Note: This page contains sample records for the topic stochastic switching games from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Stochastic Differential Game Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This development of readily computable strategies for differential games with noise corrupted measurements was hampered by the so called closure problem of stochastic differential games. The solutions required either an infinite dimensional dynamic system...

B. Mons

1982-01-01

2

On Nonterminating Stochastic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic game is played in a sequence of steps; at each step the play is said to be in some state i, chosen from a finite collection of states. If the play is in state i, the first player chooses move k and the second player chooses move l, then the first player receives a reward akl<\\/sup>i<\\/sub>, and, with

A. J. Hoffman; R. M. Karp

1966-01-01

3

Stochastic Games with Finitary Objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of a reactive system with respect to an omega-regular specifica- tion requires the solution of a graph game. Such games have been extended in two natural ways. First, a game graph can be equipped with probabilistic choices between alternative transitions, thus allowing the modeling of uncertain behavior. These are called stochastic games. Second, a liveness specification can be

Krishnendu Chatterjee; Thomas A. Henzinger; Florian Horn

2009-01-01

4

Stochastic Games with Finitary Objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of a reactive system with respect to an ?-regular specification requires the solution of a graph game. Such games have been extended in two natural ways. First, a game graph can be equipped with probabilistic choices between alternative transitions, thus allowing the modeling of uncertain behavior. These are called stochastic games. Second, a liveness specification can be strengthened to require satisfaction within an unknown but bounded amount of time. These are called finitary objectives. We study, for the first time, the combination of stochastic games and finitary objectives. We characterize the requirements on optimal strategies and provide algorithms for computing the maximal achievable probability of winning stochastic games with finitary parity or Streett objectives. Most notably, the set of states from which a player can win with probability 1 for a finitary parity objective can be computed in polynomial time, even though no polynomial-time algorithm is known in the nonfinitary case.

Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Horn, Florian

5

Parrondo's games with chaotic switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the different effects of chaotic switching on Parrondo's games, as compared to random and periodic switching. The rate of winning of Parrondo's games with chaotic switching depends on coefficient(s) defining the chaotic generator, initial conditions of the chaotic sequence and the proportion of Game A played. Maximum rate of winning can be obtained with all the above mentioned factors properly set, and this occurs when chaotic switching approaches periodic behavior.

Tang, Tze Wei; Allison, Andrew G.; Abbott, Derek

2004-05-01

6

Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Cardaliaguet@univ-brest.fr; Rainer, Catherine [Universite de Brest, Laboratoire de Mathematique (UMR CNRS 6205) (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2009-02-15

7

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

8

Stochastic game approach to air operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A command and control (C2) problem for military air operations is addressed. Specifically, we consider C2 problems for air vehicles against ground-based targets and defensive systems. The problem is viewed as a stochastic game. We restrict our attention to the C2 level where the problem may consist of a few unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) or aircraft (or possibly teams

William M. McEneaney; Ben G. Fitzpatrick; Istvan G. Lauko

2004-01-01

9

Stochastic game of life in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic game of life (SGL) which simulates the dynamic evolution of a society of living organisms in the presence of noise is introduced. The SGL exhibits a very rich critical behavior with many critical edges at the irreversible phase transitions: extinction-life and life-overcrowding. Furthermore, within the living phase, critical edges at transitions between chaotic and frozen life are also found.

Monetti, Roberto A.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

1997-02-01

10

Evolutionary game on a stochastic growth network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some real complex systems the structures are difficult to map or changing over time. To explore the evolution of strategies on these complex systems, it is not realistic enough to specify their structures or topological properties in advance. In this paper, we address the evolutionary game on a stochastic growth network adopting the prisoner's dilemma game. We introduce a growing rate q to control the ratio of network growth to strategy evolution. A large q denotes that the network grows faster than strategy evolution. Simulation results show that a fast growing rate is helpful to promote the average payoffs of both cooperators and defectors. Moreover, this parameter also significantly influences the cooperation frequency on the resulting networks. The coexisting mechanisms in this paper may provide a beneficial insight for understanding the emergence of complex topological structures and game behaviors in numerous real systems.

Li, Gang; Jin, Xiao-Gang; Song, Zhi-Huan

2012-12-01

11

Stochastic simulations of genetic switch systems.  

PubMed

Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors are studied using deterministic methods (rate equations) and stochastic methods (the master equation and Monte Carlo simulations). These systems exhibit bistability, namely two stable states such that spontaneous transitions between them are rare. Induced transitions may take place as a result of an external stimulus. We study several variants of the genetic switch and examine the effects of cooperative binding, exclusive binding, protein-protein interactions, and degradation of bound repressors. We identify the range of parameters in which bistability takes place, enabling the system to function as a switch. Numerous studies have concluded that cooperative binding is a necessary condition for the emergence of bistability in these systems. We show that a suitable combination of network structure and stochastic effects gives rise to bistability even without cooperative binding. The average time between spontaneous transitions is evaluated as a function of the biological parameters. PMID:17358364

Loinger, Adiel; Lipshtat, Azi; Balaban, Nathalie Q; Biham, Ofer

2007-02-09

12

Bet-hedging in stochastically switching environments.  

PubMed

We investigate the evolution of bet-hedging in a population that experiences a stochastically switching environment by means of adaptive dynamics. The aim is to extend known results to the situation at hand, and to deepen the understanding of the range of validity of these results. We find three different types of evolutionarily stable strategies (ESSs) depending on the frequency at which the environment changes: for a rapid change, a monomorphic phenotype adapted to the mean environment; for an intermediate range, a bimorphic bet-hedging phenotype; for slowly changing environments, a monomorphic phenotype adapted to the current environment. While the last result is only obtained by means of heuristic arguments and simulations, the first two results are based on the analysis of Lyapunov exponents for stochastically switching systems. PMID:23899941

Müller, J; Hense, B A; Fuchs, T M; Utz, M; Pötzsche, Ch

2013-07-27

13

Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games

Hamlen, Karla R.

2012-01-01

14

Competitive Advertising Under Uncertainty: A Stochastic Differential Game Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze optimal advertising spending in a duopolistic market where each firm's market share depends on its own and its competitor's advertising decisions, and is also subject to stochastic disturbances. We develop a differential game model of advertising in which the dynamic behavior is based on the Sethi stochastic advertising model and the Lanchester model of combat. Particularly important to

A. Prasad; S. P. Sethi

2004-01-01

15

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

16

Stochastic current switching behavior in semiconductor superlattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation results are presented for a discrete drift-diffusion model that describes electronic transport in weakly-coupled semiconductor superlattices under voltage bias and also includes shot noise in the tunneling currents. Sequential resonant tunneling between quantum wells is the primary conduction mechanism and noise terms are treated as delta-correlated in space and time. We study the response of this system to abrupt steps in applied voltage in a range for which the current-voltage characteristics exhibit bistability. The system switches from a metastable state to a stable state with a stochastically varying delay time, a process corresponding to relocation of charge density from one (critical) quantum well to an adjacent one. We find that the mean delay time ? varies as ?V - Vth^3/2 where V and Vth denote, respectively, the system voltage and the voltage at the boundary of the bistability range [1]; ? also depends exponentially on the cross-sectional area of the superlattice. An effective one-dimensional potential energy is constructed for the charge density in the critical quantum well. We find that noise contributions of the quantum wells far from the critical well have a significant effect on the switching process. [1] O. A. Tretiakov and K. A. Matveev, Phys. Rev. B. 71, 165326 (2005).

Teitsworth, Stephen; Xu, Huidong

2009-03-01

17

A nonzero-sum stochastic differential game in the orthant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a nonzero-sum stochastic differential game where the state is a controlled reflecting diffusion in the nonnegative orthant. Under certain conditions, we establish the existence of Nash equilibria in stationary strategies for both discounted and average payoff criteria.

Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Kumar, K. Suresh

2005-05-01

18

Stochastic Plan Optimization in Real-Time Strategy Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a domain independent off-line adaptation technique called Stochastic Plan Optimization for find- ing and improving plans in real-time strategy games. Our method is based on ideas from genetic algorithms but we utilize a different representation for our plans and an alternate initialization procedure for our search process. The key to our technique is the use of expert plans

Andrew Trusty; Santiago Ontañón; Ashwin Ram

2008-01-01

19

Zero-sum linear quadratic stochastic integral games and BSVIEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formulates and studies a linear quadratic (LQ for short) game problem governed by linear stochastic Volterra integral equation. Sufficient and necessary condition of the existence of saddle points for this problem are derived. As a consequence we solve the problems left by Chen and Yong in [3]. Firstly, in our framework, the term GX^2(T) is allowed to be

Tianxiao Wang; Yufeng Shi

2010-01-01

20

A Stochastic Game Model on Overseas Cargo Container Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a stochastic game model that comparatively evaluates alternatives for improving container security. The players are an attacker who plans to send a nuclear weapon, and a defender who considers two alternatives at two nodes of interdiction along the supply chain. The attacker can choose the path of the container, the method of intrusion and the target, whereas

Niyazi Onur Bakir; Erim Kardes

2009-01-01

21

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks.  

PubMed

Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive functions, such as task switching and filtering out distracting information, are less well understood. In the main experiment presented here, video game players (VGPs) and nonplayers (nVGPs) switched between two tasks of unequal familiarity: a familiar task of responding in the direction indicated by an arrow, and a novel task of responding in the opposite direction. nVGPs had large response time costs for switching from the novel task to the familiar task, and small costs for switching from the familiar task to the novel task, replicating prior findings. However, as compared to the nVGPs, VGPs were more facile in switching between tasks, producing overall smaller and more symmetric switching costs, suggesting that experience with action video games produces improvements in executive functioning. In contrast, VGPs and nVGPs did not differ in filtering out the irrelevant flanking stimuli or in remembering details of aurally presented stories. The lack of global differences between the groups suggests that the improved task-switching performance seen in VGPs was not due to differences in global factors, such as VGPs being more motivated than nVGPs. PMID:22415446

Cain, Matthew S; Landau, Ayelet N; Shimamura, Arthur P

2012-05-01

22

Exclusion rules, bottlenecks and the evolution of stochastic phenotype switching  

PubMed Central

Stochastic phenotype switching—often considered a bet hedging or risk-reducing strategy—can enhance the probability of survival in fluctuating environments. A recent experiment provided direct evidence for an adaptive origin by showing the de novo evolution of switching in bacterial populations propagated under a selective regime that captured essential features of the host immune response. The regime involved strong frequency-dependent selection realized via dual imposition of an exclusion rule and population bottleneck. Applied at the point of transfer between environments, the phenotype common in the current environment was assigned a fitness of zero and was thus excluded from participating in the next round (the exclusion rule). In addition, also at the point of transfer, and so as to found the next bout of selection, a single phenotypically distinct type was selected at random from among the survivors (the bottleneck). Motivated by this experiment, we develop a mathematical model to explore the broader significance of key features of the selective regime. Through a combination of analytical and numerical results, we show that exclusion rules and population bottlenecks act in tandem as potent selective agents for stochastic phenotype switching, such that even when initially rare, and when switching engenders a cost in Malthusian fitness, organisms with the capacity to switch can invade non-switching populations and replace non-switching types. Simulations demonstrate the robustness of our findings to alterations in switching rate, fidelity of exclusion, bottleneck size, duration of environmental state and growth rate. We also demonstrate the relevance of our model to a range of biological scenarios such as bacterial persistence and the evolution of sex.

Libby, Eric; Rainey, Paul B.

2011-01-01

23

Slow Stochastic Switching by Collective Chaos of Fast Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupled dynamical systems with one slow element and many fast elements are analyzed. By averaging over the dynamics of the fast variables, the adiabatic kinetic branch is introduced for the dynamics of the slow variable in the adiabatic limit. The dynamics without the limit are found to be represented by stochastic switching over these branches mediated by the collective chaos of the fast elements, while the switching frequency shows a complicated dependence on the ratio of the two time scales with some resonance structure. The ubiquity of the phenomena in the slow-fast dynamics is also discussed.

Aoki, Hidetoshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

2013-10-01

24

Stability of stochastic nonlinear switched systems with average dwell time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the stability of nonlinear stochastic switched systems with delay. By using the Razumikhin method and the average dwell time approach, some sufficient criteria of stability are derived. It is shown that when the Lyapunov-like functions are decreasing in all active subsystems, the switched system is pth-moment exponentially stable. Moreover, it is also shown that under some conditions the system can be pth-moment stable and global asymptotically stable, where the Lyapunov-like functions are increasing on some intervals. The effectiveness of the proposed results is illustrated by two examples.

Wu, Xiaotai; Yan, Litan; Zhang, Wenbing; Tang, Yang

2012-03-01

25

Neural mechanism for stochastic behaviour during a competitive game.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can generate highly stochastic choice behaviour, especially when this is required during a competitive interaction with another agent. To understand the neural mechanism of such dynamic choice behaviour, we propose a biologically plausible model of decision making endowed with synaptic plasticity that follows a reward-dependent stochastic Hebbian learning rule. This model constitutes a biophysical implementation of reinforcement learning, and it reproduces salient features of behavioural data from an experiment with monkeys playing a matching pennies game. Due to interaction with an opponent and learning dynamics, the model generates quasi-random behaviour robustly in spite of intrinsic biases. Furthermore, non-random choice behaviour can also emerge when the model plays against a non-interactive opponent, as observed in the monkey experiment. Finally, when combined with a meta-learning algorithm, our model accounts for the slow drift in the animal's strategy based on a process of reward maximization. PMID:17015181

Soltani, Alireza; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2006-10-01

26

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

SciTech Connect

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15

27

Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game  

PubMed Central

In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors).

Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

2013-01-01

28

Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game.  

PubMed

In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986

Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

2013-01-01

29

Stochastic differential games with weak spatial and strong informational coupling  

SciTech Connect

We formulate a parameterized family of linear quadratic two-person nonzero-sum stochastic differential games where the players are weakly coupled through the state equation and strongly coupled through the measurements. A positive parameter {epsilon} characterizes this family, in terms of which the subsystems are coupled (weakly). With {epsilon} = 0 the problem admits a unique Nash equilibrium solution, while {epsilon} > 0, no matter how small, no general method is available to obtain the Nash equilibrium solution and even to prove existence and uniqueness. In this paper, we develop an iterative technique whereby Nash solutions of all orders (in terms of {epsilon}) are obtained by starting the iteration with the unique (strong team) solution determined for {epsilon} = 0. The Nash solutions turnout to be linear, requiring only finite-dimensional controllers, in spite of the fact that a separation (of estimation and control) result does not hold.

Basar, T.; Srikant, R.

1990-01-01

30

Discrete games of chance as models for continuous stochastic transport processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete games of chance can be used to illustrate principles of stochastic processes. For example, most readers are familiar with the use of discrete random walks to model the microscopic phenomenon of Brownian motion. We show that discrete games of chance, such as those of Parrondo and Astumian, can be used to quantitatively model stochastic transport processes. Discrete games can be used as "toy" models for pedagogic purposes but they can be much more than "toys". In principle we could perform accurate simulations and we could reduce the errors of approximation to any desired level, provided that we were prepared to pay the computational cost. We consider some different approaches to discrete games, in the literature, and we use partial differential equations to model the particle densities inside a Brownian Ratchet. We apply a finite difference approach and obtain finite difference equations, which are equivalent to the games of Parrondo. The new games generalize Parrondo"s original games, in the context of stochastic transport problems. We provide a practical method for constructing sets of discrete games, which can be used to simulate stochastic transport processes. We also attempt to place discrete games, such as those of Parrondo and Astumian, on a more sound philosophical basis.

Allison, Andrew G.; Abbott, Derek

2003-05-01

31

Development of stochastic dynamic Nash game model for reservoir operation. I. The symmetric stochastic model with perfect information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing water demands, higher standards of living, depletion of resources of acceptable quality and excessive water pollution due to agricultural and industrial expansions have caused intense social and political predicaments, and conflicting issues among water consumers. The available techniques commonly used in reservoir optimization/operation do not consider interaction, behavior and preferences of water users, reservoir operator and their associated modeling procedures, within the stochastic modeling framework. In this paper, game theory is used to present the associated conflicts among different consumers due to limited water. Considering the game theory fundamentals, the Stochastic Dynamic Nash Game with perfect information (PSDNG) model is developed, which assumes that the decision maker has sufficient (perfect) information regarding the associated randomness of reservoir operation parameters. The simulated annealing approach (SA) is applied as a part of the proposed stochastic framework, which makes the PSDNG solution conceivable. As a case study, the proposed model is applied to the Zayandeh-Rud river basin in Iran with conflicting demands. The results are compared with alternative reservoir operation models, i.e., Bayesian stochastic dynamic programming (BSDP), sequential genetic algorithm (SGA) and classical dynamic programming regression (DPR). Results show that the proposed model has the ability to generate reservoir operating policies, considering interactions of water users, reservoir operator and their preferences.

Ganji, Arman; Khalili, Davar; Karamouz, Mohammad

2007-03-01

32

Stochastic two-target pursuit-evasion differential games in the plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic version of a two-target homicidal chauffeur, pursuit-evasion differential game (using polar coordinates) is considered. This is used to model a dogfight between a very agile playerQ and a less maneuverable playerP. First, the case where both players have complete observation of the state of the game is considered. A numerical study is conducted, by solving numerically a nonlinear

Y. Yavin

1988-01-01

33

Chaotic switching in a two-person game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study robust long-term complex behaviour in the Rock-Scissors-Paper game with two players, played using reinforcement learning. The complex behaviour is connected to the existence of a heteroclinic network for the dynamics. This network is made of three heteroclinic cycles consisting of nine equilibria and the trajectories connecting them. We provide analytical proof both for the existence of chaotic switching near the heteroclinic network and for the relative asymptotic stability of at least one cycle in the network, leading to some trajectories paying alternate visits to only two nodes while others follow a complicated sequence of visits to all nodes in the network. Our results are obtained by making use of the symmetry of the original problem, a new approach in the context of learning, and they provide an explanation of numerical results previously obtained by other authors.

Aguiar, Manuela A. D.; Castro, Sofia B. S. D.

2010-08-01

34

Optimal selection policy for a flexible manufacturing cell using optimal stochastic switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection problem in a system consisting of a flexible manufacturing cell, L production lines and an assembly machine is discussed. The flexible manufacturing cell feeds the production lines, and the production lines feed the assembly machine. The selection problem is dealt with here by using the theory of optimal stochastic switching with switching costs

YAAKOV YAVIN

1994-01-01

35

Game Theoretic Stochastic Routing for Fault Tolerance and Security in Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Game-Theoretic Stochastic Routing (GTSR) framework, a proactive alternative to today's reactive approaches to route repair. GTSR minimizes the impact of link and router failure by (1) computing multiple paths between source and destination and (2) selecting among these paths randomly to forward packets. Besides improving fault-tolerance, the fact that GTSR makes packets take random paths from source

Stephan Bohacek; João Pedro Hespanha; Junsoo Lee; Chansook Lim; Katia Obraczka

2007-01-01

36

Power control and rate adaptation as stochastic games for random access  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the random access problem from the perspective of a stochastic game. We allow selfish as well as cooperative users to select their retransmission strategies depending on several performance requirements, which involve throughput, delay and transmission costs. We first consider a simple slotted collision channel with packet capture capabilities in the presence of multiple transmissions. We

Yalin Evren Sagduyu; Anthony Ephremides

2003-01-01

37

Callers and satellites: chorus behaviour in anurans as a stochastic dynamic game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Males often compete for mates using alternative tactics whose relative success could be simultaneously influenced by four factors: subsequent behaviour, physiological state, the frequency of expression of alternative tactics and the density of competing males. Here the payoffs to two alternative male mating tactics (call and satellite) were examined in anurans using a stochastic dynamic game. The basic model considers

JEFFREY R. LUCAS; RICHARD D. HOWARD; JOSEPH G. PALMER

1996-01-01

38

Evolving Q-learners for stochastic games: Study on video game agent controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the control mechanisms for the agents of modern video games is one of the main tasks involved in the game design process. This task grows in complexity as either the number of different game agents or the number of possible actions increase. An alternative mechanism to avoid hard-coding of agent controllers is the use of learning mechanisms

L. Peña; J.-M. Peña; S. Ossowski; P. Herrero

2010-01-01

39

An optical model for implementing Parrondo's game and designing stochastic game with long-term memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical model of classical photons propagating through array of many beam splitters is developed to give a physical analogy of Parrondo's game and Parrondo-Harmer-Abbott game. We showed both the two games are reasonable game without so-called game paradox and they are essentially the same. We designed the games with long-term memory on loop lattice and history-entangled game. The strong correlation between nearest two rounds of game can make the combination of two losing game win, lose or oscillate between win and loss. The periodic potential in Brownian ratchet is analogous to a long chain of beam splitters. The coupling between two neighboring potential wells is equivalent to two coupled beam splitters. This correspondence may help us to understand the anomalous motion of exceptional Brownian particles moving in the opposite direction to the majority. We designed the capital wave for a game by introducing correlations into independent capitals instead of sub-games. Playing entangled quantum states in many coupled classical games obey the same rules for manipulating quantum states in many body physics.

