Reduction of Stochastic Parity to Stochastic Mean-payoff Games
Henzinger, Thomas A.
, Stochastic games, Parity objectives, Mean- payoff objectives. 1 Introduction Graph games. A stochastic graph game; otherwise, as a 21/2-player graph game. Parity objectives. The theory of graph gamesReduction of Stochastic Parity to Stochastic Mean-payoff Games Krishnendu Chatterjee1 and Thomas A
Solving Stochastic Games Liam Mac Dermed
Isbell, Charles L.
), and in equilibrium (no player can gain by deviating from the joint policy).1 This solution concept is the game-theoretic a given error of game-theoretic solution concepts for all such stochastic games. We factor out the various game-theoretic solution, in time polynomial in 1/. Our algorithm extends Murray's and Gordon's (2007
Game theoretic simulation metamodeling using stochastic kriging
Jouni Pousi; Jirka Poropudas; Kai Virtanen
2010-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to the construction of game theoretic metamodels from data obtained through stochastic simulation. In this approach, stochastic kriging is used to estimate payoff functions of players involved in a game represented by a simulation model. Based on the estimated payoff functions, the players' best responses to the values of the decision variables chosen by
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning
Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information
Cardaliaguet, Pierre Rainer, Catherine
2009-02-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
Strategy Improvement for Stochastic Rabin and Streett Games #
Henzinger, Thomas A.
certain nonstochastic Streett games. 1 Introduction Graph games. A stochastic graph game [6] is played with Rabin and Streett objectives. The theory of graph games with # regular winning conditionsStrategy Improvement for Stochastic Rabin and Streett Games # Krishnendu Chatterjee 1 and Thomas A
Strategy Improvement for Stochastic Rabin and Streett Games
Henzinger, Thomas A.
certain nonstochastic Streett games. 1 Introduction Graph games. A stochastic graph game [6] is played with Rabin and Streett objectives. The theory of graph games with - regular winning conditionsStrategy Improvement for Stochastic Rabin and Streett Games Krishnendu Chatterjee1 and Thomas A
Patricia Bouyer, Vojtech Forejt Reachability in Stochastic Timed Games
Doyen, Laurent
Patricia Bouyer, Vojtech Forejt Reachability in Stochastic Timed Games Research Report LSV-09-11 1 June 2009 #12;#12;Reachability in Stochastic Timed Games Patricia Bouyer and Vojtech Forejt 1 LSV, CNRS
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Continous-time stochastic Markov games
Nowak, A.
1994-12-31
We consider zero-sum game in which the players control a continuous-time stochastic jump process. The state space is assumed to be a Borel set. Sufficient conditions for the existence of optimal strategies for the players are to be presented. In the undiscounted case we will consider conditions which are related to geometric ergodicity. Some possible extentions to non-zero-sum games will be mentioned.
Cardaliaguet, P.; Rainer, C.
2013-08-01
We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN Eugene A. FEINBERG INRIA, B This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that fo* *r a large class
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations
Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2015-01-01
Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka–Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518
Stochastic game approach to air operations
William M. McEneaney; Ben G. Fitzpatrick; Istvan G. Lauko
2004-01-01
A command and control (C2) problem for military air operations is addressed. Specifically, we consider C2 problems for air vehicles against ground-based targets and defensive systems. The problem is viewed as a stochastic game. We restrict our attention to the C2 level where the problem may consist of a few unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) or aircraft (or possibly teams
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B matrix games. The main result is that for a large class of perturbations the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions of appropriate lexicographic games. We consider
Asynchronous Stochastic Dynamics and the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game
Grilo, Carlos
Asynchronous Stochastic Dynamics and the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game Carlos Grilo1 and Lu modeled as a game and the Prisoner's Dilemma game is one of the most used metaphors to study the evolution. Grilo and L. Correia C D C R, R S, T D T, S P, P Fig. 1. Payoff matrix for the Prisoner's Dilemma game
PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games
Oxford, University of
underlying theory and applications in areas as diverse as economics and biology. Stochastic games also have general prob- lem classes such as concurrent games and partial information. Turn-based games have, though for energy management and collective decision making for autonomous systems [5]. PRISM-games builds upon
Stochastic Game Theoretic Method of Quantification for Network Situational Awareness
Huiqiang Wang; Ying Liang; Xiaowu Liu
2008-01-01
Stochastic game theory is proposed to apply to the research on network situational awareness (NSA),and then a novel quantification method of NSA based on analysis of network service states is proposed. In this paper, network offense-defense game model including both the attacker and the defender in it is constructed; and game mathematical modeling of network situation is realized; the payoff
Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamlen, Karla R.
2012-01-01
Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…
The Complexity of Nash Equilibria in Simple Stochastic Multiplayer Games
Ummels, Michael; Wojtczak, Dominik
2009-02-01
We analyse the computational complexity of finding Nash equilibria in simple stochastic multiplayer games. We show that restricting the search space to equilibria whose payoffs fall into a certain interval may lead to ...
The evolutionary emergence of stochastic phenotype switching in bacteria
2011-01-01
Stochastic phenotype switching – or bet hedging – is a pervasive feature of living systems and common in bacteria that experience fluctuating (unpredictable) environmental conditions. Under such conditions, the capacity to generate variable offspring spreads the risk of being maladapted in the present environment, against offspring likely to have some chance of survival in the future. While a rich subject for theoretical studies, little is known about the selective causes responsible for the evolutionary emergence of stochastic phenotype switching. Here we review recent work – both theoretical and experimental – that sheds light on ecological factors that favour switching types over non-switching types. Of particular relevance is an experiment that provided evidence for an adaptive origin of stochastic phenotype switching by subjecting bacterial populations to a selective regime that mimicked essential features of the host immune response. Central to the emergence of switching types was frequent imposition of ‘exclusion rules’ and ‘population bottlenecks’ – two complementary faces of frequency dependent selection. While features of the immune response, exclusion rules and bottlenecks are likely to operate in many natural environments. Together these factors define a set of selective conditions relevant to the evolution of stochastic switching, including antigenic variation and bacterial persistence. PMID:21995592
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Evolutionary Rotation in Switching Incentive Zero-Sum Games
Zhijian Wang; Bin Xu
2012-07-24
In a laboratory experiment, round by round, individual interactions should lead to the social evolutionary rotation in population strategy state space. Successive switching the incentive parameter should lead to successive change of the rotation ---- both of its direction and its strength. In data from a switching payoff matrix experiment of extended 2x2 games (Binmore, Swierzbinski and Proulx, 2001 [1]), we find the changing of the social evolutionary rotation can be distinguished quantitatively. The evolutionary rotation can be captured by evolutionary dynamics. With eigenvalue from the Jacobian of a constrained replicator dynamics model, an interpretation for observed rotation strength is given. In addition, equality-of-populations rank test shows that relative response coefficient of a group could persist cross the switching parameter games. The data has successively been used to support Von Neumann's minimax theory. Using the old data, with observed evolutionary rotation, this report provides a new insight into evolutionary game theory and experimental social dynamics.
Stochastic stability of Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yonghui; Feng, Gang; Cao, Jinde
2009-04-01
In this Letter, taking into account the structure variations at discrete time instances during the process of gene regulation, a hybrid genetic regulatory networks model based on Markov chain is proposed. Its robust stochastic stability in the case of uncertain switching probabilities and intrinsic noises is then addressed from the stochastic system point of view. It is shown that the sufficient condition for the robust stochastic stability of the genetic networks can be formulated as feasibility of a linear matrix inequality, which can be easily facilitated by Matlab LMI toolbox. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed results.
Doyen, Laurent
A Partial-Observation Stochastic Games: How to Win when Belief Fails Krishnendu Chatterjee, IST Reference Format: Krishnendu Chatterjee and Laurent Doyen, 2013. Partial-Observation Stochastic Games: How
PartialObservation Stochastic Games: How to Win when Belief Fails Krishnendu Chatterjee, IST Austria
Doyen, Laurent
A PartialÂObservation Stochastic Games: How to Win when Belief Fails Krishnendu Chatterjee, IST Reference Format: Krishnendu Chatterjee and Laurent Doyen, 2013. PartialÂObservation Stochastic Games: How
Self-Consistent Proteomic Field Theory of Stochastic Gene Switches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.
2005-03-01
The need for a computationally efficient treatment of genetic networks and cascades, which, while acknowledging their stochastic character, at the same time allows us to gain a better and deeper understanding of the global attractor structure is widely recognized. Even treating the building blocks of these systems, genetic switches, generally requires some approximations. We propose a powerful generically applicable method, a self-consistent proteomic field approximation in which the mean influence of the proteomic cloud created by one gene on the action of another is computed self-consistently [1]. The stochastic nature of protein synthesis and degradation, and DNA binding events are treated stochastically and on equal footing. For a large class of problems, in which the output proteins of one gene influence other genes, the probability distributions may be determined exactly without any further assumptions within the self-consistent proteomic field approximation. We compare the results for various versions of a toggle switch composed of two mutually repressing genes to solutions of deterministic rate equations and find that when proteins are produced in bursts, the deterministic approach can fail dramatically.1. Walczak, A.M., Sasai, M., Wolynes P.G., Self Consistent Proteomic Field Theory of Stochastic Gene Switches, to be published in Biophysical Journal
Studies in statistical physics: Stochastic strategies in a minority game
Studies in statistical physics: Stochastic strategies in a minority game and continuum percolation in the last five years. He has always been inspiring and was a good teacher. More than anything, I have learned how to approach a problem from him. His support was invaluable for me especially during a very
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games Kristoffer Arnsfelt Hansen
Koucký, Michal
Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games Kristoffer Arnsfelt Hansen Michal Kouck´y Niels Lauritzen§ Peter Bro Miltersen¶ and Elias P. Tsigaridas February 20, 2012 Abstract Shapley's discounted, An extended abstract of this paper was presented at STOC'11. Hansen, Miltersen and Tsigaridas acknowledge
The mechanics of stochastic slowdown in evolutionary games
Altrock, Philipp M; Galla, Tobias
2012-01-01
We study the stochastic dynamics of evolutionary games, and focus on the so-called `stochastic slowdown' effect, previously observed in (Altrock et. al, 2010) for simple evolutionary dynamics. Slowdown here refers to the fact that a beneficial mutation may take longer to fixate than a neutral one. More precisely, the fixation time conditioned on the mutant taking over can show a maximum at intermediate selection strength. We show that this phenomenon is present in the prisoner's dilemma, and also discuss counterintuitive slowdown and speedup in coexistence games. In order to establish the microscopic origins of these phenomena, we calculate the average sojourn times. This allows us to identify the transient states which contribute most to the slowdown effect, and enables us to provide an understanding of slowdown in the takeover of a small group of cooperators by defectors: Defection spreads quickly initially, but the final steps to takeover can be delayed significantly. The analysis of coexistence games reve...
Partial synchronization in stochastic dynamical networks with switching communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chi; Ho, Daniel W. C.; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen
2012-06-01
In this paper, the partial synchronization problem of stochastic dynamical networks (SDNs) is investigated. Unlike the existing models, the SDN considered in this paper suffers from a class of communication constraint—only part of nodes' states can be transmitted. Thus, less nodes' states can be used to synchronize the SDN, which makes the analysis of the synchronization problem much harder. A set of channel matrices are introduced to reflect such kind of constraint. Furthermore, due to unpredictable environmental changes, the channel matrices can switch among some communication modes. The switching considered here is governed by a Markov process. To overcome the difficulty, a regrouping method is employed to derive our main results. The obtained conditions guarantee that partial synchronization can be achieved for SDNs under switching communication constraint. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and how the communication constraint influences synchronization result.
Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.
Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi
2014-01-01
Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921
Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game
Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long
2013-01-01
In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986
Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game.
Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long
2013-01-01
In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986
A stochastic transcriptional switch model for single cell imaging data
Hey, Kirsty L.; Momiji, Hiroshi; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R.E.; White, Michael R.H.; Rand, David A.; Finkenstädt, Bärbel
2015-01-01
Gene expression is made up of inherently stochastic processes within single cells and can be modeled through stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). In particular, SRNs capture the features of intrinsic variability arising from intracellular biochemical processes. We extend current models for gene expression to allow the transcriptional process within an SRN to follow a random step or switch function which may be estimated using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This stochastic switch model provides a generic framework to capture many different dynamic features observed in single cell gene expression. Inference for such SRNs is challenging due to the intractability of the transition densities. We derive a model-specific birth–death approximation and study its use for inference in comparison with the linear noise approximation where both approximations are considered within the unifying framework of state-space models. The methodology is applied to synthetic as well as experimental single cell imaging data measuring expression of the human prolactin gene in pituitary cells. PMID:25819987
A stochastic transcriptional switch model for single cell imaging data.
Hey, Kirsty L; Momiji, Hiroshi; Featherstone, Karen; Davis, Julian R E; White, Michael R H; Rand, David A; Finkenstädt, Bärbel
2015-10-01
Gene expression is made up of inherently stochastic processes within single cells and can be modeled through stochastic reaction networks (SRNs). In particular, SRNs capture the features of intrinsic variability arising from intracellular biochemical processes. We extend current models for gene expression to allow the transcriptional process within an SRN to follow a random step or switch function which may be estimated using reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This stochastic switch model provides a generic framework to capture many different dynamic features observed in single cell gene expression. Inference for such SRNs is challenging due to the intractability of the transition densities. We derive a model-specific birth-death approximation and study its use for inference in comparison with the linear noise approximation where both approximations are considered within the unifying framework of state-space models. The methodology is applied to synthetic as well as experimental single cell imaging data measuring expression of the human prolactin gene in pituitary cells. PMID:25819987
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau &
Shimamura, Arthur P.
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau & Arthur P. Shimamura # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012 Abstract Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive
Fiat, Amos
Lossy Stochastic Game Abstraction with Bounds Tuomas Sandholm, Computer Science Department Abstraction followed by equilibrium finding has emerged as the leading approach to solving games. Lossless abstraction typically yields games that are still too large to solve, so lossy abstraction is needed. Unfor
Stochastic Game Approach for Replay Attack Detection Fei Miao Miroslav Pajic George J. Pappas.
Pappas, George J.
a control strategy that balances the control and security requirements. Game theory application for security game-theoretic approaches in computer networks security and privacy problems. Zhu et al. define a zeroStochastic Game Approach for Replay Attack Detection Fei Miao Miroslav Pajic George J. Pappas
A Stochastic Evolutionary Game Approach to Energy Management in a Distributed Aloha
it is not in equilibrium. I. INTRODUCTION The evolutionary games formalism is a central mathematical tools developedA Stochastic Evolutionary Game Approach to Energy Management in a Distributed Aloha Network Eitan decision making is the area of evolutionary games. It describes the evolution of sizes of large populations
A Game-Theoretic Control Approach to Mitigate Cyber Switching Attacks in Smart Grid Systems
Kundur, Deepa
A Game-Theoretic Control Approach to Mitigate Cyber Switching Attacks in Smart Grid Systems regulations and technical opportunities, cyber-physical security of smart grid systems is a sound concern}@ece.utoronto.ca Abstract--A parametric game-theoretic controller is proposed to stabilize power systems during and after
Making greed work in networks: a game-theoretic analysis of switch service disciplines
Scott Shenker
1994-01-01
This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are two basic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrative control is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfish user behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. This effect is investigated in a simple
Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying; Gao Yitian
2012-12-15
We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Stochastics and Statistics Axiomatizations of the Shapley value for games on augmenting systems
Bilbao Arrese, JesÃºs Mario
Stochastics and Statistics Axiomatizations of the Shapley value for games on augmenting systems J: Received 31 October 2007 Accepted 24 April 2008 Available online 4 May 2008 Keywords: Augmenting system of a graph. In this framework, the Shapley value of games on augmenting systems is introduced and two
Huang, Minyi
Nash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections consider large population dynamic games and illuminate methodological connections with the theory of inter in a large population of weakly coupled agents. The weak coupling in both dynamics and costs is used to model
Stochastic Game-Based Analysis of the DNS Bandwidth Amplification Attack Using Probabilistic
Katsaros, Panagiotis
Stochastic Game-Based Analysis of the DNS Bandwidth Amplification Attack Using Probabilistic Model (DNS) is an Internet- wide, hierarchical naming system used to translate domain names into numeric IP addresses. Any disruption of DNS service can have serious consequences. We present a formal game
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Donnelly, Catherine
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
Miekisz, Jacek
minimizing their interaction energy. Long-run behavior of stochastic dynamics of spatial games with mul payoffs and particles minimizing their interaction energy. Here we will consider game-theoretic models is that of a Prisoner's Dilemma game.(10) It has a unique Nash equilibrium, when both players defect. In fact, defec
Gains from switching and evolutionary stability in multi-player matrix games.
Peña, Jorge; Lehmann, Laurent; Nöldeke, Georg
2014-04-01
In this paper we unify, simplify, and extend previous work on the evolutionary dynamics of symmetric N-player matrix games with two pure strategies. In such games, gains from switching strategies depend, in general, on how many other individuals in the group play a given strategy. As a consequence, the gain function determining the gradient of selection can be a polynomial of degree N-1. In order to deal with the intricacy of the resulting evolutionary dynamics, we make use of the theory of polynomials in Bernstein form. This theory implies a tight link between the sign pattern of the gains from switching on the one hand and the number and stability of the rest points of the replicator dynamics on the other hand. While this relationship is a general one, it is most informative if gains from switching have at most two sign changes, as is the case for most multi-player matrix games considered in the literature. We demonstrate that previous results for public goods games are easily recovered and extended using this observation. Further examples illustrate how focusing on the sign pattern of the gains from switching obviates the need for a more involved analysis. PMID:24380778
The effect of action video game experience on task-switching
Green, C.Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A.; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier
2012-01-01
There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal. PMID:22393270
Stochastic Games with One-Step Delay Sharing Information Pattern with Application to Power Control
Stochastic Games with One-Step Delay Sharing Information Pattern with Application to Power Control the above information asymmetry using the one-step delay sharing information pattern from team theory within the framework of the one-step delay sharing information pattern. It models decision problems
Synthesis for Multi-Objective Stochastic Games: An Application to Autonomous Urban Driving
Oxford, University of
Synthesis for Multi-Objective Stochastic Games: An Application to Autonomous Urban Driving Taolue in a variety of appli- cations, for example, autonomous parking and driving, medical devices, and communication-level control of autonomous vehicles. 1 Introduction The increasing reliance on sensor-enabled smart devices
Game Theoretic Stochastic Routing for Fault Tolerance and Security in Computer Networks
Hespanha, João Pedro
1 Game Theoretic Stochastic Routing for Fault Tolerance and Security in Computer Networks Stephan. GTSR minimizes the impact of link and router failure by (1) computing multiple paths between source-tolerance, the fact that GTSR makes packets take random paths from source to destination also improves security
Nash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections with the
Huang, Minyi
Nash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections;Brief Historic Background: Prisoner's Dilemma A Very Simple Model with a Rich Structure: Two criminal(n): the population driving term z(n) = 1 n n i=1 zi ui: control wi: noise (a standard Wiener process) n: population
Vasile Dragan; Ivan Ivanov
2011-01-01
In this article, the problem of the numerical computation of the stabilising solution of the game theoretic algebraic Riccati equation is investigated. The Riccati equation under consideration occurs in connection with the solution of the H? control problem for a class of stochastic systems affected by state-dependent and control-dependent white noise and subjected to Markovian jumping. The stabilising solution of
-EQUILIBRIA FOR STOCHASTIC GAMES WITH UNCOUNTABLE STATE SPACE AND UNBOUNDED COSTS
for studying unbounded costs comes from applications of stochastic games to queuing theory and telecommu AND EITAN ALTMAN SIAM J. CONTROL OPTIM. c 2002 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 40, No. 61011] and on an approximation method similar to that used in [A. S. Nowak, J. Optim. Theory Appl., 45 (1985), pp. 591
PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE
Cordes, J. M.
