between win and loss. The periodic potential in Brownian ratchet is analogous to a long chain of beam splitters. The coupling between two neighboring potential wells is equivalent to two coupled beam splitters. This correspondence may help us to understand the anomalous motion of exceptional Brownian particles moving in the opposite direction to the majority. We designed the capital wave for a game by introducing correlations into independent capitals instead of sub-games. Playing entangled quantum states in many coupled classical games obey the same rules for manipulating quantum states in many body physics.
Libor at crossroads: Stochastic switching detection using information theory quantifiers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.
2016-07-01
This paper studies the 28 time series of Libor rates, classified in seven maturities and four currencies), during the last 14 years. The analysis was performed using a novel technique in financial economics: the Complexity-Entropy Causality Plane. This planar representation allows the discrimination of different stochastic and chaotic regimes. Using a temporal analysis based on moving windows, this paper unveals an abnormal movement of Libor time series arround the period of the 2007 financial crisis. This alteration in the stochastic dynamics of Libor is contemporary of what press called "Libor scandal", i.e. the manipulation of interest rates carried out by several prime banks. We argue that our methodology is suitable as a market watch mechanism, as it makes visible the temporal redution in informational efficiency of the market.
Impact of deterministic and stochastic updates on network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimoto, Jun
2014-08-01
In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.031141].
Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE
Cordes, J. M.
2013-09-20
Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.
Correlated noise-based switches and stochastic resonance in a bistable genetic regulation system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Can-Jun; Yang, Ke-Li
2016-07-01
The correlated noise-based switches and stochastic resonance are investigated in a bistable single gene switching system driven by an additive noise (environmental fluctuations), a multiplicative noise (fluctuations of the degradation rate). The correlation between the two noise sources originates from on the lysis-lysogeny pathway system of the λ phage. The steady state probability distribution is obtained by solving the time-independent Fokker-Planck equation, and the effects of noises are analyzed. The effects of noises on the switching time between the two stable states (mean first passage time) is investigated by the numerical simulation. The stochastic resonance phenomenon is analyzed by the power amplification factor. The results show that the multiplicative noise can induce the switching from "on" → "off" of the protein production, while the additive noise and the correlation between the noise sources can induce the inverse switching "off" → "on". A nonmonotonic behaviour of the average switching time versus the multiplicative noise intensity, for different cross-correlation and additive noise intensities, is observed in the genetic system. There exist optimal values of the additive noise, multiplicative noise and cross-correlation intensities for which the weak signal can be optimal amplified.
An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch
Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Wu, Xiao-Lun
2015-01-01
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward Δf and backward Δb intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, P(Δf) and P(Δb), of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor reversal dynamics as a first-passage problem, which results from conformation fluctuations of the motor switch, we calculated P(Δf) and P(Δb) and found good agreement with the measurements. PMID:26554590
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mlynarczyk, Paul J.; Pullen, Robert H.; Abel, Steven M.
2016-01-01
Positive feedback is a common feature in signal transduction networks and can lead to phenomena such as bistability and signal propagation by domain growth. Physical features of the cellular environment, such as spatial confinement and the mobility of proteins, play important but inadequately understood roles in shaping the behavior of signaling networks. Here, we use stochastic, spatially resolved kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to explore a positive feedback network as a function of system size, system shape, and mobility of molecules. We show that these physical properties can markedly alter characteristics of bistability and stochastic switching when compared with well-mixed simulations. Notably, systems of equal volume but different shapes can exhibit qualitatively different behaviors under otherwise identical conditions. We show that stochastic switching to a state maintained by positive feedback occurs by cluster formation and growth. Additionally, the frequency at which switching occurs depends nontrivially on the diffusion coefficient, which can promote or suppress switching relative to the well-mixed limit. Taken together, the results provide a framework for understanding how confinement and protein mobility influence emergent features of the positive feedback network by modulating molecular concentrations, diffusion-influenced rate parameters, and spatiotemporal correlations between molecules.
DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games
Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Leeuwen, Pieter J.A.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P.M.; Hommel, Bernhard
2010-01-01
The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility. PMID:21833191
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jingtao
2014-04-01
This paper is concerned with the relationship between maximum principle and dynamic programming for zero-sum stochastic differential games of jump diffusions. Under the assumption that the value function is smooth enough, relations among the adjoint processes, the generalised Hamiltonian function and the value function are given. A portfolio optimisation problem under model uncertainty in an incomplete financial market is discussed to show the applications of our result.
Evolutionary dynamics on stochastic evolving networks for multiple-strategy games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bin; Zhou, Da; Wang, Long
2011-10-01
Evolutionary game theory on dynamical networks has received much attention. Most of the work has been focused on 2×2 games such as prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift, with general n×n games seldom addressed. In particular, analytical methods are still lacking. Here we generalize the stochastic linking dynamics proposed by Wu, Zhou, Fu, Luo, Wang, and Traulsen [PLoS ONEBSYMBO1932-620310.1371/journal.pone.0011187 5, e11187 (2010)] to n×n games. We analytically obtain that the fast linking dynamics results in the replicator dynamics with a rescaled payoff matrix. In the rescaled matrix, intuitively, each entry is the product of the original entry and the average duration time of the corresponding link. This result is shown to be robust to a wide class of imitation processes. As applications, we show both analytically and numerically that the biodiversity, modeled as the stability of a zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, cannot be altered by the fast linking dynamics. In addition, we show that the fast linking dynamics can stabilize tit-for-tat as an evolutionary stable strategy in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game provided the interaction between the identical strategies happens sufficiently often. Our method paves the way for an analytical study of the multiple-strategy coevolutionary dynamics.
Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-07-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks
Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-01-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks. PMID:26451275
Karle, James W; Watter, Scott; Shedden, Judith M
2010-05-01
Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task switching, suggesting that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two experiments, we examined which aspects of task switching performance this VGP benefit may be localized to. With minimal trial-to-trial interference from minimally overlapping task set rules, VGPs demonstrated a task switching benefit compared to nVGPs. However, this benefit disappeared when proactive interference between tasks was increased, with substantial stimulus and response overlap in task set rules. We suggest that VGPs have no generalized benefit in task switching-related cognitive control processes compared to nVGPs, with switch cost reductions due instead to a specific benefit in controlling selective attention. PMID:20064634
Designing a stochastic genetic switch by coupling chaos and bistability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiang; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli
2015-11-01
In stem cell differentiation, a pluripotent stem cell becomes progressively specialized and generates specific cell types through a series of epigenetic processes. How cells can precisely determine their fate in a fluctuating environment is a currently unsolved problem. In this paper, we suggest an abstract gene regulatory network to describe mathematically the differentiation phenomenon featuring stochasticity, divergent cell fates, and robustness. The network consists of three functional motifs: an upstream chaotic motif, a buffering motif of incoherent feed forward loop capable of generating a pulse, and a downstream motif which is bistable. The dynamic behavior is typically a transient chaos with fractal basin boundaries. The trajectories take transiently chaotic journeys before divergently settling down to the bistable states. The ratio of the probability that the high state is achieved to the probability that the low state is reached can maintain a constant in a population of cells with varied molecular fluctuations. The ratio can be turned up or down when proper parameters are adjusted. The model suggests a possible mechanism for the robustness against fluctuations that is prominently featured in pluripotent cell differentiations and developmental phenomena.
Designing a stochastic genetic switch by coupling chaos and bistability
Zhao, Xiang; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli
2015-11-15
In stem cell differentiation, a pluripotent stem cell becomes progressively specialized and generates specific cell types through a series of epigenetic processes. How cells can precisely determine their fate in a fluctuating environment is a currently unsolved problem. In this paper, we suggest an abstract gene regulatory network to describe mathematically the differentiation phenomenon featuring stochasticity, divergent cell fates, and robustness. The network consists of three functional motifs: an upstream chaotic motif, a buffering motif of incoherent feed forward loop capable of generating a pulse, and a downstream motif which is bistable. The dynamic behavior is typically a transient chaos with fractal basin boundaries. The trajectories take transiently chaotic journeys before divergently settling down to the bistable states. The ratio of the probability that the high state is achieved to the probability that the low state is reached can maintain a constant in a population of cells with varied molecular fluctuations. The ratio can be turned up or down when proper parameters are adjusted. The model suggests a possible mechanism for the robustness against fluctuations that is prominently featured in pluripotent cell differentiations and developmental phenomena.
Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations.
Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter A; Schubert, Torsten
2012-05-01
We examined the relation of action video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills that are needed to coordinate two different tasks. As action video games are similar to real life situations and complex in nature, and include numerous concurrent actions, they may generate an ideal environment for practicing these skills (Green & Bavelier, 2008). For two types of experimental paradigms, dual-task and task switching respectively; we obtained performance advantages for experienced video gamers compared to non-gamers in situations in which two different tasks were processed simultaneously or sequentially. This advantage was absent in single-task situations. These findings indicate optimized executive control skills in video gamers. Similar findings in non-gamers after 15 h of action video game practice when compared to non-gamers with practice on a puzzle game clarified the causal relation between video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills. PMID:22426427
DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch.
Earnest, Tyler M; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida
2013-04-01
Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application. PMID:23406725
DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Earnest, Tyler M.; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida
2013-04-01
Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application.
A role of stochastic phenotype switching in generating mosaic endothelial cell heterogeneity.
Yuan, Lei; Chan, Gary C; Beeler, David; Janes, Lauren; Spokes, Katherine C; Dharaneeswaran, Harita; Mojiri, Anahita; Adams, William J; Sciuto, Tracey; Garcia-Cardeña, Guillermo; Molema, Grietje; Kang, Peter M; Jahroudi, Nadia; Marsden, Philip A; Dvorak, Ann; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C
2016-01-01
Previous studies have shown that biological noise may drive dynamic phenotypic mosaicism in isogenic unicellular organisms. However, there is no evidence for a similar mechanism operating in metazoans. Here we show that the endothelial-restricted gene, von Willebrand factor (VWF), is expressed in a mosaic pattern in the capillaries of many vascular beds and in the aorta. In capillaries, the mosaicism is dynamically regulated, with VWF switching between ON and OFF states during the lifetime of the animal. Clonal analysis of cultured endothelial cells reveals that dynamic mosaic heterogeneity is controlled by a low-barrier, noise-sensitive bistable switch that involves random transitions in the DNA methylation status of the VWF promoter. Finally, the hearts of VWF-null mice demonstrate an abnormal endothelial phenotype as well as cardiac dysfunction. Together, these findings suggest a novel stochastic phenotype switching strategy for adaptive homoeostasis in the adult vasculature. PMID:26744078
Zahiripour, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Ali Akbar
2014-09-01
A novel switching function based on an optimization strategy for the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been provided for uncertain stochastic systems subject to actuator degradation such that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable with probability one. In the previous researches the focus on sliding surface has been on proportional or proportional-integral function of states. In this research, from a degree of freedom that depends on designer choice is used to meet certain objectives. In the design of the switching function, there is a parameter which the designer can regulate for specified objectives. A sliding-mode controller is synthesized to ensure the reachability of the specified switching surface, despite actuator degradation and uncertainties. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24954808
The effect of action video game experience on task-switching
Green, C.Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A.; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier
2012-01-01
There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal. PMID:22393270
Puszynski, Krzysztof; Gandolfi, Alberto; d'Onofrio, Alberto
2016-08-01
In this paper we analyze the impact of the stochastic fluctuation of genes between their ON and OFF states on the pharmacodynamics of a potentially large class of drugs. We focus on basic mechanisms underlying the onset of in vitro experimental dose-response curves, by investigating two elementary molecular circuits. Both circuits consist in the transcription of a gene and in the successive translation into the corresponding protein. Whereas in the first the activation/deactivation rates of the single gene copy are constant, in the second the protein, now a transcription factor, amplifies the deactivation rate, so introducing a negative feedback. The drug is assumed to enhance the elimination of the protein, and in both cases the success of therapy is assured by keeping the level of the given protein under a threshold for a fixed time. Our numerical simulations suggests that the gene switching plays a primary role in determining the sigmoidal shape of dose-response curves. Moreover, the simulations show interesting phenomena related to the magnitude of the average gene switching time and to the drug concentration. In particular, for slow gene switching a significant fraction of cells can respond also in the absence of drug or with drug concentrations insufficient for the response in a deterministic setting. For higher drug concentrations, the non-responding fraction exhibits a maximum at intermediate values of the gene switching rates. For fast gene switching, instead, the stochastic prediction follows the prediction of the deterministic approximation, with all the cells responding or non-responding according to the drug dose. PMID:27352096
Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling of an Artificial Bistable Switch in E. coli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkelstein, Daniel; Buchler, Nicolas; Karapetyan, Sargis
Networks of mutually interacting genes are common in natural regulatory networks. To better understand these interactions, scientists have recently been constructing artificial genetic networks. Much of the effort is focused on creating genetic oscillators and bistable switches. In this project, we analyzed the possibility to create a bistable switch in E. coli. In this realization of the switch, the Repressor (basic leucine zipper CEBP/alpha) represses the transcription of the Inhibitor (artificial dominant negative 3HF). The Inhibitor, in turn, sequesters the Repressor by binding to it. Using deterministic modeling we identified a range of parameters suitable for bistability. We then analyzed the resulting solutions with the full model taking the reaction rates corresponding to E. coli and the including stochastic nature of gene expression. We have shown that the bistability in not destroyed by stochastic fluctuations if several copies of genes are present. Specifically, taking a realistic number of plasmids (10) we show that the number of proteins in the systems undergoes sizable fluctuations; however, the two states with low and high concentrations of inhibitor stay distinct in the relevant range of parameters.
Stochastic switching in gene networks can occur by a single-molecule event or many molecular steps.
Choi, Paul J; Xie, X Sunney; Shakhnovich, Eugene I
2010-02-12
Due to regulatory feedback, biological networks can exist stably in multiple states, leading to heterogeneous phenotypes among genetically identical cells. Random fluctuations in protein numbers, tuned by specific molecular mechanisms, have been hypothesized to drive transitions between these different states. We develop a minimal theoretical framework to analyze the limits of switching in terms of simple experimental parameters. Our model identifies and distinguishes between two distinct molecular mechanisms for generating stochastic switches. In one class of switches, the stochasticity of a single-molecule event, a specific and rare molecular reaction, directly controls the macroscopic change in a cell's state. In the second class, no individual molecular event is significant, and stochasticity arises from the propagation of biochemical noise through many molecular pathways and steps. As an example, we explore switches based on protein-DNA binding fluctuations and predict relations between transcription factor kinetics, absolute switching rate, robustness, and efficiency that differentiate between switching by single-molecule events or many molecular steps. Finally, we apply our methods to recent experimental data on switching in Escherichia coli lactose metabolism, providing quantitative interpretations of a single-molecule switching mechanism. PMID:19931280
The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin
2013-10-01
Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.
Yu, Qian; Fang, Debin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Jin, Chen; Ren, Qiyu
2016-01-01
Stochasticity plays an important role in the evolutionary dynamic of cyclic dominance within a finite population. To investigate the stochastic evolution process of the behaviour of bounded rational individuals, we model the Rock-Scissors-Paper (RSP) game as a finite, state dependent Quasi Birth and Death (QBD) process. We assume that bounded rational players can adjust their strategies by imitating the successful strategy according to the payoffs of the last round of the game, and then analyse the limiting distribution of the QBD process for the game stochastic evolutionary dynamic. The numerical experiments results are exhibited as pseudo colour ternary heat maps. Comparisons of these diagrams shows that the convergence property of long run equilibrium of the RSP game in populations depends on population size and the parameter of the payoff matrix and noise factor. The long run equilibrium is asymptotically stable, neutrally stable and unstable respectively according to the normalised parameters in the payoff matrix. Moreover, the results show that the distribution probability becomes more concentrated with a larger population size. This indicates that increasing the population size also increases the convergence speed of the stochastic evolution process while simultaneously reducing the influence of the noise factor. PMID:27346701
Yu, Qian; Fang, Debin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Jin, Chen; Ren, Qiyu
2016-01-01
Stochasticity plays an important role in the evolutionary dynamic of cyclic dominance within a finite population. To investigate the stochastic evolution process of the behaviour of bounded rational individuals, we model the Rock-Scissors-Paper (RSP) game as a finite, state dependent Quasi Birth and Death (QBD) process. We assume that bounded rational players can adjust their strategies by imitating the successful strategy according to the payoffs of the last round of the game, and then analyse the limiting distribution of the QBD process for the game stochastic evolutionary dynamic. The numerical experiments results are exhibited as pseudo colour ternary heat maps. Comparisons of these diagrams shows that the convergence property of long run equilibrium of the RSP game in populations depends on population size and the parameter of the payoff matrix and noise factor. The long run equilibrium is asymptotically stable, neutrally stable and unstable respectively according to the normalised parameters in the payoff matrix. Moreover, the results show that the distribution probability becomes more concentrated with a larger population size. This indicates that increasing the population size also increases the convergence speed of the stochastic evolution process while simultaneously reducing the influence of the noise factor. PMID:27346701
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Qian; Fang, Debin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Jin, Chen; Ren, Qiyu
2016-06-01
Stochasticity plays an important role in the evolutionary dynamic of cyclic dominance within a finite population. To investigate the stochastic evolution process of the behaviour of bounded rational individuals, we model the Rock-Scissors-Paper (RSP) game as a finite, state dependent Quasi Birth and Death (QBD) process. We assume that bounded rational players can adjust their strategies by imitating the successful strategy according to the payoffs of the last round of the game, and then analyse the limiting distribution of the QBD process for the game stochastic evolutionary dynamic. The numerical experiments results are exhibited as pseudo colour ternary heat maps. Comparisons of these diagrams shows that the convergence property of long run equilibrium of the RSP game in populations depends on population size and the parameter of the payoff matrix and noise factor. The long run equilibrium is asymptotically stable, neutrally stable and unstable respectively according to the normalised parameters in the payoff matrix. Moreover, the results show that the distribution probability becomes more concentrated with a larger population size. This indicates that increasing the population size also increases the convergence speed of the stochastic evolution process while simultaneously reducing the influence of the noise factor.