Si, Tieyan

2012-11-01

40

Making Greed Work in Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Switch Service Disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are twobasic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrativecontrol is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfishuser behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. Thiseffect is investigated in a simple model consisting of a

Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

41

Educating children in stochastic modeling: Games with stochastic urns and colored tinker-cubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an established opinion that young children have good probabilistic intuitions although their mental framework for reasoning probabilistically may be fragmentary and even contain inconsistencies. We join the camp of mathematics educators who advocate an early training in stochastic thinking. We recognize, however, that such early training can only be based on a heuristic approach to stochastics. The heuristic

Laura Martignon; Elke Kurz-Milcke

2006-01-01

42

Minimax games for stochastic systems subject to relative entropy uncertainty: applications to SDEs on Hilbert spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider minimax games for stochastic uncertain systems with the pay-off being a nonlinear functional of\\u000a the uncertain measure where the uncertainty is measured in terms of relative entropy between the uncertain and the nominal\\u000a measure. The maximizing player is the uncertain measure, while the minimizer is the control which induces a nominal measure.\\u000a Existence and uniqueness

Nasir Uddin Ahmed; Charalambos D. Charalambous

2007-01-01

43

TWO-PERSON ZERO-SUM LINEAR QUADRATIC STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL GAMES BY A HILBERT SPACE METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open-loop two-person zero-sum linear quadratic (LQ for short) stochastic difierential game is considered. The controls for both players are al- lowed to appear in both the drift and difiusion of the state equation, the weight- ing matrices in the payofi\\/cost functional are not assumed to be deflnite\\/non- singular, and the cross-terms between two controls are allowed to appear. A

Libin Mou; Jiongmin Yong

2006-01-01

44

Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model  

SciTech Connect

We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

Donnelly, Catherine, E-mail: C.Donnelly@hw.ac.uk [Heriot-Watt University, Department of Actuarial Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15

45

Evolutionary dynamics on stochastic evolving networks for multiple-strategy games.  

PubMed

Evolutionary game theory on dynamical networks has received much attention. Most of the work has been focused on 2×2 games such as prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift, with general n×n games seldom addressed. In particular, analytical methods are still lacking. Here we generalize the stochastic linking dynamics proposed by Wu, Zhou, Fu, Luo, Wang, and Traulsen [PLoS ONE 5, e11187 (2010)] to n×n games. We analytically obtain that the fast linking dynamics results in the replicator dynamics with a rescaled payoff matrix. In the rescaled matrix, intuitively, each entry is the product of the original entry and the average duration time of the corresponding link. This result is shown to be robust to a wide class of imitation processes. As applications, we show both analytically and numerically that the biodiversity, modeled as the stability of a zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, cannot be altered by the fast linking dynamics. In addition, we show that the fast linking dynamics can stabilize tit-for-tat as an evolutionary stable strategy in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game provided the interaction between the identical strategies happens sufficiently often. Our method paves the way for an analytical study of the multiple-strategy coevolutionary dynamics. PMID:22181231

Wu, Bin; Zhou, Da; Wang, Long

2011-10-21

46

DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games  

PubMed Central

The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility.

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Leeuwen, Pieter J.A.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P.M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

47

DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games.  

PubMed

The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. "First Person Shooter" (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility. PMID:21833191

Colzato, Lorenza S; van Leeuwen, Pieter J A; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-04-21

48

The Stability of a Stochastic CaMKII Switch: Dependence on the Number of Enzyme Molecules and Protein Turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular switches have been implicated in the storage of information in biological systems. For small structures such as synapses, these switches are composed of only a few molecules and stochastic fluctuations are therefore of importance. Such fluctuations could potentially lead to spontaneous switch reset that would limit the lifetime of information storage. We have analyzed a model of the calcium\\/calmodulin-dependent

Paul Miller; Anatol M. Zhabotinsky; John E. Lisman; Xiao-Jing Wang

2005-01-01

49

Theory of superconductive-resistive switching in nanowires due to heating by stochastic phase slips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the stochastic dynamics of superconductive-to-resistive switching in hysteretic current-biased superconducting nanowires undergoing phase-slip fluctuations. We assume that the hysteresis is thermal in nature, and postulate that the mechanism for the switching is thermal runaway, i.e. rare sequences of stochastic phase slips, closely spaced in time, that heat the nanowire. Thus, via the master-equation formalism, we obtain the distribution of currents at which switching occurs. If switching were caused by single, thermally-activated phase-slip events then this distribution would narrow as the temperature is reduced. However, at higher temperatures we find that several phase-slip events are typically necessary for inducing switching, and this results in an initial broadening of the distribution upon cooling. Quite generally, we predict that at low temperatures thermal runaway is caused by a single phase-slip event. Thus, measurements of switching-current distributions in this regime are a direct probe of this basic collective process. In particular, this regime could yield observations of individual quantum phase slips in nanowires.

Shah, Nayana; Pekker, David; Goldbart, Paul

2008-03-01

50

Pulsar State Switching from Markov Transitions and Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

Cordes, J. M.

2013-09-01

51

Numerical and experimental study of stochastic resistive switching.  

PubMed

In this paper we study the role of noise in the context of resistive switching phenomena by means of experiments and numerical simulations. Experiments are conducted on a manganite sample. We show that the addition of external Gaussian noise to a small amplitude driving signal yields a contrast ratio between low- and high-resistance states, comparable to that obtained by the application of a large amplitude noiseless signal. Furthermore, excellent agreement between numerical simulation and measurement allows us to study resistive switching under varying input conditions and, thus, properly characterize the beneficial role of noise. We believe these results might be of relevance in the area of memory devices where the large scale of electronic integration renders the presence of noise unavoidable. PMID:23410304

Patterson, G A; Fierens, P I; García, A A; Grosz, D F

2013-01-22

52

Time delay induced transition of gene switch and stochastic resonance in a genetic transcriptional regulatory model  

PubMed Central

Background Noise, nonlinear interactions, positive and negative feedbacks within signaling pathways, time delays, protein oligomerization, and crosstalk between different pathways are main characters in the regulatory of gene expression. However, only a single noise source or only delay time in the deterministic model is considered in the gene transcriptional regulatory system in previous researches. The combined effects of correlated noise and time delays on the gene regulatory model still remain not to be fully understood. Results The roles of time delay on gene switch and stochastic resonance are systematically explored based on a famous gene transcriptional regulatory model subject to correlated noise. Two cases, including linear time delay appearing in the degradation process (case I) and nonlinear time delay appearing in the synthesis process (case II) are considered, respectively. For case I: Our theoretical results show that time delay can induce gene switch, i.e., the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the high concentration state to the low concentration state ("on"?"off"). With increasing the time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further accelerated. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be enhanced by both the time delay and correlated noise intensity. However, the additive noise original from the synthesis rate restrains the stochastic resonance. It is also very interesting that a resonance bi-peaks structure appears under large additive noise intensity. The theoretical results by using small-delay time-approximation approach are consistent well with our numerical simulation. For case II: Our numerical simulation results show that time delay can also induce the gene switch, however different with case I, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from the low concentration state to the high concentration state ("off"?"on"). With increasing time delay, the transition from "on" to "off" state can be further enhanced. Moreover, it is found that the stochastic resonance can be weaken by the time delay. Conclusions The stochastic delay dynamic approach can identify key physiological control parameters to which the behavior of special genetic regulatory systems is particularly sensitive. Such parameters might provide targets for pharmacological intervention. Thus, it would be highly interesting to investigate if similar experimental techniques could be used to bring out the delay-induced switch and stochastic resonance in the stochastic gene transcriptional regulatory process.

2012-01-01

53

Passivity analysis for stochastic Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the passivity problem for the stochastic Markovian switching genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays is investigated. By applying control theory and mathematical tools, a sufficient condition for this problem is obtained and presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily verified by Matlab LMI toolbox. The obtained condition provides some insight into synthetic biology and systems biology. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed result.

Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li

2011-08-01

54

Stochastic modeling of bipolar resistive switching in metal-oxide based memory by Monte Carlo technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model of the resistive switching mechanism in bipolar metal-oxide based resistive random access memory (RRAM)\\u000a is presented. The distribution of electron occupation probabilities obtained is in agreement with previous work. In particular,\\u000a a low occupation region is formed near the cathode. Our simulations of the temperature dependence of the electron occupation\\u000a probability near the anode and the cathode

Alexander Makarov; Viktor Sverdlov; Siegfried Selberherr

2010-01-01

55

The effect of action video game experience on task-switching  

PubMed Central

There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal.

Green, C.Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A.; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier

2012-01-01

56

The effect of action video game experience on task-switching.  

PubMed

There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal. PMID:22393270

Green, C Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier

2012-05-01

57

Transition from Gaussian to Levy distributions of stochastic payoff variations in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed.

Perc, Matjaž

2007-02-01

58

The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.

Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin

2013-10-01

59

Bridging time scales in cellular decision making with a stochastic bistable switch  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular transformations which involve a significant phenotypical change of the cell's state use bistable biochemical switches as underlying decision systems. Some of these transformations act over a very long time scale on the cell population level, up to the entire lifespan of the organism. Results In this work, we aim at linking cellular decisions taking place on a time scale of years to decades with the biochemical dynamics in signal transduction and gene regulation, occuring on a time scale of minutes to hours. We show that a stochastic bistable switch forms a viable biochemical mechanism to implement decision processes on long time scales. As a case study, the mechanism is applied to model the initiation of follicle growth in mammalian ovaries, where the physiological time scale of follicle pool depletion is on the order of the organism's lifespan. We construct a simple mathematical model for this process based on experimental evidence for the involved genetic mechanisms. Conclusions Despite the underlying stochasticity, the proposed mechanism turns out to yield reliable behavior in large populations of cells subject to the considered decision process. Our model explains how the physiological time constant may emerge from the intrinsic stochasticity of the underlying gene regulatory network. Apart from ovarian follicles, the proposed mechanism may also be of relevance for other physiological systems where cells take binary decisions over a long time scale.

2010-01-01

60

L1 group consensus of multi-agent systems with switching topologies and stochastic inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how interacting subsystems of an overall system lead to cluster/group consensus is a key issue in the investigation of multi-agent systems. In this Letter, we study the L1 group consensus problem of discrete-time multi-agent systems with external stochastic inputs. Based on ergodicity theory and matrix analysis, L1 group consensus criteria are obtained for multi-agent systems with switching topologies. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the theoretical results.

Shang, Yilun

2013-10-01

61

Some Classes of Imperfect Information Finite State-Space Stochastic Games with Finite-Dimensional Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.

McEneaney, William M. [Departments of Mathematics and Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States)], E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu

2004-08-15

62

Stochastic stabilization of phenotypic States: the genetic bistable switch as a case study.  

PubMed

We study by means of analytical calculation and stochastic simulations how intrinsic noise modifies the bifurcation diagram of gene regulatory processes that can be effectively described by the Langevin formalism. In a general context, our study raises the intriguing question of how biochemical fluctuations redesign the epigenetic landscape in differentiation processes. We have applied our findings to a general class of regulatory processes that includes the simplest case that displays a bistable behavior and hence phenotypic variability: the genetic auto-activating switch. Thus, we explain why and how the noise promotes the stability of the low-state phenotype of the switch and show that the bistable region is extended when increasing the intensity of the fluctuations. This phenomenology is found in a simple one-dimensional model of the genetic switch as well as in a more detailed model that takes into account the binding of the protein to the promoter region. Altogether, we prescribe the analytical means to understand and quantify the noise-induced modifications of the bifurcation points for a general class of regulatory processes where the genetic bistable switch is included. PMID:24039958

Weber, Marc; Buceta, Javier

2013-09-11

63

A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell  

PubMed Central

We investigate the molecular mechanism of how an E. coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another by monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We find that this basal level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic, single molecular event determines a cell’s phenotype.

Choi, Paul J.; Cai, Long; Frieda, Kirsten; Xie, X. Sunney

2010-01-01

64

Stochastic probability landscape model for switching efficiency, robustness, and differential threshold for induction of genetic circuit in phage ?  

PubMed Central

The genetic switch of phage lambda provides a paradigm for studying developmental biology and cell fate. Although there have been numerous experimental and theoretical studies, the mechanisms for switching efficiency, stability and robustness, maintenance of lysogenic state, and the induction lytic state are not fully understood. In this paper, a new method is adopted to account for the full stochasticity typical in small copy events and the exact steady state probability landscape of the genetic circuit of the switch network is computed. The stability and sensitivity of phage ? switch and its robustness against perturbations derived from our model for wild type and mutants are consistent with experimental data. Our study has revealed likely mechanism of the phage switch network that was previously unknown.

Cao, Youfang; Lu, Hsiao-Mei; Liang, Jie

2008-01-01

65

Continuous transition of social efficiencies in the stochastic-strategy minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in a variant of the minority game problem, the agents can reach a state of maximum social efficiency, where the fluctuation between the two choices is minimum, by following a simple stochastic strategy. By imagining a social scenario where the agents can only guess about the number of excess people in the majority, we show that as long as the guessed value is sufficiently close to the reality, the system can reach a state of full efficiency or minimum fluctuation. A continuous transition to less efficient condition is observed when the guessed value becomes worse. Hence, people can optimize their guess for excess population to optimize the period of being in the majority state. We also consider the situation where a finite fraction of agents always decide completely randomly (random trader) as opposed to the rest of the population who follow a certain strategy (chartist). For a single random trader the system becomes fully efficient with majority-minority crossover occurring every 2 days on average. For just two random traders, all the agents have equal gain with arbitrarily small fluctuations.

Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Naskar, Tapan; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

2012-03-01

66

Truncation and reset process on the dynamics of Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The counter-intuitive feature of Parrondo’s games is illustrated on various dynamical systems combined from different deterministic and stochastic subsystems. The concept of truncation and reset process is introduced, which provides a transparent perspective to understand the underlying mechanism of this class of dynamics, including the transport of flashing ratchets, and clarifies the puzzlement why random switching between two games can generate reversal dynamics as periodical switching does.

Chang, Cheng-Hung; Tsong, Tian Yow

2003-02-01

67

Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate, which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies. But in some systems, especially biological systems, the players interact with each other discriminately. Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies. Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population. But in reality, the number of individuals in the population is always finite, and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process. Therefore, it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations. In fact, the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult. Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper, “The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations." In this paper, we are exactly doing this work. We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case, especially focusing on the infiuence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system. We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process. Based on the limit distribution of the process, we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system. We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games. For each case game, the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough. In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method, all our results obtained are analytical. Especially, in the dominant-case game, coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model. This result can be used to explain the emergence of cooperation in the Prisoner is Dilemma Games to some extent. Some specific examples are given to illustrate our results.

Quan, Ji; Wang, Xian-Jia

2013-07-01

68

Revisiting Dynamic Duopoly with Consumer Switching Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of collusiveness of a market with consumer switching costs is analyzed in an infinite-horizon model of duopolistic competition. In contrast with previous analyses, we assume that firms compete for the demand for a homogeneous good by setting prices simultaneously in each period. This problem is formulated as a simple stochastic game, and a symmetric stationary Markovian perfect equilibrium

A. Jorge Padilla

1995-01-01

69

Viscosity Solutions for a System of Integro-PDEs and Connections to Optimal Switching and Control of Jump-Diffusion Processes  

SciTech Connect

We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.

Biswas, Imran H., E-mail: imran.biswas@sam.math.ethz.c [ETH-Zurich, Seminar fuer Angewandte Mathematik, D-MATH (Switzerland); Jakobsen, Espen R., E-mail: erj@math.ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Karlsen, Kenneth H., E-mail: kennethk@math.uio.n [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (Norway)

2010-08-15

70

Stochastic dynamics of phase-slip trains and superconductive-resistive switching in current-biased nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting nanowires fabricated via carbon-nanotube templating can be used to realize and study quasi-one-dimensional superconductors. However, measurement of the linear resistance of these nanowires have been inconclusive in determining the low-temperature behavior of phase-slip fluctuations, both quantal and thermal. Thus, we are motivated to study the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics in current-biased nanowires and the stochastic dynamics of superconductive-resistive switching, as a way of probing phase-slip events. In particular, we address the question: can a single phase-slip event occurring somewhere along the wire—during which the order-parameter fluctuates to zero—induce switching, via the local heating it causes? We explore this and related issues by constructing a stochastic model for the time evolution of the temperature in a nanowire whose ends are maintained at a fixed temperature. We derive the corresponding master equation as a tool for evaluating and analyzing the mean switching time at a given value of current (smaller than the depairing critical current). The model indicates that although, in general, several phase-slip events are necessary to induce switching via a thermal runaway, there is indeed a regime of temperatures and currents in which a single event is sufficient. We carry out a detailed comparison of the results of the model with experimental measurements of the distribution of switching currents, and provide an explanation for the rather counterintuitive broadening of the distribution width that is observed upon lowering the temperature. Moreover, we identify a regime in which the experiments are probing individual phase-slip events, and thus offer a way of unearthing and exploring the physics of nanoscale quantum tunneling of the one-dimensional collective quantum field associated with the superconducting order parameter.

Pekker, David; Shah, Nayana; Sahu, Mitrabhanu; Bezryadin, Alexey; Goldbart, Paul M.

2009-12-01

71

Population density approach for discrete mRNA distributions in generalized switching models for stochastic gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalization of a population density approach for modeling and analysis of stochastic gene expression. In the model, the gene of interest fluctuates stochastically between an inactive state, in which transcription cannot occur, and an active state, in which discrete transcription events occur; and the individual mRNA molecules are degraded stochastically in an independent manner. This sort of model in simplest form with exponential dwell times has been used to explain experimental estimates of the discrete distribution of random mRNA copy number. In our generalization, the random dwell times in the inactive and active states, T0 and T1, respectively, are independent random variables drawn from any specified distributions. Consequently, the probability per unit time of switching out of a state depends on the time since entering that state. Our method exploits a connection between the fully discrete random process and a related continuous process. We present numerical methods for computing steady-state mRNA distributions and an analytical derivation of the mRNA autocovariance function. We find that empirical estimates of the steady-state mRNA probability mass function from Monte Carlo simulations of laboratory data do not allow one to distinguish between underlying models with exponential and nonexponential dwell times in some relevant parameter regimes. However, in these parameter regimes and where the autocovariance function has negative lobes, the autocovariance function disambiguates the two types of models. Our results strongly suggest that temporal data beyond the autocovariance function is required in general to characterize gene switching.

Stinchcombe, Adam R.; Peskin, Charles S.; Tranchina, Daniel

2012-06-01

72

Local Replicator Dynamics: A Simple Link Between Deterministic and Stochastic Models of Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical replicator dynamics assumes that individuals play their games and adopt new strategies on a global level: Each player\\u000a interacts with a representative sample of the population and if a strategy yields a payoff above the average, then it is expected\\u000a to spread. In this article, we connect evolutionary models for infinite and finite populations: While the population itself\\u000a is

Christian Hilbe

2011-01-01

73

Delays Induce Different Switch in a Stochastic Single Genetic Regulation System with a Positive Autoregulatory Feedback Loop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady properties of a stochastic single genetic regulation system with the different time delays, which appear in the deterministic and fluctuating forces, are investigated based on the small delay time approximation method. Using the approximation probability density approach, the delayed Fokker-Planck equation is obtained. The effects of two different time delays on the stationary probability distribution and the mean value are discussed. It is found that with the time delay ?1 in the deterministic force increasing, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from "off" state to "on" state. However, with the time delay ?2 in the fluctuating force increasing, the TF-A monomer concentration shifts from "on" state to "off" state. In the switch process, two kinds of time delays play an opposite role. The theoretical predictions are found to be in good agreement with numerical results.

Wang, Can-Jun

2013-04-01

74

Bayesian Analysis of the Stochastic Switching Regression Model Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops Bayesian methods for estimating the parameters of astochastic switching regression model. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, dataaugmentation, and Gibbs sampling are used to facilitate estimation of theposterior means. The main feature of these methods is that the posterior meansare estimated by the ergodic averages of samples drawn from conditionaldistributions, which are relatively simple in form and more

Maria Ana E. Odejar; Mark S. McNulty

2001-01-01

75

Stochastic network calculus for end-to-end delays distribution evaluation on an avionics switched Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFDX (avionics full duplex switched Ethernet, AR-INC 664) used for modern aircraft such as Airbus A380 represents a major upgrade in both bandwidth and capability for aircraft data networks. Its reliance on Ethernet technology helps to lower some of the implementation costs, though the requirement for guaranteed service does present challenges to system designers. Thus, the problem is to prove

F. Ridouard; J.-L. Scharbarg; C. Fraboul

2007-01-01

76

Control systems with stochastic feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we use the analogy of Parrondo's games to design a second order switched mode circuit which is unstable in either mode but is stable when switched. We do not require any sophisticated control law. The circuit is stable, even if it is switched at random. We use a stochastic form of Lyapunov's second method to prove that the randomly switched system is stable with probability of one. Simulations show that the solution to the randomly switched system is very similar to the analytic solution for the time-averaged system. This is consistent with the standard techniques for switched state-space systems with periodic switching. We perform state-space simulations of our system, with a randomized discrete-time switching policy. We also examine the case where the control variable, the loop gain, is a continuous Gaussian random variable. This gives rise to a matrix stochastic differential equation (SDE). We know that, for a one-dimensional SDE, the difference between solution for the time averaged system and any given sample path for the SDE will be an appropriately scaled and conditioned version of Brownian motion. The simulations show that this is approximately true for the matrix SDE. We examine some numerical solutions to the matrix SDE in the time and frequency domains, for the case where the noise power is very small. We also perform some simulations, without analysis, for the same system with large amounts of noise. In this case, the solution is significantly shifted away from the solution for the time-averaged system. The Brownian motion terms dominate all other aspects of the solution. This gives rise to very erratic and ``bursty'' behavior. The stored energy in the system takes the form a logarithmic random walk. The simulations of our curious circuit suggest that it is possible to implement a control algorithm that actively uses noise, although too much noise eventually makes the system unusable.

Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek

2001-09-01

77

Automata. Walks. Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTS Introduction § 1. Operation of automata in random environments § 2. Walks and the analysis of the behaviour of infinite stochastic automata § 3. Behaviour of finite automata § 4. Games of Markov automata Comments References

Korolyuk, V. S.; Pletnëv, A. I.; Eidel'man, S. D.

1988-02-01

78

Stability and Multiattractor Dynamics of a Toggle Switch Based on a Two-Stage Model of Stochastic Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the stability on a specific cell differentiation mechanism. Our model explains lineage priming and proposes the need of either high protein numbers or long-term modifications such as chromatin remodeling to achieve stable cell fate decisions. Notably, we present a system with high protein abundance that nevertheless requires a probabilistic description to exhibit multistability, complex switching dynamics, and lineage priming.

Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J.; Marr, Carsten

2012-01-01

79

Game strategies in network security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper presents a game - theoretic method for analyzing the security of computer networks We view the interactions between an attacker and the administrator as a two - player stochastic game and construct a model for the game Using a non - linear program, we compute the Nash equilibrium or best - response strategies for the players (attacker

Kong-wei Lye; Jeannette M. Wing

2005-01-01

80

A Monetary Policy Simulation Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…

Lengwiler, Yvan

2004-01-01

81

Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.

Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.

2007-11-01

82

Winning combinations of history-dependent games.  

PubMed

The Parrondo effect describes the seemingly paradoxical situation in which two losing games can, when combined, become a winning game [Parrondo, Harmer, and Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 24 (2000)]. Here, we generalize this analysis to the case where both games are history dependent, i.e., there is an intrinsic memory in the dynamics of each game. Results are presented for the cases of both random and periodic switching between the two games. PMID:12786241

Kay, Roland J; Johnson, Neil F

2003-05-27

83

Winning combinations of history-dependent games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parrondo effect describes the seemingly paradoxical situation in which two losing games can, when combined, become a winning game [Parrondo, Harmer, and Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 24 (2000)]. Here, we generalize this analysis to the case where both games are history dependent, i.e., there is an intrinsic memory in the dynamics of each game. Results are presented for the cases of both random and periodic switching between the two games.

Kay, Roland J.; Johnson, Neil F.

2003-05-01

84

Stochastic Resonance in Human Cognition: ACT-R Versus Game Theory, Associative Neural Networks, Recursive Neural Networks, Q-Learning, and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of cognitive noise on human game playing abilities. Human subjects played a guessing game against an ACT-R model set at different noise levels. Counter to the normal effect for noise (i.e., to increase randomness) increasing noise over certain ranges increased the win rate in both the ACT-R model and in the humans. We then attempted to

Robert L. West; Terrence C. Stewart

85

Coordination in Turnout Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a stochastic model of coordination in turnout games. In each period a randomly selected voter receives information about current play through noisy polls and then, based on this information, forms expectations about the current conÞguration of play and chooses a best response. We prove the existence of a unique limiting distribution for the process and show that even

Daniel Diermeier; Jan A. Van Mieghem

2000-01-01

86

Stochastic resonance in binocular rivalry  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a different image is presented to each eye, visual awareness spontaneously alternates between the two images—a phenom- enon called binocular rivalry. Because binocular rivalry is characterized by two marginally stable perceptual states and spontaneous, apparently stochastic, switching between them, it has been speculated that switches in perceptual awareness reflect a double-well- potential type computational architecture coupled with noise. To

Yee-Joon Kim; Marcia Grabowecky; Satoru Suzuki

2006-01-01

87

Seasonality as a Parrondian game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.

Peacock-López, Enrique

2011-08-01

88

Backward Stochastic Differential Equations in Infinite Dimensions with Continuous Driver and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.

Fuhrman, Marco [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32 (Italy)], E-mail: marco.fuhrman@polimi.it; Hu, Ying [IRMAR, Universite Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu (France)], E-mail: ying.hu@univ-rennes1.fr

2007-09-15

89

Evolutionary games on cycles  

PubMed Central

Traditional evolutionary game theory explores frequency-dependent selection in well-mixed populations without spatial or stochastic effects. But recently there has been much interest in studying the evolutionary game dynamics in spatial settings, on lattices and other graphs. Here, we present an analytic approach for the stochastic evolutionary game dynamics on the simplest possible graph, the cycle. For three different update rules, called ‘birth–death’ (BD), ‘death–birth’ (DB) and ‘imitation’ (IM), we derive exact conditions for natural selection to favour one strategy over another. As specific examples, we consider a coordination game and Prisoner's Dilemma. In the latter case, selection can favour cooperators over defectors for DB and IM updating. We also study the case where the replacement graph of evolutionary updating remains a cycle, but the interaction graph for playing the game is a complete graph. In this setting, all three update rules lead to identical conditions in the limit of weak selection, where we find the ‘1/3-law’ of well-mixed populations.

Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A

2006-01-01

90

An Intrusion Detection Game with Limited Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 2-player zero-sum stochastic (Markov) security game which models the interaction between malicious attackers to a system and the IDS who allocates system resources for detection and response. We capture the operation of a sensor network observing and reporting the attack information to the IDS as a finite Markov chain. Thus, we extend the game theoretic framework in

Tansu Alpcan; Tamer Basar

91

Academic Gaming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a brief history, rationale, and description of academic gaming, including game types and purposes, two case studies are presented in which game-plays of STARPOWER and THE ROAD GAME are observed and analyzed. In addition, practical suggestions for selecting, preparing for, and running a game and its post-play discussion are presented. For…

Fransecky, Roger B.; Trojanski, John

92

Toys & Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue focuses on "Toys and Games." Students are encouraged to explore games of the past, particularly from the early 1900s. Activities include playing games from the past and making toys. Feature articles describe toys and games through time, Iowa-made toys, ethnic games, how play imitates work, and how world events impact play. Several…

Frese, Millie K., Ed.

1997-01-01

93

Fair Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, toys and games have been provided for boys and girls. While boys and girls play together, and often play the same games, their enjoyment in the games is often quite different. Looking at these games can shed light on how the minds of each gender are engaged while playing. Educationally, games are used as a vehicle to engage students

Kimberely Fletcher Nettleton

94

Life games and statistical models.  

PubMed Central

A set of equations is obtained, which describes the rules of a class of games (life games). These games simulate the processes of growth, death, survival, and competition. The equations are nonlinear difference equations, where the degree of nonlinearity is directly related to the number of interacting neighbors. The time evolution and the development of geometric patterns can be studied starting from these equations. Extensions and generalizations, such as the introduction of stochastic elements, can easily be accommodated in the formalism. Some significant unsolved problems are noted.

Dresden, M; Wong, D

1975-01-01

95

Antagonistic Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper defines two subsets of noncooperative, finite, two-person (bimatrix) games. The first subset, called antagonistic games, consists of bimatrix games in which if one player does better, the other player necessarily must do worse (where better and...

L. B. Anderson

1976-01-01

96

Minimum heat generation during fast magnetization switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast magnetization switching with minimum heat generation is explored based upon magnetization dynamics and optimal stochastic control method. For current spin current based magnetic device, pulse shape optimization provides significant Joule heating reduction. For future spintronic device without charge moving, the minimum amount of heat generated during magnetization switching is fundamentally constrained by magnetization switching speed and magnetization nonvolatility.

Wang, Xiaobin; Gu, Ying

2013-03-01

97

Inertia in strategy switching transforms the strategy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent experimental study [Traulsen , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.0912515107 107, 2962 (2010)] shows that human strategy updating involves both direct payoff comparison and the cost of switching strategy, which is equivalent to inertia. However, it remains largely unclear how such a predisposed inertia affects 2×2 games in a well-mixed population of finite size. To address this issue, the “inertia bonus” (strategy switching cost) is added to the learner payoff in the Fermi process. We find how inertia quantitatively shapes the stationary distribution and that stochastic stability under inertia exhibits three regimes, with each covering seven regions in the plane spanned by two inertia parameters. We also obtain the extended “1/3” rule with inertia and the speed criterion with inertia; these two findings hold for a population above two. We illustrate the above results in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. As inertia varies, two intriguing stationary distributions emerge: the probability of coexistence state is maximized, or those of two full states are simultaneously peaked. Our results may provide useful insights into how the inertia of changing status quo acts on the strategy evolution and, in particular, the evolution of cooperation.

Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

2011-12-01

98

Inertia in strategy switching transforms the strategy evolution.  

PubMed

A recent experimental study [Traulsen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 107, 2962 (2010)] shows that human strategy updating involves both direct payoff comparison and the cost of switching strategy, which is equivalent to inertia. However, it remains largely unclear how such a predisposed inertia affects 2 × 2 games in a well-mixed population of finite size. To address this issue, the "inertia bonus" (strategy switching cost) is added to the learner payoff in the Fermi process. We find how inertia quantitatively shapes the stationary distribution and that stochastic stability under inertia exhibits three regimes, with each covering seven regions in the plane spanned by two inertia parameters. We also obtain the extended "1/3" rule with inertia and the speed criterion with inertia; these two findings hold for a population above two. We illustrate the above results in the framework of the Prisoner's Dilemma game. As inertia varies, two intriguing stationary distributions emerge: the probability of coexistence state is maximized, or those of two full states are simultaneously peaked. Our results may provide useful insights into how the inertia of changing status quo acts on the strategy evolution and, in particular, the evolution of cooperation. PMID:22304151

Zhang, Yanling; Fu, Feng; Wu, Te; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

2011-12-06

99

Quantum and classical polarization stochasticity and optical switching in the Stokes parameters of light in a tunnelly-coupled optical fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of formation of chaotic quantum states for two (or four) orthogonally polarized modes in a tunnelly-coupled optical fiber has been carried out. A special attention is devoted both to the structure of arising polarization instabilities and to the possibility to control of such a quantum state by procedure of quantum nondemolition measurements. New effect of polarization switching is obtained and we discuss the problem of both coding of information and construction of quantum logical elements for quantum computing. The optical schemes to realize the quantum AND (NOT-AND), OR (NOT-OR) and controlled-NOT gates with quantum nondemolition filtering of the signal are proposed.

Alodjants, Alexander P.; Leksin, Andrei Y.; Arakelian, Sergei M.

1997-07-01

100

Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material

Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole

1991-01-01

101

Set Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper a new type of cooperative games in characteristic function form (called set games) is introduced. In a set game, the worth of a coalition is expressed by a set instead of a real number. For this class of games we will define the notion of va...

H. F. M. Aarts Y. Funaki C. Hoede

1993-01-01

102

Geometry Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

103

In game advertising: touching the elusive consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumers are bombarded with more and more advertising, while traditional media such as TV and radio become more and more fragmented, the challenge of reaching the consumer gets harder and harder. Consol and video games are a media that does not suffer from user 'switch off' or channel hopping and if carefully integrated advertisers can link in with games that

Marc Duke

2006-01-01

104

Behavioral Strategies in Repeated Pure Coordination Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study experimentally a class of pure coordination games as a special case of the Consumer Choice of Prizes game developed by Rapoport et al. (2000). We find a high level of group coordination coupled with considerable switching in the choice of locations. Two models are proposed and tested to account for the results, one postulating the formation of conventions,

Rami Zwick; Amnon Rapoport; Alison King Chung Lo

2001-01-01

105

Games in Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game

Walford, Rex

106

Construction of novel stochastic matrices for analysis of Parrondo's paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Parrondo's paradox, a winning strategy is formed either by playing two losing games randomly or alternating them periodically. The paradox is commonly analyzed using stochastic matrices. In this paper, we modify the stochastic matrices to allow a more systematic introduction of bias into fair processes, while retaining the use of simple matrix operations throughout the analysis.

Cheong, Kang Hao; Soo, Wayne Wah Ming

2013-10-01

107

Stochastic flights of propellers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kilometre-sized moonlets in Saturn's A ring create S-shaped wakes called 'propellers' in surrounding material. The Cassini spacecraft has tracked the motions of propellers for several years and finds that they deviate from Keplerian orbits with constant semimajor axes. The inferred orbital migration is known to switch sign. We show using a statistical test that the time series of orbital longitudes of the propeller Blériot is consistent with that of a time-integrated Gaussian random walk. That is, Blériot's observed migration pattern is consistent with being stochastic. We further show, using a combination of analytic estimates and collisional N-body simulations, that stochastic migration of the right magnitude to explain the Cassini observations can be driven by encounters with ring particles 10-20 m in radius. That the local ring mass is concentrated in decametre-sized particles is supported on independent grounds by occultation analyses.

Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Chiang, Eugene; Evans, Steven N.

2012-12-01

108

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...

Cooley, Mr.

2011-11-12

109

Stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades, stochastic resonance has continuously attracted considerable attention. The term is given to a phenomenon that is manifest in nonlinear systems whereby generally feeble input information (such as a weak signal) can be be amplified and optimized by the assistance of noise. The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally, a form of threshold; (ii) a weak coherent input (such as a periodic signal); (iii) a source of noise that is inherent in the system, or that adds to the coherent input. Given these features, the response of the system undergoes resonance-like behavior as a function of the noise level; hence the name stochastic resonance. The underlying mechanism is fairly simple and robust. As a consequence, stochastic resonance has been observed in a large variety of systems, including bistable ring lasers, semiconductor devices, chemical reactions, and mechanoreceptor cells in the tail fan of a crayfish. In this paper, the authors report, interpret, and extend much of the current understanding of the theory and physics of stochastic resonance. They introduce the readers to the basic features of stochastic resonance and its recent history. Definitions of the characteristic quantities that are important to quantify stochastic resonance, together with the most important tools necessary to actually compute those quantities, are presented. The essence of classical stochastic resonance theory is presented, and important applications of stochastic resonance in nonlinear optics, solid state devices, and neurophysiology are described and put into context with stochastic resonance theory. More elaborate and recent developments of stochastic resonance theory are discussed, ranging from fundamental quantum properties-being important at low temperatures-over spatiotemporal aspects in spatially distributed systems, to realizations in chaotic maps. In conclusion the authors summarize the achievements and attempt to indicate the most promising areas for future research in theory and experiment.

Gammaitoni, Luca; Hänggi, Peter; Jung, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

1998-01-01

110

Promoting cooperation by local contribution under stochastic win-stay-lose-shift mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a stochastic win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS) mechanism into evolutionary Prisoner’s Dilemma on small-world networks. At each time step, after playing with all its immediate neighbors, each individual gets a score to evaluate its performance in the game. The score is a linear combination of an individual’s total payoff (i.e., individual gain from the group) and local contribution to its neighbors (i.e., individual donation to the group). If one’s actual score is not larger than its desired score aspiration, it switches current strategy to the opposite one with the probability depending on the difference between the two scores. Under this stochastic WSLS regime, we assume that each focal individual gains its fixed score aspiration under the condition of full cooperation in its neighborhood, and find that cooperation is significantly enhanced under some certain parameters of the model by studying the evolution of cooperation. We also explore the influences of different values of learning rate and intensity of deterministic switch on the evolution of cooperation. Simulation results show that cooperation level monotonically increases with the relative weight of the local contribution to the score. For much low intensity of deterministic switch, cooperation is to a large extent independent of learning rate, and full cooperation can be reached when relative weight is not less than 0.5. Otherwise, cooperation level is affected by the value of learning rate. Besides, we find that the cooperation level is not sensitive to the topological parameters. To explain these simulation results, we provide corresponding analytical results based on mean-field approximation, and find out that simulation results are in close agreement with the analytical ones. Our work may be helpful in understanding the cooperative behavior in social systems based on this stochastic WSLS mechanism.

Chen, Xiaojie; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

2008-09-01

111

QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-23

112

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

113

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

114

Clan Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors introduce a new class of cooperative games with side payments-called clan games. For such games there is a non-empty coalition, the clan, of which each member has veto power i.e. no coalition can attain any positive result unless it contains a...

J. A. M. Potters R. Poos S. Tijs S. Muto

1989-01-01

115

Game Face  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to…

Weiner, Jill

2005-01-01

116

Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years, the video game explosion has permeated our everyday culture, involving in particular the younger generation. Video games once found only in arcades are now being manufactured for home use. This study seeks to analyze the value of video games as an activity program for geriatric populations in skilled nursing home facilities. Areas examined include resident

Betty Schueren

1986-01-01

117

Game Face  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

Weiner, Jill

2005-01-01

118

Stochastic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the requirement of considering randomness, different types of stochastic programming have been developed to suit the\\u000a different purposes of management. The first type of stochastic programming is the expected value model, which optimizes the expected objective functions subject to some expected constraints. The second, chance-constrained programming, was pioneered by Charnes and Cooper [37] as a means of handling uncertainty

Baoding Liu

119

Linear-quadratic games of resource depletion  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we describe some methods for quantitatively analyzing dynamic, multiple agent models in which at least one agent takes into account his influence on the aggregate environment such as the degree of competitiveness in the petroleum industry. We confine our attention to models in which the agents solve stochastic, quadratic optimization problems subject to linear constraints. Discussion is presented in the context of a resource depletion example. The players are resource suppliers; the task is to compare their behavior when they play alternative dynamic games. Our approach to solving these models of dynamic games is first to deduce the stochastic Euler equations for each of the agents and then to simultaneously solve these stochastic Euler equations subject to the respective transversality conditions. The solution strategy involves factoring the characteristic polynomial of the system of stochastic difference equations. 22 refs.

Epple, D.; Hansen, L.P.; Roberds, W.

1983-01-01

120

A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.

Gruen, Christine, E-mail: christine.gruen@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)

2012-12-15

121

Creating an immersive game world with evolutionary fuzzy cognitive maps.  

PubMed

The Evolutionary Fuzzy Cognitive Map improves on serious games by modeling both fuzzy and probabilistic causal relationships among the game's variables. It permits asynchronous updates of the variables so that they can evolve dynamically and stochastically. These improvements give players a more engaging, immersive experience. PMID:20650711

Cai, Yundong; Miao, Chunyan; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Shen, Zhiqi; Li, Boyang

122

Designing Cross Media Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross media games focus on a wide variety of gaming devices including traditional media channels, game consoles as well as mobile and pervasive computing technology to allow for a broad variety of game experiences. This paper introduces cross media games. It addresses challenges of cross media games and points out game design, technical, commercial and ethical aspects. A gaming scenario

Irma Lindt; Jan Ohlenburg; Uta Pankoke-Babatz; Sabiha Ghellal; Leif Oppermann; Matt Adams

2005-01-01

123

Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma game on hypergraph networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the possible advantages of adopting quantum strategies in multi-player evolutionary games. We base our study on the three-player Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game. In order to model the simultaneous interaction between three agents we use hypergraphs and hypergraph networks. In particular, we study two types of networks: a random network and a SF-like network. The obtained results show that in the case of a three-player game on a hypergraph network, quantum strategies are not necessarily stochastically stable strategies. In some cases, the defection strategy can be as good as a quantum one.

Pawela, ?ukasz; S?adkowski, Jan

2013-02-01

124

Phase transitions near the ``game of Life''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether or not the cellular automaton (CA) ``game of Life'' is an example of self-organized criticality has been a controversial question. Here we view the problem from a different perspective by introducing probabilities into the rules. Thereby we extend the discrete space of deterministic CA to a hypercubic space of stochastic CA, where each corner represents a deterministic CA. We examine the scaling structure near the ``game of Life'' corner and identify a phase-transition line separating ``Life'' and ``Death.'' The transition line ends very close to but not in the ``game of Life.''

Nordfalk, Jacob; Alstrøm, Preben

1996-08-01

125

Stochastic Differential Games with Complexity Constrained Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination is made of some problems encountered in the optimal control of a linear dynamic system by two independent controllers with noisy state observations, the controllers having either conflicting or concurring objectives. The question of what fo...

D. M. Stuart

1982-01-01

126

Competition and Coordination in Stochastic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent competition and coordination are two classical and most important tasks in multiagent systems. In recent years, there was a number of learning algorithms proposed to resolve such type of problems. Among them, there is an important class of algorithms, called adaptive learning algorithms, that were shown to be able to converge in self-play to a solution in a wide

Andriy Burkov; Abdeslam Boularias; Brahim Chaib-draa

2007-01-01

127

Stochastic cell.  