2013-09-20
Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Tieyan
2012-11-01
An optical model of classical photons propagating through array of many beam splitters is developed to give a physical analogy of Parrondo's game and Parrondo-Harmer-Abbott game. We showed both the two games are reasonable game without so-called game paradox and they are essentially the same. We designed the games with long-term memory on loop lattice and history-entangled game. The strong correlation between nearest two rounds of game can make the combination of two losing game win, lose or oscillate between win and loss. The periodic potential in Brownian ratchet is analogous to a long chain of beam splitters. The coupling between two neighboring potential wells is equivalent to two coupled beam splitters. This correspondence may help us to understand the anomalous motion of exceptional Brownian particles moving in the opposite direction to the majority. We designed the capital wave for a game by introducing correlations into independent capitals instead of sub-games. Playing entangled quantum states in many coupled classical games obey the same rules for manipulating quantum states in many body physics.
Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, V. S.; Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.
2014-08-01
Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.
2012-01-01
Background Noise, nonlinear interactions, positive and negative feedbacks within signaling pathways, time delays, protein oligomerization, and crosstalk between different pathways are main characters in the regulatory of gene expression. However, only a single noise source or only delay time in the deterministic model is considered in the gene transcriptional regulatory system in previous researches. The combined effects of correlated noise and time delays on the gene regulatory model still remain not to be fully understood. Results The roles of time delay on gene switch and stochastic resonance are systematically explored based on a famous gene transcriptional regulatory model subject to correlated noise. Two cases, including linear time delay appearing in the degradation process (case I) and nonlinear time delay appearing in the synthesis process (case II) are considered, respectively. For case I: Our theoretical results show that time delay can induce gene switch, i.e., the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the high concentration state to the low concentration state ("on"?"off"). With increasing the time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further accelerated. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be enhanced by both the time delay and correlated noise intensity. However, the additive noise original from the synthesis rate restrains the stochastic resonance. It is also very interesting that a resonance bi-peaks structure appears under large additive noise intensity. The theoretical results by using small-delay time-approximation approach are consistent well with our numerical simulation. For case II: Our numerical simulation results show that time delay can also induce the gene switch, however different with case I, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the low concentration state to the high concentration state ("off"?"on"). With increasing time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further enhanced. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be weaken by the time delay. Conclusions The stochastic delay dynamic approach can identify key physiological control parameters to which the behavior of special genetic regulatory systems is particularly sensitive. Such parameters might provide targets for pharmacological intervention. Thus, it would be highly interesting to investigate if similar experimental techniques could be used to bring out the delay-induced switch and stochastic resonance in the stochastic gene transcriptional regulatory process. PMID:23046840
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li
2011-08-01
In this paper, the passivity problem for the stochastic Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays is investigated. By applying control theory and mathematical tools, a sufficient condition for this problem is obtained and presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified by Matlab LMI toolbox. The obtained condition provides some insight into synthetic biology and systems biology. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed result.
An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch
Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun
2015-01-01
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward $\\Delta_{f}$ and backward $\\Delta_{b}$ intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, $P(\\Delta_{f})$ and $P(\\Delta_{b})$, of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor re...
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
Impact of deterministic and stochastic updates on network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimoto, Jun
2014-08-01
In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.031141].
Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks
Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-01-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
Control of stochastic and induced switching in biophysical networks
Wells, Daniel K; Motter, Adilson E
2015-01-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
Control of stochastic and induced switching in biophysical networks
Daniel K. Wells; William L. Kath; Adilson E. Motter
2015-09-10
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin
2013-10-01
Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.
Evidence for Stochastic Switching of Transport through Molecular-Sieving Graphene Membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Luda; Drahushuk, Lee; Koenig, Steven; Liu, Xinghui; Strano, Michael; Bunch, J.; Michael Strano Collaboration; Scott Bunch Team
2014-03-01
Two dimensional materials represent an emerging class of gas transport membranes capable of ultrahigh fluxes with molecular sieving potential. Herein, we study gas transport through atomically thin, monolayer graphene membranes open with a single (or several) molecularly sized, sub-nm pores by ozone activation and UV etching. We provide the first evidence for stochastic switching of permeance states through such membranes made from monolayer graphene during CO2 transport. This switching is analyzed using a Hidden Markov Model to estimate the activation barriers of switching. Further evidence is provided using gold clusters formed on the surface of the graphene. Such clusters migrate and partially block the pore upon laser heating in vacuum. This work represents the first example of controlling gas phase transport through molecularly sized pores.
Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Gao, Yi-Tian; Yu, Xin; Liu, Ying
2012-12-01
We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schro?dinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates. PMID:23278067
Stochastic switching in slow-fast systems: a large-fluctuation approach.
Heckman, Christoffer R; Schwartz, Ira B
2014-02-01
In this paper we develop a perturbation method to predict the rate of occurrence of rare events for singularly perturbed stochastic systems using a probability density function approach. In contrast to a stochastic normal form approach, we model rare event occurrences due to large fluctuations probabilistically and employ a WKB ansatz to approximate their rate of occurrence. This results in the generation of a two-point boundary value problem that models the interaction of the state variables and the most likely noise force required to induce a rare event. The resulting equations of motion of describing the phenomenon are shown to be singularly perturbed. Vastly different time scales among the variables are leveraged to reduce the dimension and predict the dynamics on the slow manifold in a deterministic setting. The resulting constrained equations of motion may be used to directly compute an exponent that determines the probability of rare events. To verify the theory, a stochastic damped Duffing oscillator with three equilibrium points (two sinks separated by a saddle) is analyzed. The predicted switching time between states is computed using the optimal path that resides in an expanded phase space. We show that the exponential scaling of the switching rate as a function of system parameters agrees well with numerical simulations. Moreover, the dynamics of the original system and the reduced system via center manifolds are shown to agree in an exponentially scaling sense. PMID:25353557
Stochastic switching in slow-fast systems: A large-fluctuation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heckman, Christoffer R.; Schwartz, Ira B.
2014-02-01
In this paper we develop a perturbation method to predict the rate of occurrence of rare events for singularly perturbed stochastic systems using a probability density function approach. In contrast to a stochastic normal form approach, we model rare event occurrences due to large fluctuations probabilistically and employ a WKB ansatz to approximate their rate of occurrence. This results in the generation of a two-point boundary value problem that models the interaction of the state variables and the most likely noise force required to induce a rare event. The resulting equations of motion of describing the phenomenon are shown to be singularly perturbed. Vastly different time scales among the variables are leveraged to reduce the dimension and predict the dynamics on the slow manifold in a deterministic setting. The resulting constrained equations of motion may be used to directly compute an exponent that determines the probability of rare events. To verify the theory, a stochastic damped Duffing oscillator with three equilibrium points (two sinks separated by a saddle) is analyzed. The predicted switching time between states is computed using the optimal path that resides in an expanded phase space. We show that the exponential scaling of the switching rate as a function of system parameters agrees well with numerical simulations. Moreover, the dynamics of the original system and the reduced system via center manifolds are shown to agree in an exponentially scaling sense.
Teneketzis, Demosthenis
http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimal Stochastic Scheduling of Forest Networks with Switching, Vol. 26, No. 2, (Jun., 1994), pp. 474-497 Published by: Applied Probability Trust Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1427447 Accessed: 04/04/2008 12:03 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR
Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility
Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-01-01
Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761
Cortical contractility triggers a stochastic switch to fast amoeboid cell motility.
Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-02-12
3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761
Stochastic Phenotype Transition of a Single Cell in an Intermediate Region of Gene State Switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong; Xie, X. Sunney
2015-02-01
Multiple phenotypic states often arise in a single cell with different gene-expression states that undergo transcription regulation with positive feedback. Recent experiments show that, at least in E. coli, the gene state switching can be neither extremely slow nor exceedingly rapid as many previous theoretical treatments assumed. Rather, it is in the intermediate region which is difficult to handle mathematically. Under this condition, from a full chemical-master-equation description we derive a model in which the protein copy number, for a given gene state, follows a deterministic mean-field description while the protein-synthesis rates fluctuate due to stochastic gene state switching. The simplified kinetics yields a nonequilibrium landscape function, which, similar to the energy function for equilibrium fluctuation, provides the leading orders of fluctuations around each phenotypic state, as well as the transition rates between the two phenotypic states. This rate formula is analogous to Kramers' theory for chemical reactions. The resulting behaviors are significantly different from the two limiting cases studied previously.
McEneaney, William M.
2004-08-15
Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.
Stochastic and Boltzmann-like models for behavioral changes, and their relation to game theory
Dirk Helbing
1998-05-22
In the last decade, stochastic models have shown to be very useful for quantitative modelling of social processes. Here, a configurational master equation for the description of behavioral changes by pair interactions of individuals is developed. Three kinds of social pair interactions are distinguished: Avoidance processes, compromising processes, and imitative processes. Computational results are presented for a special case of imitative processes: the competition of two equivalent strategies. They show a phase transition that describes the selforganization of a behavioral convention. This phase transition is further analyzed by examining the equations for the most probable behavioral distribution, which are Boltzmann-like equations. Special cases of Boltzmann-like equations do not obey the H-theorem and have oscillatory or even chaotic solutions. A suitable Taylor approximation leads to the socalled game dynamical equations (also known as selection-mutation equations in the theory of evolution).
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Kyle Siegrist
This resource consists of a Java applet and expository text. The applet consists of the Monty Hall game: a car is behind one door and goats are behind the other two doors. The player makes an initial choice and the host opens a different door. The player is then given the option of switching to the remaining door. The stochastic behavior of the host can be specified.
Feature of Dynamic Games for Discrete-time Weakly Coupled Large-scale Stochastic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukaidani, Hiroaki; Xu, Hua
This paper discusses the dynamic games for a class of discrete time weakly coupled large-scale stochastic systems. First, it is shown that Pareto and Nash strategy set can be designed by solving the cross-coupled stochastic discrete algebraic Riccati equations (CSDAREs). After establishing the asymptotic structure for these solutions of CSDAREs, weak coupling parameter independent strategy sets are given for their problems respectively. It is shown for the first time that these parameter-independent strategy sets are the same and the proposed strategy sets attain the Pareto suboptimarity and the approximate Nash equilibrium. In fact, it is proved that these strategy sets achieve O(?2) approximation for all cost performances. Furthermore, it is worth pointing out that the proposed approximate strategy sets can be constructed by solving the parameter independent reduced-order discrete algebraic Riccati equations (DAREs) via LMI. As a result, the suboptimality of overall cost for each subsystem can be attained. Finally, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed design method, a numerical example is provided.
Biswas, Imran H.; Jakobsen, Espen R.; Karlsen, Kenneth H.
2010-08-15
We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P. P.
1972-01-01
General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qun
2015-09-01
In this paper, a stochastic n-species Gilpin-Ayala competitive model with Lévy jumps and Markovian switching is proposed and studied. Some asymptotic properties are investigated and sufficient conditions for extinction, non-persistence in the mean and weak persistence are established. The threshold between extinction and weak persistence is obtained. The results illustrate that the asymptotic properties of the considered system have close relationships with Lévy jumps and the stationary distribution of the Markovian chain. Moreover, some simulation figures are presented to confirm our main results.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Kuphaldt, Tony R.
All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Switches, is the fourth chapter in Volume IV â?? Digital. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Switch types; Switch contact design; and Contact "bounce". Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).
Delays-based protein switches in a stochastic single-gene network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun; Zeng, Jiakui; Tian, Dong; Luo, Hongchun; Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Xiang, Chao; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Canjun
2015-09-01
In this paper, the protein switch in a single-gene network with time delays is investigated, where the gene expression is assumed to be disturbed by multiplicative and additive noises. The impacts of time delays ?d and ?s in degradation and synthesis processes, time delay ?g in global process and cross-correlation between two noises (?i, and i = d , s , g) on the probability distribution and switch time (ST) from low protein level (OFF state) to high one (ON state) are discussed, respectively. Our results show that (1) the increase of the cross-correlation between two noises (?i) can induce protein switches from ON state to OFF one; (2) for ?i ? 0, the increase of ?d can induce protein switches from OFF state to ON one, while ?s (or ?g) can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one, but for ?i < 0, the ?d (or ?s) can induce protein switches from the OFF state to the ON one, while ?g can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one; (3) the ST as functions of the noise intensities exhibits a maximum, which is the signature of the noise enhanced stability (NES) of the OFF state, while the increase of ?d can cause the NES phenomenon to disappear; and (4) ?d and ?s play opposing roles in the ST, i.e., the impacts of the time delays ?d and ?s on ST can be canceled each other out.
Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven
2004-01-01
This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.
Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states
2014-01-01
In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953
Chen, Bor-Sen; Tsai, Kun-Wei; Li, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Molecular biologists have long recognized carcinogenesis as an evolutionary process that involves natural selection. Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages. In this study, the evolution of somatic cancer cell lineages during carcinogenesis was modeled as an equilibrium point (ie, phenotype of attractor) shifting, the process of a nonlinear stochastic evolutionary biological network. This process is subject to intrinsic random fluctuations because of somatic genetic and epigenetic variations, as well as extrinsic disturbances because of carcinogens and stressors. In order to maintain the normal function (ie, phenotype) of an evolutionary biological network subjected to random intrinsic fluctuations and extrinsic disturbances, a network robustness scheme that incorporates natural selection needs to be developed. This can be accomplished by selecting certain genetic and epigenetic variations to modify the network structure to attenuate intrinsic fluctuations efficiently and to resist extrinsic disturbances in order to maintain the phenotype of the evolutionary biological network at an equilibrium point (attractor). However, during carcinogenesis, the remaining (or neutral) genetic and epigenetic variations accumulate, and the extrinsic disturbances become too large to maintain the normal phenotype at the desired equilibrium point for the nonlinear evolutionary biological network. Thus, the network is shifted to a cancer phenotype at a new equilibrium point that begins a new evolutionary process. In this study, the natural selection scheme of an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis was derived from a robust negative feedback scheme based on the nonlinear stochastic Nash game strategy. The evolvability and phenotypic robustness criteria of the evolutionary cancer network were also estimated by solving a Hamilton–Jacobi inequality – constrained optimization problem. The simulation revealed that the phenotypic shift of the lung cancer-associated cell network takes 54.5 years from a normal state to stage I cancer, 1.5 years from stage I to stage II cancer, and 2.5 years from stage II to stage III cancer, with a reasonable match for the statistical result of the average age of lung cancer. These results suggest that a robust negative feedback scheme, based on a stochastic evolutionary game strategy, plays a critical role in an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis under a natural selection scheme. PMID:26244004
Chen, Bor-Sen; Tsai, Kun-Wei; Li, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Molecular biologists have long recognized carcinogenesis as an evolutionary process that involves natural selection. Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages. In this study, the evolution of somatic cancer cell lineages during carcinogenesis was modeled as an equilibrium point (ie, phenotype of attractor) shifting, the process of a nonlinear stochastic evolutionary biological network. This process is subject to intrinsic random fluctuations because of somatic genetic and epigenetic variations, as well as extrinsic disturbances because of carcinogens and stressors. In order to maintain the normal function (ie, phenotype) of an evolutionary biological network subjected to random intrinsic fluctuations and extrinsic disturbances, a network robustness scheme that incorporates natural selection needs to be developed. This can be accomplished by selecting certain genetic and epigenetic variations to modify the network structure to attenuate intrinsic fluctuations efficiently and to resist extrinsic disturbances in order to maintain the phenotype of the evolutionary biological network at an equilibrium point (attractor). However, during carcinogenesis, the remaining (or neutral) genetic and epigenetic variations accumulate, and the extrinsic disturbances become too large to maintain the normal phenotype at the desired equilibrium point for the nonlinear evolutionary biological network. Thus, the network is shifted to a cancer phenotype at a new equilibrium point that begins a new evolutionary process. In this study, the natural selection scheme of an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis was derived from a robust negative feedback scheme based on the nonlinear stochastic Nash game strategy. The evolvability and phenotypic robustness criteria of the evolutionary cancer network were also estimated by solving a Hamilton-Jacobi inequality - constrained optimization problem. The simulation revealed that the phenotypic shift of the lung cancer-associated cell network takes 54.5 years from a normal state to stage I cancer, 1.5 years from stage I to stage II cancer, and 2.5 years from stage II to stage III cancer, with a reasonable match for the statistical result of the average age of lung cancer. These results suggest that a robust negative feedback scheme, based on a stochastic evolutionary game strategy, plays a critical role in an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis under a natural selection scheme. PMID:26244004
Control systems with stochastic feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek
2001-09-01
In this paper we use the analogy of Parrondo's games to design a second order switched mode circuit which is unstable in either mode but is stable when switched. We do not require any sophisticated control law. The circuit is stable, even if it is switched at random. We use a stochastic form of Lyapunov's second method to prove that the randomly switched system is stable with probability of one. Simulations show that the solution to the randomly switched system is very similar to the analytic solution for the time-averaged system. This is consistent with the standard techniques for switched state-space systems with periodic switching. We perform state-space simulations of our system, with a randomized discrete-time switching policy. We also examine the case where the control variable, the loop gain, is a continuous Gaussian random variable. This gives rise to a matrix stochastic differential equation (SDE). We know that, for a one-dimensional SDE, the difference between solution for the time averaged system and any given sample path for the SDE will be an appropriately scaled and conditioned version of Brownian motion. The simulations show that this is approximately true for the matrix SDE. We examine some numerical solutions to the matrix SDE in the time and frequency domains, for the case where the noise power is very small. We also perform some simulations, without analysis, for the same system with large amounts of noise. In this case, the solution is significantly shifted away from the solution for the time-averaged system. The Brownian motion terms dominate all other aspects of the solution. This gives rise to very erratic and "bursty" behavior. The stored energy in the system takes the form a logarithmic random walk. The simulations of our curious circuit suggest that it is possible to implement a control algorithm that actively uses noise, although too much noise eventually makes the system unusable.
Unified Systems of FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs with Jumps/Skew Reflections and Stochastic Differential Games
Wanyang Dai
2015-08-27
We study four systems and their interactions. First, we formulate a unified system of coupled forward-backward stochastic partial differential equations (FB-SPDEs) with Levy jumps, whose drift, diffusion, and jump coefficients may involve partial differential operators. An solution to the FB-SPDEs is defined by a 4-tuple general dimensional random vector-field process evolving in time together with position parameters over a domain (e.g., a hyperbox or a manifold). Under an infinite sequence of generalized local linear growth and Lipschitz conditions, the well-posedness of an adapted 4-tuple strong solution is proved over a suitably constructed topological space. Second, we consider a unified system of FB-SDEs, a special form of the FB-SPDEs, however, with skew boundary reflections. Under randomized linear growth and Lipschitz conditions together with a general completely-S condition on reflections, we prove the well-posedness of an adapted 6-tuple weak solution with boundary regulators to the FB-SDEs by the Skorohod problem and an oscillation inequality. Particularly, if the spectral radii in some sense for reflection matrices are strictly less than the unity, an adapted 6-tuple strong solution is concerned. Third, we formulate a stochastic differential game (SDG) with general number of players based on the FB-SDEs. By a solution to the FB-SPDEs, we get a solution to the FB-SDEs under a given control rule and then obtain a Pareto optimal Nash equilibrium policy process to the SDG. Fourth, we study the applications of the FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs in queueing systems and discuss how to use them to motivate the SDG in reality.