Kulkarni, Prakash; Getzenberg, Robert H
2016-10-01
A causal link between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer has long been suspected but not widely accepted. A new model is proposed that supports such a connection. In contrast to the prevailing wisdom, our model, that draws on dynamical systems theory, suggests that in response to stress, epithelial cells in the unstable gland can give rise to both types of diseases via a phenotypic switching mechanism. The central idea is that phenotypic switching is a stochastic process which exploits the plasticity of the epithelial cell. It is driven by 'noise' contributed by the conformational dynamics of proteins that are intrinsically disordered. In a system that is noisy when stressed, disorder promotes promiscuity, unmasks latent information, and rewires the network to cause phenotypic switching. Cells with newly acquired phenotypes can transcend the traditional zonal boundaries to give rise to BPH or prostate cancer depending on the microenvironment. Establishing causality between the two diseases may provide us with an opportunity to better understand their etiology and guide prevention and treatment strategies. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2235-2240, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27152744
McEneaney, William M.
2004-08-15
Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.
A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell.
Choi, Paul J; Cai, Long; Frieda, Kirsten; Xie, X Sunney
2008-10-17
By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype. PMID:18927393
A Stochastic Single-Molecule Event Triggers Phenotype Switching of a Bacterial Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Sunney; Choi, Paul; Cai, Long
2009-03-01
By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype.
Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility
Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-01-01
Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761
Sonawane, Abhijeet R
2010-05-01
We study a lattice model where the coupling stochastically switches between repulsive (subtractive) and attractive (additive) at each site with probability p at every time instant. We observe that such a kind of coupling stabilizes the local fixed point of a circle map, with the resultant globally stable attractor providing a unique absorbing state. Interestingly, a continuous phase transition is observed from the absorbing state to spatiotemporal chaos via spatiotemporal intermittency for a range of values of p . It is interesting to note that the transition falls in class of directed percolation. Static and spreading exponents along with relevant scaling laws are found to be obeyed confirming the directed percolation universality class in spatiotemporal intermittency regime. PMID:20866306
Beyond the random coil: stochastic conformational switching in intrinsically disordered proteins.
Choi, Ucheor B; McCann, James J; Weninger, Keith R; Bowen, Mark E
2011-04-13
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in critical cellular functions that exploit the flexibility and rapid conformational fluctuations of their native state. Limited information about the native state of IDPs can be gained by the averaging over many heterogeneous molecules that is unavoidable in ensemble approaches. We used single molecule fluorescence to characterize native state conformational dynamics in five synaptic proteins confirmed to be disordered by other techniques. For three of the proteins, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin and complexin, their conformational dynamics could be described with a simple semiflexible polymer model. Surprisingly, two proteins, neuroligin and the NMDAR-2B glutamate receptor, were observed to stochastically switch among distinct conformational states despite the fact that they appeared intrinsically disordered by other measures. The hop-like intramolecular diffusion found in these proteins is suggested to define a class of functionality previously unrecognized for IDPs. PMID:21481779
Fixation, transient landscape, and diffusion dilemma in stochastic evolutionary game dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Da; Qian, Hong
2011-09-01
Agent-based stochastic models for finite populations have recently received much attention in the game theory of evolutionary dynamics. Both the ultimate fixation and the pre-fixation transient behavior are important to a full understanding of the dynamics. In this paper, we study the transient dynamics of the well-mixed Moran process through constructing a landscape function. It is shown that the landscape playing a central theoretical “device” that integrates several lines of inquiries: the stable behavior of the replicator dynamics, the long-time fixation, and continuous diffusion approximation associated with asymptotically large population. Several issues relating to the transient dynamics are discussed: (i) multiple time scales phenomenon associated with intra- and inter-attractoral dynamics; (ii) discontinuous transition in stochastically stationary process akin to Maxwell construction in equilibrium statistical physics; and (iii) the dilemma diffusion approximation facing as a continuous approximation of the discrete evolutionary dynamics. It is found that rare events with exponentially small probabilities, corresponding to the uphill movements and barrier crossing in the landscape with multiple wells that are made possible by strong nonlinear dynamics, plays an important role in understanding the origin of the complexity in evolutionary, nonlinear biological systems.
Switching neuronal state: optimal stimuli revealed using a stochastically-seeded gradient algorithm.
Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David
2014-12-01
Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: (1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and (2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue. PMID:25145955
Effect of reaction-step-size noise on the switching dynamics of stochastic populations.
Be'er, Shay; Heller-Algazi, Metar; Assaf, Michael
2016-05-01
In genetic circuits, when the messenger RNA lifetime is short compared to the cell cycle, proteins are produced in geometrically distributed bursts, which greatly affects the cellular switching dynamics between different metastable phenotypic states. Motivated by this scenario, we study a general problem of switching or escape in stochastic populations, where influx of particles occurs in groups or bursts, sampled from an arbitrary distribution. The fact that the step size of the influx reaction is a priori unknown and, in general, may fluctuate in time with a given correlation time and statistics, introduces an additional nondemographic reaction-step-size noise into the system. Employing the probability-generating function technique in conjunction with Hamiltonian formulation, we are able to map the problem in the leading order onto solving a stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We show that compared to the "usual case" of single-step influx, bursty influx exponentially decreases the population's mean escape time from its long-lived metastable state. In particular, close to bifurcation we find a simple analytical expression for the mean escape time which solely depends on the mean and variance of the burst-size distribution. Our results are demonstrated on several realistic distributions and compare well with numerical Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:27300840
Effect of reaction-step-size noise on the switching dynamics of stochastic populations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Be'er, Shay; Heller-Algazi, Metar; Assaf, Michael
2016-05-01
In genetic circuits, when the messenger RNA lifetime is short compared to the cell cycle, proteins are produced in geometrically distributed bursts, which greatly affects the cellular switching dynamics between different metastable phenotypic states. Motivated by this scenario, we study a general problem of switching or escape in stochastic populations, where influx of particles occurs in groups or bursts, sampled from an arbitrary distribution. The fact that the step size of the influx reaction is a priori unknown and, in general, may fluctuate in time with a given correlation time and statistics, introduces an additional nondemographic reaction-step-size noise into the system. Employing the probability-generating function technique in conjunction with Hamiltonian formulation, we are able to map the problem in the leading order onto solving a stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We show that compared to the "usual case" of single-step influx, bursty influx exponentially decreases the population's mean escape time from its long-lived metastable state. In particular, close to bifurcation we find a simple analytical expression for the mean escape time which solely depends on the mean and variance of the burst-size distribution. Our results are demonstrated on several realistic distributions and compare well with numerical Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shioya, Tsubasa; Fujimoto, Yasutaka
In this paper, we introduce a simulator for ice thermal storage systems. Basically, the refrigeration system is modeled as a linear discrete-time system. For system identifications, the least square method is used. However, it is difficult to identify the switching time of the electromagnetic valve of brine pipes attached at showcases accurately by this method. In order to overcome this difficulty, a simulator based on the stochastic switched ARX model is developed. The data obtained from the simulator are compared with actual data. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed simulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamani Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Kumar, Niraj; Sundaram, Bala; Celli, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Rahul
The phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells is critical to their survival under stress. A significant contribution to heterogeneity of cancer calls derives from the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a conserved cellular program that is crucial for embryonic development. Several studies have investigated the role of EMT in growth of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies. Also, EMT has been closely associated with the acquisition of chemoresistance properties in cancer cells. Motivated by these studies, we analyze multi-phenotype stochastic models of the evolution of cancers cell populations under stress. We derive analytical results for time-dependent probability distributions that provide insights into the competing rates underlying phenotypic switching (e.g. during EMT) and the corresponding survival of cancer cells. Experimentally, we evaluate these model-based predictions by imaging human pancreatic cancer cell lines grown with and without cytotoxic agents and measure growth kinetics, survival, morphological changes and (terminal evaluation of) biomarkers with associated epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. The results derived suggest approaches for distinguishing between adaptation and selection scenarios for survival in the presence of external stresses.