PubMed

Accumulating experimental evidence of stochasticity, self-organization and abrupt non-linear transitions underlying the dynamics of cellular structure and function is increasingly more consistent with the concepts and models of phase transitions, critical phenomena and non-linear thermodynamics rather than with the conventional clockwork description of the cell. The novel emerging image of the stochastic cell suggests that familiar and convenient classico-mechanical interpretations may be limiting our ability to understand the behavior of biological systems and calls for active exploration of alternative interpretational frameworks. PMID:16036564

Kurakin, Alexei

2005-02-01

128

Multi-player games on the cycle.  

PubMed

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games. PMID:21907215

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin A

2011-09-03

129

Multi-player games on the cycle  

PubMed Central

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games.

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin

2011-01-01

130

Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

2013-10-01

131

Stochastic differential equations and numerical simulation for pedestrians  

SciTech Connect

The mathematical foundation of the Ito interpretation of stochastic ordinary and partial differential equations is briefly explained. This provides the basis for a review of simple difference approximations to stochastic differential equations. An example arising in the theory of optical switching is discussed.

Garrison, J.C.

1993-07-27

132

Non-linear stochastic control via stationary response design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a strategy for controlling externally excited stochastic systems with uncertain parameters. The control objective is to drive the system response from an arbitrary initial distribution to a prescribed stationary probability density function (PDF). This problem can be interpreted as the stochastic stabilization about a PDF. The control consists of a non-linear feedback part and a switching term

L. G. Crespo; J. Q. Sun

2003-01-01

133

Stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

1982-03-01

134

Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

2009-08-01

135

Epistemic Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a related…

Shaffer, David Williamson

2005-01-01

136

Potential Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and discuss several notions of potential functions for games in strategic form. We characterize games that have a potential function, and we present a variety of applications.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Numbers:C72, C73.

Dov Monderer; Lloyd S. Shapley

1996-01-01

137

Game Time!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but…

Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

2006-01-01

138

Epistemic Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a…

Shaffer, David Williamson

2005-01-01

139

French Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games to help you learn and practice beginning French numbers, verbs and the names of days and months! Try each game at least once. Good luck and have fun! Click here to practice your numbers --> French numbers Click here to work on your verbs and verb tenses --> French verbs: avoir et etre Click here to practice the days and months --> French days and months ...

V, Ms.

2009-02-10

140

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tangram is an ancient game that originated in China. In the game, your goal is to try to create the shape shown using the pieces provided. You cannot overlap pieces, and they all have to be used. It is a lot harder than it looks!

2008-01-01

141

Stochastic transparency.  

PubMed

Stochastic transparency provides a unified approach to order-independent transparency, antialiasing, and deep shadow maps. It augments screen-door transparency using a random sub-pixel stipple pattern, where each fragment of transparent geometry covers a random subset of pixel samples of size proportional to alpha. This results in correct alpha-blended colors on average, in a single render pass with fixed memory size and no sorting, but introduces noise. We reduce this noise by an alpha correction pass, and by an accumulation pass that uses a stochastic shadow map from the camera. At the pixel level, the algorithm does not branch and contains no read-modify-write loops, other than traditional z-buffer blend operations. This makes it an excellent match for modern massively parallel GPU hardware. Stochastic transparency is very simple to implement and supports all types of transparent geometry, able without coding for special cases to mix hair, smoke, foliage, windows, and transparent cloth in a single scene. PMID:20921587

Enderton, Eric; Sintorn, Erik; Shirley, Peter; Luebke, David

2011-08-01

142

Resistance is Futile: Winning Lemonade Market Share through Metacognitive Reasoning in a Three-Agent Cooperative Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lemonade Game is a three-player game in which players have to pick locations on a circular board, which are as far away as possible from those chosen independently by other players. Players may observe other player's moves and infer their strategies. The game was studied using a competition of cognitively motivated agents, which inherit properties of adaptivity and stochasticity

David Reitter; Ion Juvina; Andrea Stocco; Christian Lebiere

2010-01-01

143

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)|

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

144

Gene Switch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Regulatory "switches" are found upstream from a gene. Regulatory molecules bind to the switches and recruit RNA polymerase to bind to the gene's promoter region, increasing the transcription of the gene into messenger RNA.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-09

145

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Needles Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Twitter ...

146

Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you distinguish lion tracks from chimpanzee tracks? This online Flash version of the classic match game hones learners' thinking skills with diverse science topics like technology, biology, and astronomy. Learners can choose to match animals with their tracks, stars to their constellations, technological innovations to their year of invention or fruits to their trees. There are three levels of play (easy, medium, and hard). Each game includes informational background related to the topic.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

147

Electric Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances. Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.

Ieee

2013-07-08

148

Lp-Games and Combinatorial Optimization Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many cost and reward allocation situations give rise to coalition games where the worth of each coalition is determined by solving a (combinatorial) optimization problem. Examples of such classes of games are discussed such as traveling salesman games, se...

S. Tijs

1991-01-01

149

A physical analogy of the genetic toggle switch.  

PubMed

We show that there is a physical analogy between a stochastic model of a genetic toggle switch system and a thermostated particle moving in a potential field, derived from the probability distribution of the toggle switch. This result suggests that one can actually simulate the dynamics of a more complex gene network by considering an ensemble of thermostated particles moving in a potential field, derived from the stationary distribution of the chemical stochastic model describing the gene network. PMID:17803374

Andrecut, M; Kauffman, S A

2007-09-01

150

Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)

Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman

1976-01-01

151

Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)|

Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman

1976-01-01

152

Computer Games and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

2011-01-01

153

Computer Games and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

2011-01-01

154

Women's Game Conference 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Game Initiative's Women's Game Conference focuses on women in the computer and video game industry. The conference program includes career paths for women in the industry, gender inclusive game design and women and girls as consumers of games.The 2005 Women's Game Conference takes place October 26-27, 2005 - the day before and the first day of - the Austin

Newton Lee

2005-01-01

155

Stochastic effects in a seasonally forced epidemic model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay of seasonality, the system’s nonlinearities and intrinsic stochasticity, is studied for a seasonally forced susceptible-exposed-infective-recovered stochastic model. The model is explored in the parameter region that corresponds to childhood infectious diseases such as measles. The power spectrum of the stochastic fluctuations around the attractors of the deterministic system that describes the model in the thermodynamic limit is computed analytically and validated by stochastic simulations for large system sizes. Size effects are studied through additional simulations. Other effects such as switching between coexisting attractors induced by stochasticity often mentioned in the literature as playing an important role in the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases are also investigated. The main conclusion is that stochastic amplification, rather than these effects, is the key ingredient to understand the observed incidence patterns.

Rozhnova, G.; Nunes, A.

2010-10-01

156

Stochastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01

157

Fraction Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game provides an opportunity for students to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Players move markers a total distance that is less than or equal to the random target fraction, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board using as few fraction target cards as possible. Instructions and exploration questions are included.

2011-01-01

158

Common and unique network dynamics in football games.  

PubMed

The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international "A" match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values ? ~ 3.1 are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of 2stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336

Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko

2011-12-28

159

From Game Trees to Game Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The definition of the score of a game tree is extended using the minimax rule to game graphs containing cycles. This is accomplished by taking the limit of a sequence of scores of game trees that in some sense approximate the game graph. It is shown that ...

W. T. M. Kars

1990-01-01

160

RATIONAL GAME THEORY AND SERIOUS VIDEO GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

AND INTRODUCTION Game Studies have emerged as a way to contextualize the socio-cultural impact of video games, but what of Rational Game Theory and its abstractions of interactive decision- making into the domains of mathematics, economics, and philosophy? This essay uses examples of serious video games, both produced and in concept stage, to show how they might be analyzed in

Lori Shyba

161

Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed ``analog'' feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level ``analog'' device for neuromorphic applications.

Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

2013-06-01

162

Stochastic memristive devices for computing and neuromorphic applications.  

PubMed

Nanoscale resistive switching devices (memristive devices or memristors) have been studied for a number of applications ranging from non-volatile memory, logic to neuromorphic systems. However a major challenge is to address the potentially large variations in space and time in these nanoscale devices. Here we show that in metal-filament based memristive devices the switching can be fully stochastic. While individual switching events are random, the distribution and probability of switching can be well predicted and controlled. Rather than trying to force high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time, the inherent stochastic nature of resistive switching allows these binary devices to be used as building blocks for novel error-tolerant computing schemes such as stochastic computing and provides the needed "analog" feature for neuromorphic applications. To verify such potential, we demonstrated memristor-based stochastic bitstreams in both time and space domains, and show that an array of binary memristors can act as a multi-level "analog" device for neuromorphic applications. PMID:23698627

Gaba, Siddharth; Sheridan, Patrick; Zhou, Jiantao; Choi, Shinhyun; Lu, Wei

2013-05-22

163

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

164

Math Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

Lorenzi, Natalie

2012-01-01

165

Density games.  

PubMed

The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. PMID:23770399

Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

2013-06-13

166

Ordering Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in ordering sets of whole numbers, integers, fractions, decimals, and the sizes of circles. Students re-order a group of numbers or objects in a line from least to greatest by dragging them. The activity is timed and points are awarded.

2011-01-01

167

Density games?  

PubMed Central

The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle.

Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A.

2013-01-01

168

Evil games.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069

Chambers, David W

2010-01-01

169

Games & Icebreakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

170

Pattern Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your pattern making skills by trying your best at these games! How Does My Pattern Grow? Click continue on the main screen. For each new page you will be trying to figure out what the next pattern will look like. Drag the shapes at the bottom to the correct place on the ...

Ivy, Miss

2012-02-15

171

Games & Icebreakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

172

Teaching Using Computer Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

2011-01-01

173

Teaching Using Computer Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

2011-01-01

174

Socializing in mobile gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the most prevalent format for mobile gaming is the single-player variety, where users interact with the game's artificial intelligence within a number of genres such as sports, action, racing, and puzzle games, etc. The users install the game and play it for entertainment and to pass the time until repetitiveness and boredom prompts them to stop playing that game

Sheila A. Paul; Marianne Jensen; Chui Yin Wong; Chee-weng Khong

2008-01-01

175

Games and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a very early age, people learn from games and play. Parents and preschool teachers use games to teach colors, numbers, names, and shapes; the process is drill and practice. Games engage everyone, capturing their attention. People willingly spend time on task. Although students in high school and college continue to play games, games rarely…

Oblinger, Diana G.

2006-01-01

176

Learning through game modding  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent increase in the number of game environments or engines that allow users to customize their gaming experiences by building and expanding game behavior. This article describes the use of modifying, or modding, existing games as a means to learn computer science, mathematics, physics, and aesthetic principles. We describe two exploratory case studies of game modding

Magy Seif El-nasr; Brian K. Smith

2006-01-01

177

Optical Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Controlling the route light takes through a set of alternative fibre pathways is a basic photonic function. Optical switching\\u000a is required in all aspect s of photonics, from the manufacture of basic components to the operation of large-scale telecommunications\\u000a networks. Recent developments are placing a new importance on switching.

R. Ian MacDonald; Ken Garrett; Philip Garel-Jones; Winfried H. G. Horsthuis; Edmond J. Murphy

178

Ender's game redux [computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author explains the context of his brother's e-mail, who is a US Army surgeon in Iraq. The e-mail concisely summarizes the convergence of entertainment technology and military training. He also describes the influence of game technology in his training.

2005-01-01

179

The Switch Task for Children: Measuring mental flexibility in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58–156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children younger than 6 years

Pauline Dibbets; Jellemer Jolles

2006-01-01

180

Play the Electrocardiogram Game  

MedlinePLUS

... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

181

The Green Revolution Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

Corbridge, Stuart

1985-01-01

182

Nonzero Sum Differential Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a study of nonzero-sum games and differential games. Primary emphasis is placed on deterministic differential games with perfect information. The players are to select a pure strategy from admissible sets in seeking their equilibrium t...

E. B. Tennis

1971-01-01

183

Colored Stochastic Petri Nets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colored stochastic Petri nets are presented as an extension of the stochastic Petri nets model in which the tokens, the transitions, and the corresponding probability measurement are colored. The development leads to a simplification of the basic model an...

A. Zenie

1986-01-01

184

Lectures in Stochastic Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lectures introduce in a mathematically self-contained way several important topics of stochastic control both in discrete and continuous time. In particular, subjects such as stochastic LQ-problem, long run average cost problems, disorder problem, adaptiv...

J. Zabczyk

1983-01-01

185

Political game  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A political game is disclosed having a square or rectangular game board containing a plurality of spaces which are unfavorable, favorable or neutral; a set of three different playing pieces of the same color for each player; a set of drawing cards of one color which either assist or hinder the players' pursuit of higher political office ranging from candidate through governor and senator and culminating in the presidency; a set of hindering drawing cards of a contrasting color; a set of debate cards challenging the players' knowledge of American political history; paper play money; a pair of dice; a plurality of vote tokens, worth different numbers of votes and a set of rules and regulations governing play.

1986-12-02

186

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

187

Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.  

PubMed

Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions. PMID:19141423

Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

2009-01-13

188

Tax Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between a set of taxes and income distribution is an important, but difficult, concept taught in economics principles courses. The Tax Game simulation requires a student to set tax rates for an income tax, a property tax, a wealth tax, a payroll tax, a corporate income tax, a sales tax,and an excise tax. The student can choose any rates he or she wishes, but must achieve a given revenue target.

Blecha, Betty J.

189

Gene Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

Colvard, Mary

2010-01-01

190

Stochastic stability and the evolution of coordination in spatially structured populations.  

PubMed

Animals can often coordinate their actions to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. However, this can result in a social dilemma when uncertainty about the behavior of partners creates multiple fitness peaks. Strategies that minimize risk ("risk dominant") instead of maximizing reward ("payoff dominant") are favored in economic models when individuals learn behaviors that increase their payoffs. Specifically, such strategies are shown to be "stochastically stable" (a refinement of evolutionary stability). Here, we extend the notion of stochastic stability to biological models of continuous phenotypes at a mutation-selection-drift balance. This allows us to make a unique prediction for long-term evolution in games with multiple equilibria. We show how genetic relatedness due to limited dispersal and scaled to account for local competition can crucially affect the stochastically-stable outcome of coordination games. We find that positive relatedness (weak local competition) increases the chance the payoff dominant strategy is stochastically stable, even when it is not risk dominant. Conversely, negative relatedness (strong local competition) increases the chance that strategies evolve that are neither payoff nor risk dominant. Extending our results to large multiplayer coordination games we find that negative relatedness can create competition so extreme that the game effectively changes to a hawk-dove game and a stochastically stable polymorphism between the alternative strategies evolves. These results demonstrate the usefulness of stochastic stability in characterizing long-term evolution of continuous phenotypes: the outcomes of multiplayer games can be reduced to the generic equilibria of two-player games and the effect of spatial structure can be analyzed readily. PMID:23999503

Van Cleve, Jeremy; Lehmann, Laurent

2013-08-30

191

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-10-01

192

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.  

PubMed

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-09-09

193

Review of stochastic mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic mechanics is an interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in which the trajectories of the configuration, described as a Markov stochastic process, are regarded as physically real. The natural stochastic generalization of classical variational principles leads to a derivation of the Schrödinger equation. A brief review of the successes and failures of the theory is given, with references.

Nelson, Edward

2012-05-01

194

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04

195

Nanoelectromechanical switches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power dissipation is perhaps the most important problem confronting the electronics industry. To address this issue, we investigate vertical nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches suitable for complementary logic, reconfigurable interconnects, and static power management. NEM switches have the following advantages: (i) Near elimination of source-drain static tunneling losses, (ii) Improved subthreshold characteristics [1]-- allowing lower operating voltage and hence lower dynamic power dissipation, (iii) Ability to run at much higher temperatures than Si-based CMOS. Our approach employs a carbon nanotube-based relay. We have prototyped this approach by inserting a tube into an etched gap between two contacts. Using a nanopositioner to align the tube, the prototype has demonstrated multiple switching at 5V. We will characterize this device and also integrated NEM switches. [1] Ghosh, A. W., Rakshit, T. & Datta, S. Gating of a molecular transistor: Electrostatic and Conformational. Nano Letters 4, 565-568 (2004).

Baldo, Marc

2008-03-01

196

Acceleration switch  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-08-17

197

Magnetic switching  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Kirbie, H.C.

1989-04-14

198

Study on Supplier Pricing Model Based on Stackelberg Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the supplier pricing model based on Stackelberg game with stochastic demand. First we describe the problem concerned and construct the pricing model Then we propose analysis and discussion, and study the impact of demand fluctuation on Stackelberg equilibrium. A series of characters and principles are drawn.

Tian Zhiyu; Xu Chen

2007-01-01

199

Time series analysis for minority game simulations of financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minority game (MG) model introduced recently provides promising insights into the understanding of the evolution of prices, indices and rates in the financial markets. In this paper we perform a time series analysis of the model employing tools from statistics, dynamical systems theory and stochastic processes. Using benchmark systems and a financial index for comparison, several conclusions are obtained

Fernando F. Ferreira; Gerson Francisco; Birajara S. Machado; Paulsamy Muruganandam

2003-01-01

200

Application Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Application switching is a powerful feature that can extend your image creation and manipulation options. Aviary’s applications\\u000a are designed to be quick and simple to use; thus, many advanced features have been omitted to keep the applications nimble.\\u000a To offset this smaller feature set compared to the more expensive desktop applications, Aviary has added easy application\\u000a switching. For instance, if

Mike Peutz

201

Is this Modified Nim Game a Game of Chance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basically there are two types of games, namely games that do and games that do not involve chance. Classical n-pile Bouton's nim is an example of a game that does not involve chance. The coin matching game is a game that does involve chance. In the coin matching game, two players Art and Beth have a single coin each. They

Arthur Holshouser; Harold Reiter

202

Games Economits Play: Noncomputerized Classroom Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Web site for college economics instructors that provides 113 noncomputerized economics experiments (games) to help teach fundamental micro and macroeconomic concepts. Explains that the games are annotated and hyperlinked and that the Web site is organized into three tables classifying the games. (CMK)

Delemeester, Greg; Brauer, Jurgen

2000-01-01

203

Game Design Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model to support the design, analysis, and comparison of games through the use of game design patterns, descriptions of reoccurring interaction relevant to game play. The model consists of a structural framework to describe the components of games, and patterns of interaction that describes how components are used by players (or a computer) to affect various aspects

Staffan Björk; Sus Lundgren; Jussi Holopainen

2003-01-01

204

Blood Type Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later of the Flash Player plug-in, which ... download . How to Play The object of the game is to score as many points as possible ...

205

Evolutionary game dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary game dynamics is the application of population dy- namical methods to game theory. It has been introduced by evolutionary biologists, anticipated in part by classical game theorists. In this survey, we present an overview of the many brands of deterministic dynamical systems motivated by evolutionary game theory, including ordinary dierential equa- tions (and, in particular, the replicator equation), dierential

Josef Hofbauer; Karl Sigmund

2003-01-01

206

Assessing Serious Educational Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Games can train and teach just like teachers do in a traditional sense. However, bad games (like bad teachers\\/trainers) don’t\\u000a teach well. A standard for Serious Educational games must be established. This chapter discusses the rationale, development,\\u000a and psychometrics of a Serious Educational Game Rubric.

Leonard A. Annetta; Richard Lamb; Marcus Stone

207

Local-Effect Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of games, local-effect games (LEGs), which exploit structure in a differ- ent way from other compact game representations studied in AI. We show both theoretically and em- pirically that these games often (but not always) have pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Finding a po- tential function is a good technique for finding such equilibria. We give a

Kevin Leyton-brown; Moshe Tennenholtz

2003-01-01

208

Flourishing and video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies dedicated to understanding the relationship between gaming and mental health, have traditionally focused on the effects of depression, anxiety, obsessive usage, aggression, obesity, and faltering 'real life' relationships. The complexity of game genre and personality aside, this review aims to define a space for a positive relationship between video game play and wellbeing by applying current video game research

Kellie Vella; Daniel Johnson

2012-01-01

209

Computer Games With Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is playing an increasingly important role in the success or failure of computer games and the quality and complexity of the AI techniques employed in games is steadily increasing. The paper explores the use of AI in games focusing on difficulties faced by game developers and techniques that have proven useful. Particular attention is given to a

Daniel Johnson; Janet Wiles

2001-01-01

210

FlowGames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer vision-based interfaces to games hold the promise of rich natural interaction and thus a more realistic gaming experience. Therefore, the video games industry started to develop and market computer vision-based games recently with great success. Due to limited computational resources, they employ mostly simple algorithms such as background subtraction, instead of sophisticated motion estimation or gesture recognition methods. This

Jakob Santner; Manuel Werlberger; Thomas Mauthner; Wolfgang Paier; Horst Bischof

2010-01-01

211

The women's game conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Women's Game Conference focuses on women in the computer and video game industry. The conference will focus on a variety of women's topics in the computer and video game industry including examining career paths for women in the industry and issues related to working in the industry as women as well as how women are portrayed in games and

Newton Lee

2004-01-01

212

First Person Shooter Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

D game development is an exciting activity for many students. But getting a handle on 3D game development for novices may be a daunting task. We take this opportunity to present a quick introduction to 3D game development through a few tutorials. For the next few columns a set of tutorials for a 3D first person shooter game developed by

Rex Cason II; Erik Larson II; Jonathan Robertson; Jonathan Frisch; George Trice III; Lakshmi Prayaga

2009-01-01

213

First Person Shooter Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

D game development is an exciting activity for many students. But getting a handle on 3D game development for novices may be a daunting task. We take this opportunity to present a quick introduction to 3D game development through a few tutorials. For the next few columns a set of tutorials for a 3D first person shooter game developed by

Rex Cason II; Erik Larson; Jonathan Robertson; Jonathan Frisch; George Trice III; Lakshmi Prayaga

2008-01-01

214

The Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Olympic Games occur every 4 years, but with the schedule change following the 1992 Winter Games, there are actually games held every 2 years, alternating between Summer and Winter Games. Given the world's interest in the Olympic sports, including a fascination with world and Olympic records, a plethora of sites have sprung up on the Internet about the Olympics.