Unified Systems of FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs with Jumps/Skew Reflections and Stochastic Differential Games
Wanyang Dai
2015-09-14
We study four systems and their interactions. First, we formulate a unified system of coupled forward-backward stochastic partial differential equations (FB-SPDEs) with Levy jumps, whose drift, diffusion, and jump coefficients may involve partial differential operators. A solution to the FB-SPDEs is defined by a 4-tuple general dimensional random vector-field process evolving in time together with position parameters over a domain (e.g., a hyperbox or a manifold). Under an infinite sequence of generalized local linear growth and Lipschitz conditions, the well-posedness of an adapted 4-tuple strong solution is proved over a suitably constructed topological space. Second, we consider a unified system of FB-SDEs, a special form of the FB-SPDEs, however, with skew boundary reflections. Under randomized linear growth and Lipschitz conditions together with a general completely-S condition on reflections, we prove the well-posedness of an adapted 6-tuple weak solution with boundary regulators to the FB-SDEs by the Skorohod problem and an oscillation inequality. Particularly, if the spectral radii in some sense for reflection matrices are strictly less than the unity, an adapted 6-tuple strong solution is concerned. Third, we formulate a stochastic differential game (SDG) with general number of players based on the FB-SDEs. By a solution to the FB-SPDEs, we get a solution to the FB-SDEs under a given control rule and then obtain a Pareto optimal Nash equilibrium policy process to the SDG. Fourth, we study the applications of the FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs in queueing systems and quantum statistics while we use them to motivate the SDG.
Wang, Sunpeng; Rong, Libin
2014-11-01
Highly active antiretroviral therapy can suppress plasma viral loads of HIV-1 infected individuals to below the detection limit of standard clinical assays. However, low-level viremia still persists. Many patients also have transient viral load measurements above the detection limit (the so-called "viral blips"). The latent reservoir consisting of latently infected CD4+ T cells represents a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. These cells can be activated to produce virions but the size of the latent reservoir is relatively stable. The mechanisms underlying low viral load persistence, emergence of intermittent viral blips and stability of the latent reservoir are not well understood. Cellular and viral transcription factors play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency. Infected cells with intermediate transcriptional activities may either revert to a latent state or become highly activated and produce virions due to intracellular perturbations. Here we develop a mathematical model that includes such stochastic population switch. We demonstrate that the model can generate a stable latent reservoir, intermittent viral blips, as well as low-level viremia persistence. Latently infected cells with intermediate transcription activities may maintain their size through a high level of homeostatic proliferation, while cells with low transcriptional activities are likely to be maintained through the reversion from cells with intermediate transcription activities. Simulations also suggest that treatment intensification or activation therapy may not help to eradicate the latent reservoir. Blocking the proliferation of latently infected cells might be a good strategy. These results provide more insights into the long-term dynamics of virus and latently infected cells in HIV patients on suppressive therapy and may help to develop novel treatment strategies. PMID:25016044
Stochastic Evolving Differential Games Toward a Systems Theory of Behavioral Social Dynamics
Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Gibelli, Livio
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a systems approach to social sciences based on mathematical tools derived from a generalization of the mathematical kinetic theory and on theoretical tools of game theory. Social systems are modeled as a large living evolving ensemble of individuals, who express specific strategies, cooperate, compete, and might aggregate into groups, which pursue a common interest. A critical analysis on the complexity features of social system is developed and a general differential structure is derived to provide a general framework toward modeling. Such a structure is deemed to capture the aforesaid complexity features and provide the time evolution of a probability distribution over the microscopic state of individual entities, by means of which social systems are described.
Teneketzis, Demosthenis
http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimality of Index Policies for Stochastic Scheduling Probability Trust Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3214727 Accessed: 04/04/2008 12:08 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://dv1
Some Recent Aspects of Differential Game Theory
R. Buckdahn; P. Cardaliaguet; M. Quincampoix
2011-01-01
This survey paper presents some new advances in theoretical aspects of differential game theory. We particular focus on three\\u000a topics: differential games with state constraints; backward stochastic differential equations approach to stochastic differential\\u000a games; differential games with incomplete information. We also address some recent development in nonzero-sum differential\\u000a games (analysis of systems of Hamilton–Jacobi equations by conservation laws methods; differential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György
2014-10-01
We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains.
NonCooperative Games Esteban Moro
Moro, Esteban
Stochastic NonCooperative Games Esteban Moro J. P. Garrahan and D. Sherrington Theoretical Physicscooperative Games http://wwwthphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/users/EstebanMoro #12; Outline ffl Introduction ffl Bounded Rationality: The Minority Game. Results ffl Nonrationality: the Thermal Minority Game. ffl Numerical Methods
Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…
Evolutionary Game Theory and Population Dynamics
Miekisz, Jacek
Evolutionary Game Theory and Population Dynamics Jacek Mi¸ekisz Institute of Applied Mathematics replicator dynamics and stochastic dynamics of finite populations. We show the almost global asymptotic the long-run behaviour of stochastic dynamics in well-mixed populations and in spatial games with local
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frey, Erwin
2012-02-01
Microbial laboratory communities have become model systems for studying the complex interplay between evolutionary selection forces, stochastic fluctuations, and spatial organization. Two fundamental questions that challenge our understanding of evolution and ecology are the origin of cooperation and biodiversity. Both are ubiquitous phenomena yet conspicuously difficult to explain since the fitness of an individual or the whole community depends in an intricate way on a plethora of factors, such as spatial distribution and mobility of individuals, secretion and detection of signaling molecules, toxin secretion leading to inter-strain competition and changes in environmental conditions. We discuss two possible solutions to these questions employing concepts from evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic processes. Our work provides insights into some minimal requirements for the evolution of cooperation and biodiversity in simple microbial communities. It further makes predictions to be tested by new microbial experiments.
A Monetary Policy Simulation Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lengwiler, Yvan
2004-01-01
The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…
Passivity of switched recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays.
Lian, Jie; Wang, Jun
2015-02-01
This paper is concerned with the passivity analysis for switched neural networks subject to stochastic disturbances and time-varying delays. First, using the multiple Lyapunov functions method, a state-dependent switching law is designed to present a stochastic passivity condition. Second, a hysteresis switching law involving both the current state and the previous value of the switching signal are presented to avoid chattering resulted from the state-dependent switching. Third, based on the average dwell-time approach, a class of switching signals is determined to guarantee the switched neural network stochastically passive. Finally, three numerical examples are provided to illustrate the characteristics of three proposed switching laws. PMID:25576577
May, J. Peter
STRATEGIES IN THE STOCHASTIC ITERATED PRISONER'S DILEMMA SIWEI LI Abstract. The stochastic iterated prisoner's dilemma is a kind of iterated prisoner's dilemma game where the strategies of the players the stochastic iterated prisoner's dilemma. Generally speaking, a Markov process {Xt} is a stochastic process
Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.
2007-11-01
We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tapson, Frank
1997-01-01
Discusses the use of educational games in the mathematics classroom. Emphasizes the reasons for the need for games, organizing games, and the analyses of games. Presents 10 examples of these mathematical games. (ASK)
Seasonality as a Parrondian game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peacock-López, Enrique
2011-08-01
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.
Cooperative Games Cooperative Games
Procaccia, Ariel
Cooperative Games Yair Zick #12;Cooperative Games Players divide into coalitions to perform tasks Coalition members can freely divide profits. How should profits be divided? #12;Matching Games · We matching on the subgraph. · Applications: markets, collaboration networks. 1 7 3 9 2 84 5 6 3 2 5 4 1 3 6 1
Stewart N. Ethier
\\u000a Game theory is concerned with games of strategy, which may or may not be games of chance. In Section 5.1 we introduce matrix\\u000a games, with emphasis on the games of le her and chemin de fer, and in Section 5.2 we prove the fundamental theorem concerning\\u000a such games, the minimax theorem. Few house-banked casino games fit into this framework because typically the
Bewick, Sharon; Wu, Jing; Lenaghan, Scott C; Yang, Ruoting; Zhang, Mingjun; Hamel, William
2011-10-01
In this paper, we show how a game theoretic analysis can provide a model to explain the interdependence of host produced APOBEC3G levels and virus encoded Vif levels. We then use the relationship between these two opposing proteins in order to predict the success of two different HIV-1 viral variants, R5 and X4. From our analysis, we show that when APOBEC3G strongly favors mutation from an R5 strain to an X4 strain, it can be optimal for HIV-1 to suppress transmission of the X4 variant, despite the loss of X4 fitness potential. This is particularly true when the X4 strain significantly interferes with the host adaptive immune response, when Vif production is limited, or when host APOBEC3G targets the X4 strain more severely than the R5 strain. Using the proposed game theoretic analysis, we show that transmitting only R5 viruses has two advantages so far as HIV-1 is concerned. First, it allows for an increased R5 viral load due to immune interference caused by the X4 strain, and second, it forces the host to down-regulate APOBEC3G production, which is automatically favorable to the virus. APOBEC3G down-regulation, which is predicted in our model for a wide range of parameter values, may offer an explanation for the observed low level of APOBEC3G transcription and translation in hosts infected with HIV-1. PMID:21373976
Long memory and regime switching
Francis X. Diebold; Atsushi Inoue
2001-01-01
The theoretical and empirical econometric literatures on long memory and regime switching have evolved largely independently, as the phenomena appear distinct. We argue, in contrast, that they are intimately related, and we substantiate our claim in several environments, including a simple mixture model, Engle and Smith's (Rev. Econom. Statist. 81 (1999) 553–574) stochastic permanent break model, and Hamilton's (Econometrica 57
An Agent Market Model Using Evolutionary Game Theory
An Agent Market Model Using Evolutionary Game Theory Beno^it S. Montin Craig A. Nolder Department, evolutionary game theory, stochastic equilib- rium. Abstract Stock price fluctuations result from interactions of monetary policies. In this context, evolutionary game theory can strongly contribute to our economic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makedon, Alexander
A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…
Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer
2009-08-01
Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.
Smith, Jason F.; Chen, Kewei; Pillai, Ajay S.; Horwitz, Barry
2013-01-01
The number and variety of connectivity estimation methods is likely to continue to grow over the coming decade. Comparisons between methods are necessary to prune this growth to only the most accurate and robust methods. However, the nature of connectivity is elusive with different methods potentially attempting to identify different aspects of connectivity. Commonalities of connectivity definitions across methods upon which base direct comparisons can be difficult to derive. Here, we explicitly define “effective connectivity” using a common set of observation and state equations that are appropriate for three connectivity methods: dynamic causal modeling (DCM), multivariate autoregressive modeling (MAR), and switching linear dynamic systems for fMRI (sLDSf). In addition while deriving this set, we show how many other popular functional and effective connectivity methods are actually simplifications of these equations. We discuss implications of these connections for the practice of using one method to simulate data for another method. After mathematically connecting the three effective connectivity methods, simulated fMRI data with varying numbers of regions and task conditions is generated from the common equation. This simulated data explicitly contains the type of the connectivity that the three models were intended to identify. Each method is applied to the simulated data sets and the accuracy of parameter identification is analyzed. All methods perform above chance levels at identifying correct connectivity parameters. The sLDSf method was superior in parameter estimation accuracy to both DCM and MAR for all types of comparisons. PMID:23717258
Liberzon, Daniel
Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Randomly Switched Systems Debasish Chatterjee and Daniel;2 DEBASISH CHATTERJEE AND DANIEL LIBERZON Among the several stochastic stability notions, perhaps the most
Large-scale games in large-scale systems
H. Tembine
2012-01-11
Many real-world problems modeled by stochastic games have huge state and/or action spaces, leading to the well-known curse of dimensionality. The complexity of the analysis of large-scale systems is dramatically reduced by exploiting mean field limit and dynamical system viewpoints. Under regularity assumptions and specific time-scaling techniques, the evolution of the mean field limit can be expressed in terms of deterministic or stochastic equation or inclusion (difference or differential). In this paper, we overview recent advances of large-scale games in large-scale systems. We focus in particular on population games, stochastic population games and mean field stochastic games. Considering long-term payoffs, we characterize the mean field systems using Bellman and Kolmogorov forward equations.
Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole
1991-01-01
This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Allen
2010-10-09
Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-01-01
In this 7.5 minute video educator Ian Byrd proposes three pencil and paper math games that are simple to learn and that develop students' ability to abstract their strategies. Game of 100 and Heaps, both Nim-type games, also develop facility in adding and subtracting whole numbers, while Cram strengthens spatial reasoning. All three games can be adapted, encouraging students to generalize their strategies into algorithms. Byrd includes links to Wikipedia articles on the games.
David H. Wolpert
2005-12-08
Conventional noncooperative game theory hypothesizes that the joint strategy of a set of players in a game must satisfy an "equilibrium concept". All other joint strategies are considered impossible; the only issue is what equilibrium concept is "correct". This hypothesis violates the desiderata underlying probability theory. Indeed, probability theory renders moot the problem of what equilibrium concept is correct - every joint strategy can arise with non-zero probability. Rather than a first-principles derivation of an equilibrium concept, game theory requires a first-principles derivation of a distribution over joint (mixed) strategies. This paper shows how information theory can provide such a distribution over joint strategies. If a scientist external to the game wants to distill such a distribution to a point prediction, that prediction should be set by decision theory, using their (!) loss function. So the predicted joint strategy - the "equilibrium concept" - varies with the external scientist's loss function. It is shown here that in many games, having a probability distribution with support restricted to Nash equilibria - as stipulated by conventional game theory - is impossible. It is also show how to: i) Derive an information-theoretic quantification of a player's degree of rationality; ii) Derive bounded rationality as a cost of computation; iii) Elaborate the close formal relationship between game theory and statistical physics; iv) Use this relationship to extend game theory to allow stochastically varying numbers of players.
Toru Ohira
2007-01-07
We present a simple dynamical model to address the question of introducing a stochastic nature in a time variable. This model includes noise in the time variable but not in the "space" variable, which is opposite to the normal description of stochastic dynamics. The notable feature is that these models can induce a "resonance" with varying noise strength in the time variable. Thus, they provide a different mechanism for stochastic resonance, which has been discussed within the normal context of stochastic dynamics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walford, Rex
Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…
Computer Game Architecture 1b -Game Engines
Gordon, Scott
CSc 165 Computer Game Architecture 1b - Game Engines CSc 165 Lecture Notes 1b - Game Engines 2 Basic Game Structure One iteration = 1 Frame Player Input Render Logic Update "Tightly-coupled" game loop Start initGame() Game Main Loop shutdown() Exit while (!gameOver) initSystem() CSc 165 Lecture
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Mr. Cooley
2011-11-12
These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...
Scheduling in switched queueing networks with heavy-tailed trac
Markakis, Mihalis G
2013-01-01
We study scheduling problems arising in switched queueing networks, a class of stochastic systems that are often used to model data communication networks, such as uplinks and downlinks of cellular networks, networks of ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.
1985-01-01
A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.
Macroeconomies as Constructively Rational Games Ekaterina Sinitskaya and Leigh Tesfatsion
Tesfatsion, Leigh
; intertemporal optimiza- tion; learning; constructive rationality; stochastic optimization; dynamic programming 1 3.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 Basic DM-Game Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 Market
Stability of Zero-Sum Games in Evolutionary Game Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin
2014-03-01
Evolutionary game theory has evolved into a successful theoretical concept to study mechanisms that govern the evolution of ecological communities. On a mathematical level, this theory was formalized in the framework of the celebrated replicator equations (REs) and its stochastic generalizations. In our work, we analyze the long-time behavior of the REs for zero-sum games with arbitrarily many strategies, which are generalized versions of the children's game Rock-Paper-Scissors.[1] We demonstrate how to determine the strategies that survive and those that become extinct in the long run. Our results show that extinction of strategies is exponentially fast in generic setups, and that conditions for the survival can be formulated in terms of the Pfaffian of the REs' antisymmetric payoff matrix. Consequences for the stochastic dynamics, which arise in finite populations, are reflected by a generalized scaling law for the extinction time in the vicinity of critical reaction rates. Our findings underline the relevance of zero-sum games as a reference for the analysis of other models in evolutionary game theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dostal, June
1973-01-01
Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-07-30
In this math lesson, learners play a game to identify the properties of prime, composite, abundant, deficient and perfect numbers. Learners use a game board comprised of the numbers from 1 to 30 placed in a 5 by 6 grid.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canipe, Stephen L.
The "Crisis" game that is described in this paper is designed to present children with a vocabulary of terms commonly heard when people discuss the energy problem, and to provide an immediate use and reinforcement of those terms in a low-risk game situation. Included in the description are the directions for playing the game, an illustration of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.
Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abt, Clark C.
The author explores the ways in which games can be used to instruct, inform, and educate. The first chapter discusses games in a general manner. The next five chapters present the use of games for improving education, for guidance in occupational choice and training, and for solving problems and decision making in physical and social sciences,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, Jill
2005-01-01
In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Troff
2008-06-23
Several sites to practice solving equations. Play one of the following games: 1) algebra quiz/ alien millionaire 2) Battleship: solve equations to win! 3) connect four: solve equations to take a turn- 2 player game 4) Rags to Riches: millionaire type game asking questions about solving equations ...
Linear-quadratic games of resource depletion
Epple, D.; Hansen, L.P.; Roberds, W.
1983-01-01
In this paper we describe some methods for quantitatively analyzing dynamic, multiple agent models in which at least one agent takes into account his influence on the aggregate environment such as the degree of competitiveness in the petroleum industry. We confine our attention to models in which the agents solve stochastic, quadratic optimization problems subject to linear constraints. Discussion is presented in the context of a resource depletion example. The players are resource suppliers; the task is to compare their behavior when they play alternative dynamic games. Our approach to solving these models of dynamic games is first to deduce the stochastic Euler equations for each of the agents and then to simultaneously solve these stochastic Euler equations subject to the respective transversality conditions. The solution strategy involves factoring the characteristic polynomial of the system of stochastic difference equations. 22 refs.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION HERITABLE STOCHASTIC SWITCHING REVEALED BY
van Oudenaarden, Alexander
on the carbon sources that maximize their growth rate in a particular environment. The much studied galactose utilization network (GAL) is a model for such decision/metabolic pathways. The network, comprising roughly galactose into the cell and consequently activating Gal3p. Finally, GAL80 negatively regulates its own
Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)
1982-08-17
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
Andrew M. Childs; David Gosset; Daniel Nagaj; Mouktik Raha; Zak Webb
2014-06-17
Certain continuous-time quantum walks can be viewed as scattering processes. These processes can perform quantum computations, but it is challenging to design graphs with desired scattering behavior. In this paper, we study and construct momentum switches, graphs that route particles depending on their momenta. We also give an example where there is no exact momentum switch, although we construct an arbitrarily good approximation.
Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Rene Carmona
Carmona, Rene
Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Ren´e Carmona Department of Operations://www.pstat.ucsb.edu/faculty/ludkovski We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control;Carmona and Ludkovski: Optimal Switching for Energy Storage 2 in the commodity financial markets. Storage
Funk, Jeanne B
2005-06-01
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values. PMID:16111624
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lawrence Hall of Science
1980-01-01
In this set of outdoor games, learners play the role of monkeys that are trying to get enough resources (food, shelter, and space) to survive. They play several simple games which involve strength, quickness, coordination, intuition, and luck in order to acquire these resources. The games focus attention on the participants’ individual variations in these areas. There are three “rounds” which represent three different changing environments, each of which requires different skills for survival. After the games, learners compare who got enough resources and what variations among the players may have affected how the game went.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Reeder, Nick
Play these games to practice your electronics skills. Each game has a Study mode that reviews the relevant theory, a Practice mode that lets you practice with no time pressure, and a Challenge mode that tests your skill while the clock is running. These games require Macromedia's Flash Player, version 6 or later. If the Flash Player is not already installed in your Web browser, the game will automatically offer to download it for free. These games were created by Nick Reeder, an electronics instructor at Sinclair Community College.
A gambling game arising in the analysis of adaptive randomized rounding
Mathieu, Claire
A gambling game arising in the analysis of adaptive randomized rounding Richard M. Karp and Claire. We give an interpreta- tion of this stochastic process as a gambling game, characterize optimal play and martingale tail inequalities. 1 Introduction Consider the following gambling game. A player starts
A double obstacle problem arising in differential game theory
Pierre Cardaliaguet
2009-01-01
A Hamilton–Jacobi equation involving a double obstacle problem is investigated. The link between this equation and the notion of dual solutions—introduced in [S. As Soulaimani, Infinite horizon differential games with asymmetric information, PhD thesis; P. Cardaliaguet, Differential games with asymmetric information, SIAM J. Control Optim. 46 (3) (2007) 816–838; P. Cardaliaguet, C. Rainer, Stochastic differential games with asymmetric information, Appl.
Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma game on hypergraph networks
?. Pawela; J. S?adkowski
2012-10-07
We study the possible advantages of adopting of quantum strategies in multi-player evolutionary games. We base our study on the three-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. In order to model the simultaneous interaction between three agents we use hypergraphs and hypergraph networks. In particular, we study two types of networks: a random network and a SF-like network. The obtained results show that in the case of a three player game on a hypergraph network, quantum strategies are not necessarily stochastically stable strategies. In some cases, the defection strategy can be as good as a quantum one.
Stochastic resonance in an asymmetric Schmitt trigger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchesoni, F.; Apostolico, F.; Santucci, S.
1999-04-01
The stochastic response of a low-noise asymmetric Schmitt trigger is simulated numerically in the strong-drive subthreshold regime, where the amplitude of a sinusoidal input component is set large compared to the intensity of the noise component. The effect of the asymmetry on the stochastic resonance phenomenon is characterized in terms of both spectral properties and switch time distributions of the trigger output. The connection between stochastic resonance and synchronization in an asymmetric bistable system is thus assessed on a quantitative basis.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Peterson, Ivars
Scientists studying quantum computation offer new perspectives on coin tossing, chess, and game theory. Theorists intend to apply the peculiarities of quantum behavior to game theory, two previously unrelated fields. These researchers propose that the possibility of a mixed state permits quantum-game strategies that in theory can be more successful than conventional ones. This new type of modeling using quantum computers could greatly affect fields such as economics, international relations, and computer science.
Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games.
Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto
2013-10-01
We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii. PMID:24229225
Pinning noise-induced stochastic resonance.
Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen
2013-06-01
This paper proposes the concept of pinning noise and then investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance of coupled complex systems driven by pinning noise, where the noise has an ?-stable distribution. Two kinds of pinning noise are taken into account: partial noise and switching noise. In particular, we establish a connection between switching noise and global noise when Gaussian noise is considered. It is shown that switching noise can not only achieve a stronger resonance effect, but it is also more robust to induce the resonance effect than partial noise. PMID:23848761
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2008-01-01
Tangram is an ancient game that originated in China. In the game, your goal is to try to create the shape shown using the pieces provided. You cannot overlap pieces, and they all have to be used. It is a lot harder than it looks!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie
2007-01-01
This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly
2006-01-01
In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deubel, Patricia
2006-01-01
This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…
Small, Dylan
of deterministic and stochastic prisoner's dilemma games Howard Kunreuther , Gabriel Silvasi, Eric T. Bradlow of individuals playing a classic two-person deterministic prisoner's dilemma (PD) game with choice data obtained from repeated interdependent security prisoner's dilemma games with varying proba- bilities of loss
Graduate Program Game Research
Volk, Anja Fleischer
anniversary of the New Media programme Serious games (Raessens) War games (Nieborg) Role-playing games (CopierGraduate Program Game Research Humanities Media and Culture Studies Game Studies Joost Raessens) Pervasive games (Nieuwdorp) Cartography & games (Lammes) Renaissance experience (Rushkoff) #12;Past Research
Graduate Program Game Research
Volk, Anja Fleischer
of the New Media programme Serious games (Raessens) War games (Nieborg) Role-playing games (Copier) Pervasive and Game Studies (1,0 fte) Expertise (teaching and research) Serious gaming Playful media cultures PlayfulGraduate Program Game Research Utrecht Humanities Game Studies Focus Joost Raessens May 26, 2014
Abdallah Smida; Mahmoud Hachemane; Amel-Hiba Hamici
2015-02-24
A new concept of qubits is given by considering entanglement of ordinary quibits with quantum measuring devices (micro-detectors). They are called stochastic qubits since they are generalized coherent states used in the stochastic (phase space) quantum theory. Entanglement is realized through the coupling of angular momenta $l$ and $\\sigma$, where the micro-detector has $l=0,1$ and the qubit spin is $\\sigma=1/2$. In both cases, the stochastic qubit has total spin $J=1/2$ and is entangled only when $l=1$. In this case, Stochastic Bell states have been defined and teleportation has been studied. They resemble conventional ones. When the micro-detecors have only two states, Stochastic qudits have rather been used. Here, Stochastic Bell states have also been defined and teleportation is possible for special states only. In the last step of this teleportation, Bob will have to transform the qubit only, or the micro-detector only, to recover Alice state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harteveld, Casper
This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.
N-player stochastic differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P.
1976-01-01
The paper presents conditions which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. When the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory
Lässig, Michael
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory Michael L¨assig Institut f is introduced that describes stochastic effects in game theory. In a biological context, such effects Classical game theory is a well-known mathematical formalization of competitions with rational rules and ra
GamingAnywhere: An Open-Source Cloud Gaming Testbed
Chen, Sheng-Wei
the latest computer games. Cloud gaming is an alternative way to deliver high-quality gaming experience: A cloud gaming service based on GamingAny- where. In a cloud gaming system, computer games run on power to game servers. With cloud gaming, gamers can play the latest computer games anywhere and anytime, while
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games
Kaiser, £ukasz
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games GAMES, Bordeaux 2004 Lukasz Kaiser Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen #12;Motivation I Parity games with finite number of colours are positionally determined Muller games with finite number of colours are not positionally determined Finitely
B. L. Hu
1999-02-22
We give a summary of the status of current research in stochastic semiclassical gravity and suggest directions for further investigations. This theory generalizes the semiclassical Einstein equation to an Einstein-Langevin equation with a stochastic source term arising from the fluctuations of the energy-momentum tensor of quantum fields. We mention recent efforts in applying this theory to the study of black hole fluctuations and backreaction problems, linear response of hot flat space, and structure formation in inflationary cosmology. To explore the physical meaning and implications of this stochastic regime in relation to both classical and quantum gravity, we find it useful to take the view that semiclassical gravity is mesoscopic physics and that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of certain spacetime quantum substructures. Three basic issues - stochasticity, collectivity, correlations- and three processes - dissipation, fluctuations, decoherence- underscore the transformation from quantum micro structure and interaction to the emergence of classical macro structure and dynamics. We discuss ways to probe into the high energy activity from below and make two suggestions: via effective field theory and the correlation hierarchy. We discuss how stochastic behavior at low energy in an effective theory and how correlation noise associated with coarse-grained higher correlation functions in an interacting quantum field could carry nontrivial information about the high energy sector. Finally we describe processes deemed important at the Planck scale, including tunneling and pair creation, wave scattering in random geometry, growth of fluctuations and forms, Planck scale resonance states, and spacetime foams.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbach, Paul
2001-01-01
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
2010-06-24
"A take-away game in which players alternately remove counters, and the player who takes the last counter wins." ( NCTM) Students look for patterns in the numbers on which the computer lands at each turn.
Unknown
2011-08-17
Simulation games may be used to introduce lean principles to those who are considering implementing them. However, they can also function as controlled experiments against which to calibrate a computer model and they can even be adapted to serve...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto
2011-10-01
A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, John
1980-01-01
The author argues that adult society prohibits adolescents from attaining maturity and that, in response to such constraints, adolescents turn to games, rituals, and charades. This state of affairs is viewed as an implicit adult conspiracy against adolescents. (DB)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - Education and Outreach Programs
2010-01-01
Play these two matching games from the Web Weather for Kids site to pair cloud images with their names/types! Developed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, this site requires Java.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
The Fourth IAHR International Symposium on Stochastic Hydraulics, cosponsored by AGU and the American Society of Civil Engineers, will be held July 31-August 2, 1984, at Urbana, 111. About 40 papers selected from submitted abstracts will be presented in the symposium.Topics covered will include (but not be limited to) the following areas: risk and reliability analysis; safety of dams and other hydraulic structures; stochastic models; and stochastic processes of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena such as turbulence, sediment transport, dispersion and diffusion, and random waves.The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”
... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...
... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 43 quiz ... say “I love you”? Shares · 13 Comments · 5 game Crush Shares · 1 Comments · 0 game My Paper ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Werner, Peter; Almond, Len
1990-01-01
Physical educators should be selective in deciding what games to include in the games curriculum. Several theoretical frameworks for selecting and teaching games are discussed, and a framework for developing a well-balanced games program is suggested. (IAH)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michiel Doorman
2012-01-07
This Java applet game promotes mental math and strategic thinking skills using a card from Suntex's 24 Game. The player is presented with four numbers (1-9) on a card. The goal is to manipulate each of the four numbers only once so that the end result is 24. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and/or parentheses maybe used and the player must be able to enter the expression using the online calculator.
Unknown
2011-08-17
number line. An NPC can increase or decrease to another state by passing through the states in sequence. Behavior In-game Value ALERT 5 WORKING 4 DISTRACTED 3 BORED 2 TIRED 1 In order to formalize the behavioral state updates, we let C... Page 1 A goal map for a simple game with multiple paths to win ........................ 1 2 Teacher?s perspective while inside Room 309........................................... 9 3 Animated behaviors for an NPC student...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.
Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badzey, Robert L.
The phenomenon of stochastic resonance is a counter-intuitive one: adding noise to a noisy nonlinear system under the influence of a modulation results in coherent behavior. The signature of the effect is a resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio of the response over a certain range of noise power; this behavior is absent if either the modulation or the noise are absent. Stochastic resonance has attracted considerable interest over the past several decades, having been seen in a great number of physical and biological systems. Here, observation of stochastic resonance is reported for nanomechanical systems consisting of a doubly-clamped beam resonators fabricated from single-crystal silicon. Such oscillators have been found to display nonlinear and bistable behavior under the influence of large driving forces. This bistability is exploited to produce a controllable nanomechanical switch, a device that may be used as the basis for a new generation of computational memory elements. These oscillators possess large intrinsic resonance frequencies (MHz range or higher) due to their small size and relatively high stiffness; thus they have the potential to rival the current state-of-the-art of electronic and magnetic storage technologies. This small size also allows them to be packed in densities which meet or exceed the superparamagnetic limit for magnetic storage media of 100 GB/in2. Two different doubly-clamped beams were cooled to low temperatures (300 mK--4 K), and excited with a magnetomotive technique. They were driven into the nonlinear response regime, and then modulated to induce switching between their bistable states. When the modulation was reduced, the switching died out. Application of noise, either with an external broadband source or via an increase in temperature, resulted in a distinct resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio. Aside from establishing the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in yet another physical system, the observation of this effect has more far-reaching consequences. Stochastic resonance may very well play an important role in signal processing for these and similar memory elements. The low temperatures attained for these experiments open up the possibility of exploring quantum stochastic resonance, and the ability of noise to aid in the development and manipulation of quantum information.
Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.
DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco
2015-06-01
We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066
Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology
Volk, Anja Fleischer
1032015 1 Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology Remco Veltkamp 16 February 2015 Technology · incl. interaction computing & media technology Software Systems · incl. software technology of Science (BSc) · Computer Science · Game Technology · Information Science Master of Science (MSc
Computer Games and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.
2011-01-01
There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer
Monderer, Dov
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer TechnionÂIsrael Institute of Technology E-mail: dov@ie.technion.ac.il July 2006 Abstract We introduce and analyze q-potential games and q-congestion games, where q is a positive integer. A 1-potential (congestion) game is a po- tential (congestion) game. We show that a game
Game Theory Social Intelligence
Polani, Daniel
Game Theory Social Intelligence Daniel Polani Game Theory p.1/11 Reminders: Dominance Def): an outcome is Pareto dominated if all players would prefer some other outcome. Game Theory p.3/11 Dominance strategy. Game The #12;Comments on Game Theory Remark: if the prisoner's dilemma game is being iterated
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest
Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem
Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.
2013-04-15
This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-07-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.
Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO{sub 2} nanorod arrays
Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei, E-mail: d.chu@unsw.edu.au; Li, Sean [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)
2013-12-16
In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO{sub 2} nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.
Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO2 nanorod arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Li, Sean
2013-12-01
In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO2 nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.
Jani Anttila; Arto Annila
2011-03-05
Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, when no moves are found to consume more free energy, the extensive-form game has arrived at a solution concept that satisfies the minimax theorem. The equilibrium is Lyapunov-stable against variation in behavior within strategies but will be perturbed by a new strategy that will draw even more surrounding resources to the game. Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making.
Phenotypic switching in bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrin, Jack
Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.
Integrity Assurance in Resource-Bounded Systems through Stochastic Message Authentication
Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.
Keywords message authentication, game theory, economics of security 1. INTRODUCTION Ensuring communication for resource- bounded systems, such as cyber-physical systems. For exam- ple, many control systems are built harm. We propose a formal game-theoretic framework for optimal stochastic message authentication
Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.
2010-10-01
The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Watsonville Environmental Science Workshop
2011-01-01
In this activity, learners construct a simple game to test their hand-eye coordination and steadiness of hand. Learners draw face in a small piece of wood, drill indentations in the eyes and nose, and glue a clear cup over the face, with 3 marbles inside. Learners attach two craft sticks to create a handle and add decorations. To play, they slowly move the game board around until all marbles land in a hole. This toy can also be used to demonstrate how objects in nature tend to seek the position of lowest energy.
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
2014-03-01
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600
RATIONAL GAME THEORY AND SERIOUS VIDEO GAMES
Lori Shyba
AND INTRODUCTION Game Studies have emerged as a way to contextualize the socio-cultural impact of video games, but what of Rational Game Theory and its abstractions of interactive decision- making into the domains of mathematics, economics, and philosophy? This essay uses examples of serious video games, both produced and in concept stage, to show how they might be analyzed in
Serious Games: Video Games for Good?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
2015-01-01
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
Enderton, Eric; Sintorn, Erik; Shirley, Peter; Luebke, David
2011-08-01
Stochastic transparency provides a unified approach to order-independent transparency, antialiasing, and deep shadow maps. It augments screen-door transparency using a random sub-pixel stipple pattern, where each fragment of transparent geometry covers a random subset of pixel samples of size proportional to alpha. This results in correct alpha-blended colors on average, in a single render pass with fixed memory size and no sorting, but introduces noise. We reduce this noise by an alpha correction pass, and by an accumulation pass that uses a stochastic shadow map from the camera. At the pixel level, the algorithm does not branch and contains no read-modify-write loops, other than traditional z-buffer blend operations. This makes it an excellent match for modern massively parallel GPU hardware. Stochastic transparency is very simple to implement and supports all types of transparent geometry, able without coding for special cases to mix hair, smoke, foliage, windows, and transparent cloth in a single scene. PMID:20921587
Adaptive Markov Game Theoretic Data Fusion Approach for Cyber Network Defense
Dan Shen; Genshe Chen; Erik Blasch; George Tadda
2007-01-01
This paper extends our game theoretic situation awareness and impact assessment approach for cyber network defense to consider the change of threat intent during cyber conflict. From a perspective of data fusion and adaptive control, we use a Markov (stochastic) game method to estimate the belief of each possible cyber attack pattern. With the consideration that the parameters in each
The cell cycle switch computes approximate majority.
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-01-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The 'Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks. PMID:22977731
The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-09-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing.
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lum, Lydia
2007-01-01
Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.
This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Kim
2004-01-01
The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzi, Natalie
2012-01-01
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Miss Lerdahl
2010-02-23
Have fun with the alphabet! Watch the video How the Alphabet Got It s Order Practice matching letters with Paint by Letter. Pick the object that starts with the letter with theABC Game-Pick the letter. Order the alphabet with Alphabet Order Whac-A-Mole! Help Dog spell words with Dog s Letter Pit ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jefferson, Bob; Hall, Jan D.
1992-01-01
Installation of a new metal halide lighting system at an old athletic high school stadium serving the Red Lion School District in Pennsylvania made night games possible. Community members raised funds for the installation. Because of increased attendance, the district made a $10,000 profit. Provides facts and figures on the stadium lighting. (MLF)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atkinson, Bill
1982-01-01
The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)
Game Theory: Games and Behavior
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rubinstein, Ariel
Economics professor, Ariel Rubinstein, created this website to provide teachers some basic instruction in Game Theory along with "free user-friendly didactic tools for conducting web-based thought experiments." The materials are based on his experience in teaching a course in Game Theory using web-based experiments during the years 1988 to 1999. Sample problems are available in five languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish, Russian and Slovak. Some articles are available from the home page, but access to the instructional material requires instructors and students to register at no cost. A slide show reviews the registration process and demonstrates the web-based course.
Boudewijn de Bruin
2005-01-01
Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals with games in which all players have preference orderings over the possible outcomes of the game.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat
2011-01-01
Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…
Kurt Squire
2003-01-01
ABSTRACT Computer and video games are a maturing medium,and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences,of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of
Jessica Blevins; Andy Kearney; Eric Mullen; Emily Myers-Stanhope; Elizabeth Sweedyk
2011-01-01
Computer games are widely used as pedagogical tools in the classroom. In recent years, the use of game projects in Computer Science (CS) curriculum has grown in popularity. The Muddy Hill Games project marries these ideas by engaging CS students in the design and development of educational games for middle school students. This approach enhances the game projects by providing
Escape from a potential well with a randomly switching boundary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.