A framework for learning and planning against switching strategies in repeated games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Leal, Pablo; Munoz de Cote, Enrique; Sucar, L. Enrique
2014-04-01
Intelligent agents, human or artificial, often change their behaviour as they interact with other agents. For an agent to optimise its performance when interacting with such agents, it must be capable of detecting and adapting according to such changes. This work presents an approach on how to effectively deal with non-stationary switching opponents in a repeated game context. Our main contribution is a framework for online learning and planning against opponents that switch strategies. We present how two opponent modelling techniques work within the framework and prove the usefulness of the approach experimentally in the iterated prisoner's dilemma, when the opponent is modelled as an agent that switches between different strategies (e.g. TFT, Pavlov and Bully). The results of both models were compared against each other and against a state-of-the-art non-stationary reinforcement learning technique. Results reflect that our approach obtains competitive results without needing an offline training phase, as opposed to the state-of-the-art techniques.
Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta
2014-01-01
Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564
Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta
2014-01-01
Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P. P.
1972-01-01
General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.
Biswas, Imran H.; Jakobsen, Espen R.; Karlsen, Kenneth H.
2010-08-15
We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yu; Yuan, Sanling; Zhang, Tonghua
2016-08-01
The effect of toxin-producing phytoplankton and environmental stochasticity are interesting problems in marine plankton ecology. In this paper, we develop and analyze a stochastic phytoplankton allelopathy model, which takes both white and colored noises into account. We first prove the existence of the global positive solution of the model. And then by using the stochastic Lyapunov functions, we investigate the positive recurrence and ergodic property of the model, which implies the existence of a stationary distribution of the solution. Moreover, we obtain the mean and variance of the stationary distribution. Our results show that both the two kinds of environmental noises and toxic substances have great impacts on the evolution of the phytoplankton populations. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our theoretical results.
Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.
Delays-based protein switches in a stochastic single-gene network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun; Zeng, Jiakui; Tian, Dong; Luo, Hongchun; Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Xiang, Chao; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Canjun
2015-09-01
In this paper, the protein switch in a single-gene network with time delays is investigated, where the gene expression is assumed to be disturbed by multiplicative and additive noises. The impacts of time delays τd and τs in degradation and synthesis processes, time delay τg in global process and cross-correlation between two noises (λi, and i = d , s , g) on the probability distribution and switch time (ST) from low protein level (OFF state) to high one (ON state) are discussed, respectively. Our results show that (1) the increase of the cross-correlation between two noises (λi) can induce protein switches from ON state to OFF one; (2) for λi ⩾ 0, the increase of τd can induce protein switches from OFF state to ON one, while τs (or τg) can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one, but for λi < 0, the τd (or τs) can induce protein switches from the OFF state to the ON one, while τg can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one; (3) the ST as functions of the noise intensities exhibits a maximum, which is the signature of the noise enhanced stability (NES) of the OFF state, while the increase of τd can cause the NES phenomenon to disappear; and (4) τd and τs play opposing roles in the ST, i.e., the impacts of the time delays τd and τs on ST can be canceled each other out.
Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states
2014-01-01
In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953
Chen, Bor-Sen; Tsai, Kun-Wei; Li, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Molecular biologists have long recognized carcinogenesis as an evolutionary process that involves natural selection. Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages. In this study, the evolution of somatic cancer cell lineages during carcinogenesis was modeled as an equilibrium point (ie, phenotype of attractor) shifting, the process of a nonlinear stochastic evolutionary biological network. This process is subject to intrinsic random fluctuations because of somatic genetic and epigenetic variations, as well as extrinsic disturbances because of carcinogens and stressors. In order to maintain the normal function (ie, phenotype) of an evolutionary biological network subjected to random intrinsic fluctuations and extrinsic disturbances, a network robustness scheme that incorporates natural selection needs to be developed. This can be accomplished by selecting certain genetic and epigenetic variations to modify the network structure to attenuate intrinsic fluctuations efficiently and to resist extrinsic disturbances in order to maintain the phenotype of the evolutionary biological network at an equilibrium point (attractor). However, during carcinogenesis, the remaining (or neutral) genetic and epigenetic variations accumulate, and the extrinsic disturbances become too large to maintain the normal phenotype at the desired equilibrium point for the nonlinear evolutionary biological network. Thus, the network is shifted to a cancer phenotype at a new equilibrium point that begins a new evolutionary process. In this study, the natural selection scheme of an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis was derived from a robust negative feedback scheme based on the nonlinear stochastic Nash game strategy. The evolvability and phenotypic robustness criteria of the evolutionary cancer network were also estimated by solving a Hamilton–Jacobi inequality – constrained optimization problem. The simulation revealed that the phenotypic shift of the lung cancer
Chen, Bor-Sen; Tsai, Kun-Wei; Li, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Molecular biologists have long recognized carcinogenesis as an evolutionary process that involves natural selection. Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages. In this study, the evolution of somatic cancer cell lineages during carcinogenesis was modeled as an equilibrium point (ie, phenotype of attractor) shifting, the process of a nonlinear stochastic evolutionary biological network. This process is subject to intrinsic random fluctuations because of somatic genetic and epigenetic variations, as well as extrinsic disturbances because of carcinogens and stressors. In order to maintain the normal function (ie, phenotype) of an evolutionary biological network subjected to random intrinsic fluctuations and extrinsic disturbances, a network robustness scheme that incorporates natural selection needs to be developed. This can be accomplished by selecting certain genetic and epigenetic variations to modify the network structure to attenuate intrinsic fluctuations efficiently and to resist extrinsic disturbances in order to maintain the phenotype of the evolutionary biological network at an equilibrium point (attractor). However, during carcinogenesis, the remaining (or neutral) genetic and epigenetic variations accumulate, and the extrinsic disturbances become too large to maintain the normal phenotype at the desired equilibrium point for the nonlinear evolutionary biological network. Thus, the network is shifted to a cancer phenotype at a new equilibrium point that begins a new evolutionary process. In this study, the natural selection scheme of an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis was derived from a robust negative feedback scheme based on the nonlinear stochastic Nash game strategy. The evolvability and phenotypic robustness criteria of the evolutionary cancer network were also estimated by solving a Hamilton-Jacobi inequality - constrained optimization problem. The simulation revealed that the phenotypic shift of the lung cancer
Lohse, Matthew B.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Noiman, Liron; Laksana, Clement N.
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT The human commensal and opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can switch between two distinct, heritable cell types, named “white” and “opaque,” which differ in morphology, mating abilities, and metabolic preferences and in their interactions with the host immune system. Previous studies revealed a highly interconnected group of transcriptional regulators that control switching between the two cell types. Here, we identify Ssn6, the C. albicans functional homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional corepressor Cyc8, as a new regulator of white-opaque switching. In a or α mating type strains, deletion of SSN6 results in mass switching from the white to the opaque cell type. Transcriptional profiling of ssn6 deletion mutant strains reveals that Ssn6 represses part of the opaque cell transcriptional program in white cells and the majority of the white cell transcriptional program in opaque cells. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Ssn6 is tightly integrated into the opaque cell regulatory circuit and that the positions to which it is bound across the genome strongly overlap those bound by Wor1 and Wor2, previously identified regulators of white-opaque switching. This work reveals the next layer in the white-opaque transcriptional circuitry by integrating a transcriptional regulator that does not bind DNA directly but instead associates with specific combinations of DNA-bound transcriptional regulators. PMID:26814177
Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J; Marr, Carsten
2012-01-01
A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György
2014-10-01
We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains.
Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.
Fishman, Michael A
2016-06-01
In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340
Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…
A Monetary Policy Simulation Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lengwiler, Yvan
2004-01-01
The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…
Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.
2007-11-01
We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Erwin; Reichenbach, Tobias
Microbial laboratory communities have become model systems for studying the complex interplay between nonlinear dynamics of evolutionary selection forces, stochastic fluctuations arising from the probabilistic nature of interactions, and spatial organization. Major research goals are to identify and understand mechanisms that ensure viability of microbial colonies by allowing for species diversity, cooperative behavior and other kinds of "social" behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes provides the mathematical tools and conceptual framework for a deeper understanding of these ecological systems. We give an introduction to the modern formulation of these theories and illustrate their effectiveness, focusing on selected examples of microbial systems. Intrinsic fluctuations, stemming from the discreteness of individuals, are ubiquitous, and can have important impact on the stability of ecosystems. In the absence of speciation, extinction of species is unavoidable, may, however, take very long times. We provide a general concept for defining survival and extinction on ecological time scales. Spatial degrees of freedom come with a certain mobility of individuals. When the latter is sufficiently high, bacterial community structures can be understood through mapping individual-based models, in a continuum approach, onto stochastic partial differential equations. These allow progress using methods of nonlinear dynamics such as bifurcation analysis and invariant manifolds. We conclude with a perspective on the current challenges in quantifying bacterial pattern formation, and how this might have an impact on fundamental research in nonequilibrium physics .
Seasonality as a Parrondian game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peacock-López, Enrique
2011-08-01
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.
2002-01-01
Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.
Passivity of switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays.
Lian, Jie; Wang, Jun
2015-02-01
This paper is concerned with the passivity analysis for switched neural networks subject to stochastic disturbances and time-varying delays. First, using the multiple Lyapunov functions method, a state-dependent switching law is designed to present a stochastic passivity condition. Second, a hysteresis switching law involving both the current state and the previous value of the switching signal are presented to avoid chattering resulted from the state-dependent switching. Third, based on the average dwell-time approach, a class of switching signals is determined to guarantee the switched neural network stochastically passive. Finally, three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the characteristics of three proposed switching laws. PMID:25576577
Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry
2013-01-01
The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makedon, Alexander
A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
Kaveh, Kamran; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A
2016-08-21
Evolutionary game dynamics are often studied in the context of different population structures. Here we propose a new population structure that is inspired by simple multicellular life forms. In our model, cells reproduce but can stay together after reproduction. They reach complexes of a certain size, n, before producing single cells again. The cells within a complex derive payoff from an evolutionary game by interacting with each other. The reproductive rate of cells is proportional to their payoff. We consider all two-strategy games. We study deterministic evolutionary dynamics with mutations, and derive exact conditions for selection to favor one strategy over another. Our main result has the same symmetry as the well-known sigma condition, which has been proven for stochastic game dynamics and weak selection. For a maximum complex size of n=2 our result holds for any intensity of selection. For n≥3 it holds for weak selection. As specific examples we study the prisoner's dilemma and hawk-dove games. Our model advances theoretical work on multicellularity by allowing for frequency-dependent interactions within groups. PMID:27179461
Synchronization of noisy systems by stochastic signals
Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Moss, F.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Shulgin, B.; Collins, J.J.
1999-07-01
We study, in terms of synchronization, the {ital nonlinear response} of noisy bistable systems to a stochastic external signal, represented by Markovian dichotomic noise. We propose a general kinetic model which allows us to conduct a full analytical study of the nonlinear response, including the calculation of cross-correlation measures, the mean switching frequency, and synchronization regions. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations of a noisy overdamped bistable oscillator. We show that dichotomic noise can instantaneously synchronize the switching process of the system. We also show that synchronization is most pronounced at an optimal noise level{emdash}this effect connects this phenomenon with aperiodic stochastic resonance. Similar synchronization effects are observed for a stochastic neuron model stimulated by a stochastic spike train. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walford, Rex
Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…
Symmetry and Stochastic Gene Regulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José E. M.
2007-09-01
Lorentz-like noncompact Lie symmetry SO(2,1) is found in a spin-boson stochastic model for gene expression. The invariant of the algebra characterizes the switch decay to equilibrium. The azimuthal eigenvalue describes the affinity between the regulatory protein and the gene operator site. Raising and lowering operators are constructed and their actions increase or decrease the affinity parameter. The classification of the noise regime of the gene arises from the group theoretical numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.
1985-01-01
A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.
Stability of Zero-Sum Games in Evolutionary Game Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin
2014-03-01
Evolutionary game theory has evolved into a successful theoretical concept to study mechanisms that govern the evolution of ecological communities. On a mathematical level, this theory was formalized in the framework of the celebrated replicator equations (REs) and its stochastic generalizations. In our work, we analyze the long-time behavior of the REs for zero-sum games with arbitrarily many strategies, which are generalized versions of the children's game Rock-Paper-Scissors.[1] We demonstrate how to determine the strategies that survive and those that become extinct in the long run. Our results show that extinction of strategies is exponentially fast in generic setups, and that conditions for the survival can be formulated in terms of the Pfaffian of the REs' antisymmetric payoff matrix. Consequences for the stochastic dynamics, which arise in finite populations, are reflected by a generalized scaling law for the extinction time in the vicinity of critical reaction rates. Our findings underline the relevance of zero-sum games as a reference for the analysis of other models in evolutionary game theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response
Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.
1982-03-01
Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.
Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer
2009-08-01
Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.
Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi
2015-09-01
The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent. PMID:26394522
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dostal, June
1973-01-01
Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)
Stochastic fate selection in HIV-infected patients.
Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S
2013-10-24
Classic studies proposed that stochastic variability ("noise") can drive biological fate switching, enhancing evolutionary success. Now, Ho et al. report that HIV's reactivation from dormant (latently infected) patient cells-the major barrier to an HIV cure-is inherently stochastic. Eradicating an incompletely inducible (probabilistic) viral phenotype will require inventive approaches. PMID:24243007
N-player stochastic differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P.
1976-01-01
The paper presents conditions which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. When the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.
Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, Jill
2005-01-01
In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…
Funk, Jeanne B
2005-06-01
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values. PMID:16111624
A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory
Gruen, Christine
2012-12-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.
Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.
DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco
2015-06-01
We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066
Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron
2015-09-01
An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.
Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto
2013-10-01
We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.
Blaskiewicz, M.
2011-01-01
Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).
The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly
2006-01-01
In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deubel, Patricia
2006-01-01
This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaffer, David Williamson
2005-01-01
In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie
2007-01-01
This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…
Optical switches and switching methods
Doty, Michael
2008-03-04
A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.
Learning in multilevel games with incomplete information. II.
Zhou, J; Billard, E; Lakshmivarahan, S
1999-01-01
Multilevel games are abstractions of situations where decision makers are distributed in a network environment. In Part I of this paper, the authors present several of the challenging problems that arise in the analysis of multilevel games. In this paper a specific set up is considered where the two games being played are zero-sum games and where the decision makers use the linear reward-inaction algorithm of stochastic learning automata. It is shown that the effective game matrix is decided by the willingness and the ability to cooperate and is a convex combination of two zero-sum game matrices. Analysis of the properties of this effective game matrix and the convergence of the decision process shows that players tend toward noncooperation in these specific environments. Simulation results illustrate this noncooperative behavior. PMID:18252309
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harteveld, Casper
This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.
Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.
2010-10-01
The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.
Cook, B.
1959-02-10
An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbach, Paul
2001-01-01
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, John
1980-01-01
The author argues that adult society prohibits adolescents from attaining maturity and that, in response to such constraints, adolescents turn to games, rituals, and charades. This state of affairs is viewed as an implicit adult conspiracy against adolescents. (DB)
Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.
1979-08-29
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.