M. Sandra Wood

2001-01-01

215

Big Boss Interval Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role rela- tive to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element of the interval core of a big boss interval game is extendable to a

S. Z. Alparslan Gök; Rodica Branzei; Stef Tijs

2011-01-01

216

Noisy quantum Parrondo games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternating two fair coin flipping games can create a winning game. Such a Parrondo game is a discrete model for a thermal ratchet. Recently we have constructed quantum versions of these coin flipping games that display the same 'paradoxical' behavior. In this paper we add noise to these quantum Parrondo games in order that they can be compared with continuum models of quantum ratchets. Simulation of these models reproduces one of the most interesting features of quantum ratchets: current inversion.

Meyer, David A.

2003-05-01

217

Power play game mechanics  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Method, article and apparatus for executing computer games, and in particular, computer-based racing games. In a racing game, a player may be allowed to earn one or more game play options which may be exercised during the race. The game play options, when exercised, may modify the predefined race path to create an advantage for the player or a disadvantage to the competitors.

Baynes; Nick (Brighton, GB); Jefferies; David (Hove, GB); Green; Jason (Brighton, GB); Hassan; Serkan (Brighton, GB)

2013-02-05

218

Switching control of resistive switching devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching current control plays a critical role in the operation of resistive switching devices. Both on-state resistance and maximum reset current show strong dependence on the current limit during set switching. The dependence in unipolar switching devices can be explained by the power-driven nature of reset and dynamic competition between set and reset forces. Effective switching control improves device characteristics

An Chen

2010-01-01

219

Stochastic analysis of dynamic interaction between train and railway turnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a railway turnout (switch and crossing) is influenced by a large number of input parameters of the complex train–turnout system. To reach a robust design that performs well for different traffic situations, random distributions (scatter) of these inputs need to be accounted for in the design process. Stochastic analysis methods are integrated with a simulation model of

E. Kassa; J. C. O. Nielsen

2008-01-01

220

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

221

Switching Transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

1981-01-01

222

Optical Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operat...

R. P. Reedy

1985-01-01

223

The $-game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.

Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.

2003-01-01

224

Board game  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A board game for between two and seven players comprising a board comprising a large outer circle disposed thereon; a center circle disposed in the large circle; fourteen stripes each extending radially from the center circle to the large outer circle, each stripe labelled with a deadly sin or a chakra of enlightenment; twenty one dividing lines extending radially from the center circle to the large outer circle; and seven concentric circles extending outwardly from the center circle to the large outer circle, wherein one or more boxes are labeled with a command; a plurality of playing pieces; a first wheel for determining how many boxes a player can move a playing piece; a second wheel for determining how many playing pieces a player can move; and a plurality of cards that display a phrase.

2011-03-01

225

Stochastic phase transition operator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a Markov operator is introduced that represents the density evolution of an impulse-driven stochastic biological oscillator. The operator’s stochastic kernel is constructed using the asymptotic expansion of stochastic processes instead of solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The Markov operator is shown to successfully approximate the density evolution of the biological oscillator considered. The response of the oscillator to both periodic and time-varying impulses can be analyzed using the operator’s transient and stationary properties. Furthermore, an unreported stochastic dynamic bifurcation for the biological oscillator is obtained by using the eigenvalues of the product of the Markov operators.

Yamanobe, Takanobu

2011-07-01

226

Communication game device  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A communication game device which is disclosed can communicate with another game device, memorize the information about a communication partner at the time of the communication, and offer the communication game device which can process information for the succeeding game to be reflected in the contents of a game or the simulation. The communication game device has a processing section, a program storage part which memorizes a control program, an image storage section which memorizes character pictures matched with picture IDs, and controlling elements which can be operated by a game player. When the player's game device receives parameters from another communication game device, the parameters are stored or the data is renewed. If a parameter containing a body ID and the same body ID as arbitrary data is not stored, the arbitrary data in the parameter is memorized. If the parameter has been memorized, it is updated.

Murase; Kazue (Tokyo, JP); Yokoi; Akihiro (Tokyo, JP)

2013-10-01

227

Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

2012-01-01

228

Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows that an apparent paradox in cooperative quantum games and some interesting phenomena can be observed.

Pawela, ?ukasz; S?adkowski, Jan

2013-08-01

229

Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.

Abdulle, Assyr; Blumenthal, Adrian

2013-10-01

230

The Easiest Lights Out Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

Torrence, Bruce

2011-01-01

231

Simulation Games in Moral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the value of simulation games in moral education in four categories: fun and games; games as simulations of real life; games as motivators; and morality and game theory. Also examines the gaming aspects of morality, as well as the physical, psychological, precedent-setting, and internal consequences of an action. (Author/JK)|

Boulogne, Jack

1978-01-01

232

Multidimensional Stochastic Approximation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional stochastic approximation schemes are presented, and conditions are given for these schemes to converge a.s. (almost surely) to the solutions of $k$ stochastic equations in $k$ unknowns and to the point where a regression function in $k$ variables achieves its maximum.

Julius R. Blum

1954-01-01

233

Stochastic and Fuzzy PERT,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network-planning techniques are considered, which are based on stochastic and fuzzy models of the activity durations. The stochastic versions of PERT are generally intractable, and they cannot be used to draw up tight plans for action. Fuzzy models are cl...

F. A. Lootsma

1988-01-01

234

Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.  

PubMed

Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

2013-08-07

235

Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games.

Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter

2012-01-01

236

Braille Bug: Games  

MedlinePLUS

... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...

237

Game-Based Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the pedagogy of teaching with games. Game-based learning uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate and engage them in learning.

Teed, Rebecca

238

Sheppard Software: Learning Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of games, puzzles, and quizzes helps students learn world and U.S. geography, vocabulary, and trivia. There are also games for chemistry and math, and quizzes on animals, health, astronomy, and puzzles on endangered animals.

239

Differential Game Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Synthesis of optimal controls in a linear differential game with a quadratic functional of payment; Differential games with incomplete information; Extremely incoherent spaces with unique homomorphism on themselves.

V. A. Yakubovich L. A. Petrosyan A. I. Raykhberg

1971-01-01

240

On Differential Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present article considers a class of simple differential games. Necessary conditions satisified along optimal trajectories of such games are derived under the assumption that the class of pure strategies contain the optimal strategies. Two examples ar...

R. Chattopadhyay

1967-01-01

241

MATEC Animations: Questor Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features a number of interactive educational games from MATEC. Games are available on the topics of semiconductor physics, implant process, implant equipment, oxidation process, photolithography, etch troubleshooting, deposition process and more.

2010-11-12

242

Games crowdsource cancer research.  

PubMed

Cancer Research UK, creator of the popular Cell Slider citizen science game, will soon premiere a mobile phone game in which players identify genetic mutations associated with particular cancers. PMID:24019314

2013-08-08

243

Wolf Trek Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)

DeRosa, Bill

1988-01-01

244

Games for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a number of examples of the uses of business games for research into behavioral and organizational issues. The requirements and advantages of using games for research purposes are outlined. (SK)

Fripp, John

1984-01-01

245

Play the MRI Game  

MedlinePLUS

... about the Nobel Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and radio waves are used for getting images of inner ...

246

Nobel Prize Educational Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the Nobel Foundation you can play educational games and explore information about the Nobel Prize. The games cover a variety of science and health topics including the immune system, diabetes, DNA and laser technology.

2010-10-28

247

Optical switching: switch fabrics, techniques, and architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The switching speeds of electronics cannot keep up with the transmission capacity offered by optics. All-optical switch fabrics play a central role in the effort to migrate the switching functions to the optical layer. Optical packet switching provides an almost arbitrary fine granularity but faces significant challenges in the processing and buffering of bits at high speeds. Generalized multiprotocol label

Georgios I. Papadimitriou; Chrisoula Papazoglou; Andreas S. Pomportsis

2003-01-01

248

Transcription Stochasticity of Complex Gene Regulation Models  

PubMed Central

Transcription is regulated by a multitude of factors that concertedly induce genes to switch between activity states. Eukaryotic transcription involves a multitude of complexes that sequentially assemble on chromatin under the influence of transcription factors and the dynamic state of chromatin. Prokaryotic transcription depends on transcription factors, sigma-factors, and, in some cases, on DNA looping. We present a stochastic model of transcription that considers these complex regulatory mechanisms. We coarse-grain the molecular details in such a way that the model can describe a broad class of gene-regulation mechanisms. We solve this model analytically for various measures of stochastic transcription and compare alternative gene-regulation designs. We find that genes with complex multiprotein regulation can have peaked burst-size distributions in contrast to the geometric distributions found for simple models of transcription regulation. Burst-size distributions are, in addition, shaped by mRNA degradation during transcription bursts. We derive the stochastic properties of genes in the limit of deterministic switch times. These genes typically have reduced transcription noise. Severe timescale separation between gene regulation and transcription initiation enhances noise and leads to bimodal mRNA copy number distributions. In general, complex mechanisms for gene regulation lead to nonexponential waiting-time distributions for gene switching and transcription initiation, which typically reduce noise in mRNA copy numbers and burst size. Finally, we discuss that qualitatively different gene regulation models can often fit the same experimental data on single-cell mRNA abundance even though they have qualitatively different burst-size statistics and regulatory parameters.

Schwabe, Anne; Rybakova, Katja N.; Bruggeman, Frank J.

2012-01-01

249

Local-Effect Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a new class of games, local-effect games (LEGs), which exploit structure in a different way from other compact,game,representations studied in AI. We show both theoretically and empirically that these games,often (but not always) have pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Finding a potential function is a good technique for finding such equilibria. We give a complete,characterization of which LEGs have

Kevin Leyton-brown; Moshe Tennenholtz

2005-01-01

250

Non-cooperative Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (games in normal form, and games in extensive form), as well as the main concepts that have been proposed to

Eric E. C. van Damme

2000-01-01

251

Quantum Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's paradox arises when two losing games are combined to produce a winning one. A history-dependent quantum Parrondo game is studied where the rotation operators that represent the toss of a classical biased coin are replaced by general /SU(2) operators to transform the game into the quantum domain. In the initial state, a superposition of qubits can be used to couple the games and produce interference leading to quite different payoffs to those in the classical case.

Flitney, A. P.; Ng, J.; Abbott, D.

2002-11-01

252

Dynamic Robust Games in MIMO Systems.  

PubMed

In this paper, we study dynamic robust power-allocation games in multiple-input-multiple-output systems under the imperfectness of the channel-state information at the transmitters. Using a robust pseudopotential-game approach, we show the existence of robust solutions in both discrete and continuous action spaces under suitable conditions. Considering the imperfectness in terms of the payoff measurement at the transmitters, we propose a COmbined fully DIstributed Payoff and Strategy Reinforcement Learning (CODIPAS-RL) in which each transmitter learns its payoff function, as well as the associated optimal covariance matrix strategies. Under the heterogeneous CODIPAS-RL, the transmitters can use different learning patterns (heterogeneous learning) and different learning rates. We provide sufficient conditions for the almost-sure convergence of the heterogeneous learning to ordinary differential equations. Extensions of the CODIPAS-RL to Itô's stochastic differential equations are discussed. PMID:21266314

Tembine, Hamidou

2011-01-24

253

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. Although practicing a mundane skill, learners enjoy the work because of the game scenario. Built into this game is cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

2008-01-01

254

Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text introduces current evolutionary game theory--where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet--emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. The author provides an overview of the developments that have taken place in this branch of game theory, discusses the mathematical tools needed to understand the area, describes both the motivation and intuition for

Jorgen W. Weibull

1999-01-01

255

Cores of convex games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of ann-person game is the set of feasible outcomes that cannot be improved upon by any coalition of players. A convex game is defined as one that is based on a convex set function. In this paper it is shown that the core of a convex game is not empty and that it has an especially regular structure.

Lloyd S. Shapley

1971-01-01

256

Online Strategy Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)|

Dye, Bryan

2002-01-01

257

Game Skill Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Before discussing the development of skills for playing elementary school physical education games, this document lists basic assumptions about children, movement education, games, and elementary school physical education. Four basic concepts, which are common to all team games, are identified: (1) use of personal and moving space and finding…

Kisabeth, Kathryn L.

258

Avatars in Analytical Gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC's) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of playing the supporting cast role. This new `science' of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables

Andrew J. Cowell; Amanda K. Cowell

2009-01-01

259

Online Strategy Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

Dye, Bryan

2002-01-01

260

Games with Small Forgetfulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is known how players may learn to play in a game they know, the issue of how their model of the game evolves over time is largely unexplored. This paper introduces small forgetfulness and shows that it may destabilize standard full-memory solutions. Players are repeatedly matched to play a game. After any match, they forget with infinitesimal probability

Francesco Squintani

1999-01-01

261

The Game of Paxos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the Game of Paxos to simplify the presentation of Paxos-style consensus protocols. We use this game to show how Lamport's Paxos and Castro and Liskov's PBFT are the same consensus protocol, but for different failure models. In this game, players try to store some value in a write-once register and quit only when they learn the register's final

Harry C. Li; Lorenzo Alvisi; Allen Clement

262

Playing the Cell Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

1980-01-01

263

Gaming Gains Respect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

Richardson, Will

2012-01-01

264

Video Games in Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games have found their way into the clinical care of youth in most medical fields, and academic interest in their use is increasing steadily. The popularity of video games among youth may qualify them as a useful tool in psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Limited literature on use of video games in mental health care suggests that they can

T. Atilla Ceranoglu

2010-01-01

265

Being a Game Changer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

2012-01-01

266

[Dangerous games in schoolchildren].  

PubMed

Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376

Le Heuzey, M-F

2010-12-10

267

Kids Only Game Time!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These kids games from the NASA Earth Science Enterprise include: Droplet and the Water Cycle, where a droplet must be navigated through the hydrological cycle; What on Earth?, a game of earth trivia; word search puzzles, with hidden earth science words; Drag and Drop puzzles, to test one's ability to interpret satellite and composite images; a Pangaea map game; and a tectonics quiz.

268

Indian & Metis Trivia Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

269

War and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act

Nicholas A. Perry

2009-01-01

270

Writing for video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a survey of the process and technology used for video games and tackles the problem of writing them. The first part of the paper addresses the general state of the art in the design of video games : market and technology constraints, production process. The second part is devoted to the writing of games practices and technology

Viviane Gal; Cécile Le Prado; Stéphane Natkin; Liliana Vega

271

VIDEO GAMES AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological studies find that video game play is associated with markers for violent and antisocial attitudes. It is plausible that these markers indicate either whetted or sated preferences for antisocial behavior. I investigate whether a proxy for video gaming is associated with the prevalence of various crimes and find evidence that gaming is associated with significant declines in crime and

MICHAEL R. WARD

2011-01-01

272

GAMES AND SIMULATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This overview examines the challenges and opportunities afforded by games and simulations to enrich teaching and learning. It presents the preliminary findings from a classroom study that used the promising educational games and simulations developed by the Nobel Foundation. Middle school students from all groups, disaggregated by gender and ethnicity, showed significant learning gains after playing these challenging Nobel games.

Nathan Balasubramanian; Brent G. Wilson

273

An Extended Duopoly Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

Eckalbar, John C.

2002-01-01

274

Gollywood Squares Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Cyberchase activity, roll the die and count off spaces on the game board to earn money and collect CyberSquad autographs. To win the game, be the first to buy four different autographs. This game enables learners to practice adding and subtracting and counting money.

Wnet.org

2011-01-01

275

Big Games, Small Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thing that becomes immediately apparent when creating and distributing mobile 3D games is that there are fundamental differences between the cellphone market and the more traditional games markets, such as consoles and handheld gaming devices. The most striking of these are the number of delivery platforms; the severe constraints of the devices, including small screens whose orientation can be

Mark Callow; Paul Beardow; David Brittain

2007-01-01

276

Concurrent Reachability Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open system can be modeled as a two-player game be- tween the system and its environment. At each round of the game, player 1 (the system) and player 2 (the environment) independently and simultaneously choose moves, and the two choices determine the next state of the game. Proper- ties of open systems can be modeled as objectives of these

Luca De Alfaro; Thomas A. Henzinger; Orna Kupferman

1998-01-01

277

Games-to-Teach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the archived version of the Games-to-Teach project, now hosted by The Education Arcade. The Games-to-Teach Project is a partnership between MIT and Microsoft to develop conceptual prototypes for the next generation of interactive educational entertainment. Included are details about prototype educational games.

Project, Games-To-Teach; Arcade, The E.

278

Playing the Cell Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)|

Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

1980-01-01

279

Evolutionary computation and games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Games provide competitive, dynamic environments that make ideal test beds for computational intelligence theories, architectures, and algorithms. Natural evolution can be considered to be a game in which the rewards for an organism that plays a good game of life are the propagation of its genetic material to its successors and its continued survival. In natural evolution, the fitness of

S. M. Lucas; G. Kendall

2006-01-01

280

An evolutionary game theory explanation of ARCH effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

While ARCH\\/GARCH equations have been widely used to model financial market data, formal explanations for the sources of conditional volatility are scarce. This paper presents a model with the property that standard econometric tests detect ARCH\\/GARCH effects similar to those found in asset returns. We use evolutionary game theory to describe how agents endogenously switch among different forecasting strategies. The

William R. Parke; George A. Waters

2007-01-01

281

Kinetics of Genetic Switching into the State of Bacterial Competence  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear amplification of gene expression of master regulators is essential for cellular differentiation. Here we investigated determinants that control the kinetics of the genetic switching process from the vegetative state (B-state) to the competent state (K-state) of Bacillus subtilis, explicitly including the switching window which controls the probability for competence initiation in a cell population. For individual cells, we found that after initiation of switching, the levels of the master regulator [ComK](t) increased with sigmoid shape and saturation occurred at two distinct levels of [ComK]. We analyzed the switching kinetics into the state with highest [ComK] and found saturation after a switching period of length 1.4 ± 0.3 h. The duration of the switching period was robust against variations in the gene regulatory network of the master regulator, whereas the saturation levels showed large variations between individual isogenic cells. We developed a nonlinear dynamics model, taking into account low-number stochastic effects. The model quantitatively describes the probability and timescale of switching at the single cell level and explains why the ComK level in the K-state is highly sensitive to extrinsic parameter variations. Furthermore, the model predicts a transition from stochastic to deterministic switching at increased production rates of ComK in agreement with experimental data.

Leisner, Madeleine; Kuhr, Jan-Timm; Radler, Joachim O.; Frey, Erwin; Maier, Berenike

2009-01-01

282

Game Theory .net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Game Theory .net focuses on making the lessons of game theory relevant to the educator, student, business professional, or layperson. The site provides resource materials demonstrating the application of game theory to computer science, economics, business, political science, and other disciplines. It features textbooks reviews, lecture notes, and quizzes, as well as Java applets and online games to demonstrate concepts in a fun, interactive way. There are also links concerning game-theory themes in movies, books, and the popular press. Assessment materials are provided to aid educators in preparing classes and to offer students additional practice.

Shor, Mike

283

World Wildlife Fund: Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games are a great medium for introducing kids to complex topics like biodiversity. From the World Wildlife Fund, this website offers an inventive and fun collection of biodiversity games. The interactive games are designed for middle-school students and include a Virtual Safari, a Mapping Biodiversity game, a genetic diversity game, and more. The site also features a trailer for Biodiversity 911, a movie produced by Aardman, the clever creators of Wallace and Gromit. The website's Biodiversity 911 section also links to interactive activities that address fish sustainability, soil composition, toxic elements, and the ecology of a Sumatran rain forest.

284

25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(2) Switches or jumpers on all circuit boards that have the potential to affect the outcome or integrity of any game, progressive award, financial instrument, cashless transaction, voucher transaction, or accounting records must be capable of being sealed. (b) Electrostatic...