2015-06-01
We consider diffusion in a potential well with a boundary that randomly switches between absorbing and reflecting and show how the switching boundary affects the classical escape theory. Using the theory of stochastic hybrid systems, we derive boundary value problems for the mean first passage time and splitting probability and find explicit solutions in terms of the spectral decomposition of the associated differential operator. Further, using a more probabilistic approach, we prove asymptotic formulae for these statistics in the small diffusion limit. In particular, we show that the statistical behavior depends critically on the gradient of the potential near the switching boundary and we derive corrections to Kramers’ reaction rate theory.
Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)
1990-01-01
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.
Generalized strategies in the minority game.
Hart, M; Jefferies, P; Johnson, N F; Hui, P M
2001-01-01
We show analytically how the fluctuations (i.e., standard deviation sigma) in the minority game can decrease below the random coin-toss limit if the agents use more general, stochastic strategies. This suppression of sigma results from a cancellation between the actions of a crowd, in which agents act collectively and make the same decision, and those of an anticrowd, in which agents act collectively by making the opposite decision to the crowd. PMID:11304391
Usability and game design : improving the MITAR Game Editor
Falconi, Robert F
2010-01-01
Creating MIT Augmented Realty (MITAR) games can be a daunting task. MITAR game designers require a usable game editor to simplify this process. The MITAR Game Editor was the first editor to provide game designers with the ...
Tiered Service in Packet-Switched Networks George N. Rouskas
Tiered Service in Packet-Switched Networks George N. Rouskas Laura Jackson (PhD, 2003), Nikhil tier selection as a directional p-median problem: deterministic demands stochastic demands multiple Qo, 2007 p.5 #12;Bandwidth-Discrete Networks Offer a small number of discrete bandwidth tiers IEEE CCW
Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Mike Ludkovski
Ludkovski, Mike
Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Mike Ludkovski Department of Mathematics University, Princeton, NJ 08544 rcarmona@princeton.edu, We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control. Our two main examples are natural gas dome storage
Automated design of genetic toggle switches with predetermined bistability.
Chen, Shuobing; Zhang, Haoqian; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Feng, Jingchen; Gong, Yan; Yang, Zhenglin; Ouyang, Qi
2012-07-20
Synthetic biology aims to rationally construct biological devices with required functionalities. Methods that automate the design of genetic devices without post-hoc adjustment are therefore highly desired. Here we provide a method to predictably design genetic toggle switches with predetermined bistability. To accomplish this task, a biophysical model that links ribosome binding site (RBS) DNA sequence to toggle switch bistability was first developed by integrating a stochastic model with RBS design method. Then, to parametrize the model, a library of genetic toggle switch mutants was experimentally built, followed by establishing the equivalence between RBS DNA sequences and switch bistability. To test this equivalence, RBS nucleotide sequences for different specified bistabilities were in silico designed and experimentally verified. Results show that the deciphered equivalence is highly predictive for the toggle switch design with predetermined bistability. This method can be generalized to quantitative design of other probabilistic genetic devices in synthetic biology. PMID:23651251
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walljasper, Dixie
1982-01-01
This article discusses theoretical and practical aspects of gaming, tells how to develop a game, and describes a game created by the author to motivate staff nurses to write patient care plans consistently. (Editor/CT)
Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches
GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.
2000-04-13
This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.
RF MEMS switches and switch circuits
G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin
2001-01-01
MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To
Visco, Paolo - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7
. In such switches, the orientation of a short DNA element is flipped by a site- specific recombinase enzyme. We orientation by a site-specific recombinase enzyme binding to sequences at the ends of the invertible element, allowing us to determine the range of stochastic switching behavior pos- sible for this type of switch. We
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Twin Cities Public Television
2013-01-01
In this engineering activity, learners design their own board games. Learners brainstorm the various components of board games, conduct research using well-known games, and then design and prototype a game. The learners' games must meet a "client's" requirements -- the games must be designed for first and second graders, must work with two to four children, and must take less than 15 minutes to play.
Sweeten, Mary K.
1981-01-01
are small game in Texas and are hunted during pre scribed seasons. Rabbits, not considered legally as game animals, may be taken at any time. They are of good eating quality, especially cot tontails and swamp rabbits. Opossums and raccoons are fur... Game - Cooking Care Mary K. Sweeten* The Hunt Hunting small game animals in Texas is a popular recreational activity. Careful handling and preparation help you use game and avoid unnecessary waste of wild game resources if you do hunt. Squirrels...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Federation of American Scientists (FAS)
The goal of the Science Game Center is to demonstrate to teachers, scientists, museums, and parents the myriad ways games can be used to improve education in math and science. The Science Game Center will provide a place where users can describe their experiences with math and science games, gather information on game strengths and weaknesses, and share tips on how to use games to help students reach their educational goals.
Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.
2009-10-01
Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Betty J. Blecha
The link between a set of taxes and income distribution is an important, but difficult, concept taught in economics principles courses. The Tax Game simulation requires a student to set tax rates for an income tax, a property tax, a wealth tax, a payroll tax, a corporate income tax, a sales tax,and an excise tax. The student can choose any rates he or she wishes, but must achieve a given revenue target.
Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A
2013-05-21
An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.
Online Stochastic Reservation Systems
Pascal Van Hentenryck; Russell Bent; Yannis Vergados
2006-01-01
This paper considers online stochastic reservation proble ms, where requests come online and must be dynamically allocated to limited resources in order to maximize profit. Multi-knapsack problems with or wi thout overbooking are examples of such online stochastic reservations. The paper studies how to adapt the online stochastic framework and the consensus and regret algorithms proposed earlier to online stochastic
Online stochastic reservation systems
Pascal Van Hentenryck; Russell Bent; Luc Mercier; Yannis Vergados
2009-01-01
This paper considers online stochastic reservation problems, where requests come online and must be dynamically allocated to limited resources in order to maximize profit. Multi-knapsack problems with or without overbooking are examples of such online stochastic reservations. The paper studies how to adapt the online stochastic framework and the consensus and regret algorithms proposed earlier to online stochastic reservation systems.
Stick or switch : data analysis and probability (grades 6-8)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Utah State University. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives for Interactive Mathematics
2003-01-01
Students can play an interactive version of the game Let's Make a Deal. Players are given a choice of three doors--one of which hides a good prize, while the other two hide loser prizes. They select, but do not see, one door. Host Monty Hall reveals a prize behind one of the remaining doors. Players can either stick with the originally selected door and prize or switch to the other door. The cumulative percentages generated by sticking or switching after playing multiple games is displayed. One button labeled Strategy leads to questions that discuss the probability of winning with each strategy. A Multiple Game option generates outcome data based on playing a large number of games. Instructions for using the game and a link to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standard for data analysis and probability are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor
Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2008-11-14
Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. While the switching dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of flagellar motors, the mechanisms that control switching are poorly understood. We present a statistical-mechanical model of the flagellar rotary motor, which consists of a number of stator proteins that drive the rotation of a ring of rotor proteins, which in turn drives the rotation of a flagellar filament. At the heart of our model is the assumption that the rotor protein complex can exist in two conformational states corresponding to the two respective rotation directions, and that switching between these states depends on interactions with the stator proteins. This naturally couples the switching dynamics to the rotation dynamics, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element of our model is that after a switching event, it takes time for the load to build up, due to polymorphic transitions of the filament. Our model predicts that this slow relaxation dynamics of the filament, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, leads to a characteristic switching time, in agreement with recent observations.
Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.
1969-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.
Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology
Volk, Anja Fleischer
2962014 1 Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology 16 June 2014 Artificial Intelligence (AI) · incl. intelligent agents, data mining, & decision support systems Interaction Technology · incl. interaction computing & media technology Software Systems · incl. software technology & software production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M.
2014-04-01
The process of desertification is usually modeled as a first-order transition, where a change of an external parameter (e.g., precipitation) leads to a catastrophic bifurcation followed by an ecological regime shift. However, vegetation elements like shrubs and trees undergo a stochastic birth-death process with an absorbing state; such a process supports a second-order continuous transition with no hysteresis. Here we study a minimal model of a first-order transition with an absorbing state. When the external parameter varies adiabatically the transition is indeed continuous, and we present some empirical evidence that supports this scenario. The front velocity renormalizes to zero at the extinction transition, leaving a finite “quantum” region where domain walls are stable and the desertification takes place via accumulation of local extinctions. A catastrophic regime shift may occur as a dynamical hysteresis, if the pace of environmental variations is too fast.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D.
1980-01-01
Two automatic switches control heat flow from one thermally conductive plate to another. One switch permits heat flow to outside; other limits heat flow. In one switch, heat on conductive plate activates piston that forces saddle against plate. Heat carriers then conduct heat to second plate that radiates it away. After temperature is first plate drops, piston contracts and spring breaks thermal contact with plate. In second switch, action is reversed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
2014-01-01
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
Maestas, J.H.
1987-03-01
An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.
Fixation times in evolutionary games under weak selection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altrock, Philipp M.; Traulsen, Arne
2009-01-01
In evolutionary game dynamics, reproductive success increases with the performance in an evolutionary game. If strategy A performs better than strategy B, strategy A will spread in the population. Under stochastic dynamics, a single mutant will sooner or later take over the entire population or go extinct. We analyze the mean exit times (or average fixation times) associated with this process. We show analytically that these times depend on the payoff matrix of the game in an amazingly simple way under weak selection, i.e. strong stochasticity: the payoff difference ?? is a linear function of the number of A individuals i, ??=u i+v. The unconditional mean exit time depends only on the constant term v. Given that a single A mutant takes over the population, the corresponding conditional mean exit time depends only on the density dependent term u. We demonstrate this finding for two commonly applied microscopic evolutionary processes.
Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Naoki Kobayashi
2007-11-05
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a finite quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (3) For any finite quantum sequential game G, there exists a finite quantum simultaneous game equivalent to G.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schneiderman, Ellen
1990-01-01
This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)
Nicholas Glean
2005-01-01
Games study is a discipline that takes seriously the theoretical analysis of the computer simulation game\\/video game. It does not have a grand unifying theory that speaks about all aspects of games exhaustively. Rather it is a collection of newly forming approaches such as Cyberdrama, Ludology. The Cyberdrama is seen as the enactment of story in a particular fictional space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.
This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)
Learning with Calculator Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekely, George
2000-01-01
Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)
Josef Hofbauer; Karl Sigmund
2003-01-01
Evolutionary game dynamics is the application of population dy- namical methods to game theory. It has been introduced by evolutionary biologists, anticipated in part by classical game theorists. In this survey, we present an overview of the many brands of deterministic dynamical systems motivated by evolutionary game theory, including ordinary dierential equa- tions (and, in particular, the replicator equation), dierential
Prestwich, Ken
Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich kprestwi@holycross.edu Department of Biology College of the Holy ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;c 1999 by Kenneth Prestwich. All
Geospatial Games Joske Houtkamp
Volk, Anja Fleischer
Geospatial Games Joske Houtkamp Department of Information and Computing Sciences, UU Alterra #12;Geo(spatial) Games Geo(spatial) games · Games for entertainment, learning or simulation that involve geospatial data; · Map-, virtual and/or location based. · "Playful activities in which
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits
Najm, Farid N.
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition of logic signals, we rigorously de ne the transition density and present an algorithm to propagate it from
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits
Najm, Farid N.
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition model of logic signals, we rigorously define the transition density and present an algorithm
Faisal Shah Khan; Simon J. D. Phoenix
2012-11-28
In the time since a merger of quantum mechanics and game theory was proposed formally in 1999, the two distinct perspectives apparent in this merger of applying quantum mechanics to game theory, referred to henceforth as the theory of "quantized games", and of applying game theory to quantum mechanics, referred to henceforth as "gaming the quantum", have become synonymous under the single ill-defined term "quantum game". Here, these two perspectives are delineated and a game-theoretically proper description of what makes a multi-player, non-cooperative game quantum mechanical, is given. Within the context of this description, finding a Nash equilibrium in a strictly competitive quantum game is shown to be equivalent to finding a solution to a simultaneous best approximation problem in the state space of quantum objects, thus setting up a framework for a game theory inspired study of "equilibrium" behavior of quantum physical systems such as those utilized in quantum information processing and computation.
Photoconductive power switches
Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.
1983-01-01
This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.
The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shubik, Martin
2002-01-01
Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)
Stochastic parameterization: is sophistication useful?
Plant, Robert
Stochastic parameterization: is sophistication useful? R. S. Plant and M. A. Whitall Department constraints should control the character of the stochastic tendencies? Stochastic parameterization ensemble average 3. the model grid box size Stochastic parameterization: is sophistication useful? p.2
Can Nintendo get its crown back? : examining the dynamics of the U.S. video game console market
Chow, Samuel W
2007-01-01
Several generations of video game consoles have competed in the market since 1972. Overall, the entire market shares many similar characteristics, such as network effects and switching cost, which are found in other ...
Monty's Dilemma: Should You Stick or Switch?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2009-02-23
Created by J. Michael Shaughnessy and Thomas Dick, this activity presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors which reveals no prize, then asks if you wish to "stick or switch." Which choice gives you the best chance to win? The approach in this activity runs from guesses to experiments to computer simulations (links to applets are provided) to theoretical models. The activity can be adapted by leaving out the "flip-a-coin" strategy presented here. This is a fun and worthwhile activity that students can easily engage with.
Optoelectronic techniques for broadband switching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, S. F.; Jou, L.; Lenart, J.
1988-01-01
Optoelectronic switching employs a hybrid optical/electronic principle to perform the switching function and is applicable for either analog broadband or high-bit rate digital switching. The major advantages of optoelectronic switching include high isolation, low crosstalk, small physical size, light weight, and low power consumption. These advantages make optoelectronic switching an excellent candidate for on-board satellite switching. This paper describes a number of optoelectronic switching architectures. System components required for implementing these switching architectures are discussed. Performance of these architectures are evaluated by calculating their crosstalk, isolation, insertion loss, matrix size, drive power, throughput, and switching speed. Technologies needed for monolithic optoelectronic switching are also identified.
Dynamic phase transition in the prisoner's dilemma on a lattice with stochastic modifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saif, M. Ali; Gade, Prashant M.
2010-03-01
We present a detailed study of the prisoner's dilemma game with stochastic modifications on a two-dimensional lattice, in the presence of evolutionary dynamics. By very nature of the rules, the cooperators have incentives to cheat and fear being cheated. They may cheat even when this is not dictated by the evolutionary dynamics. We consider two variants here. In each case, the agents mimic the action (cooperation or defection) in the previous time step of the most successful agent in the neighborhood. But over and above this, the fraction p of cooperators spontaneously change their strategy to pure defector at every time step in the first variant. In the second variant, there are no pure cooperators. All cooperators keep defecting with probability p at every time step. In both cases, the system switches from a coexistence state to an all-defector state for higher values of p. We show that the transition between these states unambiguously belongs to the directed percolation universality class in 2 + 1 dimensions. We also study the local persistence. The persistence exponents obtained are higher than the ones obtained in previous studies, underlining their dependence on details of the dynamics.
Javad Sharifi; Hamidreza Momeni
2009-07-20
the stability criterion is constructed for open quantum systems which govern by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDE) both for quantum observable flow and the stochastic density operator. We derive stability criteria (local, asymptotic and exponential stability) for those QSDE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.
2003-01-01
We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.
Stick or Switch â?? Let's Make a Deal
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brought to you by Utah State University, this probability game is an electronic version of the old TV game show "Let's Make a Deal." This virtual manipulative allows users to investigate probabilities of sticking with a decision, or switching. This is a lesson designed to develop user's understanding of theoretical probability, using a simulation, for the chance of winning what's behind door number 1, 2, or 3. A good resource for teachers of mathematics courses ranging from statistics to combinatorics, this virtual manipulative is a fun way to learn about Monte Carlo simulations, experimental and theoretical probabilities, and the Law of Large Numbers.
Performance Modeling Of Interactive Gaming
Bhulai, Sandjai
Performance Modeling Of Interactive Gaming A.F. Wattimena May 2006 #12;Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming ii #12;Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming iii Performance Modeling of Interactive Gaming Alexander Franciscus Wattimena
Czárán, Tamás
the mathematical and from the biological standpoint, a key concept of Evolutionary Games & Population DynamicsBOOK REVIEWS Game theory and evolutionary ecology Evolutionary Games & Population Dynamics by J. The book by Hofbauer and Sigmund willconvinceeventhescepticalofthisliaison. Evolutionary Games & Population
Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter
Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)
2007-08-07
A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.
Beating Cheaters at Their Own Game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauch, Joseph; Kondev, Jane; Sanchez, Alvaro
2014-03-01
Public goods games occur over many different scales in nature, from microbial biofilms to the human commons. On each scale stable populations of cooperators (members who invest into producing some good shared by the entire population) and cheaters (members who make no investment yet still share the common goods) has been observed. This observation raises interesting questions, like how do cooperators maintain their presence in a game that seems to heavily favor cheaters, and what strategies for cooperation could populations employ to increase their success? We propose a model of a public goods game with two different player populations, S and D, which employ two different strategies: the D population always cheats and the S population makes a stochastic decision whether to cooperate or not. We find that stochastic cooperation improves the success of the S population over the competing D population, but at a price. As the probability of cheating by the S players increases they outcompete the D players but the total population becomes more ecologically unstable (i.e., the likelihood of its extinction grows). We investigate this trade off between evolutionary success and ecological stability and propose experiments using populations of yeast cells to test our predictions.
STOCHASTIC CONTROL NAFTALI HARRIS
May, J. Peter
STOCHASTIC CONTROL NAFTALI HARRIS Abstract. In this paper we discuss the Stochastic Control Problem wish to fly an airplane through turbulence, or manage a stock portfolio, or precisely maintain the Stochastic Control Problem formally. Finally, we will spend the latter half of this paper proving necessary
Stochastic amplification in epidemics
McKane, Alan
REPORT Stochastic amplification in epidemics David Alonso1, *, Alan J. McKane2 and Mercedes Pascual of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK The role of stochasticity and its interplay with nonlinearity are central, we present a stochastic theory for the major dynamical transitions in epidemics from regular
Vladimir Dzhunushaliev
2010-08-19
Stochastic Einstein equations are considered when 3D space metric $\\gamma_{ij}$ are stochastic functions. The probability density for the stochastic quantities is connected with the Perelman's entropy functional. As an example, the Friedman Universe is considered. It is shown that for the Friedman Universe the dynamical evolution is not changed. The connection between general relativity and Ricci flows is discussed.
Analytical Expressions for Parrondo Games
Lars Rasmusson; Magnus Boman
2002-12-02
We present some new analytical expressions for the so-called Parrondo effect, where simple coin-flipping games with negative expected value are combined into a winning game. Parrondo games are state-dependent. By identifying the game state variable, we can compute the stationary game state probabilities. Mixing losing games increases the probability of entering into a game state with positive value, as can be seen clearly from our analytical expressions for the Parrondo game value.
Effects of non-ideal switches in PWM switching converters
WISAM M. MOUSSA; JAMES E. MORRIS
1992-01-01
This paper presents new models that account for the non-ideal properties of semiconductor BJT switches responsible for the switching action in PWM converters. These models can be used for both the DC and small-signal AC analyses of PWM switching regulators. Terminal voltages and currents of the switching elements of the converter are related using switching functions which account for the
A delay model for noise-induced bi-directional switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Jinzhi; He, Guowei; Liu, Haoping; Nie, Qing
2009-12-01
Many biological systems can switch between two distinct states. Once switched, the system remains stable for a period of time and may switch back to its original state. A gene network with bistability is usually required for the switching and stochastic effect in the gene expression may induce such switching. A typical bistable system allows one-directional switching, in which the switch from the low state to the high state or from the high state to the low state occurs under different conditions. It is usually difficult to enable bi-directional switching such that the two switches can occur under the same condition. Here, we present a model consisting of standard positive feedback loops and an extra negative feedback loop with a time delay to study its capability to produce bi-directional switching induced by noise. We find that the time delay in the negative feedback is critical for robust bi-directional switching and the length of delay affects its switching frequency. This paper is published as part of a collection in honour of Todd Dupont's 65th birthday.