1982-08-17
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Werner, Peter; Almond, Len
1990-01-01
Physical educators should be selective in deciding what games to include in the games curriculum. Several theoretical frameworks for selecting and teaching games are discussed, and a framework for developing a well-balanced games program is suggested. (IAH)
Rosin, Christopher D
2014-03-01
Game playing has been a core domain of artificial intelligence research since the beginnings of the field. Game playing provides clearly defined arenas within which computational approaches can be readily compared to human expertise through head-to-head competition and other benchmarks. Game playing research has identified several simple core algorithms that provide successful foundations, with development focused on the challenges of defeating human experts in specific games. Key developments include minimax search in chess, machine learning from self-play in backgammon, and Monte Carlo tree search in Go. These approaches have generalized successfully to additional games. While computers have surpassed human expertise in a wide variety of games, open challenges remain and research focuses on identifying and developing new successful algorithmic foundations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:193-205. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1278 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304308
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing.
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1995-12-01
In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational
Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman
1976-01-01
Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)
The Switch Task for Children: Measuring Mental Flexibility in Young Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer
2006-01-01
Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-10-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-11-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010
Linear System Control Using Stochastic Learning Automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.
1998-01-01
This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.
Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO{sub 2} nanorod arrays
Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei Li, Sean
2013-12-16
In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO{sub 2} nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.
Common and Unique Network Dynamics in Football Games
Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko
2011-01-01
The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international “A” match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of , and are larger than that of a gene transcription network, . Furthermore, we reveal the stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336
Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.
2009-05-04
After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.
Reedy, Robert P.
1987-01-01
An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.
The role of noise in the spatial public goods game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javarone, Marco Alberto; Battiston, Federico
2016-07-01
In this work we aim to analyze the role of noise in the spatial public goods game, one of the most famous games in evolutionary game theory. The dynamics of this game is affected by a number of parameters and processes, namely the topology of interactions among the agents, the synergy factor, and the strategy revision phase. The latter is a process that allows agents to change their strategy. Notably, rational agents tend to imitate richer neighbors, in order to increase the probability to maximize their payoff. By implementing a stochastic revision process, it is possible to control the level of noise in the system, so that even irrational updates may occur. In particular, in this work we study the effect of noise on the macroscopic behavior of a finite structured population playing the public goods game. We consider both the case of a homogeneous population, where the noise in the system is controlled by tuning a parameter representing the level of stochasticity in the strategy revision phase, and a heterogeneous population composed of a variable proportion of rational and irrational agents. In both cases numerical investigations show that the public goods game has a very rich behavior which strongly depends on the amount of noise in the system and on the value of the synergy factor. To conclude, our study sheds a new light on the relations between the microscopic dynamics of the public goods game and its macroscopic behavior, strengthening the link between the field of evolutionary game theory and statistical physics.
Serious Games: Video Games for Good?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
2015-01-01
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.
Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven
2016-04-01
Parameter estimation for models with intrinsic stochasticity poses specific challenges that do not exist for deterministic models. Therefore, specialized numerical methods for parameter estimation in stochastic models have been developed. Here, we study whether dedicated algorithms for stochastic models are indeed superior to the naive approach of applying the readily available least squares algorithm designed for deterministic models. We compare the performance of the recently developed multiple shooting for stochastic systems (MSS) method designed for parameter estimation in stochastic models, a stochastic differential equations based Bayesian approach and a chemical master equation based techniques with the least squares approach for parameter estimation in models of ordinary differential equations (ODE). As test data, 1000 realizations of the stochastic models are simulated. For each realization an estimation is performed with each method, resulting in 1000 estimates for each approach. These are compared with respect to their deviation to the true parameter and, for the genetic toggle switch, also their ability to reproduce the symmetry of the switching behavior. Results are shown for different set of parameter values of a genetic toggle switch leading to symmetric and asymmetric switching behavior as well as an immigration-death and a susceptible-infected-recovered model. This comparison shows that it is important to choose a parameter estimation technique that can treat intrinsic stochasticity and that the specific choice of this algorithm shows only minor performance differences. PMID:26826353
Deterministic dynamics in the minority game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jefferies, P.; Hart, M. L.; Johnson, N. F.
2002-01-01
The minority game (MG) behaves as a stochastically disturbed deterministic system due to the coin toss invoked to resolve tied strategies. Averaging over this stochasticity yields a description of the MG's deterministic dynamics via mapping equations for the strategy score and global information. The strategy-score map contains both restoring-force and bias terms, whose magnitudes depend on the game's quenched disorder. Approximate analytical expressions are obtained and the effect of ``market impact'' is discussed. The global-information map represents a trajectory on a de Bruijn graph. For small quenched disorder, a Eulerian trail represents a stable attractor. It is shown analytically how antipersistence arises. The response to perturbations and different initial conditions is also discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzi, Natalie
2012-01-01
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atkinson, Bill
1982-01-01
The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.
This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Kim
2004-01-01
The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jefferson, Bob; Hall, Jan D.
1992-01-01
Installation of a new metal halide lighting system at an old athletic high school stadium serving the Red Lion School District in Pennsylvania made night games possible. Community members raised funds for the installation. Because of increased attendance, the district made a $10,000 profit. Provides facts and figures on the stadium lighting. (MLF)
Chambers, David W
2010-01-01
A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oblinger, Diana G.
2006-01-01
From a very early age, people learn from games and play. Parents and preschool teachers use games to teach colors, numbers, names, and shapes; the process is drill and practice. Games engage everyone, capturing their attention. People willingly spend time on task. Although students in high school and college continue to play games, games rarely…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat
2011-01-01
Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prayaga, Lakshmi; Rasmussen, Karen L.
2008-01-01
Computer games are no longer just for entertainment; they have also become a useful instructional strategy for acquiring knowledge. When games are used for purposes other than strict entertainment they become serious games. The goal of serious games is to enable the player to learn a task, master a strategy or develop a skill. Serious games can be…
The evolution of mating type switching.
Hadjivasiliou, Zena; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Kuijper, Bram
2016-07-01
Predictions about the evolution of sex determination mechanisms have mainly focused on animals and plants, whereas unicellular eukaryotes such as fungi and ciliates have received little attention. Many taxa within the latter groups can stochastically switch their mating type identity during vegetative growth. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that mating type switching overcomes distortions in the distribution of mating types due to drift during asexual growth. Using a computational model, we show that smaller population size, longer vegetative periods and more mating types lead to greater distortions in the distribution of mating types. However, the impact of these parameters on optimal switching rates is not straightforward. We find that longer vegetative periods cause reductions and considerable fluctuations in the switching rate over time. Smaller population size increases the strength of selection for switching but has little impact on the switching rate itself. The number of mating types decreases switching rates when gametes can freely sample each other, but increases switching rates when there is selection for speedy mating. We discuss our results in light of empirical work and propose new experiments that could further our understanding of sexuality in isogamous eukaryotes. PMID:27271362
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
2014-03-01
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600
Intrinsic noise in systems with switching environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hufton, Peter G.; Lin, Yen Ting; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J.
2016-05-01
We study individual-based dynamics in finite populations, subject to randomly switching environmental conditions. These are inspired by models in which genes transition between on and off states, regulating underlying protein dynamics. Similarly, switches between environmental states are relevant in bacterial populations and in models of epidemic spread. Existing piecewise-deterministic Markov process approaches focus on the deterministic limit of the population dynamics while retaining the randomness of the switching. Here we go beyond this approximation and explicitly include effects of intrinsic stochasticity at the level of the linear-noise approximation. Specifically, we derive the stationary distributions of a number of model systems, in good agreement with simulations. This improves existing approaches which are limited to the regimes of fast and slow switching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corbridge, Stuart
1985-01-01
The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)
Deterministic evolutionary game dynamics in finite populations.
Altrock, Philipp M; Traulsen, Arne
2009-07-01
Evolutionary game dynamics describes the spreading of successful strategies in a population of reproducing individuals. Typically, the microscopic definition of strategy spreading is stochastic such that the dynamics becomes deterministic only in infinitely large populations. Here, we present a microscopic birth-death process that has a fully deterministic strong selection limit in well-mixed populations of any size. Additionally, under weak selection, from this process the frequency-dependent Moran process is recovered. This makes it a natural extension of the usual evolutionary dynamics under weak selection. We find simple expressions for the fixation probabilities and average fixation times of the process in evolutionary games with two players and two strategies. For cyclic games with two players and three strategies, we show that the resulting deterministic dynamics crucially depends on the initial condition in a nontrivial way. PMID:19658731
Computer Games and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.
