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1

A stochastic differential game for optimal investment of an insurer with regime switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a model to discuss an optimal investment problem of an insurance company using a game theoretic approach. The model is general enough to include economic risk, financial risk, insurance risk, and model risk. The insurance company invests its surplus in a bond and a stock index. The interest rate of the bond is stochastic and depends on the

Robert Elliott; Tak Kuen Siu

2010-01-01

2

A stochastic differential game for optimal investment of an insurer with regime switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a model to discuss an optimal investment problem of an insurance company using a game theoretic approach. The model is general enough to include economic risk, financial risk, insurance risk, and model risk. The insurance company invests its surplus in a bond and a stock index. The interest rate of the bond is stochastic and depends on the

Robert J. Elliott; Tak Kuen Siu

2011-01-01

3

Switching and control in stochastic double gyres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of stochastic transport in a driven double gyre with time dependent basin boundaries. Noise typically creates almost invariant sets, or meta-stable states. Mixing occurs between these states as a result of stochastic transport. Using stochastic Markov operator theory, we approximate the almost invariant sets and regions with most probable switching. These sets define regions for which control perturbations can facilitate or prevent switching. Switching rates using these control schemes will be derived and compared to numerical simulations. We show how scaling laws change exponentially in the presence of control when compared to the natural switching rate.

Billings, Lora; Forgoston, Eric; Schwartz, Ira

2010-03-01

4

The robustness of stochastic switching networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many natural systems, including chemical and biological systems, can be modeled using stochastic switching circuits. These circuits consist of stochastic switches, called pswitches, which operate with a fixed probability of being open or closed. We study the effect caused by introducing an error of size. to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions.simple series-parallel and general series-parallel

Po-Ling Loh; Hongchao Zhou; Jehoshua Bruck

2009-01-01

5

Stochastic switching of cantilever motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cantilever is a prototype of a highly compliant mechanical system and has an instrumental role in nanotechnology, enabling surface microscopy, and ultrasensitive force and mass measurements. Here we report fluctuation-induced transitions between two stable states of a strongly driven microcantilever. Geometric nonlinearity gives rise to an amplitude-dependent resonance frequency and bifurcation occurs beyond a critical point. The cantilever response to a weak parametric modulation is amplified by white noise, resulting in an optimum signal-to-noise ratio at finite noise intensity. This stochastic switching suggests new detection schemes for cantilever-based instrumentation, where the detection of weak signals is mediated by the fluctuating environment. For ultrafloppy, cantilevers with nanometer-scale dimensions operating at room temperature—a new transduction paradigm emerges that is based on probability distributions and mimics nature.

Venstra, Warner J.; Westra, Hidde J. R.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.

2013-10-01

6

Dynamic Programming for Partially Observable Stochastic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an exact dynamic programming algorithm for partially observable stochastic games (POSGs). The algo- rithm is a synthesis of dynamic programming for partially ob- servable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) and iterated elimination of dominated strategies in normal form games. We prove that when applied to finite-horizon POSGs, the al- gorithm iteratively eliminates very weakly dominated strate- gies without first

Eric A. Hansen; Daniel S. Bernstein; Shlomo Zilberstein

2004-01-01

7

Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Cardaliaguet@univ-brest.fr; Rainer, Catherine [Universite de Brest, Laboratoire de Mathematique (UMR CNRS 6205) (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2009-02-15

8

Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis Daniel Wilhelm  

E-print Network

introduce a new duality property for series-parallel stochastic switching circuits. Finally, we construct on the so-called two-terminal series-parallel circuits. A two-terminal circuit is an undirected graph. A two-terminal circuit C is series-parallel (sp) iff C is: (1) a single switch, or (2) a series

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

9

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

10

Pathwise Strategies for Stochastic Differential Games with an Erratum to 'Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information'  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)

Cardaliaguet, P., E-mail: cardaliaguet@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Ceremade (France); Rainer, C., E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)

2013-08-01

11

Switch dynamics for stochastic model of genetic toggle switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, more and more biological experiments have indicated that noise plays an important role in bistable systems, such as the case of the bimodal population distribution in the genetic toggle switch. In this paper, we further verify that noises in degradation rates can indeed induce switching in the genetic toggle switch. Meanwhile, we apply the theory of mean first passage time (MFPT) in high dimensional system to the above stochastic model. According to our assumption, the high order finite difference method is used to compute the MFPT (that the average time switching from one steady state to the other) and we find that the relationship between the MFPT and noise intensity is negative correlation. The result is also verified through another numerical simulation method.

Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ya-nan; Shen, Jianwei; Su, Jianbin

2014-12-01

12

Stochastic game of life in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic game of life (SGL) which simulates the dynamic evolution of a society of living organisms in the presence of noise is introduced. The SGL exhibits a very rich critical behavior with many critical edges at the irreversible phase transitions: extinction-life and life-overcrowding. Furthermore, within the living phase, critical edges at transitions between chaotic and frozen life are also found.

Monetti, Roberto A.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

1997-02-01

13

Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games

Hamlen, Karla R.

2012-01-01

14

The Complexity of Nash Equilibria in Simple Stochastic Multiplayer Games   

E-print Network

We analyse the computational complexity of finding Nash equilibria in simple stochastic multiplayer games. We show that restricting the search space to equilibria whose payoffs fall into a certain interval may lead to ...

Ummels, Michael; Wojtczak, Dominik

2009-02-01

15

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

16

Spatial effect on stochastic dynamics of bistable evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the lifetimes of metastable states in bistable evolutionary games (coordination games), and examine how they are affected by spatial structure. A semiclassical approximation based on a path integral method is applied to stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with and without spatial structure, and the lifetimes of the metastable states are evaluated. It is shown that the population dependence of the lifetimes is qualitatively different in these two models. Our result indicates that spatial structure can accelerate the transitions between metastable states.

So, Kohaku H. Z.; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kato, Takeo

2014-10-01

17

PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games  

E-print Network

PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games Taolue Chen1 , Vojtech Forejt1 of Oxford, UK 2 School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK Abstract. We present PRISM checker PRISM, benefiting from its existing user interface and simulator, whilst adding novel model

Oxford, University of

18

Security Analysis for Online Banking System Using Hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets, and use it to model and analyze the security issues in online banking system. Firstly, the definition and modeling algorithm of hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets are given. In which, some theorems are proved. Then we apply hierarchical Stochastic Game Nets to describe the attack and defense course in the online banking.

Yuanzhuo Wang; Chuang Lin; Kun Meng; Hongkun Yang; Junjie Lv

2009-01-01

19

Evolutionary Rotation in Switching Incentive Zero-Sum Games  

E-print Network

In a laboratory experiment, round by round, individual interactions should lead to the social evolutionary rotation in population strategy state space. Successive switching the incentive parameter should lead to successive change of the rotation ---- both of its direction and its strength. In data from a switching payoff matrix experiment of extended 2x2 games (Binmore, Swierzbinski and Proulx, 2001 [1]), we find the changing of the social evolutionary rotation can be distinguished quantitatively. The evolutionary rotation can be captured by evolutionary dynamics. With eigenvalue from the Jacobian of a constrained replicator dynamics model, an interpretation for observed rotation strength is given. In addition, equality-of-populations rank test shows that relative response coefficient of a group could persist cross the switching parameter games. The data has successively been used to support Von Neumann's minimax theory. Using the old data, with observed evolutionary rotation, this report provides a new insight into evolutionary game theory and experimental social dynamics.

Zhijian Wang; Bin Xu

2012-07-24

20

Stochastic adaptation in finite games played by heterogeneous populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze stochastic adaptation in finite n-player games played by heterogeneous populations containing best repliers, better repliers, and imitators. Individuals select strategies by applying a personal learning rule to a sample from a finite history of past play. We give sufficient conditions for convergence to minimal closed sets under better replies and selection of a Pareto dominant such set. Finally,

Jens Josephson

2009-01-01

21

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference  

E-print Network

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistanceINFO classification: 2300 2340 2346 Keywords: Task switching Selective attention Executive control Video games a b s t r a c t Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area

Shedden, Judith M.

22

Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game  

PubMed Central

In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986

Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

2013-01-01

23

CONTROL OF RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS USING DIFFERENTIAL MINIMAX GAME: THE STOCHASTIC CASE  

E-print Network

CONTROL OF RECURRENT NEURAL NETWORKS USING DIFFERENTIAL MINIMAX GAME: THE STOCHASTIC CASE Ziqian recurrent neural networks to stochastic recurrent neural networks, and presents a new approach to achieve optimally stochastic input-to-state stabilization in probability for stochastic recurrent neural networks

Ansari, Nirwan

24

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

SciTech Connect

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15

25

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL -Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules  

E-print Network

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL - Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules Principle of the game: 1. At the beginning of the game, a certain amount of money is given your (current) amount of money on these possible answers. - All the money put on a wrong answer

Lévêque, Olivier

26

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau &  

E-print Network

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau & Arthur P. Shimamura # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012 Abstract Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive

Shimamura, Arthur P.

27

The Effects of Incomplete Information in Stochastic Common-Stock Harvesting Games  

E-print Network

the initial fish stock (or "recruitment") divides into two streams, each one accessible to harvest by just one of the two competing fishing fleets. The fleets simultaneously harvest down their streams, achieving net-property games. Keywords: stochastic harvesting game, asymmetric information, fish wars, bioeconomic competition

Gideon, Rudy A.

28

A bond-fluctuation mechanism for stochastic switching in wired molecules.  

PubMed

Stochastic on-off conductivity switching observed in phenylene-ethynylene oligomers has been explained in terms of changes in ring conformations, or electron localization, or both. We report the observation of stochastic on-off switching in the simplest of wired molecules: octanedithiol, decanedithiol, and dodecanedithiol bonded on an Au(111) surface. Stochastic switching was observed even when a top gold contact was pressed on by a conducting atomic force microscope tip at constant force. The rate of switching increased substantially at 60 degrees C, a temperature at which these films are commonly annealed. Because such switching in alkanethiols is unlikely to be caused by internal molecular electronic changes and cannot be fully accounted for by breaking of the top contact, we argue that the cause is the well-known mobility of molecules tethered to gold via a thiol linkage. PMID:12775835

Ramachandran, Ganesh K; Hopson, Theresa J; Rawlett, Adam M; Nagahara, Larry A; Primak, Alex; Lindsay, Stuart M

2003-05-30

29

Making Greed Work in Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Switch Service Disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are twobasic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrativecontrol is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfishuser behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. Thiseffect is investigated in a simple model consisting of a

Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

30

Switching of bound vector solitons for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.

Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao Yitian [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-12-15

31

A Pumping Algorithm for Ergodic Stochastic Mean Payoff Games with Perfect Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider two-person zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information, or BWR-games, given by a digraph G = (V = V B ? V W ? V R , E), with local rewards r: E to { R}, and three types of vertices: black V B , white V W , and random V R . The game is played by two players, White and Black: When the play is at a white (black) vertex v, White (Black) selects an outgoing arc (v,u). When the play is at a random vertex v, a vertex u is picked with the given probability p(v,u). In all cases, Black pays White the value r(v,u). The play continues forever, and White aims to maximize (Black aims to minimize) the limiting mean (that is, average) payoff. It was recently shown in [7] that BWR-games are polynomially equivalent with the classical Gillette games, which include many well-known subclasses, such as cyclic games, simple stochastic games (SSG's), stochastic parity games, and Markov decision processes. In this paper, we give a new algorithm for solving BWR-games in the ergodic case, that is when the optimal values do not depend on the initial position. Our algorithm solves a BWR-game by reducing it, using a potential transformation, to a canonical form in which the optimal strategies of both players and the value for every initial position are obvious, since a locally optimal move in it is optimal in the whole game. We show that this algorithm is pseudo-polynomial when the number of random nodes is constant. We also provide an almost matching lower bound on its running time, and show that this bound holds for a wider class of algorithms. Let us add that the general (non-ergodic) case is at least as hard as SSG's, for which no pseudo-polynomial algorithm is known.

Boros, Endre; Elbassioni, Khaled; Gurvich, Vladimir; Makino, Kazuhisa

32

Stochastic analysis of a miRNA-protein toggle switch  

E-print Network

Within systems biology there is an increasing interest in the stochastic behavior of genetic and biochemical reaction networks. An appropriate stochastic description is provided by the chemical master equation, which represents a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). In this paper we consider the stochastic properties of a biochemical circuit, known to control eukaryotic cell cycle and possibly involved in oncogenesis, recently proposed in the literature within a deterministic framework. Due to the inherent stochasticity of biochemical processes and the small number of molecules involved, the stochastic approach should be more correct in describing the real system: we study the agreement between the two approaches by exploring the system parameter space. We address the problem by proposing a simplified version of the model that allows analytical treatment, and by performing numerical simulations for the full model. We observed optimal agreement between the stochastic and the deterministic description of the ci...

Giampieri, E; de Oliveira, L; Castellani, G; Lió, P

2011-01-01

33

DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games  

PubMed Central

The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility. PMID:21833191

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Leeuwen, Pieter J.A.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P.M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

34

On the Expressibility of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhou  

E-print Network

circuit is p1 · p2. Connecting both terminals of two switching circuits C1 and C2 places them in parallel series-parallel (ssp) switching circuits, where an ssp circuit is either: (1) a single pswitch, or (2) an ssp circuit with an additional pswitch added in series or parallel. In [5], it is shown that ssp

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

35

On the Expressibility of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhou  

E-print Network

places them in parallel, such that the probability of the resulting circuit is 1 - (1 - p1)(1 - p2) = p1 + p2 - p1p2. In this paper, we focus on simple series-parallel (ssp) switching circuits. An ssp or parallel. Shannon proved that every Boolean function can be realized by a switching relay circuit

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

36

The Stochastic Evolutionary Game for a Population of Biological Networks Under Natural Selection  

PubMed Central

In this study, a population of evolutionary biological networks is described by a stochastic dynamic system with intrinsic random parameter fluctuations due to genetic variations and external disturbances caused by environmental changes in the evolutionary process. Since information on environmental changes is unavailable and their occurrence is unpredictable, they can be considered as a game player with the potential to destroy phenotypic stability. The biological network needs to develop an evolutionary strategy to improve phenotypic stability as much as possible, so it can be considered as another game player in the evolutionary process, ie, a stochastic Nash game of minimizing the maximum network evolution level caused by the worst environmental disturbances. Based on the nonlinear stochastic evolutionary game strategy, we find that some genetic variations can be used in natural selection to construct negative feedback loops, efficiently improving network robustness. This provides larger genetic robustness as a buffer against neutral genetic variations, as well as larger environmental robustness to resist environmental disturbances and maintain a network phenotypic traits in the evolutionary process. In this situation, the robust phenotypic traits of stochastic biological networks can be more frequently selected by natural selection in evolution. However, if the harbored neutral genetic variations are accumulated to a sufficiently large degree, and environmental disturbances are strong enough that the network robustness can no longer confer enough genetic robustness and environmental robustness, then the phenotype robustness might break down. In this case, a network phenotypic trait may be pushed from one equilibrium point to another, changing the phenotypic trait and starting a new phase of network evolution through the hidden neutral genetic variations harbored in network robustness by adaptive evolution. Further, the proposed evolutionary game is extended to an n-tuple evolutionary game of stochastic biological networks with m players (competitive populations) and k environmental dynamics. PMID:24558296

Chen, Bor-Sen; Ho, Shih-Ju

2014-01-01

37

The stochastic evolutionary game for a population of biological networks under natural selection.  

PubMed

In this study, a population of evolutionary biological networks is described by a stochastic dynamic system with intrinsic random parameter fluctuations due to genetic variations and external disturbances caused by environmental changes in the evolutionary process. Since information on environmental changes is unavailable and their occurrence is unpredictable, they can be considered as a game player with the potential to destroy phenotypic stability. The biological network needs to develop an evolutionary strategy to improve phenotypic stability as much as possible, so it can be considered as another game player in the evolutionary process, ie, a stochastic Nash game of minimizing the maximum network evolution level caused by the worst environmental disturbances. Based on the nonlinear stochastic evolutionary game strategy, we find that some genetic variations can be used in natural selection to construct negative feedback loops, efficiently improving network robustness. This provides larger genetic robustness as a buffer against neutral genetic variations, as well as larger environmental robustness to resist environmental disturbances and maintain a network phenotypic traits in the evolutionary process. In this situation, the robust phenotypic traits of stochastic biological networks can be more frequently selected by natural selection in evolution. However, if the harbored neutral genetic variations are accumulated to a sufficiently large degree, and environmental disturbances are strong enough that the network robustness can no longer confer enough genetic robustness and environmental robustness, then the phenotype robustness might break down. In this case, a network phenotypic trait may be pushed from one equilibrium point to another, changing the phenotypic trait and starting a new phase of network evolution through the hidden neutral genetic variations harbored in network robustness by adaptive evolution. Further, the proposed evolutionary game is extended to an n-tuple evolutionary game of stochastic biological networks with m players (competitive populations) and k environmental dynamics. PMID:24558296

Chen, Bor-Sen; Ho, Shih-Ju

2014-01-01

38

Power control and rate adaptation as stochastic games for random access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the random access problem from the perspective of a stochastic game. We allow selfish as well as cooperative users to select their retransmission strategies depending on several performance requirements, which involve throughput, delay and transmission costs. We first consider a simple slotted collision channel with packet capture capabilities in the presence of multiple transmissions. We

Yalin Evren Sagduyu; Anthony Ephremides

2003-01-01

39

Gains from switching and evolutionary stability in multi-player matrix games.  