Jeroen Suijs
\\u000a This chapter provides the reader with a brief introduction into cooperative game theory, making the usual distinction between\\u000a games with transferable utility (TU-games) and games with non-transferable utility (NTU-games). We start with defining a mathematical\\u000a framework to describe cooperative decision making problems in general. Section 2.2 then shows under which conditions such\\u000a a problem gives rise to an NTU-game and
Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games
?ukasz Pawela; Jan S?adkowski
2013-05-07
Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox in cooperative quantum games and some interesting phenomena can be observed.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Levine, David K.
1997-01-01
David Levine, Professor of Economics at the University of California, Los Angeles has created a web site devoted to game theory. This site contains many useful resources on game theory including an introductory essay and a suggested reading list. There is also a collection of working papers by David Levine and coauthors on economic theory, mathematical economics and game theory. A highlight of the site is the availability of a 348 page book by Drew Fudenberg and David K. Levine, Theory of Learning in Games, in Acrobat format. The site also contains an on-line zero-sum game solver, an on-line forecaster and cooperative learning games (Java based).
Thermally actuated thermionic switch
Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.
1982-09-30
A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torrence, Bruce
2011-01-01
The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part III. Two-Person General-Sum Games 1. Bimatrix Games -- Safety Levels. 1.1 General-Sum Strategic Form Games. 1.2 General-Sum Extensive Form Games. 1.3 Reducing Extensive Form to Strategic Form. 1.4 Overview. 1.5 Safety Levels. 1.6 Exercises. 2. Noncooperative Games. 2
Video Game Engines Chris Pollett
Pollett, Chris
Video Game Engines Chris Pollett San Jose State University Dec. 1, 2005. #12;Outline · Introduction · Managing Game Resources · Game Physics · Game AI #12;Introduction · A Game Engine provides the core It also manages the behavior of non-player characters · The same game engine can be used for many
Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.
1983-12-21
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)
1986-01-01
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)
1982-01-01
An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.
Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations
Abdulle, Assyr, E-mail: assyr.abdulle@epfl.ch; Blumenthal, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.blumenthal@epfl.ch
2013-10-15
A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.
Distribution of supercurrent switching in graphene under the proximity effect.
Coskun, U C; Brenner, M; Hymel, T; Vakaryuk, V; Levchenko, A; Bezryadin, A
2012-03-01
We study the stochastic nature of switching current in hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions. We find that the dispersion of the switching current distribution scales with temperature as ?(I) proportional to T(?(G)) with ?(G) as low as 1/3. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known Josephson junction behavior where ?(I) proportional to T(?(J)) with ?(J)=2/3. We propose an explanation using a generalized version of Kurkijärvi's theory for the flux stability in rf-SQUID and attribute this anomalous effect to the temperature dependence of the critical current which persists down to low temperatures. PMID:22463661
Jeremy B. Muldavin; Gabriel M. Rebeiz
1999-01-01
This paper demonstrates the use of resonant tuning in high-isolation reflective MEMS electrostatic switches. Tuned switches can achieve higher isolation and a lower pulldown voltage than a comparable single element switch. An equivalent circuit model was developed for individual shunt capacitive membrane switches and then implemented in tuned circuits. The novel cross switch was developed on a high resistivity silicon.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Roger Woodard
In this game activity, students match correlation values with plots generated by the applet. Competition in this game setting encourages students to become more involved in the classroom and attainment of learning objectives.
Sheppard Software: Learning Games
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This collection of games, puzzles, and quizzes helps students learn world and U.S. geography, vocabulary, and trivia. There are also games for chemistry and math, and quizzes on animals, health, astronomy, and puzzles on endangered animals.
... Abusive Relationships Life After High School Confidence Babysitting: Time for Bed Game KidsHealth > Teens > Babysitting Center > Fun With Kids > Babysitting: Time for Bed Game Print A A A Text ...
... Nemours Foundation) Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) Michael's Inside Scoop: ... Safety Education) Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) Foodborne Illness Food ...
Games, puzzles, and computation
Hearn, Robert A. (Robert Aubrey), 1965-
2006-01-01
There is a fundamental connection between the notions of game and of computation. At its most basic level, this is implied by any game complexity result, but the connection is deeper than this. One example is the concept ...
... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Rebecca Teed
This site describes the pedagogy of teaching with games. Game-based learning uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate and engage them in learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeRosa, Bill
1988-01-01
Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)
Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design
Smith, Adam Marshall
2012-01-01
Finally, design level knowledge captures the linkage be-games. Postmortems capture knowledge of which design choicesknowledge speaks to the linkage between games and particular individual players or classes of players—it captures
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-08-27
This board game challenges players (ages 10+) to build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, players will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team (instructions are also provided for playing in large groups. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
This interactive Java game, played against the computer, develops strategic thinking while providing addition practice with with single-digit whole numbers. Players take turns selecting numbers from 1 through 9, trying to be the first to have exactly three numbers that sum to 15. The author provides some background and theory on the game as well as links to other interactive strategy games. An article with more information and adaptations, What is the Name of This Game?, is cataloged separately.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2005-12-05
Do you like to play video games? Did you know that in your future career you could design video games for youth just like you? Read the information on this site to learn what a video designer does and what classes you need to take in order to become one. You can also read about some famous current video game designers and about the games they have designed.
STOCHASTIC QUASI-NEWTON METHODS FOR NONCONVEX STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION
Ferguson, Thomas S.
STOCHASTIC QUASI-NEWTON METHODS FOR NONCONVEX STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION XIAO WANG , SHIQIAN MA , AND WEI LIU December 1, 2014 Abstract. In this paper we study stochastic quasi-Newton methods for nonconvex stochastic optimization, where we assume that only stochastic information of the gradients
Stochastic Differential Dynamic Logic for Stochastic Hybrid Programs
Stochastic Differential Dynamic Logic for Stochastic Hybrid Programs Andr´e Platzer April 2011 CMU of this report has appeared at CADE [Pla11]. #12;Keywords: Dynamic logic, proof calculus, stochastic differential equations, stochastic hybrid systems, stochastic processes, compositional verification #12;Abstract Logic
Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.
1994-09-27
A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michael Horton
2009-05-30
This activity is inquiry-based in that students will perform the activity before they formally learn about how a switch works. They will use a multimeter to discover the different settings on a triple-throw switch. The teacher should show the students how
Pieter Spronck
2001-01-01
Though the Palm is mainly a business tool, many games have been developed for it and more are published daily. This article starts by examining the status of game development on the Palm today. To give an indication on what designing guidelines a game developer for the Palm should take into account, several \\
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Henry
2005-01-01
Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…
Peter Takacs
2010-01-08
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
Peter Takacs
2008-10-21
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Talbot, R. J.
1973-01-01
Paper outlines a prototype group discussion game called GRIPS 1 (Gaming, Random Interfacing and Problem Structuring). Antecedents of the game included development and teaching problems related to a multi-disciplinary systemic approach to design problems, a strong interest in pre-problem solving activities (e.g. problem identification, goals…
Environmental Simulation Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bazan, Eugene J.
1976-01-01
Two of the problems associated with games and simulations developed for environmental education (limited player participation and lack of economic relationships) are addressed by outlining a framework within which further game development and evaluation may take place. Four games illustrating the application of this framework are outlined. (BT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eckalbar, John C.
2002-01-01
Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dye, Bryan
2002-01-01
A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)
Gaming: An Emergent Discipline.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duke, Richard D.
1995-01-01
This personal narrative traces the background of instructional gaming from 1958 to 1995. The advantages and disadvantages of gaming as a disciplined activity are considered. The evolution of professional organizations, related academic activity, the game design process, and the need for consistent use of terms are addressed. Contains 57…
Resource Allocation Games: A Priming Game for a Series of Instructional Games (The POE Game).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Layman E.
This paper describes in detail the paper-and-pencil POE (Pelham Odd 'R Even) game, in which units of space are the allocated resources. The game is designed to provide an introduction to the rule structure common to the games of EQUATIONS, WFF 'N PROOF, and ON-SENTS & NON-SENTS. Techniques of playing POE, including goals, solutions, moves, scoring…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corbin, Sandra J.
1980-01-01
Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-06-12
In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. Although practicing a mundane skill, learners enjoy the work because of the game scenario. Built into this game is cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg
2012-01-01
One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kisabeth, Kathryn L.
Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy
This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…
Comparative Video Game Criticism
Ian Bogost
2006-01-01
This article explores comparative criticism and video game software development through the figure of the bricoleur, the handyman who assembles units of preexisting meaning to form new structures. An intersection of these two domains—what the author calls comparative video game criticism—suggests a more intimate interrelation between criticism and production. The author offers a critique of functionalist approaches to video game
Ellen Wolock; Craig A. Anderson
2004-01-01
Reviews the longstanding and controversial topic of the effects of video game violence on children. Examines existing research and draws on personal experience and an interview with Doug Lowenstein, President of the Entertainment Software Association, for a view from the video game industry. Reports limitations on the significance of the research: some is short-term, on one type of game only,
Computer Games \\/ Cinema \\/ Interfaces
Geoff King; Tanya Krzywinska
2002-01-01
What is the relationship between computer games and cinema? Spin-off games based on major fi lm franchises are common, especially in genres such as science fi ction, action-adventure and horror. Some games have also made the transition to the big screen, none more prominently than the Tomb Raider series in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001). The potential benefi ts of
International Cooperative Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoppe, Christine
The book "Of Play and Playfulness" (Eastern Cooperative Recreation School, 1990) is recommended as a source of ideas for second language learning games. It describes folk dances, ideas for crafts, puppetry, games, and a variety of other activities from many countries. Several games from the book, easy to teach in a foreign language or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.
1980-01-01
Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)
Educational Games for Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos
2014-01-01
The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henderson, Bob
1997-01-01
During nine days of camping and canoe travel, games were used to promote teamwork and forge cohesive groups out of previously unacquainted college seniors. Types of games included icebreakers, gathering, change of pace, small group closure, large group closure. Eleven games are described. Includes the program's nine-day schedule. (SAS)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Games-To-Teach Project
This site is the archived version of the Games-to-Teach project, now hosted by The Education Arcade. The Games-to-Teach Project is a partnership between MIT and Microsoft to develop conceptual prototypes for the next generation of interactive educational entertainment. Included are details about prototype educational games.
Lukasiewicz Games Enrico Marchioni
Woolridge, Mike
-deterministic computer programs, and the over- all framework of Boolean games provides an elegant mathematical modelLukasiewicz Games Enrico Marchioni Institut de Recherche en Informatique de Toulouse UniversitÃ© of Oxford, UK mjw@cs.ox.ac.uk ABSTRACT Boolean games provide a simple, compact, and theoretically attrac
NSDL National Science Digital Library
These kids games from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise include: Droplet and the Water Cycle, where a droplet must be navigated through the hydrological cycle; What on Earth?, a game of earth trivia; word search puzzles, with hidden earth science words; Drag and Drop puzzles, to test one's ability to interpret satellite and composite images; a Pangaea map game; and a tectonics quiz.
Games, Simulations, Wittgenstein.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ken
1986-01-01
Wittgenstein's view about communicating meanings forms the basis for an examination of the Society for the Advancement of Games and Simulations in Education and Training's (SAGSET) definitions of games, simulations, and simulation games. The question of whether usage can be made consistent to ease communication with SAGSET nonmembers is addressed.…
Stochastic model of coliphage lambda regulatory network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yuping; Ouyang, Qi
2006-04-01
The dynamic properties of the regulatory network governing the choice between lytic and lysogenic growths of coliphage lambda is studied using a Markov chain stochastic model. Our computer simulation confirms the finding by Li [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004)] on the dynamics of budding yeast: that the biological stationary states are global attractors; the biological pathways of lytic and lysogenic growths are attracting trajectories; and the network functions are robustly designed against structural perturbations. In addition, our model shows the stochastic switch from lysogen to lytic growth, which has been observed in experiments. A definition of pseudoenergy is introduced in the network dynamics to reveal a transitionlike behavior in the system.
Transcription Stochasticity of Complex Gene Regulation Models
Schwabe, Anne; Rybakova, Katja N.; Bruggeman, Frank J.
2012-01-01
Transcription is regulated by a multitude of factors that concertedly induce genes to switch between activity states. Eukaryotic transcription involves a multitude of complexes that sequentially assemble on chromatin under the influence of transcription factors and the dynamic state of chromatin. Prokaryotic transcription depends on transcription factors, sigma-factors, and, in some cases, on DNA looping. We present a stochastic model of transcription that considers these complex regulatory mechanisms. We coarse-grain the molecular details in such a way that the model can describe a broad class of gene-regulation mechanisms. We solve this model analytically for various measures of stochastic transcription and compare alternative gene-regulation designs. We find that genes with complex multiprotein regulation can have peaked burst-size distributions in contrast to the geometric distributions found for simple models of transcription regulation. Burst-size distributions are, in addition, shaped by mRNA degradation during transcription bursts. We derive the stochastic properties of genes in the limit of deterministic switch times. These genes typically have reduced transcription noise. Severe timescale separation between gene regulation and transcription initiation enhances noise and leads to bimodal mRNA copy number distributions. In general, complex mechanisms for gene regulation lead to nonexponential waiting-time distributions for gene switching and transcription initiation, which typically reduce noise in mRNA copy numbers and burst size. Finally, we discuss that qualitatively different gene regulation models can often fit the same experimental data on single-cell mRNA abundance even though they have qualitatively different burst-size statistics and regulatory parameters. PMID:22995487
Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei
2015-06-01
Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.
Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.
Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei
2015-01-01
Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4?V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110?GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3?dB at 40?GHz), high isolation (30?dB at 40?GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35?THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890
Kennel, C.F. ); Edmiston, J.P. Univ. of Texas, Richardson )
1988-10-01
The authors argue that parallel propagating Alfven waves steepen to second order in the wave amplitude, rather than first order, as is the case for oblique MHD waves. They derive an analytical solution for the structure of weak switch-on shocks. The Rankine-Hugoniot relations fro finite amplitude switch-on shocks are obtained in a compact form. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks is solved, and the resistive critical Mach number is obtained. The differential equation for resistive switch-on shocks with finite ion inertia is identical to the one obtained in the pure resistive case. They argue that efficient electron heat conduction can significantly extend the range of upstream parameters for which switch-on shocks are expected.
Allen, James J.
2005-06-07
A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.
Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg
2015-01-01
The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...
Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Partington, Anthony
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…
Chapter 62 Game theory and experimental gaming
Martin Shubik
2002-01-01
This is a survey and discussion of work covering both formal game theory and experimental gaming prior to 1991. It is a useful preliminary introduction to the considerable change and emphasis which has taken place since that time where dynamics, learning, and local optimization have challenged the concept of noncooperative equilibria.
n Species impulsive migration model with Markovian switching.
Liu, Zijian; Zhong, Shouming; Teng, Zhidong
2012-08-21
An n species stochastic impulsive migration Lotka-Volterra model with Markovian switching in N different patches is presented and studied in this paper. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions, some sufficient conditions on the global positivity, the ultimate boundedness in mean and the extinction in mean are established. Real world examples are provided to illustrate the validity of our results. A discussion is given in the end. PMID:22609007
Quantum stochastic convolution cocycles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skalski, Adam
2006-08-01
A concept of quantum stochastic convolution cocycle is introduced and studied in two different contexts -- purely algebraic and operator space theoretic. A quantum stochastic convolution cocycle is a quantum stochastic process on a coalgebra satisfying the convolution cocycle relation and the initial condition given by the counit. The notion generalises that of quantum Levy process, which in turn is a noncommutative probability counterpart of classical Levy process on a group. Convolution cocycles arise as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations. In turn every sufficiently regular cocycle satisfies an equation of that type. This is proved along with the corresponding existence and uniqueness of solutions for coalgebraic quantum stochastic differential equations. The stochastic generators of unital *-homomorphic cocycles are characterised in terms of structure maps on a *-bialgebra. This yields a simple proof of the Schurmann Reconstruction Theorem for a quantum Levy process; it also yields a topological version for a quantum Levy process on a C*-bialgebra. Precise characterisation of the stochastic generators of completely positive and contractive quantum stochastic convolution cocycles in the C*-algebraic context is given, leading to some dilation results. A few examples are presented and some interpretations offered for quantum stochastic convolution cocycles and their stochastic generators on different types of *-bialgebra.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games 1. Take-Away Games. 1.1 A Simple Take-Away Game. 1.2 What is a Combinatorial Game? 1.3 P-positions, N-positions. 1.4 Subtraction Games. 1.5 Exercises. 2. The Game of Nim. 2.1 Preliminary Analysis. 2.2 Nim-Sum. 2.3 Nim With a Larger
Simulation gaming in nursing education.
Ulione, M S
1983-10-01
Simulation games can be used in nursing education to promote problem solving or to impart information. Most games focus upon one of the two areas: cognitive knowledge or affective knowledge. We call these types of games content games and process games, respectively. Simulation games of both types are used in nursing education. Since simulation gaming in nursing education is a relatively new teaching strategy much of its use has been haphazard. In order for a simulation game to be an effective teaching strategy; there must be a "fit" between the game and the instructional objectives. The game operator should analyze the components of each game used prior to playing the game, so he will be able to use the game appropriately. One disadvantage of gaming is that there is a risk of experiencing untoward reactions in the gaming experience. For this reason, the operator should support all the participants throughout the game. Finally, the game operator should assess the effectiveness of the gaming process through the debriefing session and through research. To extend our knowledge of the effects of simulation games, game operators can research the effect of simulation gaming on student motivation, cognitive learning, and affective learning. PMID:6319640
Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip
2014-02-01
Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.
Game Web Research at the UCI Game Lab
Scacchi, Walt
-virtual world boundary #12;14 Game Web Collaborative Work Spaces #12;Transforming Science, EngineeringGame Web Research at the UCI Game Lab Walt Scacchi and California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2) #12;Game Web as Culture and Technology · Games as immersive, experiential
Introduction to a Dedicated Issue on Game Theory and Gaming
Melvin F. Shakun
1972-01-01
The emphasis in this issue has been on game theory with six papers on game theory, one on gaming, and one relating game theory to gaming. Collectively, the first three papers present an overview of the subject area. The remaining five papers report on new research.