2011-01-01
There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…
Fluctuations as stochastic deformation.
Kazinski, P O
2008-04-01
A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium. PMID:18517590
Fluctuations as stochastic deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2008-04-01
A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.
Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem
Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.
2013-04-15
This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.
Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.
1969-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.
Path sampling with stochastic dynamics: Some new algorithms
Stoltz, Gabriel . E-mail: stoltz@cermics.enpc.fr
2007-07-01
We propose here some new sampling algorithms for path sampling in the case when stochastic dynamics are used. In particular, we present a new proposal function for equilibrium sampling of paths with a Monte-Carlo dynamics (the so-called 'brownian tube' proposal). This proposal is based on the continuity of the dynamics with respect to the random forcing, and generalizes all previous approaches when stochastic dynamics are used. The efficiency of this proposal is demonstrated using some measure of decorrelation in path space. We also discuss a switching strategy that allows to transform ensemble of paths at a finite rate while remaining at equilibrium, in contrast with the usual Jarzynski like switching. This switching is very interesting to sample constrained paths starting from unconstrained paths, or to perform simulated annealing in a rigorous way.
Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulle, Assyr; Blumenthal, Adrian
2013-10-01
A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dongkai; Wang, Chaoli; Wei, Guoliang; Zhang, Hengjun; Chen, Hua
2014-07-01
The stabilising problem of stochastic non-holonomic mobile robots with uncertain parameters based on visual servoing is addressed in this paper. The model of non-holonomic mobile robots based on visual servoing is extended to the stochastic case, where their forward velocity and angular velocity are both subject to some stochastic disturbances. Based on backstepping technique, state-feedback stabilising controllers are designed for stochastic non-holonomic mobile robots. A switching control strategy for the original system is presented. The proposed controllers guarantee that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stabilised at the zero equilibrium point in probability.
Nanoelectromechanical contact switches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loh, Owen Y.; Espinosa, Horacio D.
2012-05-01
Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications -- for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments -- but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices.
Dynamic phase transition in the prisoner's dilemma on a lattice with stochastic modifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saif, M. Ali; Gade, Prashant M.
2010-03-01
We present a detailed study of the prisoner's dilemma game with stochastic modifications on a two-dimensional lattice, in the presence of evolutionary dynamics. By very nature of the rules, the cooperators have incentives to cheat and fear being cheated. They may cheat even when this is not dictated by the evolutionary dynamics. We consider two variants here. In each case, the agents mimic the action (cooperation or defection) in the previous time step of the most successful agent in the neighborhood. But over and above this, the fraction p of cooperators spontaneously change their strategy to pure defector at every time step in the first variant. In the second variant, there are no pure cooperators. All cooperators keep defecting with probability p at every time step. In both cases, the system switches from a coexistence state to an all-defector state for higher values of p. We show that the transition between these states unambiguously belongs to the directed percolation universality class in 2 + 1 dimensions. We also study the local persistence. The persistence exponents obtained are higher than the ones obtained in previous studies, underlining their dependence on details of the dynamics.
Controlling statistical moments of stochastic dynamical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bielievtsov, Dmytro; Ladenbauer, Josef; Obermayer, Klaus
2016-07-01
We consider a general class of stochastic networks and ask which network nodes need to be controlled, and how, to stabilize and switch between desired metastable (target) states in terms of the first and second statistical moments of the system. We first show that it is sufficient to directly interfere with a subset of nodes which can be identified using information about the graph of the network only. Then we develop a suitable method for feedback control which acts on that subset of nodes and preserves the covariance structure of the desired target state. Finally, we demonstrate our theoretical results using a stochastic Hopfield network and a global brain model. Our results are applicable to a variety of (model) networks and further our understanding of the relationship between network structure and collective dynamics for the benefit of effective control.
Controlling statistical moments of stochastic dynamical networks.
Bielievtsov, Dmytro; Ladenbauer, Josef; Obermayer, Klaus
2016-07-01
We consider a general class of stochastic networks and ask which network nodes need to be controlled, and how, to stabilize and switch between desired metastable (target) states in terms of the first and second statistical moments of the system. We first show that it is sufficient to directly interfere with a subset of nodes which can be identified using information about the graph of the network only. Then we develop a suitable method for feedback control which acts on that subset of nodes and preserves the covariance structure of the desired target state. Finally, we demonstrate our theoretical results using a stochastic Hopfield network and a global brain model. Our results are applicable to a variety of (model) networks and further our understanding of the relationship between network structure and collective dynamics for the benefit of effective control. PMID:27575147
Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…
Phenotypic switching in bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrin, Jack
Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial
Learning with Calculator Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneiderman, Ellen
1990-01-01
This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekely, George
2000-01-01
Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)
Creveling, R.; Bourgeois, N.A. Jr.
1959-04-21
An arrangement for utilizing a thyratron as a noise free switch is described. It has been discovered that the voltage between plate and cathode of a thyratron will oscillate, producing voltage spikes, if the tube carries only a fraction of its maximum rated current. These voltage spikes can produce detrimental effects where the thyratron is used in critical timing circuits. To alleviate this problem the disclosed circuit provides a charged capacitor and a resistor in parallel with the tube and of such value that the maximum current will flow from the capacitor through the thyratron when it is triggered. During this time the signal current is conducted through the tube, before the thyratron voltage starts to oscillate, and the signal current output is free of noise spikes.
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-07-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions.
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-07-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks. PMID:26020274
The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shubik, Martin
2002-01-01
Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)
On Equilibria for ADM Minimization Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf
In the ADM minimization problem, the input is a set of arcs along a directed ring. The input arcs need to be partitioned into non-overlapping chains and cycles so as to minimize the total number of endpoints, where a k-arc cycle contributes k endpoints and a k-arc chain contains k + 1 endpoints. We study ADM minimization problem both as a non-cooperative and a cooperative games. In these games, each arc corresponds to a player, and the players share the cost of the ADM switches. We consider two cost allocation models, a model which was considered by Flammini et al., and a new cost allocation model, which is inspired by congestion games. We compare the price of anarchy and price of stability in the two cost allocation models, as well as the strong price of anarchy and the strong price of stability.
Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun
2015-06-01
Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.
Stochastic Processes in Electrochemistry.
Singh, Pradyumna S; Lemay, Serge G
2016-05-17
Stochastic behavior becomes an increasingly dominant characteristic of electrochemical systems as we probe them on the smallest scales. Advances in the tools and techniques of nanoelectrochemistry dictate that stochastic phenomena will become more widely manifest in the future. In this Perspective, we outline the conceptual tools that are required to analyze and understand this behavior. We draw on examples from several specific electrochemical systems where important information is encoded in, and can be derived from, apparently random signals. This Perspective attempts to serve as an accessible introduction to understanding stochastic phenomena in electrochemical systems and outlines why they cannot be understood with conventional macroscopic descriptions. PMID:27120701
The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-09-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.
2003-01-01
We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.
Spring, William Joseph
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas
1995-03-01
B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.
Beating Cheaters at Their Own Game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauch, Joseph; Kondev, Jane; Sanchez, Alvaro
2014-03-01
Public goods games occur over many different scales in nature, from microbial biofilms to the human commons. On each scale stable populations of cooperators (members who invest into producing some good shared by the entire population) and cheaters (members who make no investment yet still share the common goods) has been observed. This observation raises interesting questions, like how do cooperators maintain their presence in a game that seems to heavily favor cheaters, and what strategies for cooperation could populations employ to increase their success? We propose a model of a public goods game with two different player populations, S and D, which employ two different strategies: the D population always cheats and the S population makes a stochastic decision whether to cooperate or not. We find that stochastic cooperation improves the success of the S population over the competing D population, but at a price. As the probability of cheating by the S players increases they outcompete the D players but the total population becomes more ecologically unstable (i.e., the likelihood of its extinction grows). We investigate this trade off between evolutionary success and ecological stability and propose experiments using populations of yeast cells to test our predictions.
Dynamics of Double Stochastic Operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saburov, Mansoor
2016-03-01
A double stochastic operator is a generalization of a double stochastic matrix. In this paper, we study the dynamics of double stochastic operators. We give a criterion for a regularity of a double stochastic operator in terms of absences of its periodic points. We provide some examples to insure that, in general, a trajectory of a double stochastic operator may converge to any interior point of the simplex.
Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation
Schlicher, Bob G; Abercrombie, Robert K
2012-01-01
Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.