2013-04-01

285

Solving Stochastic Nonlinear Resource Allocation Problems Using a Hierarchy of Twofold Resource Allocation Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a multitude of real-world situations, resources must be allocated based on incomplete and noisy information. However, in many cases, incomplete and noisy information render traditional resource allocation techniques ineffective. The decentralized Learning Automata Knapsack Game (LAKG) was recently proposed for solving one such class of problems, namely the class of Stochastic Nonlinear Fractional Knapsack Problems. Empirically, the LAKG was

Ole-Christoffer Granmo; B. John Oommen

2010-01-01

286

Stochastic evolutionary dynamics resolve the Traveler's Dilemma.  

PubMed

Behavior in social dilemmas is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory: people (and a wide variety of other organisms) are more cooperative than might be expected. Here we consider behavior in one such social dilemma, the Traveler's Dilemma, that has received considerable attention in the economics literature but is little known among theoretical biologists. The rules of the game are as follows. Two players each choose a value between R and M, where 0stochastic evolutionary dynamics in finite populations with varying intensity of selection and varying mutation rate. We derive analytic results showing that strategies choosing high values can be favored when selection is weak. More generally, selection favors strategies that choose high values if R is small (relative to M) and strategies that choose low values if R is large. Finally, we show that a two-parameter model involving the intensity of selection and the mutation rate can quantitatively reproduce data that from a Traveler's Dilemma experiment. These results demonstrate the power of evolutionary game theory for explaining human behavior in contexts that are challenging for standard economic game theory. PMID:22465111

Manapat, Michael L; Rand, David G; Pawlowitsch, Christina; Nowak, Martin A

2012-03-23

287

Game behavior pattern modeling for game bots detection in MMORPG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game industry, especially MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game) has been rapidly expanding in these days. But at the same time, lots of online game security incidents have been increasing and getting more diverse. One of the most critical security incidents is 'Game Bots', which mimic human player's playing behaviors. Bot users can get a lot of benefic game

Sang-Hyun Park; Jee-Hyong Lee; Hye-Wuk Jung; Sung-Woo Bang

2010-01-01

288

Chitetris: A Chinese Proverb Learning Game Utilizing Tetris Game Plot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetris is a popular game available on almost every computer platform. A Tetris segment is made up of four rectangular blocks, which fits rightly with a four-character Chinese proverb. We utilize the Tetris game plot and design the Chitetris game -- an interactive and extensible Chinese proverb learning platform. The Chitetris game augments the spatial recognition and manipulation game elements

Tsung Teng Chen

2010-01-01

289

Dichotomously switched phase flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general formalism for periodic dichotomous noise on nonpotential flows is considered. This uncorrelated noise process switches suddenly at integer values of period ?. The effect of additive noise of this kind on the planar FitzHugh-Nagumo ordinary differential equations [R. FitzHugh, Biophys. J. 1, 445 (1961); J. Nagumo, S. Arimoto, and Y. Yoshikawa, Proc. IRE 50, 2061 (1962)] is examined. For large ?, quasifractal attractors are observed, whereas for the white-noise limit, where ? is small, a Fokker-Planck equation describes the evolution. The magnitude of ? determines the smoothness of the transient evolution and equilibrium density of the system. Typically the stochastic equations give rise to two regions of high density near the stable fixed points of the underlying autonomous system. The stiffness parameter ? in the differential equations determines the fast variable, its associated nullcline, and the resulting flow structure. For small ? the cubic nullcline controls the motion and transitions between the high-density peaks occur along segments of a noisy limit cycle. For large ? the linear nullcline governs the transitions and the peaks are joined by a single band. The statistical behavior of the oscillatory and direct transitions is examined.

Fraser, Simon J.; Kapral, Raymond

1997-09-01

290

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

291

Stochastic Wear Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new class of non-decreasing stochastic processes is characterized. These processes satisfy a generalization of the notion of an increasing failure rate. From physical considerations, these processes seem suitable for describing the process of cumulative...

R. Morey

1965-01-01

292

VAWT Stochastic Wind Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stochastic wind simulation for VAWTs (VSTOC) has been developed which yields turbulent wind-velocity fluctuations for rotationally sampled points. This allows three-component wind-velocity fluctuations to be simulated at specified nodal points on the wi...

J. H. Strickland

1987-01-01

293

Methodology for Stochastic Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirement to develop stochastic mathematical models arises across the whole range of engineering and applied research where observations are made of a physical process, corrupted by noise, and it is desired to determine the underlying nature, either...

H. E. Cohen

1985-01-01

294

Robust reach-avoid controller synthesis for switched nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a method to automatically synthesize controllers that provide hard guarantees of safety and target reachability for sampled-data switched systems under bounded continuous disturbances. Techniques from hybrid system verification are used to perform continuous time differential game calculations on each sampling interval. Iterative procedures are given for computing the set of states for which there exists

Jerry Ding; Claire J. Tomlin

2010-01-01

295

Stick or switch : data analysis and probability (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can play an interactive version of the game Let's Make a Deal. Players are given a choice of three doors--one of which hides a good prize, while the other two hide loser prizes. They select, but do not see, one door. Host Monty Hall reveals a prize behind one of the remaining doors. Players can either stick with the originally selected door and prize or switch to the other door. The cumulative percentages generated by sticking or switching after playing multiple games is displayed. One button labeled Strategy leads to questions that discuss the probability of winning with each strategy. A Multiple Game option generates outcome data based on playing a large number of games. Instructions for using the game and a link to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standard for data analysis and probability are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

296

Stochastic Multivariate Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The discussions of stochastic methods in previous chapters were related to the consideration of a single random variable.\\u000a This approach is appropriate to explain the basic structure of evolution equations for stochastic processes and their PDFs.\\u000a On the other hand, most applications cannot be handled on the basis of methods that describe the evolution of single variables.\\u000a Real processes usually

Stefan Heinz

297

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable

M. BRENNAN; J. M. CAMERON; P. WEI

2003-01-01

298

RESEARCH TOPICS IN GAME THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research topics in game theory will cover the study of dynamic games, games of incomplete information, and evolutionary games, with applications in the fields of voting, bargaining, lobbying and violent conflict. Results from the study of social choice theory and mechanism design will also be treated. The course will concentrate on mathematical techniques for constructing and solving games. Students will

Macartan Humphreys

2004-01-01

299

Sex, Lies and Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

2007-01-01

300

Security issues in online games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional target of computer game security is mainly copy protection. The e mergence of online games fundamentally changes the security requirements for computer games. Although computer game development often utilizes the cutting edge technology in computer graphics, artificial intelligence, human computer interaction and programming, game providers (developers or operators) do not pay much attention to security techniques. In this

Jianxin Jeff Yan; Hyun-jin Choi

2002-01-01

301

GAME THEORY AND VIDEO GAME, A NEW APPROACH OF GAME THEORY TO ANALYZE AND CONCEIVE GAME SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous authors have tried to use game theory as a tool for computer game design and study. These works recall generally some basic concepts of the Neuman Mogenstern game analysis (payoff matrix, finite zero-sum game, dominant and mixed strategy…) and show how to model and interpret some simple gameplay situation. In this paper we consider solo games (one player against

Montreuil-sous-bois Cedex; Stephane Natkin

302

Switching System Simulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Switching System Simulator (SSS) is a CDC 6600 computer program which simulates and evaluates networks of interconnected switching elements. SSS determines all the possible ways in which a given switching system can complete a set of input/output connecti...

C. R. Williams

1976-01-01

303

Two-Component Genetic Switch as a Synthetic Module with Tunable Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite stochastic fluctuations, some genetic switches are able to retain their expression states through multiple cell divisions, providing epigenetic memory. We propose a novel rationale for tuning the functional stability of a simple synthetic gene switch through protein dimerization. Introducing an approximation scheme to access long-time stochastic dynamics of multiple-component gene circuits, we find that the spontaneous switching rate may exhibit greater than 8 orders of magnitude variation. The manipulation of the circuit’s biochemical properties offers a practical strategy for designing robust epigenetic memory with synthetic circuits.

Ghim, C.-M.; Almaas, E.

2009-07-01

304

Electric field control of thermal stability and magnetization switching in (Ga,Mn)As  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetization switching induced by electric fields in the absence of external magnetic field has been demonstrated in a field effect structure with a (Ga,Mn)As layer having an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The switching is related to the modulation of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy by electric fields. Reducing magnetic anisotropy energy height by electric fields, we observe stochastic magnetization switching.

Chiba, D.; Ono, T.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

2013-09-01

305

Game theoretic sensor management for target tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops and evaluates a game-theoretic approach to distributed sensor-network management for target tracking via sensor-based negotiation. We present a distributed sensor-based negotiation game model for sensor management for multi-sensor multi-target tacking situations. In our negotiation framework, each negotiation agent represents a sensor and each sensor maximizes their utility using a game approach. The greediness of each sensor is limited by the fact that the sensor-to-target assignment efficiency will decrease if too many sensor resources are assigned to a same target. It is similar to the market concept in real world, such as agreements between buyers and sellers in an auction market. Sensors are willing to switch targets so that they can obtain their highest utility and the most efficient way of applying their resources. Our sub-game perfect equilibrium-based negotiation strategies dynamically and distributedly assign sensors to targets. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate our sensor-based negotiation approach for distributed sensor management.

Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Douville, Philip; Yang, Chun; Kadar, Ivan

2010-04-01

306

Play the Blood Typing Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood transfusion ... of the game 2012 Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has ...

307

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

308

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

309

The Distribution Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game is a computer simulation of retailers and wholesaler inventory systems. We play the game before we introduce EOQ and safety stock theory. The students soon get a feel for tradeoffs between ordering and inventory costs. We follow this trial and error experiment by a presentation of the theory. Students are then asked to apply the theory to the game's parameters and rerun it. The game captures several issues of inventory management as they relate to cost minimization and service level. These include order quantities, lead time, reorder points and safety stocks. This game can be used effectively to reinforce these concepts. The real strength of the game, however, is that it captures other aspects of inventory management that are typically missing from operations management text books. These are mainly the multiple echelon ordering system and pipeline stock.

Muckstadt, John; Jackson, Peter L.

2008-10-16

310

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

311

Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.

Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul

2012-02-01

312

Get-Moving Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this invention challenge activity, learners create an indoor game for one or two people that gets you moving. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to play an âimagine new uses for old thingsâ game to play before the activity. Learners will also brainstorm activities that get people up and moving and follow the design process to invent a game, including the equipment and rules for playing it.

Wgbh

2009-01-01

313

The Polar Bear Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, which is similar to Petals Around the Rose (cataloged separately), a player rolls 5 dice and asks the participants, âHow many polar bears are around the ice holes?â The participants try to figure out the riddle (rules of the game) by studying the dice arrangements and the answers that correspond. This webpage extends the game to have players also determine the number of fish and plankton.

2010-10-24

314

Artificial game presenter avatars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose artificial game presenter avatars embodying affective behavior to draw player-adapted social feedback during gameplay and introducing extra challenges to players called mini games, such as hangman and random card selection. The avatar's AI was designed as an extension of the traditional sense-think-act loop of game characters to address the need for emotional reflection and adaptive reaction. We provide

Anthony Savidis; Effie Karouzaki

2009-01-01

315

The Game of Hex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…

Scott, Paul

2007-01-01

316

A “Serious” Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To my 10-year-old son, all computer games are serious. In academic circles, “serious” games are those that teach in the context\\u000a of play. A broader definition, according to Wikipedia, is games with “...a primary purpose other than pure entertainment.”\\u000a Of course, if you find learning stuff highly entertaining then you may need to find a new definition. In this chapter,

Ira J. Greenberg

317

Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.

Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; T?llefsen, T.

2011-01-01

318

Inefficiency of voting in Parrondo games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a modification of the so-called Parrondo's paradox where a large number of individuals choose the game they want to play by voting. We show that it can be better for the players to vote randomly than to vote according to their own benefit in one turn. The former yields a winning tendency while the latter results in steady losses. An explanation of this behaviour is given by noting that selfish voting prevents the switching between games that is essential for the total capital to grow. Results for both finite and infinite number of players are presented. It is shown that the extension of the model to the history-dependent Parrondo's paradox also displays the same effect.

Dinís, Luis; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2004-11-01

319

Robust Stochastic Games and Applications to CounterTerrorism Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a new methodology for strategic decision making under uncertainty and presence of adversaries. This investigation is motivated by the need to determine optimal strategies under uncertainty against an adversarial and adaptive opponent. Such problems arise in the context of terrorism threats. To model investment decisions that pertain to homeland security, one should account for both uncertainty and

Erim Kardes

2005-01-01

320

Robust Control of Immune Systems Under Noises: Stochastic Game Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A robust control of immune response is proposed for therapeutic en- hancement to match a prescribed immune response under\\u000a uncertain initial states and environmental noises, including continuous intrusion of exogenous pathogens. The worst-case effect\\u000a of all possible noises and uncertain initial states on the matching for a desired immune response is minimized for the enhanced\\u000a immune system, i.e., a robust

Bor-Sen Chen; Chia-Hung Chang; Yung-Jen Chuang

321

The Video Game Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games may now have officially reached a new level of cultural and social importance, especially since PBS (and station affiliate KCTS) have seen fit to create this very interactive and informative site to complement their recent television special, "The Video Game Revolution". The television program tells the history of video games, starting all the way back in 1952, and proceeding all the way to the current home systems. Of course, this website offers a great deal of material to delight aficionados of this cultural phenomenon, including an interactive timeline of video game history and Flash-enabled specials on the impact of gaming, and of course the somewhat forgotten (but not totally gone) phenomenon of that old shopping mall standby, the arcade. The arcade that's featured on the site offers users the ability to play an old classic game (Galaga) and a "Name that Game" feature, where visitors must guess the game based on a brief sound clip. Of course, the Scout Report would be remiss if it didn't also mention that there's a Celebrity Game Quiz, which features such questions as "Which member of the Rat Pack appeared in a 1970s commercial for Magnavox?" If you can't wait to get to the site, it was Mr. Ring a Ding Ding himself, Frances Albert Sinatra.

322

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

323

Computer Cracks Go Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers can now compete with humans not only in chess, but also in the board game Go. Go involves two players who each try to surround a territory with stones of their color. The player who gains the most territory (mostly by surrounding his opponent these with his own stones) wins the game. Dutch researcher Erik van der Werf, with funding from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, "achieved a world first" with a program that can solve the Go game for a 5x5 playing board. This article briefly describes the game and the technique used to develop the program.

324

Stochastic dynamics and Parrondo’s paradox  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spanish physicist Juan Parrondo has provided two stochastic losing games such that for certain stochastic combinations one may obtain a winning game. If a large number of players are involved and if they try to play such that their gain in the next round is maximized one arrives at the problem of investigating a random walk on a certain space of measures. The appropriate abstract setting is as follows. There is given a compact metric space (M,d), and M is written as the union of certain closed subsets A1,…,Ar. For every ?=1,…,r there is prescribed a strict contraction ??:A??M. A random walk ( on M is then defined as follows. The starting position is X0=x0, where x0?M is fixed, and if the walk at the m’th step is at position Xm?M, then one chooses a ? among the ? with Xm?A? (with equal probability, say) and defines X as ??(Xm). Associated with the walk is a gain?(Xm) in every round, where ?:M?R is a continuous function. The aim of the present investigations is the study of the expectation Gm of ?(Xm) as a function of m. Our main result states that the sequence (Gm) is “eventually approximately periodic” provided that all A? are not only closed but also open in M: for every ? there is an l0?N such that (Gm) is l0-periodic up to an error of at most ? for sufficiently large m. In fact it turns out that the behaviour of our process can be described well with a finite Markov chain. In the general case, however, the process might behave rather chaotically. We give an example where M is the unit interval. M is written as the union of two closed subsets A1,A2, the contractions ?1,?2 are rather simple, but the expectations of the gains are not even Cesáro convergent.

Behrends, Ehrhard

2008-02-01

325

Optimal control of stochastic magnetization dynamics by spin current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluctuation-induced stochastic magnetization dynamics plays an important role in spintronics devices. Here we propose that it can be optimally controlled by spin currents to minimize or maximize the Freidlin-Wentzell action functional of the system hence to increase or decrease the probability of the large fluctuations. We apply this method to study the thermally activated magnetization switching problem and to demonstrate the merits of the optimal control strategy.

Wang, Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun

2013-05-01

326

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16

327

Structures and stochastic methods  

SciTech Connect

Studies and research on structures and stochastic methods in the soil dynamics and earthquake engineering filed are covered in this book. The first section is on structures and includes studies on bridges, loaded tanks, sliding structures and wood-framed houses. The second section covers dams, retaining walls and slopes. The third section on underground structures covers pipelines, water supply, fire loss, buried lifeline, and underground transmission lines. The final section is on stochastic methods and includes applications in earthquake response spectra, lifeline aqueduct systems, and various other areas.

Cakmak, A.S.

1987-01-01

328

Stochastic Hopfield neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hopfield (1984 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 81 3088-92) showed that the time evolution of a symmetric neural network is a motion in state space that seeks out minima in the system energy (i.e. the limit set of the system). In practice, a neural network is often subject to environmental noise. It is therefore useful and interesting to find out whether the system still approaches some limit set under stochastic perturbation. In this paper, we will give a number of useful bounds for the noise intensity under which the stochastic neural network will approach its limit set.

Hu, Shigeng; Liao, Xiaoxin; Mao, Xuerong

2003-03-01

329

Stochastic optical active rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a stochastic based method for performing active rheology using optical tweezers. By monitoring the displacement of an embedded particle in response to stochastic optical forces, a rapid estimate of the frequency dependent shear moduli of a sample is achieved in the range of 10-1-103 Hz. We utilize the method to probe linear viscoelastic properties of hydrogels at varied cross-linker concentrations. Combined with fluorescence imaging, our method demonstrates non-linear changes of bond strength between T cell receptors and an antigenic peptide due to force-induced cell activation.

Lee, Hyungsuk; Shin, Yongdae; Kim, Sun Taek; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

2012-07-01

330

Stochastic optical active rheology  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate a stochastic based method for performing active rheology using optical tweezers. By monitoring the displacement of an embedded particle in response to stochastic optical forces, a rapid estimate of the frequency dependent shear moduli of a sample is achieved in the range of 10?1–103?Hz. We utilize the method to probe linear viscoelastic properties of hydrogels at varied cross-linker concentrations. Combined with fluorescence imaging, our method demonstrates non-linear changes of bond strength between T cell receptors and an antigenic peptide due to force-induced cell activation.

Lee, Hyungsuk; Shin, Yongdae; Kim, Sun Taek; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Lang, Matthew J.

2012-01-01

331

Guess My Rule: The Function Machine Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This card game provides practice in saying and writing the function rule, given an input/output table. One student has the rule which the other student has to guess. The guesser records an input number in the table and the rule person must apply the rule and tell the output number. Student pairs repeat this until the guesser correctly identifies the rule by saying and writing it. Students then switch places and repeat the activity. There are three different levels of rules for play: simple addition & subtraction, multiplication or two-step rules.

Kawas, Terry

2000-01-01

332

Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary game theory is the study of frequency-dependent selection. The success of an individual depends on the frequencies of strategies that are used in the population. We propose a new model for studying evolutionary dynamics in games with a continuous strategy space. The population size is finite. All members of the population use the same strategy. A mutant strategy is chosen from some distribution over the strategy space. The fixation probability of the mutant strategy in the resident population is calculated. The new mutant takes over the population with this probability. In this case, the mutant becomes the new resident. Otherwise, the existing resident remains. Then, another mutant is generated. These dynamics lead to a stationary distribution over the entire strategy space. Our new approach generalizes classical adaptive dynamics in three ways: (i) the population size is finite; (ii) mutants can be drawn non-locally and (iii) the dynamics are stochastic. We explore reactive strategies in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. We perform ‘knock-out experiments’ to study how various strategies affect the evolution of cooperation. We find that ‘tit-for-tat’ is a weak catalyst for the emergence of cooperation, while ‘always cooperate’ is a strong catalyst for the emergence of defection. Our analysis leads to a new understanding of the optimal level of forgiveness that is needed for the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity.

Imhof, Lorens A.; Nowak, Martin A.

2010-01-01

333

Stochastic Models of Quasigeostrophic Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk, I present a closure theory of quasigeostrophic turbulence for arbitrary shear flows based on stochastic models. A stochastic model represents the eddy-mean flow interaction through a nonnormal dynamical operator, and parameterizes the eddy-eddy interactions by an effective dissipation and random excitation. In the context of a stochastic model, the main facts which a closure theory of turbulence

T. Delsole

2005-01-01

334

Switching between phenotypes and population extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many types of bacteria can survive under stress by switching stochastically between two different phenotypes: the “normals” who multiply fast, but are vulnerable to stress, and the “persisters” who hardly multiply, but are resilient to stress. Previous theoretical studies of such bacterial populations have focused on the fitness: the asymptotic rate of unbounded growth of the population. Yet for an isolated population of established (and not very large) size, a more relevant measure may be the population extinction risk due to the interplay of adverse extrinsic variations and intrinsic noise of birth, death and switching processes. Applying a WKB approximation to the pertinent master equation of such a two-population system, we quantify the extinction risk, and find the most likely path to extinction under both favorable and adverse conditions. Analytical results are obtained both in the biologically relevant regime when the switching is rare compared with the birth and death processes, and in the opposite regime of frequent switching. We show that rare switches are most beneficial in reducing the extinction risk.