PubMed

In this paper we unify, simplify, and extend previous work on the evolutionary dynamics of symmetric N-player matrix games with two pure strategies. In such games, gains from switching strategies depend, in general, on how many other individuals in the group play a given strategy. As a consequence, the gain function determining the gradient of selection can be a polynomial of degree N-1. In order to deal with the intricacy of the resulting evolutionary dynamics, we make use of the theory of polynomials in Bernstein form. This theory implies a tight link between the sign pattern of the gains from switching on the one hand and the number and stability of the rest points of the replicator dynamics on the other hand. While this relationship is a general one, it is most informative if gains from switching have at most two sign changes, as is the case for most multi-player matrix games considered in the literature. We demonstrate that previous results for public goods games are easily recovered and extended using this observation. Further examples illustrate how focusing on the sign pattern of the gains from switching obviates the need for a more involved analysis. PMID:24380778

Peña, Jorge; Lehmann, Laurent; Nöldeke, Georg

2014-04-01

40

The Synthesis and Analysis of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhoua,  

E-print Network

- parallel and general series-parallel circuits­and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robust to small error perturbations, while general series-parallel circuits are not. Specifically, the total error- parallel circuit, independent of the size of the circuit. Next, we study the expressibility of stochastic

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

41

The Robustness of Stochastic Switching Networks Po-Ling Loh  

E-print Network

to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions--simple series-parallel and general series-parallel circuits--and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robust to small error perturbations, while general series-parallel circuits are not. Specifically, the total error introduced

Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

42

Stochastic ferroelectric switching of lead zirconate titanate thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the repolarization phenomenon in a ferroelectric film. Our ferroelectric sample was lead zirconate titanate (PZT) obtained by sol-gel synthesis and deposited by spin coating on ITO/glass substrate. A series of repolarizations were induced in the ferroelectric film by applying a triangular wave and the current peaks related to the switchings of the ferroelectric domains were acquired for statistical analyses. It is shown that the dynamics and statistics of polarization switchings are well simulated by a simple mean-field model in which a double-well, asymmetric potential is included to describe the asymmetry at the PZT-ITO interface.

Marino, S.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V.; Scaramuzza, N.

2010-04-01

43

Impact of deterministic and stochastic updates on network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.031141].

Tanimoto, Jun

2014-08-01

44

PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE  

SciTech Connect

Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

Cordes, J. M., E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-09-20

45

Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.

Bhat, V. S.; Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

2014-08-01

46

An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch  

E-print Network

Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward $\\Delta_{f}$ and backward $\\Delta_{b}$ intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, $P(\\Delta_{f})$ and $P(\\Delta_{b})$, of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor re...

Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun

2015-01-01

47

Stochastic Current-Induced Magnetization Switching in a Single Semiconducting Ferromagnetic Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show experimental evidence of magnetization switching in a single (Ga,Mn)(As,P) semiconducting ferromagnetic layer, attributed to a strong reduction of the magnetization and the anisotropy due to current injection. The nucleation of magnetization reversal is found to occur even in the absence of a magnetic field and to be both anisotropic and stochastic. Our findings highlight a new mechanism of magnetization manipulation based on spin accumulation in a semiconductor material.

Gorchon, J.; Curiale, J.; Lemaètre, A.; Moisan, N.; Cubukcu, M.; Malinowski, G.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Jeudy, V.

2014-01-01

48

Evolutionary game theoretical approach for understanding CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how a game theoretical analysis can provide a model to determine the factors affecting the switch from CXCR4 coreceptor (X4) to CCR5 coreceptor (R5) in HIV-1 infected individuals. Simulations of the model predict that a persistent immune response suppresses the X4-tropic virus to a low level at first, but later increases in the immune response will trigger

Jing Wu; Sharon Bewick; Ruoting Yang; Scott C. Lenaghan; Mingjun Zhang

2010-01-01

49

A Multi-Agent Prediction Market based on Partially Observable Stochastic Game  

E-print Network

We present a novel, game theoretic representation of a multi-agent prediction market using a partially observable stochastic game with information (POSGI). We then describe a correlated equilibrium (CE)-based solution strategy for this game which enables each agent to dynamically calculate the prices at which it should trade a security in the prediction market. We have extended our results to risk averse traders and shown that a Pareto optimal correlated equilibrium strategy can be used to incentively truthful revelations from risk averse agents. Simulation results comparing our CE strategy with five other strategies commonly used in similar markets, with both risk neutral and risk averse agents, show that the CE strategy improves price predictions and provides higher utilities to the agents as compared to other existing strategies.

Jumadinova, Janyl

2012-01-01

50

On the dynamic programming principle for uniformly nondegenerate stochastic differential games in domains  

E-print Network

We prove the dynamic programming principe for uniformly nondegenerate stochastic differential games in the framework of time-homogeneous diffusion processes considered up to the first exit time from a domain. The zeroth-order "coefficient" and the "free" term are only assumed to be measurable. In contrast with previous results established for constant stopping times we allow arbitrary stopping times and randomized ones as well. The main assumption, which will be removed in a subsequent article, is that there exists a sufficiently regular solution of the Isaacs equation.

Krylov, N V

2012-01-01

51

Noise-induced dynamic symmetry breaking and stochastic transitions in ABA molecules: II. Symmetricantisymmetric normal mode switching  

E-print Network

Noise-induced dynamic symmetry breaking and stochastic transitions in ABA molecules: II. Symmetric transitions Symmetric-to-antisymmetric normal mode switching Environment induced dephasing Triatomic ABA on the stretching vibrational dynam- ics of symmetric triatomic ABA molecules. In particular, noise

Cao, Jianshu

52

Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.  

PubMed

Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

2014-01-01

53

Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

2014-01-01

54

Cortical contractility triggers a stochastic switch to fast amoeboid cell motility.  

PubMed

3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761

Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

2015-02-12

55

Switching neuronal state: optimal stimuli revealed using a stochastically-seeded gradient algorithm.  

PubMed

Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: (1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and (2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue. PMID:25145955

Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David

2014-12-01

56

Some Classes of Imperfect Information Finite State-Space Stochastic Games with Finite-Dimensional Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.

McEneaney, William M. [Departments of Mathematics and Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States)], E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu

2004-08-15

57

Stochastic Phenotype Transition of a Single Cell in an Intermediate Region of Gene State Switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple phenotypic states often arise in a single cell with different gene-expression states that undergo transcription regulation with positive feedback. Recent experiments show that, at least in E. coli, the gene state switching can be neither extremely slow nor exceedingly rapid as many previous theoretical treatments assumed. Rather, it is in the intermediate region which is difficult to handle mathematically. Under this condition, from a full chemical-master-equation description we derive a model in which the protein copy number, for a given gene state, follows a deterministic mean-field description while the protein-synthesis rates fluctuate due to stochastic gene state switching. The simplified kinetics yields a nonequilibrium landscape function, which, similar to the energy function for equilibrium fluctuation, provides the leading orders of fluctuations around each phenotypic state, as well as the transition rates between the two phenotypic states. This rate formula is analogous to Kramers' theory for chemical reactions. The resulting behaviors are significantly different from the two limiting cases studied previously.

Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong; Xie, X. Sunney

2015-02-01

58

Monty Hall Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet consists of the Monty Hall game: a car is behind one door and goats are behind the other two doors. The player makes an initial choice and the host opens a different door. The player is then given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host can be specified.

Kyle Siegrist

59

On the dynamic programming principle for uniformly nondegenerate stochastic differential games in domains and the Isaacs equations  

E-print Network

We prove the dynamic programming principe for uniformly nondegenerate stochastic differential games in the framework of time-homogeneous diffusion processes considered up to the first exit time from a domain. In contrast with previous results established for constant stopping times we allow arbitrary stopping times and randomized ones as well. There is no assumption about solvability of the the Isaacs equation in any sense (classical or viscosity). The zeroth-order "coefficient" and the "free" term are only assumed to be measurable in the space variable. We also prove that value functions are uniquely determined by the functions defining the corresponding Isaacs equations and thus stochastic games with the same Isaacs equation have the same value functions.

Krylov, N V

2012-01-01

60

Viscosity Solutions for a System of Integro-PDEs and Connections to Optimal Switching and Control of Jump-Diffusion Processes  

SciTech Connect

We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.

Biswas, Imran H., E-mail: imran.biswas@sam.math.ethz.c [ETH-Zurich, Seminar fuer Angewandte Mathematik, D-MATH (Switzerland); Jakobsen, Espen R., E-mail: erj@math.ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Karlsen, Kenneth H., E-mail: kennethk@math.uio.n [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (Norway)

2010-08-15

61

Dynamics of the quorum sensing switch: stochastic and non-stationary effects  

PubMed Central

Background A wide range of bacteria species are known to communicate through the so called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism by means of which they produce a small molecule that can freely diffuse in the environment and in the cells. Upon reaching a threshold concentration, the signalling molecule activates the QS-controlled genes that promote phenotypic changes. This mechanism, for its simplicity, has become the model system for studying the emergence of a global response in prokaryotic cells. Yet, how cells precisely measure the signal concentration and act coordinately, despite the presence of fluctuations that unavoidably affects cell regulation and signalling, remains unclear. Results We propose a model for the QS signalling mechanism in Vibrio fischeri based on the synthetic strains lux01 and lux02. Our approach takes into account the key regulatory interactions between LuxR and LuxI, the autoinducer transport, the cellular growth and the division dynamics. By using both deterministic and stochastic models, we analyze the response and dynamics at the single-cell level and compare them to the global response at the population level. Our results show how fluctuations interfere with the synchronization of the cell activation and lead to a bimodal phenotypic distribution. In this context, we introduce the concept of precision in order to characterize the reliability of the QS communication process in the colony. We show that increasing the noise in the expression of LuxR helps cells to get activated at lower autoinducer concentrations but, at the same time, slows down the global response. The precision of the QS switch under non-stationary conditions decreases with noise, while at steady-state it is independent of the noise value. Conclusions Our in silico experiments show that the response of the LuxR/LuxI system depends on the interplay between non-stationary and stochastic effects and that the burst size of the transcription/translation noise at the level of LuxR controls the phenotypic variability of the population. These results, together with recent experimental evidences on LuxR regulation in wild-type species, suggest that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to regulate the intensity of those fluctuations. PMID:23324134

2013-01-01

62

Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states  

PubMed Central

In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953

2014-01-01

63

Switching Amplifiers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education, this module walks visitors through switching amplifiers. The site content is divided up into four sections: Switching Amplifiers Introduction, Class D Switching Amplifiers, Switching RF Power Amplifiers, and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each section to test what students learned in the module in the Knowledge Probe section, and the Learning Resources section contains four activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questor games, a Flash quiz that reiterates the material covered. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs to introduce and explore switching amplifiers.

64

Switches and switch interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switched networks are receiving much attention and supplying a major class of interconnect networks. This paper discusses major issues in switch design and switch interconnects. Due to the importance of high-speed switches in building switched LANs, major design issues are studied and several commercial switches are reviewed. Among different techniques used in switch design, cut-through switching promises short latency delivery

Lionel M. Ni; Wenjian Qiao; Mingyao Yang

1997-01-01

65

Self-organizing patterns in an evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game for stochastic synchronized strategy updates.  

PubMed

We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains. PMID:25375580

Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György

2014-10-01

66

Self-organizing patterns in an evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game for stochastic synchronized strategy updates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains.

Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György

2014-10-01

67

Guaranteed cost control for networked control systems with stochastic protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the guaranteed cost control problem of networked control systems with stochastic protocols. The plant is equipped with multiple actuator nodes. The communication process between the controller and the actuator nodes is governed by stochastic protocols and modeled as a stochastic sequence. The closed-loop networked control system is modeled as a switched system with stochastic switching. A sufficient

Hongbo Song; Li Yu; Guo-ping Liu

2011-01-01

68

Games and Economic Behavior 38, 362399 (2002) doi:10.1006/game.2001.0887, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on  

E-print Network

Games and Economic Behavior 38, 362­399 (2002) doi:10.1006/game.2001.0887, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on Correlated Equilibrium in Stochastic Games1 Eilon Solan2 MEDS Department, Kellogg Graduate School study the existence of uniform correlated equilibrium payoffs in stochastic games. The correlation

Solan, Eilon

69

Effects of coupling strength and space on the dynamics of coupled toggle switches in stochastic gene networks with multiple-delayed reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic toggle switches (TSs) are one of the best studied small gene regulatory networks (GRNs), due to their simplicity and relevant role. They have been interpreted as decision circuits in cell differentiation, a process long hypothesized to be bistable [1], or as cellular memory units [2]. In these contexts, they must be reliable. Once a “decision” is made, the system must remain stable. One way to gain stability is by duplicating the genes of a TS and coupling the two TSs. Using a recent modeling strategy of GRNs, driven by a delayed stochastic simulation algorithm (delayed SSA) that allows modeling transcription and translation as multidelayed reactions, we analyze the stability of systems of coupled TSs. For this, we introduce the coupling strength (C) , a parameter to characterize the GRN structure, against which we compare the GRN stability (S) . We first show that time delays in transcription, associated to the promoter region release, ensure bistability of a TS, given no cooperative binding or self-activation reactions. Next, we couple two TSs and measure their toggling frequencies as C varies. Three dynamical regimes are observed: (i) for weak coupling, high frequency synchronized oscillations, (ii) for average coupling, low frequency synchronized oscillations, and (iii) for strong coupling the system becomes stable after a transient, in one of two steady states. The system stability, S , goes through a first order phase transition as C increases, in the average coupling regime. After, we study the effects of spatial separation in two compartments on the dynamics of two coupled TSs, where spatial separation is modeled as normally distributed random time delayed reactions. The phase transition of S , as C increases, occurs for lower values of C than when the two TSs are in the same compartment. Finally, we couple weakly and homogeneously several TSs within a single compartment and observe that as the number of coupled TSs increases, the system goes through the phase transition in S , from oscillatory to stable and for C values lower than in the two previous cases.

Ribeiro, Andre S.

2007-06-01

70

A Monetary Policy Simulation Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…

Lengwiler, Yvan

2004-01-01

71

Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction and motivation; 2. Stochastic resonance: its definitions, history and debates; 3. Stochastic quantization; 4. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: encoding; 5. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N encoding; 6. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: decoding; 7. Suprathreshold stochastic resonance: large N decoding; 8. Optimal stochastic quantization; 9. SSR, neural coding, and performance tradeoffs; 10. Stochastic resonance in the auditory system; 11. The future of stochastic resonance and suprathreshold stochastic resonance; Appendices; References; Index.

McDonnell, Mark D.; Stocks, Nigel G.; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

2012-10-01

72

Passivity of switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the passivity analysis for switched neural networks subject to stochastic disturbances and time-varying delays. First, using the multiple Lyapunov functions method, a state-dependent switching law is designed to present a stochastic passivity condition. Second, a hysteresis switching law involving both the current state and the previous value of the switching signal are presented to avoid chattering resulted from the state-dependent switching. Third, based on the average dwell-time approach, a class of switching signals is determined to guarantee the switched neural network stochastically passive. Finally, three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the characteristics of three proposed switching laws. PMID:25576577

Lian, Jie; Wang, Jun

2015-02-01

73

Contextual Coalitional Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cooperation among agents is of central interest in multi-agent systems research. A popular way to model cooperation is through coalitional game theory. Much research in this area has had limited practical applicability as regards real-world multi-agent systems due to the fact that it assumes deterministic payoffs to coalitions and in addition does not apply to multi-agent environments that are stochastic in nature. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to modeling such scenarios where coalitional games will be contextualized through the use of logical expressions representing environmental and other state, and probability distributions will be placed on the space of contexts in order to model the stochastic nature of the scenarios. More formally, we present a formal representation language for representing contextualized coalitional games embedded in stochastic environments and we define and show how to compute expected Shapley values in such games in a computationally efficient manner. We present the value of the approach through an example involving robotics assistance in emergencies.

Doherty, Patrick; Michalak, Tomasz; Sroka, Jacek; Sza?as, Andrzej

74

Inertia in strategy switching transforms the strategy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experimental study [Traulsen , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0912515107 107, 2962 (2010)] shows that human strategy updating involves both direct payoff comparison and the cost of switching strategy, which is equivalent to inertia. However, it remains largely unclear how such a predisposed inertia affects 2×2 games in a well-mixed population of finite size. To address this issue, the “inertia bonus” (strategy switching cost) is added to the learner payoff in the Fermi process. We find how inertia quantitatively shapes the stationary distribution and that stochastic stability under inertia exhibits three regimes, with each covering seven regions in the plane spanned by two inertia parameters. We also obtain the extended “1/3” rule with inertia and the speed criterion with inertia; these two findings hold for a population above two. We illustrate the above results in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. As inertia varies, two intriguing stationary distributions emerge: the probability of coexistence state is maximized, or those of two full states are simultaneously peaked. Our results may provide useful insights into how the inertia of changing status quo acts on the strategy evolution and, in particular, the evolution of cooperation.

Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

2011-12-01

75

Fair Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, toys and games have been provided for boys and girls. While boys and girls play together, and often play the same games, their enjoyment in the games is often quite different. Looking at these games can shed light on how the minds of each gender are engaged while playing. Educationally, games are used as a vehicle to engage students

Kimberely Fletcher Nettleton

76

Number Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three number games for mathematics classrooms designed to improve the learning of number concepts. Game topics include determining products, arranging mathematical signs, and factoring. (ASK)

Crawford, David

1997-01-01

77

Large-scale games in large-scale systems  

E-print Network

Many real-world problems modeled by stochastic games have huge state and/or action spaces, leading to the well-known curse of dimensionality. The complexity of the analysis of large-scale systems is dramatically reduced by exploiting mean field limit and dynamical system viewpoints. Under regularity assumptions and specific time-scaling techniques, the evolution of the mean field limit can be expressed in terms of deterministic or stochastic equation or inclusion (difference or differential). In this paper, we overview recent advances of large-scale games in large-scale systems. We focus in particular on population games, stochastic population games and mean field stochastic games. Considering long-term payoffs, we characterize the mean field systems using Bellman and Kolmogorov forward equations.

H. Tembine

2012-01-11

78

The stochastic piston problem  

PubMed Central

We obtain analytical solutions for the perturbed shock paths induced by time-varying random motions of a piston moving inside an adiabatic tube of constant area. The variance of the shock location grows quadratically with time for early times and switches to linear growth for longer times. The analytical results are confirmed by stochastic numerical simulations, and deviations for large random piston motions are established. PMID:15514024

Lin, G.; Su, C. H.; Karniadakis, G. E.

2004-01-01

79

Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material

Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole

1991-01-01

80

Geometry Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...

Ms. Allen

2010-10-09

81

Identifying effective connectivity parameters in simulated fMRI: a direct comparison of switching linear dynamic system, stochastic dynamic causal, and multivariate autoregressive models  

PubMed Central

The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258

Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry

2013-01-01

82

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7.5 minute video educator Ian Byrd proposes three pencil and paper math games that are simple to learn and that develop students' ability to abstract their strategies. Game of 100 and Heaps, both Nim-type games, also develop facility in adding and subtracting whole numbers, while Cram strengthens spatial reasoning. All three games can be adapted, encouraging students to generalize their strategies into algorithms. Byrd includes links to Wikipedia articles on the games.

2013-01-01

83

A Predictive Theory of Games  

E-print Network

Conventional noncooperative game theory hypothesizes that the joint strategy of a set of players in a game must satisfy an "equilibrium concept". All other joint strategies are considered impossible; the only issue is what equilibrium concept is "correct". This hypothesis violates the desiderata underlying probability theory. Indeed, probability theory renders moot the problem of what equilibrium concept is correct - every joint strategy can arise with non-zero probability. Rather than a first-principles derivation of an equilibrium concept, game theory requires a first-principles derivation of a distribution over joint (mixed) strategies. This paper shows how information theory can provide such a distribution over joint strategies. If a scientist external to the game wants to distill such a distribution to a point prediction, that prediction should be set by decision theory, using their (!) loss function. So the predicted joint strategy - the "equilibrium concept" - varies with the external scientist's loss function. It is shown here that in many games, having a probability distribution with support restricted to Nash equilibria - as stipulated by conventional game theory - is impossible. It is also show how to: i) Derive an information-theoretic quantification of a player's degree of rationality; ii) Derive bounded rationality as a cost of computation; iii) Elaborate the close formal relationship between game theory and statistical physics; iv) Use this relationship to extend game theory to allow stochastically varying numbers of players.

David H. Wolpert

2005-12-08

84

Games in Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

Walford, Rex

85

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...

Mr. Cooley

2011-11-12

86

Switching Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of switching power supplies. The content of the site is divided into four areas: SMPS Basics and Switching Regulators; DC-DC Converters: Charge Pumps, Forwards Converters and Flyback Converters; Inverters, UPS and Hysteresis Curve, and SMPS: Advantages, Disadvantages and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each area in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains five activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

87

Strategy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides links to eight different math related games. The gameboards can be downloaded as pdf files. Each game contains complete instructions for playing. The subject area and recommended grade levels are given for each game. This resource is also available in Spanish.

2011-05-20

88

Game Face  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

Weiner, Jill

2005-01-01

89

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

90

Array Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arrays are very important in Computer Programming. An array is a way to store similar items in computer memory. The items may be numbers, words, pictures, or even sounds. Many games use an array because it is an easy way to keep track of the objects used to play the game. The Arrow Game uses an array to store arrow ...

Mrs. Watts

2007-10-05

91

Equation Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several sites to practice solving equations. Play one of the following games: 1) algebra quiz/ alien millionaire 2) Battleship: solve equations to win! 3) connect four: solve equations to take a turn- 2 player game 4) Rags to Riches: millionaire type game asking questions about solving equations ...

Ms. Troff

2008-06-23

92

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

93

Towards Learned Anticipation in Complex Stochastic Environments Christian J. Darken  

E-print Network

Towards Learned Anticipation in Complex Stochastic Environments Christian J. Darken Department on the long term agenda of AI for in- teractive entertainment is producing software agents that are proactive hypothesis, we have created a sim- ple game in the RPG (role-playing game) family. We then implemented

Darken, Christian J.

94

Variation Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners play the role of monkeys that are trying to get enough resources (food, shelter, and space) to survive. They play several simple games which involve strength, quickness, coordination, intuition, and luck in order to acquire these resources. The games focus attention on the participants’ individual variations in these areas. There are three “rounds” which represent three different changing environments, each of which requires different skills for survival. After the games, learners compare who got enough resources and what variations among the players may have affected how the game went.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

95

Electronic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these games to practice your electronics skills. Each game has a Study mode that reviews the relevant theory, a Practice mode that lets you practice with no time pressure, and a Challenge mode that tests your skill while the clock is running. These games require Macromedia's Flash Player, version 6 or later. If the Flash Player is not already installed in your Web browser, the game will automatically offer to download it for free. These games were created by Nick Reeder, an electronics instructor at Sinclair Community College.

Reeder, Nick

96

A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.

Gruen, Christine, E-mail: christine.gruen@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)

2012-12-15

97

Creating an immersive game world with evolutionary fuzzy cognitive maps.  

PubMed

The Evolutionary Fuzzy Cognitive Map improves on serious games by modeling both fuzzy and probabilistic causal relationships among the game's variables. It permits asynchronous updates of the variables so that they can evolve dynamically and stochastically. These improvements give players a more engaging, immersive experience. PMID:20650711

Cai, Yundong; Miao, Chunyan; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Shen, Zhiqi; Li, Boyang

2010-01-01

98

Combinatorial structure and randomized subexponential algorithms for infinite games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of solving infinite games, including parity, mean payoff, and simple stochastic, is an important open problem in verification, automata, and complexity theory. In this paper, we develop an abstract setting for studying and solving such games, based on function optimization over certain discrete structures. We introduce new classes of recursively local-global (RLG) and partial recursively local-global (PRLG) functions,

Henrik Björklund; Sergei G. Vorobyov

2005-01-01

99

Adaptation in Games with Many Co-evolving Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent results on formalizing multiagent rein- forcement learning using stochastic games, the exponential increase of the space of joint actions prevents the use of this formalism in systems of many agents. In fact, most of the literature concentrates on repeated games with single state and few joint actions. However, many real-world systems are comprised of a much higher

Ana L. C. Bazzan; Franziska Klügl; Kai Nagel

2007-01-01

100

QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-23

101

Decentralized game-theoretic filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both continuous-time and discrete-time optimal decentralized game-theoretic filters (DGF) involving a K node interconnected network, where there is a sensor at each node, are derived. In the continuous-time case, a disturbance attenuation problem is solved to obtain the optimal DGF. In a contrasting approach, the solution to a stochastic formulation based on minimizing the expected value of an exponential of

Jinsheng Jang; Jason L. Speyer

1994-01-01

102

Diplexer switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Switch achieves high isolation and continuous input/output matching by using resonant coupling structure of diplexer. Additionally, dc bias network used to control switch is decoupled from RF input and output lines. Voltage transients in external circuits are thus minimized.

Grauling, C. H., Jr.; Parker, T. W.

1977-01-01

103

Phase transitions near the ``game of Life''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether or not the cellular automaton (CA) ``game of Life'' is an example of self-organized criticality has been a controversial question. Here we view the problem from a different perspective by introducing probabilities into the rules. Thereby we extend the discrete space of deterministic CA to a hypercubic space of stochastic CA, where each corner represents a deterministic CA. We examine the scaling structure near the ``game of Life'' corner and identify a phase-transition line separating ``Life'' and ``Death.'' The transition line ends very close to but not in the ``game of Life.''

Nordfalk, Jacob; Alstrøm, Preben

1996-08-01

104

Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma game on hypergraph networks  

E-print Network

We study the possible advantages of adopting of quantum strategies in multi-player evolutionary games. We base our study on the three-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. In order to model the simultaneous interaction between three agents we use hypergraphs and hypergraph networks. In particular, we study two types of networks: a random network and a SF-like network. The obtained results show that in the case of a three player game on a hypergraph network, quantum strategies are not necessarily stochastically stable strategies. In some cases, the defection strategy can be as good as a quantum one.

?. Pawela; J. S?adkowski

2012-10-07

105

Quantum Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists studying quantum computation offer new perspectives on coin tossing, chess, and game theory. Theorists intend to apply the peculiarities of quantum behavior to game theory, two previously unrelated fields. These researchers propose that the possibility of a mixed state permits quantum-game strategies that in theory can be more successful than conventional ones. This new type of modeling using quantum computers could greatly affect fields such as economics, international relations, and computer science.

Peterson, Ivars

106

Multi-player games on the cycle.  

PubMed

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games. PMID:21907215

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin A

2012-01-01

107

Gene Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

2013-07-30

108

Game Time!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

2006-01-01

109

Serious Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue showcases developments in serious games that can have an impact on future research, development, and application of computer graphics and related techniques. The articles demonstrate the games' rich potential, spanning from health and culture applications to novel interaction techniques and support for 3D player data visualization.

Tiffany Barnes; L. Miguel Encarnação; Christopher D. Shaw

2009-01-01

110

Potential Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and discuss several notions of potential functions for games in strategic form. We characterize games that have a potential function, and we present a variety of applications.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Numbers:C72, C73.

Dov Monderer; Lloyd S. Shapley

1996-01-01

111

Watershed Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interactive game features two skill levels (novice and intermediate) that teach about water quality, watersheds, and management of this important resource. The intermediate level game is broken into four sections: National Parks, agriculture, neighborhood, and city, each with five questions. At the end of the quiz, the best choices for each question are explained.

112

Epistemic Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a related…

Shaffer, David Williamson

2005-01-01

113

Game On!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

Deubel, Patricia

2006-01-01

114

Gotcha Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Cyberchase activity, learners play a simple game using 15 paper dragons (or any 15 objects). One of the 15 dragons is red. Learners try to make their opponent take the red piece. Learners try to identify the number pattern in this game, so they can win every time.

WNET

2011-01-01

115

French Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games to help you learn and practice beginning French numbers, verbs and the names of days and months! Try each game at least once. Good luck and have fun! Click here to practice your numbers --> French numbers Click here to work on your verbs and verb tenses --> French verbs: avoir et etre Click here to practice the days and months --> French days and months ...

Ms. V

2009-02-10

116

Fun & Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

2007-01-01

117

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tangram is an ancient game that originated in China. In the game, your goal is to try to create the shape shown using the pieces provided. You cannot overlap pieces, and they all have to be used. It is a lot harder than it looks!

2008-01-01

118

Stochastic differential equations and numerical simulation for pedestrians  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical foundation of the Ito interpretation of stochastic ordinary and partial differential equations is briefly explained. This provides the basis for a review of simple difference approximations to stochastic differential equations. An example arising in the theory of optical switching is discussed.

Garrison, J.C.

1993-07-27

119

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Rene Carmona  

E-print Network

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Ren´e Carmona Department of Operations://www.pstat.ucsb.edu/faculty/ludkovski We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control;Carmona and Ludkovski: Optimal Switching for Energy Storage 2 in the commodity financial markets. Storage

Carmona, Rene

120

Game Over?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

Harteveld, Casper

121

Stochastic Evolutionary Game Dynamics Dean Foster  

E-print Network

must also be considered (Taylor and Jonker, 1978; Zeeman, 1979; Schuster and Sigmund, 1983, 1986, Sigmund, 1987). In this paper we shall argue that neither evolutionarily stable strategies nor the more) and Hofbauer and Sigmund (1988). #12;each successive perturbation dies out (or almost dies out) before the next

Foster, Dean P.

122

The Switch Task for Children: Measuring Mental Flexibility in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…

Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer

2006-01-01

123

A Short Proof of the PRP/PRF Switching Donghoon Chang 1# and Mridul Nandi 2  

E-print Network

A Short Proof of the PRP/PRF Switching Lemma Donghoon Chang 1# and Mridul Nandi 2 1 Center of the PRP/PRF switching Lemma using their game­based proof technique. In the appendix of the same paper theorem. Keywords : PRF, PRP, Switching Lemma. 1 Some Notations and Results This section is almost same

124

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-10-01

125

Game reductions and FAR for infinite games  

E-print Network

Game reductions and FAR for infinite games GAMES, Bordeaux 2004 Lukasz Kaiser Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen #12;Motivation I Parity games with finite number of colours are positionally determined Muller games with finite number of colours are not positionally determined Finitely

Kaiser, £ukasz

126

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

127

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners use seven different geometric shapes to make fun pictures. Learners use buttons to rotate, break apart, or put together pieces to create images including a rabbit, cat head, duck and more.

WNET

2011-01-01

128

Cloud Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play these two matching games from the Web Weather for Kids site to pair cloud images with their names/types! Developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, this site requires Java.

University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - Education and Outreach Programs

2010-01-01

129

Nim Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"A take-away game in which players alternately remove counters, and the player who takes the last counter wins." ( NCTM) Students look for patterns in the numbers on which the computer lands at each turn.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2010-06-24

130

24-Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet game promotes mental math and strategic thinking skills using a card from Suntex's 24 Game. The player is presented with four numbers (1-9) on a card. The goal is to manipulate each of the four numbers only once so that the end result is 24. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and/or parentheses maybe used and the player must be able to enter the expression using the online calculator.

Michiel Doorman

2012-01-07

131

Computer Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

1992-01-01

132

Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you distinguish lion tracks from chimpanzee tracks? This online Flash version of the classic match game hones learners' thinking skills with diverse science topics like technology, biology, and astronomy. Learners can choose to match animals with their tracks, stars to their constellations, technological innovations to their year of invention or fruits to their trees. There are three levels of play (easy, medium, and hard). Each game includes informational background related to the topic.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

133

Product Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for one or two players develops students' fluency with multiplication facts, understanding of the relationship between factors and products, and strategic thinking. Players take turns moving markers on a factor list and claiming their products on a board displaying all the products of the numbers 1-9. The first player to claim four in a row wins the game. The factors and number needed to win are customizable. The resource includes links to related lessons.

Product Game was adapted from Prime Time: Factors and Multiples, Connected Mathematics Project, by G. Lappan, J. Fey, W Fitzgerald, S. Friel and E. Phillips (Dale Seymour Publications, 1996)

2014-01-01

134

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

135

Models of Games Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical educators should be selective in deciding what games to include in the games curriculum. Several theoretical frameworks for selecting and teaching games are discussed, and a framework for developing a well-balanced games program is suggested. (IAH)

Werner, Peter; Almond, Len

1990-01-01

136

Stochastic hydraulics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourth IAHR International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics, cosponsored by AGU and the American Society of Civil Engineers, will be held July 31-August 2, 1984, at Urbana, 111. About 40 papers selected from submitted abstracts will be presented in the symposium.Topics covered will include (but not be limited to) the following areas: risk and reliability analysis; safety of dams and other hydraulic structures; stochastic models; and stochastic processes of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena such as turbulence, sediment transport, dispersion and diffusion, and random waves.The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”

137

Computer Games and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

2011-01-01

138

Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.  

PubMed

We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066

Desarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

2013-12-11

139

Natural games  

E-print Network

Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, when no moves are found to consume more free energy, the extensive-form game has arrived at a solution concept that satisfies the minimax theorem. The equilibrium is Lyapunov-stable against variation in behavior within strategies but will be perturbed by a new strategy that will draw even more surrounding resources to the game. Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making.

Jani Anttila; Arto Annila

2011-03-05

140

Common and unique network dynamics in football games.  

PubMed

The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international "A" match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values ? ~ 3.1 are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of 2stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336

Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko

2011-01-01

141

Stochastic thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest

Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

2014-04-01

142

Fraction Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game provides an opportunity for students to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Players move markers a total distance that is less than or equal to the random target fraction, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board using as few fraction target cards as possible. Instructions and exploration questions are included.