Latching relay switch assembly
Duimstra, Frederick A.
1991-01-01
A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.
Miniature intermittent contact switch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sword, A.
1972-01-01
Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.
Quantum repeated games revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frąckiewicz, Piotr
2012-03-01
We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2 × 2 games based on Marinatto and Weber’s approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study the twice repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma game. We show that results not available in the classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games proposed by Iqbal and Toor. We point out the drawbacks that make their results unacceptable.
Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait
Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.
2013-01-01
Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921
Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.
Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C
2013-01-01
Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torrence, Bruce
2011-01-01
The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…
Simulation Games in Moral Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boulogne, Jack
1978-01-01
Discusses the value of simulation games in moral education in four categories: fun and games; games as simulations of real life; games as motivators; and morality and game theory. Also examines the gaming aspects of morality, as well as the physical, psychological, precedent-setting, and internal consequences of an action. (Author/JK)
Boettcher, Gordon E.
1990-03-06
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.
Boettcher, Gordon E.
1990-01-01
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.
Winning in sequential Parrondo games by players with short-term memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheung, K. W.; Ma, H. F.; Wu, D.; Lui, G. C.; Szeto, K. Y.
2016-05-01
The original Parrondo game, denoted as AB3, contains two independent games: A and B. The winning or losing of games A and B is defined by the change of one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability p=0.5-ε , where ε =0.003 . Game B is also losing and has two coins: a good coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{g}}=0.75-ε is used if the player’s capital is not divisible by 3, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{b}}=0.1-ε is used. The Parrondo paradox refers to the situation where the mixture of games A and B in a sequence leads to winning in the long run. The paradox can be resolved using Markov chain analysis. We extend this setting of the Parrondo game to involve players with one-step memory. The player can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. If the player knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital, then the player can win maximally. On the other hand, if the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C, D) game, where either (C = A, D = B), or (C = B, D = A). For a player with one-step memory playing the AB3 game, he can achieve the highest expected gain with switching probability equal to 3/4 in the (C, D) game sequence. This result has been found first numerically and then proven analytically. Generalization to an AB mod(M) Parrondo game for other integers M has been made for the general domain of parameters {{p}\\text{b}}\\text{A}}<{{p}\\text{g}} . We find that for odd M the Parrondo effect does exist. However, for even M, there is no Parrondo effect for two cases: the initial game is A and the initial capital is even, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is odd. There is still a possibility of the Parrondo effect for the other two cases when M is even: the initial game is A and the initial capital is odd, or the initial game is B and the initial
A stochastic model for immunotherapy of cancer
Baar, Martina; Coquille, Loren; Mayer, Hannah; Hölzel, Michael; Rogava, Meri; Tüting, Thomas; Bovier, Anton
2016-01-01
We propose an extension of a standard stochastic individual-based model in population dynamics which broadens the range of biological applications. Our primary motivation is modelling of immunotherapy of malignant tumours. In this context the different actors, T-cells, cytokines or cancer cells, are modelled as single particles (individuals) in the stochastic system. The main expansions of the model are distinguishing cancer cells by phenotype and genotype, including environment-dependent phenotypic plasticity that does not affect the genotype, taking into account the effects of therapy and introducing a competition term which lowers the reproduction rate of an individual in addition to the usual term that increases its death rate. We illustrate the new setup by using it to model various phenomena arising in immunotherapy. Our aim is twofold: on the one hand, we show that the interplay of genetic mutations and phenotypic switches on different timescales as well as the occurrence of metastability phenomena raise new mathematical challenges. On the other hand, we argue why understanding purely stochastic events (which cannot be obtained with deterministic models) may help to understand the resistance of tumours to therapeutic approaches and may have non-trivial consequences on tumour treatment protocols. This is supported through numerical simulations. PMID:27063839
Use of Business Simulations and Games in Higher Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lloyd, John W.
Simulation and business games can meet the need to teach decision making in that they offer a dynamic context in which the results of a decision has to be lived with. This view was reached after a switch from business to higher education prompted a search for teaching methods more suitable and effective for business education than the lecture…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fenn, Margaret
1972-01-01
Article describes management training through playing a game which involves the creation and operation of a business organization devoted to manufacturing and sales. Precise details on setting up the game are given. (Author/PD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeRosa, Bill
1988-01-01
Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chan, Wai-Sum
1996-01-01
Describes the Mang Kung Dice Game, popular in China, which uses six special dice. Discusses the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Poses questions about the game to help students understand statistical concepts. (MKR)
Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul
2012-02-01
Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.
Stochastic gene expression as a many-body problem
Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.
2003-01-01
Gene expression has a stochastic component because of the single-molecule nature of the gene and the small number of copies of individual DNA-binding proteins in the cell. We show how the statistics of such systems can be mapped onto quantum many-body problems. The dynamics of a single gene switch resembles the spin-boson model of a two-site polaron or an electron transfer reaction. Networks of switches can be approximately described as quantum spin systems by using an appropriate variational principle. In this way, the concept of frustration for magnetic systems can be taken over into gene networks. The landscape of stable attractors depends on the degree and style of frustration, much as for neural networks. We show the number of attractors, which may represent cell types, is much smaller for appropriately designed weakly frustrated stochastic networks than for randomly connected networks. PMID:12606710
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silberg, Jackie
2001-01-01
Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)
[Dangerous games in schoolchildren].
Le Heuzey, M-F
2011-02-01
Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy
This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dye, Bryan
2002-01-01
A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.
1980-01-01
Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Law, Gordon
The need for librarianship of instructional gaming increases as the production of literature and games grows, and as gaming becomes progressively legitimatized as an instructional strategy. This paper presents guidelines for bibliographic control and reference services, collection development, cataloging and classification, circulation and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Timothy
2008-01-01
The games that children play are not just for fun-they often lead to important skill development. Likewise, word games are fun opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and for children to learn a lot about sounds and words. In this Family Involvement column, the authors describe 12 easy-to-implement word games that parents and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet
1982-01-01
Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)
International Cooperative Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoppe, Christine
The book "Of Play and Playfulness" (Eastern Cooperative Recreation School, 1990) is recommended as a source of ideas for second language learning games. It describes folk dances, ideas for crafts, puppetry, games, and a variety of other activities from many countries. Several games from the book, easy to teach in a foreign language or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Henry
2005-01-01
Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eckalbar, John C.
2002-01-01
Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Will
2012-01-01
The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…
... a Friend Who Cuts? Babysitting: Time for Bed Game KidsHealth > For Teens > Babysitting: Time for Bed Game Print A A A Text Size What Kids ... kids to bed can be tough sometimes! This game introduces children to the concept of getting enough ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koeninger, Jimmy G.
The decision-making game is built on a model which adheres to the economic principles of supply and demand. Game participants are faced with the task of generating profit in a simulated competitive situation. The game provides the opportunity for participants to gain a greater understanding of: (1) the relationship between income and costs and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg
2012-01-01
One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt
2016-01-01
Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…
Inventing Music Education Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghere, David; Amram, Fred M. B.
2007-01-01
The first British patent describing an educational game designed for musical "amusement and instruction" was granted in 1801 to Ann Young of Edinburgh, Scotland. The authors' discovery of Young's game box has prompted an examination of the nature and purpose of the six games she designed. Ann Young's patent is discussed in the context of…
Educational Games for Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos
2014-01-01
The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corbin, Sandra J.
1980-01-01
Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)
Learning Through Simulation Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillispie, Philip H.
A broad overview of the educational applications of simulation games is provided. The first section of the book offers an introduction to the major concepts of such games and develops the idea that it is relatively easy for individuals to design and use their own simulation games. The remainder of the book serves as a teacher's guide for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kisabeth, Kathryn L.
Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…
Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Partington, Anthony
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venturi, Daniele
2005-11-01
Stochastic bifurcations and stability of natural convective flows in 2d and 3d enclosures are investigated by the multi-element generalized polynomial chaos (ME-gPC) method (Xiu and Karniadakis, SISC, vol. 24, 2002). The Boussinesq approximation for the variation of physical properties is assumed. The stability analysis is first carried out in a deterministic sense, to determine steady state solutions and primary and secondary bifurcations. Stochastic simulations are then conducted around discontinuities and transitional regimes. It is found that these highly non-linear phenomena can be efficiently captured by the ME-gPC method. Finally, the main findings of the stochastic analysis and their implications for heat transfer will be discussed.
Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A
2013-05-21
An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.