Lohmar, Ingo; Meerson, Baruch

2011-11-01

335

Critical review on video game evaluation heuristics: social games perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first step in creating design and evaluation heuristics for social games which emerge from the domain of social media. Initial high level heuristics for social games are offered by reviewing four existing video game heuristic models and analyzing two social games design frameworks.

Janne Paavilainen

2010-01-01

336

Dynamical systems game theory and dynamics of games  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical framework we call dynamical systems game is presented, in which the game itself can change due to the influence of players' behaviors and states. That is, the nature of the game itself is described as a dynamical system. The relation between game dynamics and the evolution of strategies is discussed by applying this framework. Computer experiments are carried

E. Akiyama; K. Kaneko

2000-01-01

337

Game, Player, Ethics: A Virtue Ethics Approach to Computer Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the contemporary heirs of popular music or cinema, computer games are gradually taking over the mar- kets of entertainment. Much like cinema and music, computer games are taking the spotlight in another front - that which blames them for encouraging unethical behaviors. Apparently, computer games turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of

Miguel Sicart

2005-01-01

338

Heuristic evaluation for games: usability principles for video game design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most video games require constant interaction, so game designers must pay careful attention to usability issues. However, there are few formal methods for evaluating the usability of game interfaces. In this paper, we introduce a new set of heuristics that can be used to carry out usability inspections of video games. The heuristics were developed to help identify usability problems

David Pinelle; Nelson Wong; Tadeusz Stach

2008-01-01

339

Digital game-based learning: Towards an experiential gaming model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide engaging learning experiences for students. However, a model that successfully integrates educational theory and game design aspects do not exist. Thus, in this paper an experiential gaming model that is based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game design is presented. The model stresses the importance of

Kristian Kiili

2005-01-01

340

Video game values: Human-computer interaction and games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current human–computer interaction (HCI) research into video games rarely considers how they are different from other forms of software. This leads to research that, while useful concerning standard issues of interface design, does not address the nature of video games as games specifically. Unlike most software, video games are not made to support external, user-defined tasks, but instead define their

Pippin Barr; James Noble; Robert Biddle

2007-01-01

341

In-game tactic adaptation for interactive computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer controlled characters in games typically lack the ability to adapt to situations that were not envisaged by the game artificial intelligence (AI) programmer. Consequently game characters tend to be lifeless and susceptible to repetitive and predictable behaviour. The focus of this work is to provide practical approaches to in-game learning and thus produce NPCs that are more believable and

Thomas P. Hartley; Qasim H. Mehdi

2011-01-01

342

Second-order game problem: Decision dynamics in gaming phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm of decision dynamics (Ref. 1) is used to describe the decision dynamics involving more than one decision-maker. The framework supplied in this paper is different from traditional game theory or differential games. Traditional simplicity assumptions are replaced by a more complicated, but more realistic, setting. Although many mathematically beautiful results in traditional game theory or differential games have

P. L. Yu

1979-01-01

343

Currency Value Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive game students practice identifying names and values of US currency. It provides a picture of one of the U.S. coins or the dollar bill, and a question prompt, both printed and voiced, that asks the value. Sound clips reward correct responses or encourage another try. The game comprises a five question set.

Petro, Brian

2004-09-28

344

Sequential parimutuel games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a parimutuel betting system, a successful player’s return depends on the number of other players who choose the same action. This paper examines a general solution for two-action sequential parimutuel games, and shows how the (unique) equilibrium of such games leads to a simple pattern of behavior. In particular, we show that there is an advantage to being an

Rob Feeney; Stephen P. King

2001-01-01

345

Game Theory of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a model of ‘theory of mind’, namely, how we represent the intentions and goals of others to optimise our mutual interactions. We draw on ideas from optimum control and game theory to provide a ‘game theory of mind’. First, we consider the representations of goals in terms of value functions that are prescribed by utility or rewards.

Wako Yoshida; Ray J. Dolan; Karl J. Friston

2008-01-01

346

The Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use a game setting to identify the properties of prime, composite, abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers. This lesson plan includes the objective, overview of the lesson, needed materials including transparency and worksheets, procedures and rules of the game, extensions and connections, resources, and ideas for discussion.

Pbs; Math, Pbs T.

2007-12-12

347

Games for Health, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In May 2011, The Games for Health Project, an effort organized by Digitalmill, Inc. with funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation held its 7th Annual Games for Health Conference. This three day event brought together over 400 researchers, videogame...

B. Sawyer

2011-01-01

348

Functional Business Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Defines computerized functional business games as those focusing on decision making and integration in the areas of accounting/finance, marketing, personnel/human resources, and production/operations. Nine currently available games are reviewed and evaluated in the context of a learning model. (Author/LRW)|

Biggs, William D.

1987-01-01

349

The Frozen Price Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

Alden, Lori

2003-01-01

350

The Clean Air Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)|

Avalone-King, Deborah

2000-01-01

351

Environmental Education Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Six environmental education simulation games are presented in this manual, developed by Project SESAME G (Susquehanna ESEA Synergetic Activities for Maximal-involvement via Education Games). The simulations are models of social situations which provide an opportunity for social interaction in the classroom, maximize student involvement, and…

Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of General and Academic Education.

352

Towards Emotionally Adapted Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a framework for a gaming personalization system to systematically facilitate desired emotional states of individual players of games. Psychological Customization entails personalization of the way of presenting information (user interface, visual layouts, modalities, narrative structures and other factors) per user or user group to create desired transient psychological effects and states, such as emotion, attention,

Timo Saari; Niklas Ravaja; Jari Laarni; Kari Kallinen; Marko Turpeinen

2004-01-01

353

Games on Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials…

Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara

354

Games Learners Will Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clark Abt's book Serious Games" describes how games can enable children (and adults) to learn the abstract concepts that are required to deal with a world that is becoming increasingly complex. His book is here reviewed by three members of the University of Connecticut's Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics Studies. (Author)

Boyce, Byrl N.; And Others

1971-01-01

355

Lunar Lander Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play this game to learn a lot about force and motion. The goal is to bring the lander down safely on the moon, and also, for variety, on Earth and Jupiter. Among other concepts, the game shows that the acceleration and velocity are very different.

2004-05-25

356

The Household Energy Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Household Energy Game has been developed to provide some indication of energy use and individual management. The game is divided into two sections. In the first section, one is to devise one's own energy budget. Energy use is calculated in the areas of transportation, heating, hot water, air conditioning, and appliances. In each of these…

Smith, Thomas W.; Jenkins, John

357

The Testing Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that educational testing is not only big business in this country, it is also a big game. The "Testing Game", as it is called, refers to an ongoing series of transitions which progress to well-defined, predictable outcomes. (Author/AM)|

Williams, Robert L.; Mitchell, Horace

1977-01-01

358

The Guppy Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

2012-01-01

359

Building Fractions Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners investigate fractions by playing a game. To play, learners roll two dice and create a fraction, using the larger number rolled as the denominator and the smaller number as the numerator. Learners then build that fractional amount on the game mat with pattern block pieces. The winner is the player who builds the greatest number of hexagons.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

360

Gaming in Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

361

Concurrent Reachability Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open system can be modeled as a two-player game between the system and its environment. At each round of the game, player 1 (the system) and player 2 (the environment) independently and simultaneously choose moves, and the two choices determine the nex...

L. Alfaro O. Kupferman T. A. Henzinger

1998-01-01

362

Dialog as a Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a technique to manage pre-written lines of dialog by treating a conversation as a game. Thinking of conversation as a game means structuring it as a series of moves, made according to rules, with some sort of score. Speakers in our system converse by participating in short dialog trees, and make \\

Peter Border

2005-01-01

363

A game for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As countermeasure to heavy workloads or monotony, astronauts have drawn on leisure activities imported from Earth or invented in situ. Aside from consumption of media, physical exercise, Earth observation, communication with ground or crew and the practising of instruments, also games play an important role. With a few exceptions, the emphasis, however, lies on virtual games and software applications. A review of play activities in orbit and their benefits to date suggests a need for additional recreational opportunities. In response, an interactive strategy game for use in microgravity is presented that relies on interlocking sphere-shaped game pieces in order to make the most of the kinetic and sensory potential of reduced gravity conditions. Aside from the play value and aesthetics of this reconfigurable modular game structure, the activity may help maintain and enhance manual dexterity, mental alertness and sociability amongst the crew. The design solution and prototype are presented and needs for further research and development are outlined.

Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Aguzzi, Manuela; Peldszus, Regina

2010-02-01

364

Stochastic ontogenetic growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM).

B. J. West

2012-01-01

365

Information and stochastic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equipment was purchased to support research in two main areas: communication channels with memory and signal detection and classification problems involving non-Gaussian stochastic processes. The research on communication channels involves largely the study of channel capacity under various assumptions and constraints. The research in signal detection and classification includes modeling, data analysis, and the development and evaluation of detection algorithms.

Baker, Charles R.

1987-11-01

366

RF MEMS switches and switch circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To

G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin

2001-01-01

367

Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic resonance is a counterintuitive concept: the addition of noise to a noisy system induces coherent amplification of its response. First suggested as a mechanism for the cyclic recurrence of ice ages, stochastic resonance has been seen in a wide variety of macroscopic physical systems: bistable ring lasers, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), magnetoelastic ribbons and neurophysiological systems such as the receptors in crickets and crayfish. Although fundamentally important as a mechanism of coherent signal amplification, stochastic resonance has yet to be observed in nanoscale systems. Here we report the observation of stochastic resonance in bistable nanomechanical silicon oscillators. Our nanomechanical systems consist of beams that are clamped at each end and driven into transverse oscillation with the use of a radiofrequency source. Modulation of the source induces controllable switching of the beams between two stable, distinct states. We observe that the addition of white noise causes a marked amplification of the signal strength. Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems could have a function in the realization of controllable high-speed nanomechanical memory cells, and paves the way for exploring macroscopic quantum coherence and tunnelling.

Badzey, Robert L.; Mohanty, Pritiraj

2005-10-01

368

Stochastic epidemics and rumours on finite random networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the stochastic spread of epidemics and rumours on networks. We focus on the general stochastic (SIR) epidemic model and a recently proposed rumour model on networks in Nekovee et al. (2007) [3], and on networks with different random structures, taking into account the structure of the underlying network at the level of the degree-degree correlation function. Using embedded Markov chain techniques and ignoring density correlations between neighbouring nodes, we derive a set of equations for the final size of the epidemic/rumour on a homogeneous network that can be solved numerically, and compare the resulting distribution with the solution of the corresponding mean-field deterministic model. The final size distribution is found to switch from unimodal to bimodal form (indicating the possibility of substantial spread of the epidemic/rumour) at a threshold value that is higher than that for the deterministic model. However, the difference between the two thresholds decreases with the network size, n, following a n-1 behaviour. We then compare results (obtained by Monte Carlo simulation) for the full stochastic model on a homogeneous network, including density correlations at neighbouring nodes, with those for the approximating stochastic model and show that the latter reproduces the exact simulation results with great accuracy. Finally, further Monte Carlo simulations of the full stochastic model are used to explore the effects on the final size distribution of network size and structure (using homogeneous networks, simple random graphs and the Barabasi-Albert scale-free networks).

Isham, Valerie; Harden, Simon; Nekovee, Maziar

2010-02-01

369

Video Games, Learning, and “Content”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I argue both that good video games recruit good learning and that game design is inherently connected to designing good learning for players. Good game design has a lot to teach us about good learning and contemporary learning theory has something to teach us about how to design even better and deeper games. I view learning in

James Paul Gee

370

Teaching Game Sense in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

Pill, Shane

2012-01-01

371

Understanding and evaluating cooperative games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative design has been an integral part of many games. With the success of games like Left4Dead, many game designers and producers are currently exploring the addition of cooperative patterns within their games. Unfortunately, very little research investigated cooperative patterns or methods to evaluate them. In this paper, we present a set of cooperative patterns identified based on analysis of

Magy Seif El-Nasr; Bardia Aghabeigi; David Milam; Mona Erfani; Beth Lameman; Hamid Maygoli; Sang Mah

2010-01-01

372

Mathematical Modeling of Social Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human computation is a technique that makes use of human abilities for computation to solve problems. Social games use the power of the Internet game players to solve human computation problems. In previous works, many social games were proposed and were quite successful, but no formal framework exists for designing social games in general. A formal framework is important because

Kam Tong Chan; Irwin King; Man-ching Yuen

2009-01-01

373

Computing Equilibria in Anonymous Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present efficient approximation algorithms for finding Nash equilibria in anonymous games, that is, games in which the players utilities, though different, do not differentiate between other players. Our results pertain to such games with many players but few strate- gies. We show that any such game has an approximate pure Nash equilibrium, computable in polynomial time, with approximation O(s2

Constantinos Daskalakis; Christos H. Papadimitriou

2007-01-01

374

Video Games: Competing with Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…

Hanson, Jarice

375

HUGs: head-up games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes my PhD research into a new type of pervasive outdoor games for children: the head-up game (HUG). The main idea behind HUGs is that they support children's traditional way of outdoor gaming. Also, to illustrate HUGs, a first example of a HUG, the game Camelot, will be discussed.

Iris Soute

2007-01-01

376

The Game of Big Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the new computer education simulation game, Big Business, which comprises four separate, related games, tries to overcome some of the limitations of present games. Special attention is given to one of these--Fast Freight--with mention of the basic design elements of a good business game. (EAO)|

Nilson, Jeff

1983-01-01

377

APPLIED RESEARCH IN VIDEO GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three uses of video games are described: 1. Video games as assessment and as measures of performance. 2. Video games as training and practice in cognitive and perceptual skills, biological and physiological functioning, and cooperation and teamwork. 3. Video games as entertainment. Selected studies are described for each domain. The purpose is to suggest the many possible roles for video

Jeffrey Goldstein

378

Teaching Game Sense in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

Pill, Shane

2012-01-01

379

Simple Games . . . or Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

Arn, Susan Kyle

2006-01-01

380

Video Games and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…

Perkins-Gough, Deborah

2009-01-01

381

Creating Intelligent Agents in Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game playing has long been a central topic in artificial intelligence. Whereas early research focused on utilizing search and logic in board games, machine learning in video games is driving much of the recent research. In video games, intelligent behavior can be naturally captured through interaction with the environment, and biologically inspired techniques such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and

Risto Miikkulainen

382

Nanoelectromechanical contact switches.  

PubMed

Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications--for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments--but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices. PMID:22543427

Loh, Owen Y; Espinosa, Horacio D

2012-04-29

383

Monty's Dilemma: Should You Stick or Switch?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by J. Michael Shaughnessy and Thomas Dick, this activity presents a version of a classic game-show scenario. You pick one of three doors in hopes of winning the prize. The host opens one of the two remaining doors which reveals no prize, then asks if you wish to "stick or switch." Which choice gives you the best chance to win? The approach in this activity runs from guesses to experiments to computer simulations (links to applets are provided) to theoretical models. The activity can be adapted by leaving out the "flip-a-coin" strategy presented here. This is a fun and worthwhile activity that students can easily engage with.

Shaughnessy, J. M.; Dick, Thomas

2009-01-01

384

Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.

Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

2013-10-01

385

Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

2011-01-01

386

Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

2011-01-01

387

The Nervous System Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many children, especially those with reading difficulties, a motor-kinesthetic learning activity may be an effective tool to teach complex concepts (Gardner 1993). With this in mind, a team developed and tested a game designed to teach fourth- to sixth-grade children some basic principles of nervous system function by allowing the children themselves to model the nervous system signals. A formal test of the game led to the activities described in this article. This game is a great way to introduce such complex principles as motor versus sensory signaling, reflexes, and the effects of spinal cord injury.

Corbitt, Cynthia; Carpenter, Molly

2006-03-01

388

Exact Solution of a Model DNA-Inversion Genetic Switch with Orientational Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA inversion is an important mechanism by which bacteria and bacteriophage switch reversibly between phenotypic states. In such switches, the orientation of a short DNA element is flipped by a site-specific recombinase enzyme. We propose a simple model for a DNA-inversion switch in which recombinase production is dependent on the switch state (orientational control). Our model is inspired by the fim switch in E. coli. We present an exact analytical solution of the chemical master equation for the model switch, as well as stochastic simulations. Orientational control causes the switch to deviate from Poissonian behavior: the distribution of times in the on state shows a peak and successive flip times are correlated.

Visco, Paolo; Allen, Rosalind J.; Evans, Martin R.

2008-09-01

389

‘Migrating to a new virtual world’: Exploring MMORPG switching through human migration theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online gaming has become a popular leisure-time activity. In this study, we enlisted and adapted the Push–Pull–Mooring model, which analyzes human migratory behavior based on the Demographic Migration Theory, to study the game switching of gamers. Data was obtained via an empirical survey of 654 online gamers and then was analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The results

Avus C. Y. Hou; Ching-Chin Chern; Houn-Gee Chen; Yu-Chen Chen

2011-01-01

390

Nash equilibria as a fundamental issue concerning network-switches design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We view the 'packet-switching problem' (from N inputs towards N outputs) from the perspective of game theory and we prove that, if the rates of flows are weighed then 'weighed max-min fair service rates' are the unique Nash equilibrium point of a natural strategic game in which throughput is granted on a 'least-demanding first-served' principle. We prove that a crossbar

George F. Georgakopoulos

2004-01-01

391

Noise-driven attractor switching device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problems with artificial neural networks originate from their deterministic nature and inevitable prior learnings, resulting in inadequate adaptability against unpredictable, abrupt environmental change. Here we show that a stochastically excitable threshold unit can be utilized by these systems to partially overcome the environmental change. Using an excitable threshold system, attractors were created that represent quasiequilibrium states into which a system settles until disrupted by environmental change. Furthermore, noise-driven attractor stabilization and switching were embodied by inhibitory connections. Noise works as a power source to stabilize and switch attractors, and endows the system with hysteresis behavior that resembles that of stereopsis and binocular rivalry in the human visual cortex. A canonical model of the ring network with inhibitory connections composed of class 1 neurons also shows properties that are similar to the simple threshold system.

Asakawa, Naoki; Hotta, Yasushi; Kanki, Teruo; Kawai, Tomoji; Tabata, Hitoshi

2009-02-01

392

Triggered Plasma Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductor...

C. W. Mendel

1986-01-01

393

Plasma Erosion Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) can conduct high current (approx. MA), open quickly (<10ns), and withstand high voltage (approx. MV). This switching technique has been used in inductive energy storage experiments and can be used with existing gen...

R. J. Commisso G. Cooperstein R. A. Meger J. M. Neri P. F. Ottinger

1985-01-01

394

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR RHIC.  

SciTech Connect

Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.

BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.

2003-05-12

395

Energetics of stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the motion of a Brownian particle in a double-well potential driven by a periodic force in terms of energies delivered by the periodic and the noise forces and energy dissipated into the viscous environment. It is shown that, while the power delivered by the periodic force to the Brownian particle is controlled by the strength of the noise, the power delivered by the noise itself is independent of the amplitude and frequency of the periodic force. The implications of this result for the mechanism of stochastic resonance in an equilibrium system is that it is not energy from the noise force which enhances a small periodic force, but rather an increase of energy delivered by the periodic force, regulated by the strength of the noise. We further re-evaluate the frequency dependence of stochastic resonance in terms of energetic terms including efficiency.

Jung, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio

2011-12-01

396

Stochastic stacking without filters  

SciTech Connect

The rate of accumulation of antiprotons is a critical factor in the design of p anti p colliders. A design of a system to accumulate higher anti p fluxes is presented here which is an alternative to the schemes used at the CERN AA and in the Fermilab Tevatron I design. Contrary to these stacking schemes, which use a system of notch filters to protect the dense core of antiprotons from the high power of the stack tail stochastic cooling, an eddy current shutter is used to protect the core in the region of the stack tail cooling kicker. Without filters one can have larger cooling bandwidths, better mixing for stochastic cooling, and easier operational criteria for the power amplifiers. In the case considered here a flux of 1.4 x 10/sup 8/ per sec is achieved with a 4 to 8 GHz bandwidth.

Johnson, R.P.; Marriner, J.

1982-12-01

397

VAWT stochastic wind simulator  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic wind simulation for VAWTs (VSTOC) has been developed which yields turbulent wind-velocity fluctuations for rotationally sampled points. This allows three-component wind-velocity fluctuations to be simulated at specified nodal points on the wind-turbine rotor. A first-order convection scheme is used which accounts for the decrease in streamwise velocity as the flow passes through the wind-turbine rotor. The VSTOC simulation is independent of the particular analytical technique used to predict the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine. The VSTOC subroutine may be used simply as a subroutine in a particular VAWT prediction code or it may be used as a subroutine in an independent processor. The independent processor is used to interact with a version of the VAWT prediction code which is segmented into deterministic and stochastic modules. Using VSTOC in this fashion is very efficient with regard to decreasing computer time for the overall calculation process.

Strickland, J.H.

1987-04-01

398

STOCHASTIC COOLING POWER REQUIREMENTS.  