2011-01-01

143

Mating Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game (on pages 14-21), learners explore how each human being inherits genetic traits such as eye color. Learners use "Smiley Mother's Genes" cards and "Smiley Father's Genes" cards to "mate" them into a Smiley Face Baby that the learner draws. The Mating Game Results page shows how the pairs translate into features such as face, eye, and mouth shape, skin color, hair type, and sex. The Thinking It Over section asks questions about how learners would feel if their baby had "Upsidedown Smile Syndrome," which can open up a discussion about genetic engineering.

University of Nebraska State Museum

2002-01-01

144

Marble Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a simple game to test their hand-eye coordination and steadiness of hand. Learners draw face in a small piece of wood, drill indentations in the eyes and nose, and glue a clear cup over the face, with 3 marbles inside. Learners attach two craft sticks to create a handle and add decorations. To play, they slowly move the game board around until all marbles land in a hole. This toy can also be used to demonstrate how objects in nature tend to seek the position of lowest energy.

2014-09-12

145

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive applet game exercises a student's factoring ability. A student can play against the computer or against a friend on grids containing the numbers 1-30, 1-49, or 1-100. Each player in turn chooses a number from the board, and then the opponent claims all of its remaining proper factors. A player's score is the sum of all the numbers and factors she/he has chosen. When there are no numbers remaining with unclaimed factors, the game ends and the player with the greater total is the winner.

Adapted with permission from "Prime Time: Factors and Multiples," Connected Mathematics Project, G. Lappan, J. Fey, W. Fitzgerald, S. Friel and E. Phillips

2000-01-01

146

Reset Switching Probability of Resistive Switching Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reset switching probability of resistive switching devices is characterized in array testing. The measured switching probability can be quantitatively explained based on the mecha- nism of a thermally activated reset process. An analytical model of switching probability is developed to describe the dependence of reset probability on operation parameters, including applied voltage, selection transistor gate voltage, and pulsewidth. The

An Chen; Ming-Ren Lin

2011-01-01

147

Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching speeds of electronics cannot keep up with the transmission capacity offered by optics. All-optical switch fabrics play a central role in the effort to migrate the switching functions to the optical layer. Optical packet switching provides an almost arbitrary fine granularity but faces significant challenges in the processing and buffering of bits at high speeds. Generalized multiprotocol label

Georgios I. Papadimitriou; Chrisoula Papazoglou; Andreas S. Pomportsis

2003-01-01

148

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

149

Density games?  

PubMed Central

The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. PMID:23770399

Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A.

2013-01-01

150

Density games.  

PubMed

The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. PMID:23770399

Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

2013-10-01

151

Alphabet Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with the alphabet! Watch the video How the Alphabet Got It s Order Practice matching letters with Paint by Letter. Pick the object that starts with the letter with theABC Game-Pick the letter. Order the alphabet with Alphabet Order Whac-A-Mole! Help Dog spell words with Dog s Letter Pit ...

Miss Lerdahl

2010-02-23

152

Multiplication Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps develop strategic thinking and fluency with multiplication facts. Two players take turns selecting one of two factors, 1 - 9, in order to capture products on a grid. The winner is the first player to capture four in a row. This game can be played by two players or one player against the computer.

Hooda Math

2013-03-13

153

Evil games.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069

Chambers, David W

2010-01-01

154

Math Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

Lorenzi, Natalie

2012-01-01

155

Pattern Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your pattern making skills by trying your best at these games! How Does My Pattern Grow? Click continue on the main screen. For each new page you will be trying to figure out what the next pattern will look like. Drag the shapes at the bottom to the correct place on the ...

Miss Ivy

2012-02-15

156

Got Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

Lum, Lydia

2007-01-01

157

Video game use and cognitive performance: does it vary with the presence of problematic video game use?  

PubMed

Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600

Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan

2014-03-01

158

Adaptive Markov Game Theoretic Data Fusion Approach for Cyber Network Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends our game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense to consider the change of threat intent during cyber conflict. From a perspective of data fusion and adaptive control, we use a Markov (stochastic) game method to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. With the consideration that the parameters in each

Dan Shen; Genshe Chen; Erik Blasch; George Tadda

2007-01-01

159

Teaching Using Computer Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

2011-01-01

160

Socializing in mobile gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the most prevalent format for mobile gaming is the single-player variety, where users interact with the game's artificial intelligence within a number of genres such as sports, action, racing, and puzzle games, etc. The users install the game and play it for entertainment and to pass the time until repetitiveness and boredom prompts them to stop playing that game

Sheila A. Paul; Marianne Jensen; Chui Yin Wong; Chee-weng Khong

2008-01-01

161

Video games in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Computer and video games are a maturing medium,and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences,of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of

Kurt Squire

2003-01-01

162

Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications.  

PubMed

Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed "analog" feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level "analog" device for neuromorphic applications. PMID:23698627

Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

2013-07-01

163

Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.

Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.

2010-10-01

164

Improvement of switching time in a thermocapillarity optical switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching time of existing thermocapillarity optical switches is about two orders of magnitude larger than that of other optical switches, such as a thermooptics switch and a free-space switch using microelectromechanical system technology. This paper reports a thermocapillarity switch whose switching time is comparable to that of the thermooptics and free-space switches. The greatly improved switching time is achieved

Tomomi Sakata; Hiroyoshi Togo; Mitsuhiro Makihara; Fusao Shimokawa; Kazumasa Kaneko

2001-01-01

165

Ender's game redux [computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author explains the context of his brother's e-mail, who is a US Army surgeon in Iraq. The e-mail concisely summarizes the convergence of entertainment technology and military training. He also describes the influence of game technology in his training.

2005-01-01

166

Play the Electrocardiogram Game  

MedlinePLUS

... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

167

Play the MRI Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

168

Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO{sub 2} nanorod arrays  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO{sub 2} nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.

Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei, E-mail: d.chu@unsw.edu.au; Li, Sean [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

2013-12-16

169

Science Game Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Science Game Center is to demonstrate to teachers, scientists, museums, and parents the myriad ways games can be used to improve education in math and science. The Science Game Center will provide a place where users can describe their experiences with math and science games, gather information on game strengths and weaknesses, and share tips on how to use games to help students reach their educational goals.

Federation of American Scientists (FAS)

170

The Awesome Game Race  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, learners design their own board games. Learners brainstorm the various components of board games, conduct research using well-known games, and then design and prototype a game. The learners' games must meet a "client's" requirements -- the games must be designed for first and second graders, must work with two to four children, and must take less than 15 minutes to play.

Twin Cities Public Television

2013-01-01

171

Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem  

SciTech Connect

This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.

Hamadene, S., E-mail: hamadene@univ-lemans.fr; Morlais, M. A., E-mail: Marie_Amelie.Morlais@univ-lemans.fr [Universite du Maine, LMM (France)

2013-04-15

172

Tax Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between a set of taxes and income distribution is an important, but difficult, concept taught in economics principles courses. The Tax Game simulation requires a student to set tax rates for an income tax, a property tax, a wealth tax, a payroll tax, a corporate income tax, a sales tax,and an excise tax. The student can choose any rates he or she wishes, but must achieve a given revenue target.

Betty J. Blecha

173

Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing  

PubMed Central

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752

Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip

2013-01-01

174

Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.

1969-01-01

175

OSNR game optimization with link capacity constraints in general topology WDM networks$  

E-print Network

OSNR game optimization with link capacity constraints in general topology WDM networks$ Yan Pan-to-noise ratio (OSNR). We first develop a model to describe the network and an OSNR model for each link switching nodes (e.g., optical cross-connects (OXCs)). An OSNR Nash game is formulated with coupled

Pavel, Lacra

176

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson University of California at Los Angeles Contents Introduction. References. Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games. 1.1 Take-Away Games. 1.2 The Game of Nim. 1.3 Graph Games. 1.4 Sums of Combinatorial Games. 1.5 Coin Turning Games. 1.6 Green Hackenbush. References. Part II

Ferguson, Thomas S.

177

Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games  

E-print Network

A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a finite quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (3) For any finite quantum sequential game G, there exists a finite quantum simultaneous game equivalent to G.

Naoki Kobayashi

2007-11-05

178

The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

2012-09-01

179

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

180

Evolutionary game dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game dynamics is the application of population dy- namical methods to game theory. It has been introduced by evolutionary biologists, anticipated in part by classical game theorists. In this survey, we present an overview of the many brands of deterministic dynamical systems motivated by evolutionary game theory, including ordinary dierential equa- tions (and, in particular, the replicator equation), dierential

Josef Hofbauer; Karl Sigmund

2003-01-01

181

Making educational computer games \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational computer games provide an appealing context for engaging children in activities that deliver substantive educational content and customized feedback. However, creators of such games can only take full advantage of the power of the medium if the educational content is integrated effectively into the structure of the game. Drawing upon experiences in the creation of numerous real-life games and

Shalom M. Fisch

2005-01-01

182

First Person Shooter Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

D game development is an exciting activity for many students. But getting a handle on 3D game development for novices may be a daunting task. We take this opportunity to present a quick introduction to 3D game development through a few tutorials. For the next few columns a set of tutorials for a 3D first person shooter game developed by

Rex Cason II; Erik Larson II; Jonathan Robertson; Jonathan Frisch; George Trice III; Lakshmi Prayaga

2009-01-01

183

First Person Shooter Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

D game development is an exciting activity for many students. But getting a handle on 3D game development for novices may be a daunting task. We take this opportunity to present a quick introduction to 3D game development through a few tutorials. For the next few columns a set of tutorials for a 3D first person shooter game developed by

Rex Cason II; Erik Larson; Jonathan Robertson; Jonathan Frisch; George Trice III; Lakshmi Prayaga

2008-01-01

184

Video game violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of video games, especially violent video games, has reached phenomenal proportions. The theoretical line of reasoning that hypothesizes a causal relationship between violent video-game play and aggression draws on the very large literature on media violence effects. Additionally, there are theoretical reasons to believe that video game effects should be stronger than movie or television violence effects. This

Karen E. Dill; Jody C. Dill

1998-01-01

185

Game logic portability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many game engines integrate the game logic with the graphics engine. In this paper we separate the two, thus mak ing the logic portable between game engines. In our architecture the logic is represented as an ontology and a set of rules for a particular application domain. A mediator with an embedded rules-engine links the logic to a suitable game

Ahmed Binsubaih; Steve Maddock; Daniela Romano

2005-01-01

186

Learning with Calculator Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

Frahm, Bruce

2013-01-01

187

Games for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

Gee, James Paul

2013-01-01

188

Play the Mosquito Game  

MedlinePLUS

... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

189

Game Board Artists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)

Szekely, George

2000-01-01

190

Communication Games in Print.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

Schneiderman, Ellen

1990-01-01

191

Game Design Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to support the design, analysis, and comparison of games through the use of game design patterns, descriptions of reoccurring interaction relevant to game play. The model consists of a structural framework to describe the components of games, and patterns of interaction that describes how components are used by players (or a computer) to affect various aspects

Staffan Björk; Sus Lundgren; Jussi Holopainen

2003-01-01

192

Flourishing and video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies dedicated to understanding the relationship between gaming and mental health, have traditionally focused on the effects of depression, anxiety, obsessive usage, aggression, obesity, and faltering 'real life' relationships. The complexity of game genre and personality aside, this review aims to define a space for a positive relationship between video game play and wellbeing by applying current video game research

Kellie Vella; Daniel Johnson

2012-01-01

193

On Equilibria for ADM Minimization Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ADM minimization problem, the input is a set of arcs along a directed ring. The input arcs need to be partitioned into non-overlapping chains and cycles so as to minimize the total number of endpoints, where a k-arc cycle contributes k endpoints and a k-arc chain contains k + 1 endpoints. We study ADM minimization problem both as a non-cooperative and a cooperative games. In these games, each arc corresponds to a player, and the players share the cost of the ADM switches. We consider two cost allocation models, a model which was considered by Flammini et al., and a new cost allocation model, which is inspired by congestion games. We compare the price of anarchy and price of stability in the two cost allocation models, as well as the strong price of anarchy and the strong price of stability.

Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf

194

Latching relay switch assembly  

DOEpatents

A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

1991-01-01

195

Radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

196

The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor - Supporting Information  

E-print Network

In this Supporting information we provide background information on our model of the bacterial flagellar motor. We also derive the analytical solution of our coarse-grained model of the switching dynamics and explain the hybrid stochastic algorithm used for the simulations.

Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde

2008-11-19

197

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Mike Ludkovski  

E-print Network

Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Mike Ludkovski Department of Mathematics University, Princeton, NJ 08544 rcarmona@princeton.edu, We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control. Our two main examples are natural gas dome storage

Ludkovski, Mike

198

The $-game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.

Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.

2003-01-01

199

Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.

2000-04-13

200

To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning  

E-print Network

To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning with board games Arthur Huang and David Levinson Department of Civil Engineering University of Minnesota 1/23/2012 #12;#12;Why board games? Board games Transport networks Nexus between transport & land use Game economy Competition vs monopoly CE 5212

Levinson, David M.

201

On the Fokker-Planck Equation for Stochastic Hybrid Systems  

E-print Network

On the Fokker-Planck Equation for Stochastic Hybrid Systems: Application to a Wind Turbine Model- speed wind turbine, with a switching controller that combines stall regulation and pitch control FPE is stated. Then the theory is applied to a variable-speed wind turbine model, yielding

Boyer, Edmond

202

Modeling Subtilin Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems  

E-print Network

, the physiological states of the cell and the external signals both contribute to the regulation of antibiotic. The genetic network regulating the biosynthesis of subtilin in Bacillus subtilis is modeled as a stochastic regulating proteins, whose productions are controlled by switches in the genetic network that are in turn

Sastry, S. Shankar

203

Latching micro optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21

204

Quantum Matching Pennies Game  

E-print Network

A quantum version of the Matching Pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using the state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality.

Azhar Iqbal; Derek Abbott

2008-10-21

205

The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor  

E-print Network

Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. While the switching dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of flagellar motors, the mechanisms that control switching are poorly understood. We present a statistical-mechanical model of the flagellar rotary motor, which consists of a number of stator proteins that drive the rotation of a ring of rotor proteins, which in turn drives the rotation of a flagellar filament. At the heart of our model is the assumption that the rotor protein complex can exist in two conformational states corresponding to the two respective rotation directions, and that switching between these states depends on interactions with the stator proteins. This naturally couples the switching dynamics to the rotation dynamics, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element of our model is that after a switching event, it takes time for the load to build up, due to polymorphic transitions of the filament. Our model predicts that this slow relaxation dynamics of the filament, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, leads to a characteristic switching time, in agreement with recent observations.

Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde

2008-11-14

206

Distinguishing games and simulation games from simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced computational capabilities in modern personal computers have made it possible for consumers to experience simulations with a high degree of verisimilitude through simulation games (a.k.a. Sims). In recent years, the cross-boundary technology exchange between game and simulation technology, along with other factors, has contributed to the confusion as to what makes a simulation game and what makes a

Viknashvaran Narayanasamy; Kok Wai Wong; Chun Che Fung; Shri Rai

2006-01-01

207

Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL] [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

208

Game AI Research Michael Buro  

E-print Network

Endgame/pattern databases Evaluation function learning Multiplayer games ... Video Games RTS (StarCraft) Role-playing Games Sports Games First Person Shooters Multi-agent pathfinding Single Adversarial Planning Search Abstractions Search in Imperfect Information Games Search in Complex Video Games

Buro, Michael

209

Video Game Engines Chris Pollett  

E-print Network

Video Game Engines Chris Pollett San Jose State University Dec. 1, 2005. #12;Outline · Introduction · Managing Game Resources · Game Physics · Game AI #12;Introduction · A Game Engine provides the core ­ It also manages the behavior of non-player characters · The same game engine can be used for many

Pollett, Chris

210

Social Studies Games on Parade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school teachers are provided with materials and instructions for using a variety of social studies games. The 15 games described are: charades, checker states, hollywood squares, states guessing game, index relay, jeopardy, the match game, the money game, password, the states game, sequence, stump the students, track meet, famous person…

Bolger, Charlene

211

The Easiest Lights Out Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

Torrence, Bruce

2011-01-01

212

Can Nintendo get its crown back? : examining the dynamics of the U.S. video game console market  

E-print Network

Several generations of video game consoles have competed in the market since 1972. Overall, the entire market shares many similar characteristics, such as network effects and switching cost, which are found in other ...

Chow, Samuel W

2007-01-01

213

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

214

Game Semantics and Subtyping   

E-print Network

Game Semantics is a relatively new framework for the description of the semantics of programming languages. By combining the mathematical elegance of Denotational Semantics with explicitly operational concepts, Game Semantics has made possible...

Chroboczek, Juliusz

215

The Principal Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A game centering on interpersonal, curricular, and organizational decisions similar to those that a principal might make during a school year. Includes everything (except markers and a die) needed for playing the game. (Author/IRT)

Gohring, Ralph J.; Chiarelott, Leigh

1975-01-01

216

Games, puzzles, and computation  

E-print Network

There is a fundamental connection between the notions of game and of computation. At its most basic level, this is implied by any game complexity result, but the connection is deeper than this. One example is the concept ...

Hearn, Robert A. (Robert Aubrey), 1965-

2006-01-01

217

Nobel Prize Educational Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the Nobel Foundation you can play educational games and explore information about the Nobel Prize. The games cover a variety of science and health topics including the immune system, diabetes, DNA and laser technology.