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs
Zhu, Xuding
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1
Computer Game Architecture 6a -Multi-Player Games
Gordon, Scott
Business / Training ("Serious Games", "performance engineering") o Education Examples: Star Wars The OldCSc 165 Computer Game Architecture 6a - Multi-Player Games & Networking CSc 165 Lecture Notes 6a - Multiplayer Games and Networking 2 Overview Application side: · Game Network Architectures · Networked Virtual
GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System
Chen, Sheng-Wei
, C. 2013.GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Com, to the cloud servers. With cloud gaming systems, users can: (i) avoid upgrading their computers, for the latest1 GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System CHUN-YING HUANG, National Taiwan Ocean
Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming
Eisert, Peter
Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming A. Jurgelionis1 , F. Bellotti2 , A. De video game streaming system. Newly developed streaming protocols and system architectures enable that the Games@Large system is capable of running video games of different genres, also including First Person
Game theoretic sensor management for target tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Douville, Philip; Yang, Chun; Kadar, Ivan
2010-04-01
This paper develops and evaluates a game-theoretic approach to distributed sensor-network management for target tracking via sensor-based negotiation. We present a distributed sensor-based negotiation game model for sensor management for multi-sensor multi-target tacking situations. In our negotiation framework, each negotiation agent represents a sensor and each sensor maximizes their utility using a game approach. The greediness of each sensor is limited by the fact that the sensor-to-target assignment efficiency will decrease if too many sensor resources are assigned to a same target. It is similar to the market concept in real world, such as agreements between buyers and sellers in an auction market. Sensors are willing to switch targets so that they can obtain their highest utility and the most efficient way of applying their resources. Our sub-game perfect equilibrium-based negotiation strategies dynamically and distributedly assign sensors to targets. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate our sensor-based negotiation approach for distributed sensor management.
Phenotypic switching in gene regulatory networks.
Thomas, Philipp; Popovi?, Nikola; Grima, Ramon
2014-05-13
Noise in gene expression can lead to reversible phenotypic switching. Several experimental studies have shown that the abundance distributions of proteins in a population of isogenic cells may display multiple distinct maxima. Each of these maxima may be associated with a subpopulation of a particular phenotype, the quantification of which is important for understanding cellular decision-making. Here, we devise a methodology which allows us to quantify multimodal gene expression distributions and single-cell power spectra in gene regulatory networks. Extending the commonly used linear noise approximation, we rigorously show that, in the limit of slow promoter dynamics, these distributions can be systematically approximated as a mixture of Gaussian components in a wide class of networks. The resulting closed-form approximation provides a practical tool for studying complex nonlinear gene regulatory networks that have thus far been amenable only to stochastic simulation. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in a number of genetic networks, uncovering previously unidentified dynamical characteristics associated with phenotypic switching. Specifically, we elucidate how the interplay of transcriptional and translational regulation can be exploited to control the multimodality of gene expression distributions in two-promoter networks. We demonstrate how phenotypic switching leads to birhythmical expression in a genetic oscillator, and to hysteresis in phenotypic induction, thus highlighting the ability of regulatory networks to retain memory. PMID:24782538
Resonance with Stochastic Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Toru
2010-06-01
We introduce a resonant phenomenon using a model incorporating delay (temporal non-locality) and stochastic time (temporal stochasticity). Although this model is a very simple linear dynamical differential equation, the addition of these elements makes it very rich. As an illustrative example, we describe a human stick balancing experiment that includes added fluctuations. We discuss how these concepts of temporal non-locality and stochasticity could play a role in characterizing biological and physiological systems, as well as in physics.
Introduction to stochastic cooling
van der Meer, S.
1987-02-26
The principles of stochastic cooling will be discussed with the emphasis on a qualitative explanation of the most interesting points, such as -how to circumvent Liouville's theorem -time domain and frequency domain viewpoint and their correspondence (mixing, beam feedback) -betatron cooling and momentum cooling; how filters are used to improve momentum cooling -stochastic stacking -how to make wide-band pick-ups and kickers -future developments -electron cooling vs stochastic cooling
Stochastic Pairwise Alignments Ulrike Mucksteina
Stadler, Peter F.
Stochastic Pairwise Alignments Ulrike MÂ¨ucksteina , Ivo L. Hofackera, , and Peter F. Stadlera between structure based alignments and large samples of stochastic alignments shows that the ensemble significantly from the structural alignment. Ensembles of suboptimal alignments obtained by stochastic
SLOB: a switch with large optical buffers for packet switching
David K. Hunter; W. David Cornwell; Tim H. Gilfedder; A. Franzen; I. Andonovic
1998-01-01
Recently, optical packet switch architectures, composed of devices such as optical switches, fiber delay lines, and passive couplers, have been proposed to overcome the electromagnetic interference (EMI), pinout and interconnection problems that would be encountered in future large electronic switch cores. However, attaining the buffer size (buffer depth) in optical packet switches required in practice is a major problem; in
Electromechanical magnetization switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem
2015-03-01
We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.
Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Bartelt, Terry L. M.
We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.
Photoconductive switch package
Ca[rasp, George J
2013-10-22
A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.
Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.
1994-07-19
A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambrano, Samuel; Bianchi, Marco E.; Agresti, Alessandra; Molina, Nacho
2015-08-01
Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process that depends on the structure of the biochemical regulatory network in which the gene is embedded. Here we study the dynamical consequences of the interplay between stochastic gene switching and the widespread negative feedback regulatory loop in a simple model of a biochemical regulatory network. Using a simplified hybrid simulation approach, in which only the gene activation is modeled stochastically, we find that stochasticity in gene switching by itself can induce pulses in the system, providing also analytical insights into their origin. Furthermore, we find that this simple network is able to reproduce both exponential and peaked distributions of gene active and inactive times similar to those that have been observed experimentally. This simplified hybrid simulation approach also allows us to link these patterns to the dynamics of the system for each gene state.
Phase-shifts in stochastic resonance in a Chua circuit
Wojciech Korneta; Iacyel Gomes; Claudio R. Mirasso; Raul Toral
2007-10-29
We present an experimental study of stochastic resonance in an electronic Chua circuit operating in the chaotic regime. We study in detail the switch-phase distribution and the phase-shift between sinusoidal forcing for two responses of the circuit: one depending on both inter-well and intra-well dynamics and the other depending only on inter-well dynamics. We describe the two relevant de-synchronizatrion mechanisms for high and low frequencies of the forcing and present a method to detect the optimal noise intensity from switch phases which coincides with the one derived from the observation of the signal-to-noise ratio or residence times.
Gaming in Early Childhood Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels
This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
2007-01-01
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part IV. Games in Coalitional Form 1. Many-Person TU Games. 1 they work apart. The assumption of superadditivity is not needed for some of the theory of coalitional games.1 Coalitional Form. Characteristic Functions. 1.2 Relation to Strategic Form. 1.3 Constant-Sum Games. 1
Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.
1987-04-30
The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.
Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.
Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.
2009-09-01
Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, Jr., Calvin L. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A solar array switching (SASU) unit (22) according to the present invention includes a control system (24), a solar cell array (26) and switch circuits (28). The SASU unit (22) is associated with a power card (30) for receiving an output from the array (26). The array (26) has a number (0.5Y) of rows (38) each of which includes a pair of cell strings (42) separated by one of the switch circuits (28). Each of the strings (42) includes a number (X) of cells in electrical series. The SASU (22) switches the array (26) between a short string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes Y strings of X length, and a long string configuration where the array (26) effectively includes 0.5Y strings of 2X length. The SASU (22) thereby facilitates the use of solar power for space missions where solar intensity, operating temperature or other factors vary significantly.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).
Drinking games adolescents play.
Pedersen, W
1990-11-01
In a study of 1230 Norwegian adolescents aged 14-19, the prevalence of participation in 'drinking games' and the consequences thereof were investigated. The findings indicate that drinking games are very common among Norwegian youth. Further, there is a substantially higher alcohol consumption among those who participate in these games than among other youth, even when we 'control' for other indicators of network 'wetness'. In particular, a high consumption of beer among the boys seems to be connected with these games. It seems reasonable to assume that the drinking games are of importance for many young people, in particular as a means of being accepted by social groups of the same age. The games provide an organized, yet exciting frame around the interaction. It seems reasonable to assume that the participants usually take part in the games as a result of an intention to drink. Even so, it might be argued that the games are probably often more than 'neutral tools' to fulfil this intention: first of all, the games involve intense contact precisely in connection with alcohol consumption. Secondly, we know from previous studies that match rates and role modelling in connection with consumption increase with an increase in the intensity of group member contact. Finally, the individual member loses control and steering of his/her own consumption to a large extent: consumption becomes to a large degree a function of other people's actions and the rules of the game in question. PMID:2285845
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilcoyne, Michael K.; Beccue, Stephen M.; Brar, Berinder; Robinson, G.; Pedrotti, Kenneth D.; Haber, William A.
1990-07-01
Advances in high performance computers and signal processing systems have led to parallel system architectures. The main limitation in achieving the performance expected of these parallel systems has been the realization of an efficient means to interconnect many processors into a effective parallel system. Electronic interconnections have proved cumbersome, costly and ineffective. The Optical Fiber Crossbar Switch (OFCS) is a compact low power, multi-gigahertz bandwidth multi-channel switch which can be used in large scale computer and telecommunication applications. The switch operates in the optical domain using GaAs semiconductor lasers to transmit wideband multiple channel optical data over fiber optic cables. Recently, a 32 X 32 crossbar switching system was completed and demonstrated. Error free performance was obtained at a data bandwidth of 410 MBPS, using a silicon switch IC. The switch can be completely reconfigured in less than 50 nanoseconds under computer control. The fully populated OFCS has the capability to handle 12.8 gigabits per second (GBPS) of data while switching this data over 32 channels without the loss of a single bit during switching. GaAs IC technology has now progressed to the point that 16 X 16 GaAs based crossbar switch Ics are available which have increased the data bandwidth capability to 2.4 GBPS. The present optical interfaces are integrated GaAs transmitter drivers, GaAs lasers, and integrated GaAs optical receivers with data bandwidths exceeding 2.4 GBPS. A system using all Ill-V switching and optoelectronic components is presently under development for both NASA and DoD programs. The overall system is designed to operate at 1.3 GBPS. It is expected that these systems will find wide application in high capacity computing systems based on parallel microprocessor architecture which require high data bandwidth communication between processors. The OFCS will also have application in commercial optical telecommunication systems where high bandwidth communication has already exceeded 2 GBPS. There are also critical requirements for a secure fiber optic switching system in military Command Control Communication (C3) situations.
Optical shutter switching matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grove, Charles H.
1991-01-01
The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game
Morrow, James A.
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game Will Johnson June 9, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Sums of Knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I Combinatorial Game Theory 23 2 Introduction 24 2.1 Combinatorial Game Theory in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2
Optimal control of switched linear systems based on Migrant Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Fuqiang; Wang, Yongji; Zheng, Zongzhun; Li, Chuanfeng
2009-10-01
The optimal control problem for switched linear systems with internally forced switching has more constraints than with externally forced switching. Heavy computations and slow convergence in solving this problem is a major obstacle. In this paper we describe a new approach for solving this problem, which is called Migrant Particle Swarm Optimization (Migrant PSO). Imitating the behavior of a flock of migrant birds, the Migrant PSO applies naturally to both continuous and discrete spaces, in which definitive optimization algorithm and stochastic search method are combined. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is illustrated via a numerical example.
A radiation hard vacuum switch
Boettcher, G.E.
1988-07-19
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.
Statistical Mechanics of Games ? Evolutionary Game Theory
Mitsuru KIKKAWA
2008-01-01
(Resume is available at http:\\/\\/kikkawa.cyber-ninja.jp\\/index.htm ) Abstract This paper formulates evolutionary game theory with a new concept using statistical mechanics. This study analyzes the following situations: each player on the lattice plays a game with its nearest neighbor or with a randomly matched player. These situations are formulated using an analogy with the Ising model and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, the
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Instantaneous stochastic perturbation theory
Martin Lüscher
2014-12-17
A form of stochastic perturbation theory is described, where the representative stochastic fields are generated instantaneously rather than through a Markov process. The correctness of the procedure is established to all orders of the expansion and for a wide class of field theories that includes all common formulations of lattice QCD.
Amplification by stochastic interference
K. Svozil; D. Felix; K. Ehrenberger
2002-11-19
A new method is introduced to obtain a strong signal by the interference of weak signals in noisy channels. The method is based on the interference of 1/f noise from parallel channels. One realization of stochastic interference is the auditory nervous system. Stochastic interference may have broad potential applications in the information transmission by parallel noisy channels.
Simon Hochgerner
2010-02-10
We mimic the stochastic Hamiltonian reduction of Lazaro-Cami and Ortega [17, 18] for the case of certain non-holonomic systems with symmetries. Using the non-holonomic connection it is shown that the drift of the stochastically perturbed $n$-dimensional Chaplygin ball is a certain gradient of the density of the preserved measure of the deterministic system.
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
Professional, Applied & Continuing Education SERIOUS GAMES CERTIFICATE
Martin, Jeff
to Game Engines (21 Hours) Project Whitecard Inc. is known for ground breaking success using video game as government and industry around the world. Project Whitecard creates Video Games, Learning Games, TrainingProfessional, Applied & Continuing Education SERIOUS GAMES CERTIFICATE
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NSDL National Science Digital Library
Terry Kawas
2009-10-09
This blog post presents a game that provides provides practice in locating positions on a coordinate grid. A downloadable PDF document includes the game board, optional game pieces, directions and a recording sheet.
Borenstein, Greg
2015-01-01
Tabletop games and digital games offer designers divergent affordances and provide players with different kinds of pleasures. Tabletop games excel at creating rich and immediate social interactions. They require players ...
National Indian Gaming Commission
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.
Combinatorial optimization games
Deng, X.; Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi
1997-06-01
We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Jackson, Peter L.
This game is a computer simulation of retailers and wholesaler inventory systems. We play the game before we introduce EOQ and safety stock theory. The students soon get a feel for tradeoffs between ordering and inventory costs. We follow this trial and error experiment by a presentation of the theory. Students are then asked to apply the theory to the game's parameters and rerun it. The game captures several issues of inventory management as they relate to cost minimization and service level. These include order quantities, lead time, reorder points and safety stocks. This game can be used effectively to reinforce these concepts. The real strength of the game, however, is that it captures other aspects of inventory management that are typically missing from operations management text books. These are mainly the multiple echelon ordering system and pipeline stock.
Ole-Christoffer Granmo; B. John Oommen
2010-01-01
In a multitude of real-world situations, resources must be allocated based on incomplete and noisy information. However, in many cases, incomplete and noisy information render traditional resource allocation techniques ineffective. The decentralized Learning Automata Knapsack Game (LAKG) was recently proposed for solving one such class of problems, namely the class of Stochastic Nonlinear Fractional Knapsack Problems. Empirically, the LAKG was
Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.
2007-10-01
The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
WGBH
2009-01-01
In this invention challenge activity, learners create an indoor game for one or two people that gets you moving. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to play an “imagine new uses for old things” game to play before the activity. Learners will also brainstorm activities that get people up and moving and follow the design process to invent a game, including the equipment and rules for playing it.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
This lesson uses the context of a two-person game to develop the concepts of prime and composite numbers as well as strategic thinking. The game may be played on paper or with an online applet (cataloged separately). Students analyze the results of first moves to arrive at an effective game strategy. The included student worksheet (pdf) extends the range of numbers played and introduces students to abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
G. Patrick Vennebush.
2008-01-01
In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. The score sheet used for this game provides a built-in assessment tool that teachers can use to check their students' understanding. This game also provides an opportunity for cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2010-10-24
In this game, which is similar to Petals Around the Rose (cataloged separately), a player rolls 5 dice and asks the participants, “How many polar bears are around the ice holes?” The participants try to figure out the riddle (rules of the game) by studying the dice arrangements and the answers that correspond. This webpage extends the game to have players also determine the number of fish and plankton.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
These games are intended to help prepare students for the New York State Regent's Exams, but may be used by anyone to review science topics in a fun, interactive atmosphere. Subjects include Earth science, geology, astrononomy, and chemistry. Users are asked a question, and if they choose the correct answer, may attempt to score points in the game setting. A teacher's page provides information on how to search the site to locate games on specific topics.
Evolution with Stochastic Fitness and Stochastic Migration
Rice, Sean H.; Papadopoulos, Anthony
2009-01-01
Background Migration between local populations plays an important role in evolution - influencing local adaptation, speciation, extinction, and the maintenance of genetic variation. Like other evolutionary mechanisms, migration is a stochastic process, involving both random and deterministic elements. Many models of evolution have incorporated migration, but these have all been based on simplifying assumptions, such as low migration rate, weak selection, or large population size. We thus have no truly general and exact mathematical description of evolution that incorporates migration. Methodology/Principal Findings We derive an exact equation for directional evolution, essentially a stochastic Price equation with migration, that encompasses all processes, both deterministic and stochastic, contributing to directional change in an open population. Using this result, we show that increasing the variance in migration rates reduces the impact of migration relative to selection. This means that models that treat migration as a single parameter tend to be biassed - overestimating the relative impact of immigration. We further show that selection and migration interact in complex ways, one result being that a strategy for which fitness is negatively correlated with migration rates (high fitness when migration is low) will tend to increase in frequency, even if it has lower mean fitness than do other strategies. Finally, we derive an equation for the effective migration rate, which allows some of the complex stochastic processes that we identify to be incorporated into models with a single migration parameter. Conclusions/Significance As has previously been shown with selection, the role of migration in evolution is determined by the entire distributions of immigration and emigration rates, not just by the mean values. The interactions of stochastic migration with stochastic selection produce evolutionary processes that are invisible to deterministic evolutionary theory. PMID:19816580
Stochastic Differential Dynamic Logic for Stochastic Hybrid Programs
Platzer, André
Stochastic Differential Dynamic Logic for Stochastic Hybrid Programs Andr´e Platzer Carnegie Mellon, hybrid systems, and distributed systems. Some applications also have a stochastic behav- ior, however chronically underdeveloped in the context of stochastic hybrid systems, i.e., systems with interacting
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part II. Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 1. The Strategic Form of a Game.4 The Minimax Theorem. 1.5 Exercises. 2. Matrix Games. Domination. 2.1 Saddle Points. 2.2 Solution of All 2 by 2 Matrix Games. 2.3 Removing Dominated Strategies. 2.4 Solving 2 Ã? n and m Ã? 2 Games. 2.5 Latin Square
Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health
Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.
2011-01-01
Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Video games may now have officially reached a new level of cultural and social importance, especially since PBS (and station affiliate KCTS) have seen fit to create this very interactive and informative site to complement their recent television special, "The Video Game Revolution". The television program tells the history of video games, starting all the way back in 1952, and proceeding all the way to the current home systems. Of course, this website offers a great deal of material to delight aficionados of this cultural phenomenon, including an interactive timeline of video game history and Flash-enabled specials on the impact of gaming, and of course the somewhat forgotten (but not totally gone) phenomenon of that old shopping mall standby, the arcade. The arcade that's featured on the site offers users the ability to play an old classic game (Galaga) and a "Name that Game" feature, where visitors must guess the game based on a brief sound clip. Of course, the Scout Report would be remiss if it didn't also mention that there's a Celebrity Game Quiz, which features such questions as "Which member of the Rat Pack appeared in a 1970s commercial for Magnavox?" If you can't wait to get to the site, it was Mr. Ring a Ding Ding himself, Frances Albert Sinatra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Lankveld, Giel; Schreurs, Sonny; Spronck, Pieter; van den Herik, Jaap
The behavior of a human player in a game expresses the personality of that player. Personality is an important characteristic for modeling the player's profile. In our research we use the five factor model of personality, in which extraversion is a notable factor. Extraversion is the human tendency of being sensitive to rewards. This often results in humans seeking socially rewarding situations. Extraversion plays a prominent part in the in-game behavior of a player. The in-game behavior can be decomposed in 20 different in-game elements.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Lawrence Hall of Science
1980-01-01
In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.