218

Black Hole Explorer Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game challenges players (ages 10+) to build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, players will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team (instructions are also provided for playing in large groups. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.

219

Braille Bug: Games  

MedlinePLUS

... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...

220

Play the Tuberculosis Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

221

Quantum signaling game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

Frackiewicz, Piotr

2014-08-01

222

Sheppard Software: Learning Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of games, puzzles, and quizzes helps students learn world and U.S. geography, vocabulary, and trivia. There are also games for chemistry and math, and quizzes on animals, health, astronomy, and puzzles on endangered animals.

223

Latching relay switch assembly  

SciTech Connect

A latching relay switch assembly is described which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. 9 figures.

Duimstra, F.A.

1991-03-05

224

Remote switch actuator  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

2013-01-29

225

Heat switches for ADRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

2014-07-01

226

Optically Controlled 22 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks  

E-print Network

Optically Controlled 2Ã?2 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks C. C. Lee1 , L. F. K. Lui1 a 10 Gb/s optically controlled 2Ã?2 switching cell which can be used to construct NÃ?N all-optical switches for all-optical packet-switched networks. All-optical packet-switching is performed based

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

227

The Game of Fif  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java game, played against the computer, develops strategic thinking while providing addition practice with with single-digit whole numbers. Players take turns selecting numbers from 1 through 9, trying to be the first to have exactly three numbers that sum to 15. The author provides some background and theory on the game as well as links to other interactive strategy games. An article with more information and adaptations, What is the Name of This Game?, is cataloged separately.

2012-01-01

228

Video Game Designer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you like to play video games? Did you know that in your future career you could design video games for youth just like you? Read the information on this site to learn what a video designer does and what classes you need to take in order to become one. You can also read about some famous current video game designers and about the games they have designed.

2005-12-05

229

Adaptation in Digital Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designers typically create digital games for either a specific audience, such as fans of the first-person shooter genre, or for mass appeal, such as Will Wright's The Sims (http:\\/\\/thesims.ea.com\\/us). These games encapsulate the designer's hypothesis for what a particular and ideally large population would enjoy playing. Digital games, unlike traditional media such as film or even board games, have the

Brian Magerko

2008-01-01

230

Apollo Ring Optical Switch  

SciTech Connect

An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

Maestas, J.H.

1987-03-01

231

CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines  

E-print Network

CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines 2 Basic GameGame() Game Main Loop shutdown() Exit while (!gameOver) initSystem() CSc 165 Lecture Note Slides Game Engines 3 Game ENGINE A reusable collection of modules Independent of any particular Game Logic

Gordon, Scott

232

The Acid Rain Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

1982-01-01

233

The Ultimate Flag Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

234

First Video Game  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2010-01-08

235

Gaming Gains Respect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

Richardson, Will

2012-01-01

236

Scientific Fun and Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents criteria for having students make their own games which are used by the class to review material covered in life science. Students are required to use recycled materials in producing the game and its accessories. Samples of some of the games produced are included. (TW)

Sewall, Susan B.

1986-01-01

237

Online Strategy Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

Dye, Bryan

2002-01-01

238

Kids Only Game Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These kids games from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise include: Droplet and the Water Cycle, where a droplet must be navigated through the hydrological cycle; What on Earth?, a game of earth trivia; word search puzzles, with hidden earth science words; Drag and Drop puzzles, to test one's ability to interpret satellite and composite images; a Pangaea map game; and a tectonics quiz.

239

COMPUTER GAMES AS HOMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in exploring how entertainment in games can be combined with educational goals to make a compelling experience. In this paper we present our design study for the development of a mod game, Antarctic NWN. We first present the background for the game, objectives, and then discuss the gameplay of Antarctic NWN. We then explore issues that influence

C. Dormann; J. P. Fiset; S. Caquard; B. Woods; A. Hadziomerovic; E. Whitworth; A. Hayes; R. Biddle

240

Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text introduces current evolutionary game theory--where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet--emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. The author provides an overview of the developments that have taken place in this branch of game theory, discusses the mathematical tools needed to understand the area, describes both the motivation and intuition for

Jorgen W. Weibull

1999-01-01

241

Cores of convex games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of ann-person game is the set of feasible outcomes that cannot be improved upon by any coalition of players. A convex game is defined as one that is based on a convex set function. In this paper it is shown that the core of a convex game is not empty and that it has an especially regular structure.

Lloyd S. Shapley

1971-01-01

242

First Video Game  

SciTech Connect

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2008-10-21

243

Seasonal Game Requirements Specification  

E-print Network

models of phones that operate with the desired Android OS will have to be taken into consideration interaction is listed below: 1.) User starts the game on their Android phone 2.) The game starts up to explain the requirements for creating a mobile game, dubbed Seasons, built for an Android device

Cukic, Bojan

244

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. Although practicing a mundane skill, learners enjoy the work because of the game scenario. Built into this game is cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2008-01-01

245

An Extended Duopoly Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

Eckalbar, John C.

2002-01-01

246

SPRING 2014 GAME THEORY  

E-print Network

Momeni Office: C534 (403) 329-2642 abbas.momeni@uleth.ca Game Theory is the study of decision making under competition. More specifically, Game Theory is the study of optimal decision making underSPRING 2014 GAME THEORY Math 4850A Tuesdays / Thursdays 10:50 am ­ 12:05 pm Room: TBA Dr. Abbas

Seldin, Jonathan P.

247

Gollywood Squares Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Cyberchase activity, roll the die and count off spaces on the game board to earn money and collect CyberSquad autographs. To win the game, be the first to buy four different autographs. This game enables learners to practice adding and subtracting and counting money.

WNET

2011-01-01

248

Games-to-Teach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the archived version of the Games-to-Teach project, now hosted by The Education Arcade. The Games-to-Teach Project is a partnership between MIT and Microsoft to develop conceptual prototypes for the next generation of interactive educational entertainment. Included are details about prototype educational games.

Games-To-Teach Project

249

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Ms. Allen

2010-10-09

250

Brains on video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six

Daphne Bavelier; C. Shawn Green; Doug Hyun Han; Perry F. Renshaw; Michael M. Merzenich; Douglas A. Gentile

2011-01-01

251

National Gaming Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes thirty-three simulation games discussed at the 9th Symposium of the Council in April of 1970. Those articles related to the social sciences are: 1) Teaching Economics with Competitive Games; 2) An Economic Strategy Analysis Game; 3) A Social Simulation Strategy for Researching the Israeli Arab Conflict; 4) The Use of…

House, Peter W.; And Others

252

Being a Game Changer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

2012-01-01

253

Self-Assembly Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a quick game about self-assembly. Like the molecules of DNA, learners will self-assemble into a pattern by following a simple set of rules. The icebreaker game is part of a larger self-assembly lesson plan, and additional self-assembly game ideas and a video can be found in the related links.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

254

Monty's Dilemma: Should You Stick or Switch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by J. Michael Shaughnessy and Thomas Dick, this activity presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors which reveals no prize, then asks if you wish to "stick or switch." Which choice gives you the best chance to win? The approach in this activity runs from guesses to experiments to computer simulations (links to applets are provided) to theoretical models. The activity can be adapted by leaving out the "flip-a-coin" strategy presented here. This is a fun and worthwhile activity that students can easily engage with.

Dick, Thomas

2009-01-01

255

Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…

Partington, Anthony

2010-01-01

256

Intrinsic Noise in Game Dynamical Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demographic noise has profound effects on evolutionary and population dynamics, as well as on chemical reaction systems and models of epidemiology. Such noise is intrinsic and due to the discreteness of the dynamics in finite populations. We here show that similar noise-sustained trajectories arise in game dynamical learning, where the stochasticity has a different origin: agents sample a finite number of moves of their opponents in between adaptation events. The limit of infinite batches results in deterministic modified replicator equations, whereas finite sampling leads to a stochastic dynamics. The characteristics of these fluctuations can be computed analytically using methods from statistical physics, and such noise can affect the attractors significantly, leading to noise-sustained cycling or removing periodic orbits of the standard replicator dynamics.

Galla, Tobias

2009-11-01

257

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games 1. Take-Away Games. 1.1 A Simple Take-Away Game. 1.2 What is a Combinatorial Game? 1.3 P-positions, N-positions. 1.4 Subtraction Games. 1.5 Exercises. 2. The Game of Nim. 2.1 Preliminary Analysis. 2.2 Nim-Sum. 2.3 Nim With a Larger

Ferguson, Thomas S.

258

Protecting online games against cheating  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technique to prevent cheating in online-games. Our approach prevents both, modification of game-clients, and access to sensitive information in the game-clients' memory. It allows game-servers to detect cheating attempts. The mechanisms in our solution are orthogonal to the game-related mechanisms, allowing to clearly separate security-related aspects from the game design. In this way the basic game is

Christian Mönch; Gisle Grimen; Roger Midtstraum

2006-01-01

259

Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations  

SciTech Connect

A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.

Abdulle, Assyr, E-mail: assyr.abdulle@epfl.ch; Blumenthal, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.blumenthal@epfl.ch

2013-10-15

260

Index to Games Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers a variety of games which develop strategic thinking, analytical skills, and basic number skills. Three pdfs provide instructions and materials for sets of games played on reusable boards, on consumable sheets, and with number cards. The only other materials required are counters/chips, dice, and pens/pencils. The site also includes instructions for games that require only counters or paper and pencil. A short article describes the rationale for using such games in the classroom and offers suggestions for organizing and managing games and for maximizing their benefits.

Frank Tapson

2011-01-01

261

Game Theory .net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Game Theory .net focuses on making the lessons of game theory relevant to the educator, student, business professional, or layperson. The site provides resource materials demonstrating the application of game theory to computer science, economics, business, political science, and other disciplines. It features textbooks reviews, lecture notes, and quizzes, as well as Java applets and online games to demonstrate concepts in a fun, interactive way. There are also links concerning game-theory themes in movies, books, and the popular press. Assessment materials are provided to aid educators in preparing classes and to offer students additional practice.

Mike Shor

262

World Wildlife Fund: Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games are a great medium for introducing kids to complex topics like biodiversity. From the World Wildlife Fund, this website offers an inventive and fun collection of biodiversity games. The interactive games are designed for middle-school students and include a Virtual Safari, a Mapping Biodiversity game, a genetic diversity game, and more. The site also features a trailer for Biodiversity 911, a movie produced by Aardman, the clever creators of Wallace and Gromit. The website's Biodiversity 911 section also links to interactive activities that address fish sustainability, soil composition, toxic elements, and the ecology of a Sumatran rain forest.

263

Switching and Growth for Microbial Populations in Catastrophic Responsive Environments  

PubMed Central

Phase variation, or stochastic switching between alternative states of gene expression, is common among microbes, and may be important in coping with changing environments. We use a theoretical model to assess whether such switching is a good strategy for growth in environments with occasional catastrophic events. We find that switching can be advantageous, but only when the environment is responsive to the microbial population. In our model, microbes switch randomly between two phenotypic states, with different growth rates. The environment undergoes sudden catastrophes, the probability of which depends on the composition of the population. We derive a simple analytical result for the population growth rate. For a responsive environment, two alternative strategies emerge. In the no-switching strategy, the population maximizes its instantaneous growth rate, regardless of catastrophes. In the switching strategy, the microbial switching rate is tuned to minimize the environmental response. Which of these strategies is most favorable depends on the parameters of the model. Previous studies have shown that microbial switching can be favorable when the environment changes in an unresponsive fashion between several states. Here, we demonstrate an alternative role for phase variation in allowing microbes to maximize their growth in catastrophic responsive environments. PMID:20371309

Visco, Paolo; Allen, Rosalind J.; Majumdar, Satya N.; Evans, Martin R.

2010-01-01

264

Switching and growth for microbial populations in catastrophic responsive environments  

E-print Network

Phase variation, or stochastic switching between alternative states of gene expression, is common among microbes, and may be important in coping with changing environments. We use a theoretical model to assess whether such switching is a good strategy for growth in environments with occasional catastrophic events. We find that switching can be advantageous, but only when the environment is responsive to the microbial population. In our model, microbes switch randomly between two phenotypic states, with different growth rates. The environment undergoes sudden "catastrophes", the probability of which depends on the composition of the population. We derive a simple analytical result for the population growth rate. For a responsive environment, two alternative strategies emerge. In the "no switching" strategy, the population maximises its instantaneous growth rate, regardless of catastrophes. In the "switching" strategy, the microbial switching rate is tuned to minimise the environmental response. Which of these strategies is most favourable depends on the parameters of the model. Previous studies have shown that microbial switching can be favourable when the environment changes in an unresponsive fashion between several states. Here, we demonstrate an alternative role for phase variation in allowing microbes to maximise their growth in catastrophic responsive environments.

Paolo Visco; Rosalind J. Allen; Satya N. Majumdar; Martin R. Evans

2010-04-12

265

Simulation gaming in nursing education.  

PubMed

Simulation games can be used in nursing education to promote problem solving or to impart information. Most games focus upon one of the two areas: cognitive knowledge or affective knowledge. We call these types of games content games and process games, respectively. Simulation games of both types are used in nursing education. Since simulation gaming in nursing education is a relatively new teaching strategy much of its use has been haphazard. In order for a simulation game to be an effective teaching strategy; there must be a "fit" between the game and the instructional objectives. The game operator should analyze the components of each game used prior to playing the game, so he will be able to use the game appropriately. One disadvantage of gaming is that there is a risk of experiencing untoward reactions in the gaming experience. For this reason, the operator should support all the participants throughout the game. Finally, the game operator should assess the effectiveness of the gaming process through the debriefing session and through research. To extend our knowledge of the effects of simulation games, game operators can research the effect of simulation gaming on student motivation, cognitive learning, and affective learning. PMID:6319640

Ulione, M S

1983-10-01

266

Stochastic Regulation in Early Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Living cells may be considered noisy or stochastic biochemical reactors. In eukaryotic cells, in which the number of protein or mRNA molecules is relatively large, the stochastic effects originate primarily in regulation of gene activity. Transcriptional activity of a gene can be initiated by transactivator molecules binding to the specific regulatory site(s) in the target gene. The stochasticity of activator binding and dissociation is amplified by transcription and translation, since target gene activation results in a burst of mRNAs molecules, and each copy of mRNA then serves as a template for numerous protein molecules. In this article, we reformulate our model of the NF-?B regulatory module to analyze a single cell regulation. Ordinary differential equations, used for description of fast reaction channels of processes involving a large number of molecules, are combined with a stochastic switch to account for the activity of the genes involved. The stochasticity in gene transcription causes simulated cells to exhibit large variability. Moreover, none of them behaves like an average cell. Although the average mRNA and protein levels remain constant before tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulation, and stabilize after a prolonged TNF stimulation, in any single cell these levels oscillate stochastically in the absence of TNF and keep oscillating under the prolonged TNF stimulation. However, in a short period of ?90 min, most cells are synchronized by the TNF signal, and exhibit similar kinetics. We hypothesize that this synchronization is crucial for proper activation of early genes controlling inflammation. Our theoretical predictions of single cell kinetics are supported by recent experimental studies of oscillations in NF-?B signaling made on single cells. PMID:16284261

Lipniacki, Tomasz; Paszek, Pawel; Brasier, Allan R.; Luxon, Bruce A.; Kimmel, Marek

2006-01-01

267

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs  

E-print Network

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1

Zhu, Xuding

268

FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET  

E-print Network

FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET Di Loreto Ines Università degli Studi in Facebook. Our assumption is that the success of games in the Facebook context is linked to the blending and will then describe some practical examples from the Facebook context. KEYWORDS Social games, casual games, tribes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming  

E-print Network

Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming A. Jurgelionis1 , F. Bellotti2 , A. De video game streaming system. Newly developed streaming protocols and system architectures enable that the Games@Large system is capable of running video games of different genres, also including First Person

Eisert, Peter

270

Introduction to a Dedicated Issue on Game Theory and Gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis in this issue has been on game theory with six papers on game theory, one on gaming, and one relating game theory to gaming. Collectively, the first three papers present an overview of the subject area. The remaining five papers report on new research.

Melvin F. Shakun

1972-01-01

271

Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

2014-02-01

272

Concepts and Applications of Stochastically Weighted Stochastic ...  

E-print Network

Apr 8, 2011 ... Stochastic dominance theory provides tools to compare random entities. ... user is that it allows for the representation of the evaluation of the importance of ...... may be large, they propose a cut generation method to selectively ...

2011-04-08

273

Educational Games in Today's Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational games have received increasing attention as one teaching technique for individualizing instruction. The use of games for education was borrowed from the business community, which in turn had borrowed the idea from the military. Educational games include several distinct types--simulations, role playing, games and simulation games. Two…

Smith, Roger A.

274

Sex, Lies and Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

2007-01-01

275

Critical Play Radical Game Design  

E-print Network

, as in casual games, or in more comprehensive games both on- and offline, such as the multiplayer PC game WorldCritical Play Radical Game Design Mary Flanagan The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London Cataloging-in-Publication Data Flanagan, Mary, 1969­ Critical play : radical game design / Mary Flanagan. p

276

Call for Papers Game Technologies  

E-print Network

leads to the demand for more interesting games as well as more powerful game engines to support those issue, we call for technical papers that describe novel game engine technologies. In particular, we are interested in papers that address technical issues of game engines that support multiplayer online games

Lau, W. H. Nynson

277

RESEARCH TOPICS IN GAME THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research topics in game theory will cover the study of dynamic games, games of incomplete information, and evolutionary games, with applications in the fields of voting, bargaining, lobbying and violent conflict. Results from the study of social choice theory and mechanism design will also be treated. The course will concentrate on mathematical techniques for constructing and solving games. Students will

Macartan Humphreys

2004-01-01

278

Security issues in online games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional target of computer game security is mainly copy protection. The e mergence of online games fundamentally changes the security requirements for computer games. Although computer game development often utilizes the cutting edge technology in computer graphics, artificial intelligence, human computer interaction and programming, game providers (developers or operators) do not pay much attention to security techniques. In this

Jianxin Jeff Yan; Hyun-jin Choi

2002-01-01

279

Game theoretic sensor management for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops and evaluates a game-theoretic approach to distributed sensor-network management for target tracking via sensor-based negotiation. We present a distributed sensor-based negotiation game model for sensor management for multi-sensor multi-target tacking situations. In our negotiation framework, each negotiation agent represents a sensor and each sensor maximizes their utility using a game approach. The greediness of each sensor is limited by the fact that the sensor-to-target assignment efficiency will decrease if too many sensor resources are assigned to a same target. It is similar to the market concept in real world, such as agreements between buyers and sellers in an auction market. Sensors are willing to switch targets so that they can obtain their highest utility and the most efficient way of applying their resources. Our sub-game perfect equilibrium-based negotiation strategies dynamically and distributedly assign sensors to targets. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate our sensor-based negotiation approach for distributed sensor management.

Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Douville, Philip; Yang, Chun; Kadar, Ivan

2010-04-01

280

Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter  

DOEpatents

A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

2007-08-07

281

Game Technology and Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).

282

Inverse Stochastic Linear Programming  

E-print Network

Keywords: Inverse Optimization, Stochastic Programming, Decomposition Algorithms ..... investment planning problem based on [16]. ... was supported by National Science Foundation grant CNS-0540000 from the Dynamic Data Driven.

2007-01-05

283

Heuristic Evaluation Functions for General Game Playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general game playing program plays games that it has not previously encountered. A game manager pro- gram sends the game playing programs a description of a game's rules and objectives in a well-defined game description language. A central challenge in creating effective general game playing programs is that of con- structing heuristic evaluation functions from game de- scriptions. This

James Clune

2007-01-01

284

Automatically Generating Game Tactics via Evolutionary Learning  

E-print Network

-controlled opponents in video games is called game AI. Adaptive game AI can improve the entertainment value of games adaptive game AI opponents. Game developers can benefit from applying ESTG, as it considerably reduces the time and effort needed to create adaptive game AI. Introduction Today's video games are becoming

Spronck, Pieter

285

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

286

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOEpatents

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

1982-09-30

287

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

DOEpatents

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

288

Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game  

E-print Network

Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game Will Johnson June 9, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Sums of Knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I Combinatorial Game Theory 23 2 Introduction 24 2.1 Combinatorial Game Theory in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2

Morrow, James A.

289

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOEpatents

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

1986-01-01

290

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOEpatents

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

1983-12-21

291

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

292

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

293

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

294

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

295

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-09-28

296

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

297

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

298

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

299

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

300

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

301

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

302

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

303

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

304

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

305

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

306

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

307

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

308

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

309

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

310

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

311

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

312

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

313

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

314

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

315

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

316

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

317

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

318

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

319

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

320

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

321

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

322

Grab the Candy Corn Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog post presents a game that provides provides practice in locating positions on a coordinate grid. A downloadable PDF document includes the game board, optional game pieces, directions and a recording sheet.

Terry Kawas

2009-10-09

323

Combinatorial optimization games  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.

Deng, X. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-06-01

324

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

325

Guess My Rule: The Function Machine Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This card game provides practice in saying and writing the function rule, given an input/output table. One student has the rule which the other student has to guess. The guesser records an input number in the table and the rule person must apply the rule and tell the output number. Student pairs repeat this until the guesser correctly identifies the rule by saying and writing it. Students then switch places and repeat the activity. There are three different levels of rules for play: simple addition & subtraction, multiplication or two-step rules.

Terry Kawas

2000-01-01

326

Factor Game (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses the context of a two-person game to develop the concepts of prime and composite numbers as well as strategic thinking. The game may be played on paper or with an online applet (cataloged separately). Students analyze the results of first moves to arrive at an effective game strategy. The included student worksheet (pdf) extends the range of numbers played and introduces students to abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers.

2012-01-01

327

The Game of Hex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…

Scott, Paul

2007-01-01

328

Predictive Game Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

Wolpert, David H.

2005-01-01

329

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. The score sheet used for this game provides a built-in assessment tool that teachers can use to check their students' understanding. This game also provides an opportunity for cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

G. Patrick Vennebush.

2008-01-01

330

Get-Moving Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this invention challenge activity, learners create an indoor game for one or two people that gets you moving. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to play an “imagine new uses for old things” game to play before the activity. Learners will also brainstorm activities that get people up and moving and follow the design process to invent a game, including the equipment and rules for playing it.

WGBH

2009-01-01

331

Science Review Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are intended to help prepare students for the New York State Regent's Exams, but may be used by anyone to review science topics in a fun, interactive atmosphere. Subjects include Earth science, geology, astrononomy, and chemistry. Users are asked a question, and if they choose the correct answer, may attempt to score points in the game setting. A teacher's page provides information on how to search the site to locate games on specific topics.

332

The Polar Bear Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, which is similar to Petals Around the Rose (cataloged separately), a player rolls 5 dice and asks the participants, “How many polar bears are around the ice holes?” The participants try to figure out the riddle (rules of the game) by studying the dice arrangements and the answers that correspond. This webpage extends the game to have players also determine the number of fish and plankton.

2010-10-24

333

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part II. Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 1. The Strategic Form of a Game.4 The Minimax Theorem. 1.5 Exercises. 2. Matrix Games. Domination. 2.1 Saddle Points. 2.2 Solution of All 2 by 2 Matrix Games. 2.3 Removing Dominated Strategies. 2.4 Solving 2 Ã? n and m Ã? 2 Games. 2.5 Latin Square

Ferguson, Thomas S.

334

Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.

2011-01-01

335

Endangered Species Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy board game is a fun-filled way to help kids understand that once a species is extinct, it's gone forever and that there are lots of things they can do to help preserve biodiversity. The activity begins by introducing kids to the difference between endangered and extinct animals, as well as to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. A colorful game board is included as a printable PDF file. You'll need a pair of dice and a marker of your choosing for each player. Simple directions for assembling the game board and playing the game are included on a single page.

336

Static Quantum Games Revisited  

E-print Network

The so called \\emph{quantum game theory} has recently been proclaimed as one of the new branches in the development of both quantum information theory and game theory. However, the notion of a quantum game itself has never been strictly defined, which has led to a lot of conceptual confusion among different authors. In this paper we introduce a new conceptual framework of a \\emph{scenario} and an \\emph{implementation} of a game. It is shown that the procedures of "quantization" of games proposed in the literature lead in fact to several different games which can be defined within the same scenario, but apart from this they may have nothing in common with the original game. Within the framework we put forward, a lot of conceptual misunderstandings that have arisen around "quantum games" can be stated clearly and resolved uniquely. In particular, the proclaimed essential role of entanglement in several static "quantum games", and their connection with Bell inequalities, is disproved.

Marcin Markiewicz; Adrian Kosowski; Tomasz Tylec; Jaroslaw Pykacz; Cyril Gavoille

2010-03-23

337

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1980-01-01

338

Energy Choices Board Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game teaches learners about energy decision making. Players select cards that determine the transportation and home design that will influence their expenses as they play. Situations and decisions arise during the game. Deciding to bike instead of drive, for example, means a player won't have to buy gas, but only rolls a 4-sided die instead of an 8-sided one, which means slower progress. A carbon tax must be paid by all players. Discussion questions and award certificates are provided for post-game analysis. Most game materials are available as files to download and print, but some (dice, paper) must be purchased.

Clarkson University

2008-01-01

339

Computer Cracks Go Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers can now compete with humans not only in chess, but also in the board game Go. Go involves two players who each try to surround a territory with stones of their color. The player who gains the most territory (mostly by surrounding his opponent these with his own stones) wins the game. Dutch researcher Erik van der Werf, with funding from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, "achieved a world first" with a program that can solve the Go game for a 5x5 playing board. This article briefly describes the game and the technique used to develop the program.

340

Rescue Mission Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets physics game, learners pretend they are pilots of rescue helicopters and must fly their helicopters to the top of a mountain to rescue lost hikers. Learners first explore the four forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Before playing the game, learners conduct a probability experiment with spinners and record their results in tally tables and bar graphs. They then use their findings to select spinners with the greatest probability of helping them win the game. In a portion of the game, learners use ordered pairs to plot points on the coordinate plane to show their flight path.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

2008-01-01

341

The Video Game Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games may now have officially reached a new level of cultural and social importance, especially since PBS (and station affiliate KCTS) have seen fit to create this very interactive and informative site to complement their recent television special, "The Video Game Revolution". The television program tells the history of video games, starting all the way back in 1952, and proceeding all the way to the current home systems. Of course, this website offers a great deal of material to delight aficionados of this cultural phenomenon, including an interactive timeline of video game history and Flash-enabled specials on the impact of gaming, and of course the somewhat forgotten (but not totally gone) phenomenon of that old shopping mall standby, the arcade. The arcade that's featured on the site offers users the ability to play an old classic game (Galaga) and a "Name that Game" feature, where visitors must guess the game based on a brief sound clip. Of course, the Scout Report would be remiss if it didn't also mention that there's a Celebrity Game Quiz, which features such questions as "Which member of the Rat Pack appeared in a 1970s commercial for Magnavox?" If you can't wait to get to the site, it was Mr. Ring a Ding Ding himself, Frances Albert Sinatra.

342

Stochastic switching as a survival strategy in fluctuating environments  

E-print Network

of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We engineered a strain that randomly transitions between two phenotypes as a result, pH, and concentrations of nutrients and toxins. Early theoretical work on this topic often focused

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

343

Computation of switch time distributions in stochastic gene regulatory networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many gene regulatory networks are modeled at the mesoscopic scale, where chemical populations are assumed to change according a discrete state (jump) Markov process. The chemical master equation (CME) for such a process is typically infinite dimensional and is unlikely to be computationally tractable without further reduction. The recently proposed Finite State Projection (FSP) technique allows for a bulk reduction

Brian Munsky; Mustafa Khammash

2008-01-01

344

Learning Stochastic Finite Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic deterministic finite automata have been intro- duced and are used in a variety of settings. We report here a number of results concerning the learnability of these finite state machines. In the setting of identification in the limit with probability one, we prove that stochastic deterministic finite automata cannot be identified from only a polynomial quantity of data. If

Colin De La Higuera; José Oncina

2004-01-01

345

Stochastic Market Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that the simple trading strategy of leveraging or deleveraging an investment in the market portfolio cannot outperform the market. Such stochastic market efficiency places strong constraints on the possible stochastic properties of the market. Historical data confirm the hypothesis.

Ole Peters; Alexander Adamou

2011-01-01

346

A Stochastic Employment Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

Wu, Teng

2013-01-01

347

Stochastic Complexity and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a modification of the notion of algorithmic complexity, the stochastic complexity of a string of data, relative to a class of probabilistic models, is defined to be the fewest number of binary digits with which the data can be encoded by taking advantage of the selected models. The computation of the stochastic complexity produces a model, which may be

Jorma Rissanen

1986-01-01

348

Succession Model Landscape Stochasticity  

E-print Network

100 1000 10000 patch sizes birth rate both Disturbance Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High" accomplished by incrementing the patch birth rate (Control: s = a = 10) A simple model of species viabilitySuccession Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High Very High ThresholdMultiplier 0.1 1 10

349

Reflective HTS switch  

DOEpatents

A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

1994-09-27

350

Reflective HTS switch  

SciTech Connect

A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01

351

The Electrical Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is inquiry-based in that students will perform the activity before they formally learn about how a switch works. They will use a multimeter to discover the different settings on a triple-throw switch. The teacher should show the students how

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

352

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL -Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated code instructions  

E-print Network

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL - Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated = total number of questions in the game x0 = initial amount of money (p1, p2, p3) = initial probability profile (with p1 p2 p3 0 and p1 + p2 + p3 = 1) = fraction of money lost in one question beyond which

Lévêque, Olivier

353

Erected mirror optical switch  

DOEpatents

A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

Allen, James J.

2005-06-07

354

Entanglement Guarantees Emergence of Cooperation in Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma Games on Networks  

PubMed Central

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold , then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases. PMID:25190217

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-01-01

355

Entanglement Guarantees Emergence of Cooperation in Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma Games on Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold , then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-09-01

356

Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.  

PubMed

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos ?b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold arccos ?b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than arccos ?b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases. PMID:25190217

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-01-01

357

Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach  

E-print Network

Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach Chenye Wu@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Due to the stochastic nature of wind power, its large-scale integration into the power grid-side resources via pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and fluctuations in wind power generation

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

358

Pattern formation, synchronization, and outbreak of biodiversity in cyclically competing games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species in nature are typically mobile over diverse distance scales, examples of which range from bacteria run to long-distance animal migrations. These behaviors can have a significant impact on biodiversity. Addressing the role of migration in biodiversity microscopically is fundamental but remains a challenging problem in interdisciplinary science. We incorporate both intra- and inter-patch migrations in stochastic games of cyclic

Wen-Xu Wang; Xuan Ni; Ying-Cheng Lai; Celso Grebogi

2011-01-01

359

Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.

Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul

2012-02-01

360

Stochastic gene expression as a many-body problem  

PubMed Central

Gene expression has a stochastic component because of the single-molecule nature of the gene and the small number of copies of individual DNA-binding proteins in the cell. We show how the statistics of such systems can be mapped onto quantum many-body problems. The dynamics of a single gene switch resembles the spin-boson model of a two-site polaron or an electron transfer reaction. Networks of switches can be approximately described as quantum spin systems by using an appropriate variational principle. In this way, the concept of frustration for magnetic systems can be taken over into gene networks. The landscape of stable attractors depends on the degree and style of frustration, much as for neural networks. We show the number of attractors, which may represent cell types, is much smaller for appropriately designed weakly frustrated stochastic networks than for randomly connected networks. PMID:12606710

Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.

2003-01-01

361

Food Chain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor game, learners role play populations linked in a food chain. The resource suggests a chain with plant, grasshopper, frog, and hawk, but other food chains can be role-played, for example plankton, anchovy, salmon, sea lion. The more "animals" (learners!) the merrier for this active game.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1979-01-01

362

The Chinese House Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

Lee, James R.

1989-01-01

363

ACTIVITIES: Graphs and Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a set of worksheets, students will discover and apply Euler's formula regarding connected planar graphs and play and analyze the game of Sprouts. One sheet leads to the discovery of Euler's formula; another concerns traversability of a graph; another gives an example and a game involving these ideas. (Author/KM)

Hirsch, Christian R.

1975-01-01

364

Building Fractions Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners investigate fractions by playing a game. To play, learners roll two dice and create a fraction, using the larger number rolled as the denominator and the smaller number as the numerator. Learners then build that fractional amount on the game mat with pattern block pieces. The winner is the player who builds the greatest number of hexagons.

2012-10-22

365

Gaming and Gamification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

Mallon, Melissa

2013-01-01

366

Academic Games and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to give some insight into what academic simulation games are, what their goals are, how they accomplish these goals, and how they differ from other ways of teaching and learning. A game is a way of partitioning off a portion of action from the complex stream of life activities. It partitions off a set of players and…

Coleman, James S.

367

The Singled Out Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Singled Out Game. The Singled Out game is played in a series of rounds. In each round, a coin is flipped and the result is kept secret. Each player, one at a time, announces his guess so that the other players hear it. The order in which the players announce their guesses is determined at the start of the

KENNAN SHELTON

368

Games for Decimals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 5-minute video highlights a grade 4 class using a game, Fill Two, to reinforce their understanding of decimals, specifically tenths and hundredths. Teacher Tiffani Poirier provides rationale and demonstrates implementation strategies. Downloadable support materials are included: lesson plan, game materials, teacher instructions, video transcript, and a SMART Board Notebook file.

Tiffani Poirier

2011-01-01

369

The Super Volcano Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would you handle a volcano diasater? In this game, you've just been appointed chief of the Emergency Management Agency for Bluebear County. Everyone is counting on you to handle the eruption of Mount Spur. Download this game to find out. Before you play, make sure Flash is installed on your computer.

British Broadcasting Corporation

370

Serious video game effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the interactive media characteristics and intrinsically motivating appeal, computer games are often praised for their potential and value in education. However, comprehensive research testing these assumptions is still missing. Preliminary comparative studies on the learning effects of games versus traditional media have shown some promise. In this paper, we describe a comparative study that thoroughly investigates the effects of

Wee Ling Wong; Cuihua Shen; Luciano Nocera; Eduardo Carriazo; Fei Tang; Shiyamvar Bugga; Harishkumar Narayanan; Hua Wang; Ute Ritterfeld

2007-01-01

371

Games People Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

VerBruggen, Robert

2012-01-01

372

Gaming in Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

373

Cournot and Bertrand Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

Beckman, Steven R.