Static Quantum Games Revisited
Marcin Markiewicz; Adrian Kosowski; Tomasz Tylec; Jaroslaw Pykacz; Cyril Gavoille
2010-03-23
The so called \\emph{quantum game theory} has recently been proclaimed as one of the new branches in the development of both quantum information theory and game theory. However, the notion of a quantum game itself has never been strictly defined, which has led to a lot of conceptual confusion among different authors. In this paper we introduce a new conceptual framework of a \\emph{scenario} and an \\emph{implementation} of a game. It is shown that the procedures of "quantization" of games proposed in the literature lead in fact to several different games which can be defined within the same scenario, but apart from this they may have nothing in common with the original game. Within the framework we put forward, a lot of conceptual misunderstandings that have arisen around "quantum games" can be stated clearly and resolved uniquely. In particular, the proclaimed essential role of entanglement in several static "quantum games", and their connection with Bell inequalities, is disproved.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Computers can now compete with humans not only in chess, but also in the board game Go. Go involves two players who each try to surround a territory with stones of their color. The player who gains the most territory (mostly by surrounding his opponent these with his own stones) wins the game. Dutch researcher Erik van der Werf, with funding from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, "achieved a world first" with a program that can solve the Go game for a 5x5 playing board. This article briefly describes the game and the technique used to develop the program.
Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya
2014-01-01
Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.
Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.
2014-09-01
Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation.
Entanglement Guarantees Emergence of Cooperation in Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma Games on Networks
Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi
2014-01-01
It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold , then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases. PMID:25190217
Aaland, K.
1983-08-09
A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.
Stochastic evolutionary dynamics resolve the Traveler's Dilemma
Manapat, Michael L.; Rand, David G.; Pawlowitsch, Christina; Nowak, Martin A.
2012-01-01
Behavior in social dilemmas is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory: people (and a wide variety of other organisms) are more cooperative than might be expected. Here we consider behavior in one such social dilemma, the Traveler's Dilemma, that has received considerable attention in the economics literature but is little known among theoretical biologists. The rules of the game are as follows. Two players each choose a value between R and M, where 0 < R < M. If the players choose the same value, both receive that amount. If the players choose different values v1 and v2, where v1 < v2, then the player choosing v1 earns v1 + R and the player choosing v2 earns v1 ? R. While the players would maximize their payoffs by both declaring the largest possible value, M, the Nash equilibrium is to declare the smallest possible value, R. In behavioral experiments, however, people generally declare values much larger than the minimum and the deviation from the expected equilibrium decreases with R. In this paper, we show that the cooperative behavior observed in the Traveler's Dilemma can be explained in an evolutionary framework. We study stochastic evolutionary dynamics in finite populations with varying intensity of selection and varying mutation rate. We derive analytic results showing that strategies declaring high values can be favored when selection is weak. More generally, selection favors strategies that declare high values if R is small (relative to M) and strategies that declare low values if R is large. Finally, we show that a two-parameter model involving the intensity of selection and the mutation rate can quantitatively reproduce data that from a Traveler's Dilemma experiment. These results demonstrate the power of evolutionary game theory for explaining human behavior in contexts that are challenging for standard economic game theory. PMID:22465111
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach
Huang, Jianwei
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach Chenye Wu@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Due to the stochastic nature of wind power, its large-scale integration into the power grid-side resources via pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and fluctuations in wind power generation
Dynamic switch matrix for the TDMA satellite switching system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, P. T.; Wisniewski, J. H.; Pelose, J. R.; Perasso, H. M.
1982-01-01
Future high capacity satellite communication systems require signal processing on board satellites. The on-board signal processing includes switching of RF signals between multiple antennas to provide interconnection between the uplink and downlink beams. This paper describes the development of a dynamic switch matrix for a TDMA satellite switching system to be used in the next generation communications satellites. In this paper, a dynamic switch matrix, which includes the microwave switch matrix, the distribution control unit and the timing source, will be described. Several different microwave switch matrix architectures and switching devices were evaluated and compared. A unique coupler crossbar switch matrix architecture with dual-gate field effect transistor as switching element was developed. Experimental results of both microwave switch matrix (MSM) and distribution control unit (DCU) are presented. These test results verify the MSM with coupler crossbar architecture and dual-gate FET as switching element will meet the future SS-TDMA system requirements. Finally, the reliability of the dynamic switch matrix is addressed. The analysis shows reliability of 0.9981 for 7 year space operation can be achieved for the designed dynamic switch matrix.
Optical computer switching network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.
1985-01-01
The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.
Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch
Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-05-11
A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, N. J. (inventor)
1968-01-01
A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.
Mihalka, A.M.
1984-06-05
The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.
John Gough
2005-11-06
We discuss stochastic derivations, stochastic Hamiltonians and the flows that they generate, algebraic fluctuaion-dissipation theorems, etc., in a language common to both classical and quantum algebras. It is convenient to define distinct notions of time-ordered exponentials to take account of the breakdown of the Leibniz rule in the Ito calculus. We introduce a notion of quantum Stratonovich calculus and show how it relates to Stratonovich-Dyson time ordered exponentials. We then use it to demonstrate a natural way to add stochastic derivations.
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
Hybrid solid state switch replaces motor- driven power switch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Booth, R. A.; Schloss, A. I.
1967-01-01
Hybrid solid state switch replaces existing motor-driven power switches used on spacecraft. It uses a transistor circuit to limit the open circuit voltage and allow small relay contacts to handle high transient currents at reasonable cycle life.
How input fluctuations reshape the dynamics of a biological switching system
Hu, Bo; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert
2012-01-01
An important task in quantitative biology is to understand the role of stochasticity in biochemical regulation. Here, as an extension of our recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 148101 (2011)], we study how input fluctuations affect the stochastic dynamics of a simple biological switch. In our model, the on transition rate of the switch is directly regulated by a noisy input signal, which is described as a nonnegative mean-reverting diffusion process. This continuous process can be a good approximation of the discrete birth-death process and is much more analytically tractable. Within this new setup, we apply the Feynman-Kac theorem to investigate the statistical features of the output switching dynamics. Consistent with our previous findings, the input noise is found to effectively suppress the input-dependent transitions. We show analytically that this effect becomes significant when the input signal fluctuates greatly in amplitude and reverts slowly to its mean.
Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach
Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung-Phil; Cho, Yang Seok
2015-01-01
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; “switching,” “mutual rush,” “mutual avoidance,” and “unfair” patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with “switching” and “mutual avoidance” patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the “unfair” and “mutual rush” patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B.P. 93 2004 Route of South Australia The Levels, Australia, 5095 Abstract This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions
Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games
Kaiser, £ukasz
Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games Lukasz Kaiser kaiser@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen Computer Science Logic 2006 Lukasz Kaiser (RWTH Aachen) Game Quantifier on Automatic Structures 1 / 21 #12;Overview Introduction Logic with Game Quantifier Hierarchical
Digital Game-Based Learning: Towards an Experiential Gaming Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiili, Kristian
2005-01-01
Online games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide engaging learning experiences for students. However, a model that successfully integrates educational theory and game design aspects do not exist. Thus, in this paper an experiential gaming model that is based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game…
Quantum games and social norms. The quantum ultimatum game
R. Vilela Mendes
2002-08-27
The noncooperative Nash equilibrium solution of classical games corresponds to a rational expectations attitude on the part of the players. However, in many cases, games played by human players have outcomes very different from Nash equilibria. A restricted version of quantum games is proposed to implement, in mathematical games, the interplay of self-interest and internalized social norms that rules human behavior.
Quantum games and social norms. The quantum ultimatum game
Mendes, R V
2002-01-01
The noncooperative Nash equilibrium solution of classical games corresponds to a rational expectations attitude on the part of the players. However, in many cases, games played by human players have outcomes very different from Nash equilibria. A restricted version of quantum games is proposed to implement, in mathematical games, the interplay of self-interest and internalized social norms that rules human behavior.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alden, Lori
2003-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Todd, Ed.
A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…
Gaming in Technology Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
British Broadcasting Corporation
How would you handle a volcano diasater? In this game, you've just been appointed chief of the Emergency Management Agency for Bluebear County. Everyone is counting on you to handle the eruption of Mount Spur. Download this game to find out. Before you play, make sure Flash is installed on your computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.
2009-01-01
A number of years have passed since the development of the "Voyager: Satellites" educational card game reported in "Physics Education" in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the feedback received…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirsch, Christian R.
1975-01-01
Using a set of worksheets, students will discover and apply Euler's formula regarding connected planar graphs and play and analyze the game of Sprouts. One sheet leads to the discovery of Euler's formula; another concerns traversability of a graph; another gives an example and a game involving these ideas. (Author/KM)
Infinite Games and Uniformization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Wolfgang
The problem of solvability of infinite games is closely connected with the classical question of uniformization of relations by functions of a given class. We work out this connection and discuss recent results on infinite games that are motivated by the uniformization problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VerBruggen, Robert
2012-01-01
Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna
2012-01-01
Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat
2015-01-01
Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…
Koch, Christof; Buice, Michael A
2015-10-01
The digital reconstruction of a slice of rat somatosensory cortex from the Blue Brain Project provides the most complete simulation of a piece of excitable brain matter to date. To place these efforts in context and highlight their strengths and limitations, we introduce a Biological Imitation Game, based on Alan Turing's Imitation Game, that operationalizes the difference between real and simulated brains. PMID:26451478
Ein-Ya Gura; Michael Maschler
Few branches of mathematics have been more influential in the social sciences than game theory. In recent years, it has become an essential tool for all social scientists studying the strategic behaviour of competing individuals, firms and countries. However, the mathematical complexity of game theory is often very intimidating for students who have only a basic understanding of mathematics. Insights
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avalone-King, Deborah
2000-01-01
Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)
Games on Sustainable Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara
This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials (many…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Thomas W.; Jenkins, John
The Household Energy Game has been developed to provide some indication of energy use and individual management. The game is divided into two sections. In the first section, one is to devise one's own energy budget. Energy use is calculated in the areas of transportation, heating, hot water, air conditioning, and appliances. In each of these major…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckman, Steven R.
2003-01-01
Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)
Environmental Education Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of General and Academic Education.
Six environmental education simulation games are presented in this manual, developed by Project SESAME G (Susquehanna ESEA Synergetic Activities for Maximal-involvement via Education Games). The simulations are models of social situations which provide an opportunity for social interaction in the classroom, maximize student involvement, and change…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shor, Mikhael
2003-01-01
States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Daniel; Melnychuk, Nancy
2009-01-01
In recent times, physical education teachers have become increasingly aware of the "games-understanding approach" to teaching. As more physical education teachers implement physical education programs that include a games-understanding model, they are becoming increasingly in need of appropriate and authentic assessment strategies. If one accepts…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Landman, Greisy Winicki
2005-01-01
Mathematical games provide wonderful opportunities to engage students in meaningful and rich mathematical investigations. This article describes three mathematical games suitable to be played by different groups of students, from young elementary school students, learning the basics of arithmetic and geometry, to older students making their first…
Ward, Andrea K; O'Brien, Heather L
2005-01-01
Nurse orientees regularly express concern about managing difficult clinical situations. Using this information, preceptors developed an educational "adventure" game, incorporating clinical scenarios applicable to an inpatient psychiatric treatment program. The scenarios are timeless and can be generalized to other healthcare settings. This game has proven to be fun, effective, and nonthreatening and it integrates easily into staff training. PMID:15731643
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Colorado Plateau Climate Science and Solutions Partnership
In this interactive, regionally-relevant carbon cycle game, students are challenged to understand the role of carbon in global climate change. They imagine that they are carbon molecules and travel via different processes through carbon reservoirs on the Colorado Plateau (the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). This game can be adapted to other regions.
Bearingless switched reluctance motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.
Game Theory Professional Journals
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Shor, Mike
This website has a wealth of resources on game theory and its applications to economics, business, political science, computer science, and other disciplines. Some of the resources include links to journals, associations, teaching resources, and major web portals. From the links provided, visitors can read about the history of game theory, experiment with games that demonstrate key concepts in a fun, interactive way, and review course syllabi and other relevant documents on game theory. The collection is intended to provide resources that make the material more approachable for students. Educators are requested to submit lecture notes, teaching strategies, comments on textbooks, or other suggestions; while students are encouraged to submit commentary on their experiences with learning game theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Aguzzi, Manuela; Peldszus, Regina
2010-02-01
As countermeasure to heavy workloads or monotony, astronauts have drawn on leisure activities imported from Earth or invented in situ. Aside from consumption of media, physical exercise, Earth observation, communication with ground or crew and the practising of instruments, also games play an important role. With a few exceptions, the emphasis, however, lies on virtual games and software applications. A review of play activities in orbit and their benefits to date suggests a need for additional recreational opportunities. In response, an interactive strategy game for use in microgravity is presented that relies on interlocking sphere-shaped game pieces in order to make the most of the kinetic and sensory potential of reduced gravity conditions. Aside from the play value and aesthetics of this reconfigurable modular game structure, the activity may help maintain and enhance manual dexterity, mental alertness and sociability amongst the crew. The design solution and prototype are presented and needs for further research and development are outlined.
Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.
2009-08-29
This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, John Maynard
1986-10-01
It is often the case that the best thing for an animal or plant to do depends on what other members of the population are doing. In more technical language, the fitnesses of different phenotypes are frequency-dependent. Evolutionary game theory has been developed to analyse such cases. In this paper I aim to do three things. First, I describe the concepts of evolutionary game theory in the context of a simple game, the Hawk-Dove game, and compare them with the concepts of classical game theory originating with Von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953) [1]. Second, I list some of the applications of the theory. Finally, I suggest how the theory can tell us something about the evolution of learning.
Zhang, Liye; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua
2015-04-01
Evolutionary game theory is crucial to capturing the characteristic interaction patterns among selfish individuals. In a population of coordination games of two strategies, one of the central problems is to determine the fixation probability that the system reaches a state of networkwide of only one strategy, and the corresponding expectation times. The deterministic replicator equations predict the critical value of initial density of one strategy, which separates the two absorbing states of the system. However, numerical estimations of this separatrix show large deviations from the theory in finite populations. Here we provide a stochastic treatment of this dynamic process on complex networks of finite sizes as Markov processes, showing the evolutionary time explicitly. We describe analytically the effects of network structures on the intermediate fixations as observed in numerical simulations. Our theoretical predictions are validated by various simulations on both random and scale free networks. Therefore, our stochastic framework can be helpful in dealing with other networked game dynamics. PMID:25974547
Math Games for the Young Child.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Azzolino, Agnes
This is a textbook of games for children of ages two through seven. In each section, games are listed from the basic to the more sophisticated and advanced. The book contains sections addressing: (1) counting and counting games; (2) travel games; (3) card games; (4) board games; and (5) games and activities with other things. (PK)
Opportunities for Game Culture and Technology in
Scacchi, Walt
.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi Computer Games in Libraries · A little background on game culture and technology · New game opportunities for public libraries · Libraries as community centers for games culture and technology #12;2 Game Culture participation Library-specific games · Inter-library game grid MLS as virtual public network of online
Game theory - a very short introduction
Ken Binmore
2007-01-01
Games are everywhere: Drivers manoeuvring in heavy traffic are playing a driving game. Bargain hunters bidding on eBay are playing an auctioning game. A firm negotiating next year's wage is playing a bargaining game. The opposing candidates in an election are playing a political game. The supermarket's price for corn flakes is decided by playing an economic game. Game theory
Solving games Dependence of applicable solving procedures
Kuzmanov, Georgi
outperform the human masters in the game? Secondly, can it determine the game-theoretic value of a game when. In this paper we will focus predominantly on solved games - those games for which this game-theoretic value introduce an alternative concept to determine the solv- ability of two-player games with perfect information
Automatically Generating Game Tactics via Evolutionary Learning
Spronck, Pieter
-controlled opponents in video games is called game AI. Adaptive game AI can improve the entertainment value of games the time and effort needed to create adaptive game AI. Introduction Today's video games are becomingAutomatically Generating Game Tactics via Evolutionary Learning Marc Ponsen H´ector Mu
A Game Development Platform for Serious
Cooper, Kendra M.L.
©2012 SimSYS A Game Development Platform for Serious Educational Games Creating Game-Based Learning. Serious games have significant pedagogical potential as they provide immersive, engaging and fun for advancing further into the game. Fundamentally integrating serious games into curricula, i.e., creating game
Multi Protocol Label Switching Multi-Protocol Label Switching
Multi Protocol Label Switching Pag. 1 MPLS Multi-Protocol Label Switching Network Management and Qo Group firstname.lastname@polito.it http://www.telematica.polito.it/ MPLS: introduction Â· MPLS ( Multi "longest prefix matching" #12;Multi Protocol Label Switching Pag. 2 MPLS: the basic idea Â· Routing based
Spring, William Joseph
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
The Terrific Technicolor Action Game.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guhin, Paula
2002-01-01
Describes a game that focuses on the color wheel and other topics that can be used with upper-elementary or middle school students as a test review. Includes lists of the game rules, what is needed for the game, and suggested questions for the game. (CMK)
Evolutionary game Karl Sigmund* and
Sigmund, Karl
The evolution of cooperation through reciprocation is a particularly extensive chapter of evolutionary game, the theory of evolution has benefited from the interaction of ecology with economics. Evolutionary game theory belongs to this tradition: it merges population ecology with game theory. Game theory originally
Video Games: Competing with Machines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanson, Jarice
This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pill, Shane
2012-01-01
"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…
Martin Müller
Two kinds of theories have traditionally influenced computer game playing: Classical game theory, with its minimax principle, and specialized theories developed for a particular game. In addition to these, combinatorial game theory promises to be useful for computer Go. We propose a model for Go based on this theory and discuss our preliminary implementation. We claim that future Go programs
Games on graphs Milos Stojakovic
Stojakovic, Milos
Games on graphs Milos StojakoviÂ´c Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia milos.stojakovic@dmi.uns.ac.rs http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/smilos/ Abstract. Positional Games is a branch of Combinatorics which focuses on a variety of two player games, ranging from well-known games
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson University of California at Los Angeles INTRODUCTION. Game theory is a fascinating subject. We all know many entertaining games, such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, bridge, baseball, computer games -- the list is quite varied and almost endless. In addition, there is a vast area
Stages for Children Inventing Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Joy
2013-01-01
This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…
Video game programming: tutorial presentation
Chong-wei Xu; Steven Stewart
2004-01-01
Almost everyone likes to play video games, especially young students. The reason is that video games are interesting, attractive, and promote brainstorming. May they be used as a teaching tool to attract students' attention and to make teaching tools for presenting visualizations? This idea promoted an investigation of game programming. 3D video game programs are a combination of computer graphics,
Classifying input for active games
Tadeusz Stach; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Matthew Brehmer; Andreas Hollatz
2009-01-01
Active games are video games that involve physical activity. Active games capture input via a variety of devices such as accelerometers, cameras, pressure sensors and exercise equipment. Although active games have become highly popular, the interaction styles they support are poorly understood, and largely driven by the capabilities of individual hardware devices. In order to allow for a standard development
Situating Ethics in Games Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Joy
2013-01-01
This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…