2003-01-01

374

Sports and Games Autobiography  

E-print Network

Math 1107 Sports and Games Autobiography Due Date: Start of Class on Thursday, June 7, 2012 the lens of sports and games. For the year you were born, you must include statistics on the World Series). The web site, http://www.sports-reference.com/, is an excellent starting point for such data collection

DeMaio, Joe

375

Police Patrol Game Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

Clark, Todd, Ed.

376

The Clean Air Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

Avalone-King, Deborah

2000-01-01

377

Haptics: Gaming's New Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptics technology can simulate tactile and kinesthetic sensations so that computer interfaces not only look but also feel - in the literal sense of the word - like the interfaces we are accustomed to using in the real world. Although haptics in PC gaming began by focusing on kinesthetics, while haptics in console gaming began by focusing on vibrotactile effects,

Dean Chang

2002-01-01

378

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

379

Carbon Cycle Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, regionally-relevant carbon cycle game, students are challenged to understand the role of carbon in global climate change. They imagine that they are carbon molecules and travel via different processes through carbon reservoirs on the Colorado Plateau (the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). This game can be adapted to other regions.

Colorado Plateau Climate Science and Solutions Partnership

380

Games and childhood obesity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

381

Mathematics Instruction with Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the use of games designed for the PLATO IV system in teaching mathematics skills to students required to complete Basic Electricity/Electronics (BE/E) School at the Naval Training Center, San Diego, California. It was hypothesized that ongoing game competition between the student and the PLATO IV system would be more effective than…

McCann, Patrick H.

1977-01-01

382

The Chain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this game, students explore the connection between climate, genetic variation and the transmission of hantavirus. A board and game pieces are provided. The resource is supported by teacher background information, assessments, and a scoring rubric. This is Activity 1 of the learning module, Human Health, Climate and Disease: A Critical Connection, part of the lesson series, Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change.

383

Assessing Games Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent times, physical education teachers have become increasingly aware of the "games-understanding approach" to teaching. As more physical education teachers implement physical education programs that include a games-understanding model, they are becoming increasingly in need of appropriate and authentic assessment strategies. If one accepts…

Robinson, Daniel; Melnychuk, Nancy

2009-01-01

384

The Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use a game setting to identify the properties of prime, composite, abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers. This lesson plan includes the objective, overview of the lesson, needed materials including transparency and worksheets, procedures and rules of the game, extensions and connections, resources, and ideas for discussion.

PBS

2007-12-12

385

The Guppy Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

2012-01-01

386

Fractions Dolphin Racing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive game, students are tasked with using a variety of strategies to quickly compare fractions. By choosing the largest fraction, the student's dolphin travels further faster. This game encourages students to interpret the meaning of fractions and rely on strategies that go beyond finding common denominators.

Skillwise: English and Maths for Adults

2012-08-03

387

Towards Emotionally Adapted Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

2004-01-01

388

Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games  

E-print Network

Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games Lukasz Kaiser kaiser@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen Computer Science Logic 2006 Lukasz Kaiser (RWTH Aachen) Game Quantifier on Automatic Structures 1 / 21 #12;Overview Introduction Logic with Game Quantifier Hierarchical

Kaiser, £ukasz

389

Heuristic evaluation for games: usability principles for video game design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most video games require constant interaction, so game designers must pay careful attention to usability issues. However, there are few formal methods for evaluating the usability of game interfaces. In this paper, we introduce a new set of heuristics that can be used to carry out usability inspections of video games. The heuristics were developed to help identify usability problems

David Pinelle; Nelson Wong; Tadeusz Stach

2008-01-01

390

In-game tactic adaptation for interactive computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer controlled characters in games typically lack the ability to adapt to situations that were not envisaged by the game artificial intelligence (AI) programmer. Consequently game characters tend to be lifeless and susceptible to repetitive and predictable behaviour. The focus of this work is to provide practical approaches to in-game learning and thus produce NPCs that are more believable and

Thomas P. Hartley; Qasim H. Mehdi

2011-01-01

391

Avatars in Analytical Gaming  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

2009-08-29

392

Derivative Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

393

Optical Circuit Switched Protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

394

Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).

Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.

2012-02-01

395

A Game Development Platform for Serious  

E-print Network

©2012 SimSYS A Game Development Platform for Serious Educational Games Creating Game-Based Learning. Serious games have significant pedagogical potential as they provide immersive, engaging and fun for advancing further into the game. Fundamentally integrating serious games into curricula, i.e., creating game

Cooper, Kendra M.L.

396

A Framework for Game Engine Based Visualisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game engines are the core software component of video games and typically handle tasks such as rendering, game AI and collision detection between game objects. Due to the popularity of computer games, a huge amount of research has been devoted towards the development of game engines. In this paper we analyse the suitability of game engines for visualisation research. We

Burkhard C. Wunsche; Blazej Kot; Andrew Gits; Robert Amor; John Hosking

397

Opportunities for Game Culture and Technology in  

E-print Network

.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi Computer Games in Libraries · A little background on game culture and technology · New game opportunities for public libraries · Libraries as community centers for games culture and technology #12;2 Game Culture participation Library-specific games · Inter-library game grid ­ MLS as virtual public network of online

Scacchi, Walt

398

Knowledge acquisition for adaptive game AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game artificial intelligence (AI) controls the decision-making process of computer- controlled opponents in computer games. Adaptive game AI (i.e., game AI that can automatically adapt the behaviour of the computer players to changes in the environment) can increase the entertainment value of computer games. Successful adaptive game AI is invariably based on the game's domain knowledge. We show that an

Marc J. V. Ponsen; Pieter Spronck; Héctor Muñoz-avila; David W. Aha

2007-01-01

399

Solid state switch  

DOEpatents

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

1994-07-19

400

Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

401

Photoconductive switch package  

DOEpatents

A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

Ca[rasp, George J

2013-10-22

402

Algebraic Stochastic Calculus  

E-print Network

We develop the foundations of Algebraic Stochastic Calculus, with an aim to replacing what is typically referred to as Stochastic Calculus by a purely categorical version thereof. We first give a sheaf theoretic reinterpretation of Probability Theory. We regard probability spaces (X, F, P) as Grothendieck sites (F, J_P) on which Brownian motions are defined via sheaves in symmetric monoidal infinity-categories. Due to the complex nature of such a formalism we are naturally led to considering a purely categorical, time independent formalism in which stochastic differential equations are replaced by studying problems in deformation theory.

Renaud Gauthier

2014-07-25

403

Evolutionary game Karl Sigmund* and  

E-print Network

Primer Evolutionary game theory Karl Sigmund* and Martin A. Nowak Ever since Darwin read Malthus, the theory of evolution has benefited from the interaction of ecology with economics. Evolutionary game theory belongs to this tradition: it merges population ecology with game theory. Game theory originally

Nowak, Martin A.

404

Online Games: Categorization of Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of Internet technology, online games have recently become a very successful industry. As a consequence, the numbers of thefts, cheats, vandalisms, threats and illegal gambling cases from online gaming have increased. This paper presents an analysis of the attacks in online games; we define a classification of the attacks in online game with respect to the objectives

Y. Lyhyaoui; A. Lyhyaoui; S. Natkin

2005-01-01

405

Simple Games . . . or Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

Arn, Susan Kyle

2006-01-01

406

Computer Games for Visualization and  

E-print Network

Games Get Serious Computer Games for Visualization and More by Tim Holt #12;The Story Historically "serious" behaviors Complex interactions in simulated worlds ­ all with several fingers and a mouse Game;Games offer a path to visualization and interactivity to solve "serious" problems #12;Government

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

407

Video Games and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…

Perkins-Gough, Deborah

2009-01-01

408

Teaching Game Sense in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

Pill, Shane

2012-01-01

409

Stages for Children Inventing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…

Butler, Joy

2013-01-01

410

Scaling games to epic proportion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce scalability for computer games as the next frontier for techniques from data management. A very important aspect of computer games is the artificial intelligence (AI) of non- player characters. To create interesting AI in games today, developers or players have to create complex, dynamic behavior for a very small number of characters, but neither the game engines nor

Walker M. White; Alan J. Demers; Christoph Koch; Johannes Gehrke; Rajmohan Rajagopalan

2007-01-01

411

Video Games: Competing with Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…

Hanson, Jarice

412

Security Design in Online Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of online games has fundamentally changed security requirements for computer games, which previ- ously were largely concerned with copy protection. In this paper, we examine how new security requirements impact the design of online games by using online Bridge, a sim- ple client-server game, as our case study. We argue that se- curity is emerging as an inherent

Jeff Jianxin Yan

2003-01-01

413

Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation.

Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.

2014-09-01

414

Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

2014-01-01

415

Stability and Flipping Dynamics of Delayed Genetic Toggle Switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the stability and flipping dynamics of a delayed exclusive toggle switch is performed. We use forward flux sampling method combined with delayed stochastic simulation algorithm to get the stationary distribution function, the switching rate, and pathways, as well as the transition state ensemble. Interestingly, under the influence of time delay, the stationary distribution corresponding to the stable states become narrower and the population in the transition region is significantly enhanced. In addition, the flipping rate increases monotonically with delay. Such findings demonstrate that time delay could reduce the stability of the bistable genetic switch dramatically. Furthermore, the transition pathways, characterized by the difference in the protein numbers and the state of operator, show larger discrepancy between the forward and backward switching process with increasing delay, indicating that transcriptional and translational delay can remarkably affect the flipping dynamics. Specifically, for the transition state, the difference in the probability of finding the operator site bound by the two different protein dimers is enlarged by delay, which further illustrates the crucial role of time delay on the stability and switching dynamics of genetic toggle switches.

Zhang, Rui-ting; Chen, Han-shuang; Hou, Zhong-huai

2012-02-01

416

Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

417

Basics of Safety Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.

418

Studies in statistical physics: Stochastic strategies in a minority game  

E-print Network

to them. Especially I would like to thank my mother Leela, my sister Nandini and Jayakrishnan for their love and care. #12;Collaborators The work presented in Chapter 1 is based on the work done in print in Physica A, 390 3477 (2011). #12;#12;To My wife Priya whose love made this possible #12

419

Stochastic Optimization Modeling  

E-print Network

Budgeting problem, so that the expected profit of the advertising investment is ... survey about dynamic advertising (deterministic and stochastic approaches) can ...... A chance constraints goal programming model for the advertising planning.

2014-07-04

420

Quantum Stochastic Processes  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

Spring, William Joseph [Quantum Information and Probability Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

2009-04-13

421

Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

2011-01-01

422

Cygnus Water Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

2008-03-01

423

Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

2007-07-21

424

Switching power supply filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

425

High Power Switching Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved switching transistors handle 400-A peak currents and up to 1,200 V. Using large diameter silicon wafers with twice effective area as D60T, form basis for D7 family of power switching transistors. Package includes npn wafer, emitter preform, and base-contact insert. Applications are: 25to 50-kilowatt high-frequency dc/dc inverters, VSCF converters, and motor controllers for electrical vehicles.

Hower, P. L.; Kao, Y. C.; Carnahan, D. C.

1983-01-01

426

A CMOS Switched Transconductor Mixer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at low supply voltages by the use of switches exclusively connected to the supply voltages. Such switches require less voltage headroom and avoid gate-oxide reliability problems. Mixing is achieved by exploiting two transconductors with cross-coupled outputs, which are alternatingly activated by the switches. For ideal switching, the operation is equivalent to a

Eric A. M. Klumperink; Simon M. Louwsma; Gerard J. M. Wienk; Bram Nauta

2004-01-01

427

Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.

Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

2013-10-01

428

Stochastic Models of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.

Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

429

Stochastic Fairness Queueing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of algorithms called stochastic fairness queuing is presented. The algorithms are probabilistic variants of fairness queuing. They do not require an exact mapping and thus are suitable for high-speed software or firmware implementation. The algorithms span a broad range of CPU, memory, and fairness tradeoffs. It is shown that the worst-case execution-speed stochastic fairness queuing is faster than

Paul E. Mckenney

1990-01-01

430

Fission and Fusion Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students play a board game where they learn the characteristics of and differences between fission and fusion, as well as the real world applications of these energy-releasing reactions. Reproducible game cards and and game board are included in the resource. The investigation supports material presented in chapter 3, "What Heats the Earth's Interior?" in the textbook, Energy flow, part of the Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

431

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

432

Leaps and Flutters Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, interactive "Chutes and Ladders" type of game is for ages 7-9 and can be played with a friend or against the computer. As players land on squares, depending on the described action, they either "leap" frog ahead if they help the environment or butterfly "flutter" back if they do not. The website includes a short explanation of why we should care about frogs and butterflies, as well as some facts about some of the activities on the game board and why they are good or not good for the environment. A printable version of the board game is also available.

433

Seville Game Theory Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jesus Mario Bilbao Arrese, a Professor of Applied Mathematics at the University of Seville, heads the Seville Game Theory group (SGT). On this website, visitors will find a selection of publications by members of the group, including papers, preprints and PhD theses. The Blackboard section includes various position papers, mostly in Spanish, which address issues such as the value of using scientific methods to understand, design and analyze complex voting systems. The website also provides links to Economics and Mathematics associations, information on conferences on game theory, and links to related journals and book series. The Download area also provides links to online resources that address topics related to game theory.

434

Video game epilepsy.  

PubMed

Reflex epilepsy is the commonest form of epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by specific external stimulus. Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is provoked by environmental flicker stimuli. Video game epilepsy is considered to be its variant or a pattern sensitive epilepsy. The mean age of onset is around puberty and boys suffer more commonly as they are more inclined to play video games. Television set or computer screen is the commonest precipitants. The treatment remains the removal of the offending stimulus along with drug therapy. Long term prognosis in these patients is better as photosensitivity gradually declines with increasing age. We present two such case of epilepsy induced by video game. PMID:11799420

Singh, R; Bhalla, A; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

2001-12-01

435

The Nervous System Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts (Gardner 1993). With this in mind, a team developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to model the nervous system signals. A formal test of the game led to the activities described in this article. This game is a great way to introduce such complex principles as motor versus sensory signaling, reflexes, and the effects of spinal cord injury.

Cynthia Corbitt

2006-03-01

436

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

437

Low inductance gas switching.  

SciTech Connect

The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

2007-10-01

438

Game Over Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game (Java) requires students to use their knowledge of the coordinate plane to defend the carrot from the gophers. Students place carrot launcher, ruby drills, and garlic rays at strategic locations (ordered pairs) throughout the coordinate plane.

NMSU Learning Games Lab

2013-01-01

439

Who's got game (theory)?  

E-print Network

Many players enjoy the challenge of outwitting computer opponents in strategy games. Devising strategies to defeat a computer opponent may enhance certain cognitive skills (e.g., analysis, evaluation, planning). This thesis ...

Blankinship, Erik Jackson, 1974-

2005-01-01

440

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Sara Dea

441

Advertising in computer games  

E-print Network

This paper suggests advertisers should experiment with in-game advertising to gain skills that could become vital in the near future. It compiles, arranges and analyzes the existing body of academic and industry knowledge ...

Vedrashko, Ilya

2006-01-01

442

The Integer Product Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.

Connected Mathematics Project 2006

2010-05-17

443

The Fishing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a simulation that places the student in the role of a wildlife manager who must use natural resources prudently. The site includes links to a user's guide, a fishing game simulator, and related reading material.

The Creative Learning Exchange

444

Antarctic Food Web Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive game adapted from the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, build a food web that illustrates the flow of energy in an Antarctic ecosystem and the relationships between predators and prey.

2007-08-09

445

ESL computer games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun websites that will engage English language learners in learning Enlglish through fun activities, games, quizzes, trivia, etc. on the computer. I have used these websites with the students I teach and they LOVE it. They really look forward to going to the computer lab and engaging in the learning. I have found that they use English to talk about the games together. It has been highlyl effective. ESL computer games Word games, puzzles, quizzes, exercises, slang, proverbs and much more. beginning/intermediate esl This site was designed to meet the particular needs of my first-year recent immigrant students. The majority of links and activities are appropriate for students whose English ability ranges from entry-level to intermediate. This is a multimedia learning site. ...

Miss Peterson

2006-11-15

446

Athens 2004 Olympic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2004 Olympic Summer Games may be several months away, but preparations have been going on for many months, and the city of Athens is looking forward to hosting its first official Olympic Games competition since 1896. As one might expect, the site's main page offers a veritable cornucopia of information on visiting Athens, accommodations, ticket information, and a special area designed for young people. Additionally, the site also provides extensive material on the Paralympic Games, which will also take place this summer. Visitors will want to take a look at the key dates section, as it offers details on when and where each competitive event will take place, along with the ever-popular opening and closing ceremonies. The site has some nice extra features, such as volunteer applications for the Games, e-cards to send to friends and family, and information on the extensive transportation infrastructure improvements added to the urban fabric of Athens for this historic event.

447

The Confidence Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are usually quick to draw conclusions about their surroundings. Their generalizations, however, are often based on a single experience or even a story recounted by a friend. As we gain more experience in the world, out ability to reason inductively improves. The ability to draw broad conclusions also improves with an understanding of likelihood and probability, and dice games are a popular way to introduce these concepts to students.One such game was developed after years of judging and discussing science-fair projects with students who had no understanding of why they should have repeated trials or treatments in their experiments. Intended for students in fourth through sixth grade, the game lets students discover why collecting repeated observations leads to greater confidence inf a conclusion. Rather than presenting the concepts of replication and certainty as facts, playing a game provides an engaging environment in which students discover these principles themselves.

Leah M. Corey

2006-09-01

448

Rethinking Fair Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses misconceptions related to what makes an unfair game fair and describes from a personal perspective the process of discovering for oneself when a particular mathematical method works. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Coffey, David C.; Richardson, Mary G.

2005-01-01

449

Brains on video games.  

PubMed

The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065

Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

2011-12-01

450

The Atomic Dating Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity designed to provide students with opportunities to practice drawing atomic models and discover the logical pairings of whole families on the periodic table. Follows the format of a television game show. (DDR)

Cummo, Evelyn; Matthews, Catherine E.

2002-01-01

451

University of Illinois: Gaming Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games have been the subject of scholarly inquiry for some time now, and disciplines such as psychology, speech communications, and information science continue to look into their use for a variety of purposes. The Gaming Initiative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) created this website to bring together actual video games, along with sponsoring campus-wide events, career resources, and other materials. Visitors can get started by reading through the "Gaming News" area, and looking through their current holdings. The sections of the site include "Gaming Research", "Gaming on Campus", and "Gaming Careers". The "Gaming Careers" section is quite useful, and it includes an extensive list of key trade and academic journals on game development and some inside advice from people in the industry.

452

Playing Games with Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

We present a perspective on quantum games that focuses on the physical aspects of the quantities that are used to implement a game. If a game is to be played, it has to be played with objects and actions that have some physical existence. We call such games playable. By focusing on the notion of playability for games we can more clearly see the distinction between classical and quantum games and tackle the thorny issue of what it means to quantize a game. The approach we take can more properly be thought of as gaming the quantum rather than quantizing a game and we find that in this perspective we can think of a complete quantum game, for a given set of preferences, as representing a single family of quantum games with many different playable versions. The versions of Quantum Prisoners Dilemma presented in the literature can therefore be thought of specific instances of the single family of Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma with respect to a particular measurement. The conditions for equilibrium are given for playable quantum games both in terms of expected outcomes and a geometric approach. We discuss how any quantum game can be simulated with a classical game played with classical coins as far as the strategy selections and expected outcomes are concerned.

Simon J. D. Phoenix; Faisal Shah Khan

2012-02-22

453

Algorithmic Cooperative Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this treatise, we survey some progress in cooperative game theory, in particular those involved with algorithmic and computational\\u000a complexity issues. Central to these results is the linear program duality characterization of the core for some combinatorial\\u000a optimization games. We highlight the linear and integer programming techniques and computational complexity approach applied\\u000a to the core and the Nucleolus for various

Xiaotie Deng; Qizhi Fang

454

Multichoice minority game  

SciTech Connect

The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2001-06-01

455

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2012-01-23

456

The Natural Selection Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for the activity, students do background reading from Chapter 6 of Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs, by Anthony J. Martin (Basic Concepts in Evolutionary Theory section). In class, the day before running the activity, introduce students briefly to the rules of the game and have them prepare their game pieces. A showing of Walking With Dinosaurs: Time of the Titans would also be helpful.

Katherine McCarville

457

Terrorism & Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This article examines,how game- theoretic analyses of terrorism have provided some policy insights that do not follow from nonstrategic analyses. Some new game-theoretic applications are indicated that concern terrorist targeting of businesses, officials, and the general public, where targets can work at cross-purposes as th ey attempt to deflect the attack. Other novel applications involve government choice among alternative

Todd Sandler

2003-01-01

458

Refraining Online Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massively-multiplayer online games, or “synthetic worlds,” represent a rapidly-growing industry with far-reaching social,\\u000a technical, and economic implications. In this position paper, we draw on literature from anthropology, sociology, and film\\u000a to challenge long-standing misconceptions of “games” and “work” and of “virtuality” and “reality” as dualisms that have obscured\\u000a synthetic worlds from serious consideration by IS scholars. Building on this work

Ulrike Schultze; Julie Rennecker

2007-01-01

459

Game accessibility: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades, video games have evolved from a pastime into a force of change that is transforming the way people\\u000a perceive, learn about, and interact with the world around them. In addition to entertainment, games are increasingly used\\u000a for other purposes such as education or health. Despite this increased interest, a significant number of people encounter\\u000a barriers

Bei Yuan; Eelke Folmer; Frederick C. Harris

2011-01-01

460

Cell Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing vocabulary related to cells, organelles, and the plasma membrane. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

461

Find a Fuel Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An educational game where students choose vehicles with different propulsion systems and learn about the differences between these systems. To progress in the game, students must capture the fuel type for the propulsion system of the vehicle they chose. Propulsion systems and fuel types include the internal combustion engine (gasoline),  flex-fuel ethanol (E85), hybrid electric (gasoline and electricity), and plug-in hybrid electric (electricty or both gasoline and electricity).

2013-03-21

462

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners each represent a different organism in an environment. They build a web during the activity, and discover how all the players in an ecosystem depend on each other. As they play, learners will come up with the connections between different species and their environments. At least six people are needed to play this game, and it could be played with a large group as well.

American Museum of Natural History

2012-06-26

463

Interactive Astronomy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two interactive astronomy games, 'Small and Large' and 'Near and Far', help to introduce important basic concepts about the size of the Universe. In 'Small and Large', students examine pictures of various astronomical objects and arrange them numerically by size. In 'Near and Far, they arrange pictures of objects by their distance from Earth. The games serve as motivators for further discussion and learning and may be used with large groups, a few students or with just one other person.

Cherilynn Morrow

464

Steganalysis and Game Equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steganography is the study of methods of concealing data in the noise of another data set. Steganalysis is the field of discovering hidden data and disrupting covert channels. We introduce a two-player, zero-sum, matrix game for the purpose of modeling the contest between a data-hider and a data-attacker. We then solve the game for equilibria, demonstrating that the form of

Mark Ettinger

1998-01-01

465

Genetics Vocabulary Review Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game helps students to enjoy reviewing genetics vocabulary. Each card in the deck has a target vocabulary word and two related taboo words that the student may not use when giving clues so the other students in his or her small group can guess the target word. Many students have trouble learning the substantial new vocabulary required for biology, and this game lets students have fun while reinforcing their understanding of key terms.

Jennifer Doherty

466

Introduction Game 1: Manufacturer -Stackelberg Leader  

E-print Network

Introduction Model Game 1: Manufacturer -Stackelberg Leader Game 2: Retailer -Stackelberg Leader Computer Modeling Conclusions Hierarchical Differential Games Ellina Grigorieva and Evgenii Khailov Denton, Arlington, TX Ellina Grigorieva and Evgenii Khailov Hierarchical Differential Games #12;Introduction Model

Grigorieva, Ellina V.

467

25 CFR 502.10 - Gaming operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gaming operation. 502.10 Section 502.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.10 Gaming operation. Gaming...

2010-04-01

468

Let the Game do the Talking: The influence of explicitness and game behavior on comprehension in an educational computer game  

E-print Network

Let the Game do the Talking: The influence of explicitness and game behavior on comprehension in an educational computer game Erwin Bergervoet, Frans van der Sluis, Betsy van Dijk, Anton Nijholt Human Media--An endogenous educational game is a game where the educational content is integrated in the game play mechanics

Nijholt, Anton

469

Equilibrium games in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.

Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan

2014-12-01

470

Utilizing Video Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.

Blaize, L.

471

Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that evidences neurobiologic correlates of Internet gaming addiction and the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, but also emphasizes the necessity of an indepth understanding of the meaning, context, and practices associated with gaming. PMID:24255603

Kuss, Daria J

2013-01-01

472

Switching power pulse system  

DOEpatents

A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

Aaland, K.

1983-08-09

473

Thermionic gas switch  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

1984-04-05

474

Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic resonance is a counterintuitive concept: the addition of noise to a noisy system induces coherent amplification of its response. First suggested as a mechanism for the cyclic recurrence of ice ages, stochastic resonance has been seen in a wide variety of macroscopic physical systems: bistable ring lasers, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), magnetoelastic ribbons and neurophysiological systems such as the receptors in crickets and crayfish. Although fundamentally important as a mechanism of coherent signal amplification, stochastic resonance has yet to be observed in nanoscale systems. Here we report the observation of stochastic resonance in bistable nanomechanical silicon oscillators. Our nanomechanical systems consist of beams that are clamped at each end and driven into transverse oscillation with the use of a radiofrequency source. Modulation of the source induces controllable switching of the beams between two stable, distinct states. We observe that the addition of white noise causes a marked amplification of the signal strength. Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems could have a function in the realization of controllable high-speed nanomechanical memory cells, and paves the way for exploring macroscopic quantum coherence and tunnelling.

Badzey, Robert L.; Mohanty, Pritiraj

2005-10-01

475

Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary game theory is the study of frequency-dependent selection. The success of an individual depends on the frequencies of strategies that are used in the population. We propose a new model for studying evolutionary dynamics in games with a continuous strategy space. The population size is finite. All members of the population use the same strategy. A mutant strategy is chosen from some distribution over the strategy space. The fixation probability of the mutant strategy in the resident population is calculated. The new mutant takes over the population with this probability. In this case, the mutant becomes the new resident. Otherwise, the existing resident remains. Then, another mutant is generated. These dynamics lead to a stationary distribution over the entire strategy space. Our new approach generalizes classical adaptive dynamics in three ways: (i) the population size is finite; (ii) mutants can be drawn non-locally and (iii) the dynamics are stochastic. We explore reactive strategies in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. We perform ‘knock-out experiments’ to study how various strategies affect the evolution of cooperation. We find that ‘tit-for-tat’ is a weak catalyst for the emergence of cooperation, while ‘always cooperate’ is a strong catalyst for the emergence of defection. Our analysis leads to a new understanding of the optimal level of forgiveness that is needed for the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity. PMID:19846456

Imhof, Lorens A.; Nowak, Martin A.

2010-01-01

476

The Relationship between Attributes, Brand Preference, and Choice: A Stochastic View  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws from two separate research traditions in marketing theories of consumer behavior: multiattribute expectancy-value models and stochastic choice models. A behavioral basis for the observed brand-switching phenomenon is found in the multiattributed evaluation of alternatives and the uncertainty surrounding such evaluation. A model is proposed to deal with this phenomenon and is fitted against a comprehensive data set.

Jean-Marie Blin; Joe A. Dodson

1980-01-01

477

Stochastic Kinetic Analysis of Developmental Pathway Bifurcation in Phage l-Infected Escherichia coli Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluctuations in rates of gene expression can produce highly erratic time patterns of protein production in individual cells and wide diversity in instantaneous protein concentrations across cell populations. When two independently produced regulatory proteins acting at low cellular concentrations competitively control a switch point in a pathway, stochastic variations in their concentrations can produce probabilistic pathway selection, so that an

Adam Arkin; John Ross; Harley H. McAdams

1998-01-01

478

ID201202961, DOE S-124,539, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

2012-01-01

479

Switching power supply  

DOEpatents

The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

Mihalka, A.M.

1984-06-05

480

SWITCH user's manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

1987-01-01

481

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11

482

Adaptive Behavior for Fighting Game Characters  

E-print Network

Pollett Dr. Rudy Rucker Dr. Jeffrey Smith #12;Outline ! Motivation and Goal ! Requirements ! Game Fighter #12;Motivation: Why Games? ! Games are relevant financially ! Huge industry rivaling film industry ! Games are relevant academically ! It's difficult! ! Games are large projects ! Games cover a wide area

Pollett, Chris

483

Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag  

E-print Network

Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag CWI P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands logic, games and (co)algebra, stressing especially the modal logic aspects of important game­ theoretic concepts. There are two main possible ways of relating logic and games: logic games and game logics

Jipsen, Peter

484

Proof of permutationally convexity of MCSF games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granot and Huberman (1982) showed that minimum cost spanning tree (MCST) games are permutationally convex (PC). Recently, Rosenthal (1987) gave an extension of MCST games to minimum cost spanning forest (MCSF) games and showed these games have nonempty cores. In this note we show any MCSF game is a PC game.

Bahram Alidaee

1994-01-01

485

Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming  

SciTech Connect

We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-08-31

486

Meta-Games in Information Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Meta-games and meta-gaming refer to various second-order conceptions of games and gaming. The present article discusses the applicability of the notions of meta-game and meta-gaming in understanding the patterns of how people use, misuse, work and work-around information and information infrastructures. Method: Twenty-two qualitative…

Huvila, Isto

2013-01-01

487

Affective game engines: motivation and requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous advances in gaming technologies over the past decade have focused primarily on the physical realism of the game environment and game characters, and the complexity and performance of game simulations and networking. However, current games are still lacking in the affective realism of the game characters, and the social complexity and realism of their interactions. To achieve the

Eva Hudlicka

2009-01-01

488

The Educational Potential of Modified Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the popularity of video game playing has increased, educators have sought to co-opt video games as an instructional tool. However, educational games have made little impact in either the commercial market place or the average game player's home library. The modification, or modding, of video games using in-game editors may be used by instructors to introduce educational content to

Andrew Moshirnia

2007-01-01

489

Developing game worlds : gaming, technology, and innovation in Peru  

E-print Network

In this work, I've documented the origins, growth and structure of the Peruvian video game industry. Because of its underground origins, the Peruvian game industry provides an alternative, more organic gateway to developing ...

Marisca Alvarez, Eduardo

2014-01-01

490

Flows and Decompositions of Games: Harmonic and Potential Games  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce a novel flow representation for finite games in strategic form. This representation allows us to develop a canonical direct sum decomposition of an arbitrary game into three components, which we ...

Candogan, Utku Ozan

491

Interpreting abstract games : the metaphorical potential of formal game elements  

E-print Network

As cultural artifacts, abstract games offer unique challenges to critical interpretation. This is largely due to the fact that such games lack a fictional element: there are no characters, no settings, and no narratives ...

Begy, Jason Scott

2010-01-01

492

Polariton Condensate Transistor Switch  

E-print Network

A polariton condensate transistor switch is realized through optical excitation of a microcavity ridge with two beams. The ballistically ejected polaritons from a condensate formed at the source are gated using the 20 times weaker second beam to switch on and off the flux of polaritons. In the absence of the gate beam the small built-in detuning creates potential landscape in which ejected polaritons are channelled toward the end of the ridge where they condense. The low loss photon-like propagation combined with strong nonlinearities associated with their excitonic component makes polariton based transistors particularly attractive for the implementation of all-optical integrated circuits.

Gao, T; Liew, T C H; Tsintzos, S I; Stavrinidis, G; Deligeorgis, G; Hatzopoulos, Z; Savvidis, P G

2012-01-01

493

Thermionic gas switch  

DOEpatents

A temperature responsive thermionic gas switch having folded electron emitting surfaces. An ionizable gas is located between the emitter and an interior surface of a collector, coaxial with the emitter. In response to the temperature exceeding a predetermined level, sufficient electrons are derived from the emitter to cause the gas in the gap between the emitter and collector to become ionized, whereby a very large increase in current in the gap occurs. Due to the folded emitter surface area of the switch, increasing the "on/off" current ratio and adjusting the "on" current capacity is accomplished.

Hatch, George L. (San Francisco, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA)

1986-01-01

494

A nanophotonic switching cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a nanophotonic/nanometric switching cell to operate in the infrared and terahertz frequency range of telecommunications. This switching cell is based on a directional coupler made of two graphene nanoribbons separated in the vertical direction, which are embedded in a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. Theoretical analysis revealed that a graphene based nanophotonics coupler, initially working in the bar state (or cross state), can be brought into the cross state (or bar state), by modifying the graphene sheet chemical potential via the gate voltage. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite element method simulations and numerical analysis scripts.

Wirth L, A.; Sombra, A. S. B.

2014-10-01

495

G-factor Portability in Game Development Using Game Engines Ahmed BinSubaih & Steve Maddock  

E-print Network

G-factor Portability in Game Development Using Game Engines Ahmed BinSubaih & Steve Maddock using game engines. This development approach supports various aspects of portability. For example games involved in porting a `game' between game engines. In this work the game elements that we aim to make

Maddock, Steve

496

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

497

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

498

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

499

43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

500

Stochastic matching problem.  

PubMed

The matching problem plays a basic role in combinatorial optimization and in statistical mechanics. In its stochastic variants, optimization decisions have to be taken given only some probabilistic information about the instance. While the deterministic case can be solved in polynomial time, stochastic variants are worst-case intractable. We propose an efficient method to solve stochastic matching problems which combines some features of the survey propagation equations and of the cavity method. We test it on random bipartite graphs, for which we analyze the phase diagram and compare the results with exact bounds. Our approach is shown numerically to be effective on the full range of parameters, and to outperform state-of-the-art methods. Finally we discuss how the method can be generalized to other problems of optimization under uncertainty. PMID:21668134

Altarelli, F; Braunstein, A; Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R

2011-05-13