SciTech Connect

A practical obstacle for stochastic cooling in high-energy colliders like RHIC is the large amount of power needed for the cooling system. Based on the coasting-beam Fokker-Planck (F-P) equation, we analytically derived the optimum cooling rate and cooling power for a beam of uniform distribution and a cooling system of linear gain function. The results indicate that the usual back-of-envelope formula over-estimated the cooling power by a factor of the mixing factor M. On the other hand, the scaling laws derived from the coasting-beam Fokker-Planck approach agree with those derived from the bunched-beam Fokker-Planck approach if the peak beam intensity is used as the effective coasting-beam intensity. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system of 4-8 GHz bandwidth in RHIC can effectively counteract intrabeam scattering, preventing the beam from escaping the RF bucket becoming debunched around the ring.

WEI,J.BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,M.

2004-07-05

399

Remote switch actuator  

DOEpatents

The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

2013-01-29

400

Disruption, Succession and Stochasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Disruptions interfere with the orderly course of a process. Ecological disturbances, physical processes that remove living\\u000a biomass from an ecosystem, are common disruptions that are frequently observed in the marine benthos. Although often associated\\u000a with climatic or geological events, some disturbances arise from biological activity. Disturbances are often pulsed, stochastic\\u000a events at a local scale. At larger spatial and temporal

J. Timothy Wootton; Mathieu Cusson; Sergio Navarrete; Peter S. Petraitis

401

Entropy of stochastic flows  

SciTech Connect

For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.

Dorogovtsev, Andrei A [Institute of Mathematics of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

2010-06-29

402

VAWT stochastic wind simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic wind simulation for VAWTs (VSTOC) has been developed which yields turbulent wind-velocity fluctuations for rotationally sampled points. This allows three-component wind-velocity fluctuations to be simulated at specified nodal points on the wind-turbine rotor. A first-order convection scheme is used which accounts for the decrease in streamwise velocity as the flow passes through the wind-turbine rotor. The VSTOC simulation

Strickland

1987-01-01

403

Accepted in Neural Networks Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences that are combination of multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training of the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via a chaotic dynamics, utilizing a

Jun Namikawa; Jun Tani

404

Measuring Camera with Large Frame Size for Stochastically Photographing Up to 10 Frames Per Second.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design and function are described of a measuring camera for unsprocketed 35 mm film with a frame size of 28mm x 140mm and a camera running speed of up to 10 frames per second. If required the film advance can be switched from periodic to stochastic operat...

G. Chemnitz U. Harder G. Peter R. Pose R. Schnee

1975-01-01

405

A Stochastic Model for the Analysis of Occupational Injuries on Jobs of Varying Physical Stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model is used to analyze occupational injuries associated with heterogeneous job exposures, i.e., workers switch jobs with different physical stress. One problem encountered in modeling such cases is that the risk of injury while performing a low stress job may be affected by the length of previous exposure to a high stress job, and vice versa. A semi-Markov

MEN K. CHUNG; GARY D. HERRIN; STEPHEN M. POLLOCK

1988-01-01

406

Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences combining multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training of the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via a chaotic dynamics, utilizing a sensitive dependence on

Jun Namikawa; Jun Tani

2010-01-01

407

Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences combining multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training of the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via a chaotic dynamics, utilizing a sensitive dependence on

Jun Namikawa; Jun Tani

2008-01-01

408

The Integer Product Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each of two players alternately selects an integer to multiply by another given integer to color the cell of an answer that matches a product on the game board. The first student to fill four cells in a row wins.

Connected Mathematics Project 2006

2010-05-17

409

Teach Nutrition With Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulated games have been designed to teach not only factual material but to provide opportunities for understanding some of the complex systems of our society. The use of this valuable tool is encouraged in the teaching of nutrition. (Author)|

NJEA Review, 1975

1975-01-01

410

Athens 2004 Olympic Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 2004 Olympic Summer Games may be several months away, but preparations have been going on for many months, and the city of Athens is looking forward to hosting its first official Olympic Games competition since 1896. As one might expect, the site's main page offers a veritable cornucopia of information on visiting Athens, accommodations, ticket information, and a special area designed for young people. Additionally, the site also provides extensive material on the Paralympic Games, which will also take place this summer. Visitors will want to take a look at the key dates section, as it offers details on when and where each competitive event will take place, along with the ever-popular opening and closing ceremonies. The site has some nice extra features, such as volunteer applications for the Games, e-cards to send to friends and family, and information on the extensive transportation infrastructure improvements added to the urban fabric of Athens for this historic event.

411

The Atomic Dating Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an activity designed to provide students with opportunities to practice drawing atomic models and discover the logical pairings of whole families on the periodic table. Follows the format of a television game show. (DDR)|

Cummo, Evelyn; Matthews, Catherine E.

2002-01-01

412

Educational board game  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An educational game comprises a planar game board having printed thereon a plurality of images of postal stamps. The educational game further comprises a plurality of player placeholders. The educational game further comprises a plurality of question cards. A first portion of the question cards contain questions of reduced difficulty having associated therewith a first quantity of points. A second portion of the question cards contain questions of intermediate difficulty having associated therewith a second quantity of points. A third portion of the question cards contain questions of increased difficulty having associated therewith a third quantity of points. A portion of the question cards contain questions having subjective answers. A portion of the question cards contain an image of a postal stamp. When a player answers a question correctly, the player's score is incremented by the quantity of points associated with that question.

Nelson; Christine (Mission Viejo, CA)

2006-03-07

413

Brains on video games.  

PubMed

The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065

Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

2011-11-18

414

ESL computer games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are some fun websites that will engage English language learners in learning Enlglish through fun activities, games, quizzes, trivia, etc. on the computer. I have used these websites with the students I teach and they LOVE it. They really look forward to going to the computer lab and engaging in the learning. I have found that they use English to talk about the games together. It has been highlyl effective. ESL computer games Word games, puzzles, quizzes, exercises, slang, proverbs and much more. beginning/intermediate esl This site was designed to meet the particular needs of my first-year recent immigrant students. The majority of links and activities are appropriate for students whose English ability ranges from entry-level to intermediate. This is a multimedia learning site. ...

Peterson, Miss

2006-11-15

415

The Fishing Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a simulation that places the student in the role of a wildlife manager who must use natural resources prudently. The site includes links to a user's guide, a fishing game simulator, and related reading material.

Exchange, The C.; Administration, Bonneville P.

416

Playing Games: Vocabulary Survival  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding ways to keep students active and engaged in the classroom is not easy. Introducing a game like Vocabulary Survival in which students are allowed to compete while also learning moral concepts can create a fun and successful learning environment.

Dea, Sara

2011-02-01

417

The Confidence Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are usually quick to draw conclusions about their surroundings. Their generalizations, however, are often based on a single experience or even a story recounted by a friend. As we gain more experience in the world, out ability to reason inductively improves. The ability to draw broad conclusions also improves with an understanding of likelihood and probability, and dice games are a popular way to introduce these concepts to students.One such game was developed after years of judging and discussing science-fair projects with students who had no understanding of why they should have repeated trials or treatments in their experiments. Intended for students in fourth through sixth grade, the game lets students discover why collecting repeated observations leads to greater confidence inf a conclusion. Rather than presenting the concepts of replication and certainty as facts, playing a game provides an engaging environment in which students discover these principles themselves.

Corey, Leah M.; Braude, Stan

2006-09-01

418

Game Over Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This game (Java) requires students to use their knowledge of the coordinate plane to defend the carrot from the gophers. Students place carrot launcher, ruby drills, and garlic rays at strategic locations (ordered pairs) throughout the coordinate plane.

Lab, Nmsu L.

2013-01-01

419

Latching type optical switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical switch on yttrium orthoferrite crystal is developed. The switch is of latching type and has an operating time of 100 ns. Matrices of switches are feasible due to the dimensions of the optical rotator of less than 2 mm3.

Didosyan, Y. S.; Hauser, H.; Fiala, W.; Nicolics, J.; Toriser, W.

2002-05-01

420

ENERGY LOSSES IN SWITCHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SFâ polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching

T. H. Martin; J. F. Seamen; D. O. Jobe

1993-01-01

421

Integrated reed switch  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to reed switches, and more particularly to micro-miniaturized reed switches and batch microfabrication techniques used to fabricate micro-miniaturized reed switches. The present invention can provide miniaturized reed switches with more consistent operating parameters, and that can be produced more efficiently than conventional reed switches. The present invention can also provide methods of making miniaturized reed switches using microfabrication techniques. The present invention can use lithographic-based fabrication to enable monolithic construction of a reed switch. Microlithography can repeatedly form micrometer dimensions with tight tolerances over large arrays of devices which, if the patterns are translated into materials appropriate for electromechanical devices, can provide for repeatable and consistent electromechanical operation. For example, tight dimensional control of the gap between two reeds in a reed switch or a reed and a fixed contact can provide consistency of performance between reed switches. Thus, the present invention can allow the commonly regarded reed switch specification of sensitivity, or "Ampere-turns" required to close a reed switch, to be tightly controlled with a commensurate reduction in spread in sensitivity across reed switch production lots.

Christenson; Todd R (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-12-11

422

Reusable Fast Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic se...

J. P. Van Devender D. Emin

1983-01-01

423

Triggered plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

424

Terabit burst switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demand for network bandwidth is growing at unprecedented rates, placing growing demands on switching and transmission technologies. Wavelength division multiplexing will soon make it possible to combine hundreds of gigabit channels on a single fiber. This paper presents an architecture for Burst Switching Systems designed to switch data among WDM links, treating each link as a shared resource rather than

Jonathan S. Turner

1999-01-01

425

University of Illinois: Gaming Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games have been the subject of scholarly inquiry for some time now, and disciplines such as psychology, speech communications, and information science continue to look into their use for a variety of purposes. The Gaming Initiative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) created this website to bring together actual video games, along with sponsoring campus-wide events, career resources, and other materials. Visitors can get started by reading through the "Gaming News" area, and looking through their current holdings. The sections of the site include "Gaming Research", "Gaming on Campus", and "Gaming Careers". The "Gaming Careers" section is quite useful, and it includes an extensive list of key trade and academic journals on game development and some inside advice from people in the industry.

426

University of Illinois: Gaming Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Video games have been the subject of scholarly inquiry for some time now, and disciplines such as psychology, speech communications, and information science continue to look into their use for a variety of purposes. The Gaming Initiative at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) created this website to bring together actual video games, along with sponsoring campus-wide events, career resources, and other materials. Visitors can get started by reading through the "Gaming News" area, and looking through their current holdings. The sections of the site include "Gaming Research", "Gaming on Campus", and "Gaming Careers". The "Gaming Careers" section is quite useful, and it includes an extensive list of key trade and academic journals on game development and some inside advice from people in the industry.

2011-06-14

427

25 CFR 502.10 - Gaming operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gaming operation. 502.10 Section 502.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.10 Gaming operation. Gaming...

2013-04-01

428

Stochastic dynamics of macromolecular-assembly networks.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and regulation of macromolecular complexes provides the backbone of most cellular processes, including gene regulation and signal transduction. The inherent complexity of assembling macromolecular structures makes current computational methods strongly limited for understanding how the physical interactions between cellular components give rise to systemic properties of cells. Here we present a stochastic approach to study the dynamics of networks formed by macromolecular complexes in terms of the molecular interactions of their components [1]. Exploiting key thermodynamic concepts, this approach makes it possible to both estimate reaction rates and incorporate the resulting assembly dynamics into the stochastic kinetics of cellular networks. As prototype systems, we consider the lac operon and phage ? induction switches, which rely on the formation of DNA loops by proteins [2] and on the integration of these protein-DNA complexes into intracellular networks. This cross-scale approach offers an effective starting point to move forward from network diagrams, such as those of protein-protein and DNA-protein interaction networks, to the actual dynamics of cellular processes. [1] L. Saiz and J.M.G. Vilar, submitted (2005). [2] J.M.G. Vilar and L. Saiz, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 15, 136-144 (2005).

Saiz, Leonor; Vilar, Jose

2006-03-01

429

Multilinear Extensions of Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multilinear extension of an n-person game v is a function defined on the n-cube IN<\\/sup> which is linear in each variable and which coincides with v at the conrners of the cube, satisfying f(x) = v({i | xi<\\/sub> = 1}). Multilinear extensions are useful as a help in computing the values of large games, and give a generalization of

Guillermo Owen

1972-01-01

430

Interactive Astronomy Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two interactive astronomy games, 'Small and Large' and 'Near and Far', help to introduce important basic concepts about the size of the Universe. In 'Small and Large', students examine pictures of various astronomical objects and arrange them numerically by size. In 'Near and Far, they arrange pictures of objects by their distance from Earth. The games serve as motivators for further discussion and learning and may be used with large groups, a few students or with just one other person.

Morrow, Cherilynn

431

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners each represent a different organism in an environment. They build a web during the activity, and discover how all the players in an ecosystem depend on each other. As they play, learners will come up with the connections between different species and their environments. At least six people are needed to play this game, and it could be played with a large group as well.

History, American M.

2012-06-26

432

Game accessibility: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three decades, video games have evolved from a pastime into a force of change that is transforming the way people\\u000a perceive, learn about, and interact with the world around them. In addition to entertainment, games are increasingly used\\u000a for other purposes such as education or health. Despite this increased interest, a significant number of people encounter\\u000a barriers

Bei Yuan; Eelke Folmer; Frederick C. Harris

2011-01-01

433

Multichoice minority game  

SciTech Connect

The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations.

Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2001-06-01

434

Biggest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners build a multi-digit number by rolling dice and deciding which place value box to place each number. This requires strategy and planning as they must consider what they may roll in the future and which boxes are still open. Learners can compete to make the largest or smallest numbers during each round of play. Educators can use this game to introduce and/or practice strategy, risk, and place value.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

435

Action Games: Evolutive Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper defends the employment of Evolutive Algorithms (EAs) in action games by showing their virtues for both offline\\u000a and online opponent controlling. The paper proposes (and also compares) several EAs applied offline in the solving of a classical\\u000a path finding problem and used to provide intelligence to autonomous agents (e.g., the opponents) in an action computer game.\\u000a The paper

Antonio J. Fernández; Javier Jiménez González

2004-01-01

436

Getting into the Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Malcolm Perdue faces a dilemma as challenging as the computer games he loves to play. The 19-year-old student at Atlanta Metropolitan College wants to learn how to become a game designer. Not only would doing so be a lot of fun, designers can make $80,000 a year early in their careers. But his school has limited options in the field. Nearby…

Galuszka, Peter

2009-01-01

437

Razumikhin method and exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the exponential stability of hybrid stochastic delay interval systems (also known as stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching). The known results in this area (see, e.g., [X., Mao, Exponential stability of stochastic delay interval systems with Markovian switching, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 47 (10) (2002) 1604-1612]) require the time delay to be a constant or a differentiable function and the main reason for such a restriction is due to the analysis of mathematics. The main aim of this paper is to remove this restriction to allow the time delay to be a bounded variable only. The Razumikhin method is developed to cope with the difficulty arisen from the nondifferentiability of the time delay.

Mao, Xuerong; Lam, James; Xu, Shengyuan; Gao, Huijun

2006-02-01

438

Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos.  

PubMed

This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences that are combination of multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via chaotic dynamics, utilizing a sensitive dependence on initial conditions. As a demonstration, we present a numerical simulation in which the model learns Markov chain switching among some Lissajous curves by chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that by using a sufficient amount of training data, balanced with the network memory capacity, it is possible to satisfy the conditions for embedding the target stochastic sequences into a chaotic dynamical system. It is also shown that reconstruction of a stochastic time series by a chaotic model can be stabilized by adding a negligible amount of noise to the dynamics of the model. PMID:20045751

Namikawa, Jun; Tani, Jun

2009-12-23

439

Aspects of Stochastic Global Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey of some topics where global and stochastic analysis play a role. An introduction to analysis on Banach spaces\\u000a with Gaussian measure leads to an analysis of the geometry of stochastic differential equations, stochastic flows, and their\\u000a associated connections, with reference to some related topological vanishing theorems. Following that, there is a description\\u000a of the construction of

K. D. Elworthy; Hideki Omori

440

ID201202961, DOE S-124,539, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

2012-01-01

441

Asymmetrical switch costs in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about the origins of these asymmetrical switch costs have

Michelle R. Ellefson; Laura R. Shapiro; Nick Chater

2006-01-01

442

Quantum models of Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is possible to have two games that are losing when played in isolation but that, because of some form of feedback, produce a winning game when played alternately or even in a random mixture. This effect is known as Parrondo's paradox. Quantum mechanics provides novel methods of combining two games through interference and entanglement. Two models of quantum Parrondo's games have been published and these are reviewed here. We speculate on a model of a quantum Parrondo's game using entanglement. Such games could find a use in the development of algorithms for quantum computers.

Flitney, Adrian P.; Abbott, Derek

2002-12-01

443

REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE  

DOEpatents

An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

Hobbs, J.C.

1959-02-01

444

Switching with photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of optoelectronic switching is outlined, and its physical basis in photodiodes is explored. A model is developed for optoelectronic switching in p-i-n and avalanche photodiodes that agrees well with observed performance. Optoelectronic switches have demonstrated isolation is excess of 80 dB between 2 MHz and 1 GHz. The applications would range from large-scale switching of UHF or VHF signals (for example, in switched television distribution) to advanced signal routing applications in high-rate digital and high-capacity analog channels.

MacDonald, R. I.; Hara, E. H.

1980-03-01

445

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

446

Stochastic predation events and population persistence in bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Many studies have reported temporal changes in the relative importance of density-dependence and environmental stochasticity in affecting population growth rates, but they typically assume that the predominant factor limiting growth remains constant over long periods of time. Stochastic switches in limiting factors that persist for multiple time-steps have received little attention, but most wild populations may periodically experience such switches. Here, we consider the dynamics of three populations of individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) monitored for 24–28 years. Each population experienced one or two distinct cougar (Puma concolor) predation events leading to population declines. The onset and duration of predation events were stochastic and consistent with predation by specialist individuals. A realistic Markov chain model confirms that predation by specialist cougars can cause extinction of isolated populations. We suggest that such processes may be common. In such cases, predator–prey equilibria may only occur at large geographical and temporal scales, and are unlikely with increasing habitat fragmentation.

Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coulson, Tim; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hogg, John T; Pelletier, Fanie

2006-01-01

447

On Nonlinear Stochastic Balance Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are concerned with multidimensional stochastic balance laws. We identify a class of nonlinear balance laws for which uniform spatial BV bound for vanishing viscosity approximations can be achieved. Moreover, we establish temporal equicontinuity in L 1 of the approximations, uniformly in the viscosity coefficient. Using these estimates, we supply a multidimensional existence theory of stochastic entropy solutions. In addition, we establish an error estimate for the stochastic viscosity method, as well as an explicit estimate for the continuous dependence of stochastic entropy solutions on the flux and random source functions. Various further generalizations of the results are discussed.

Chen, Gui-Qiang; Ding, Qian; Karlsen, Kenneth H.

2012-06-01

448

Affective game engines: motivation and requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous advances in gaming technologies over the past decade have focused primarily on the physical realism of the game environment and game characters, and the complexity and performance of game simulations and networking. However, current games are still lacking in the affective realism of the game characters, and the social complexity and realism of their interactions. To achieve the

Eva Hudlicka

2009-01-01

449

IT education, girls and game modding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have argued that video games have great utility for learning. Games promote experiential learning and can be used to facilitate active learning. This paper examines the potential of video games in education. In particular, it examines the benefits of game modding compared to playing and\\/or creating games. However, video game classes have been primarily attended by male students. This

Ibrahim Yucel; Joseph Zupko; Magy Seif El-Nasr

2006-01-01

450

A Taxonomy of Video Games and AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game developers have always striven to create better and more complex games. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in games is increasing in game development to this end. However there appears to be a mismatch of implications and expectations between game de- velopers and AI researchers of what AI can bring to games, mostly due to differences of interpretation of

E. A. A. Gunn; B. G. W. Craenen; E. Hart

451

Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming  

SciTech Connect

We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

2009-08-31

452

The Educational Potential of Modified Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the popularity of video game playing has increased, educators have sought to co-opt video games as an instructional tool. However, educational games have made little impact in either the commercial market place or the average game player's home library. The modification, or modding, of video games using in-game editors may be used by instructors to introduce educational content to

Andrew Moshirnia

2007-01-01

453

Gaming: Theory and Practice, Past and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the history and development of gaming and suggests possible future developments. Highlights include models, simulations, and games; the use of games in the military, in social sciences, in business, and in education; the impact of computers on gaming; and the relationship among gaming, game theory, and social psychology. (LRW)|

Shubik, Martin

1989-01-01

454

Effectivity functions, game forms, games, and rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?In this paper we offer an axiomatic approach for the investigation of rights by means of game forms. We give a new definition\\u000a of constitution which consists of three components: the set of rights, the assignment of rights to groups of members of the\\u000a society, and the distribution of power in the society (as a function of the distribution of

Bezalel Peleg

1997-01-01

455

Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of ``noise'' that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift-as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet-the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research.

Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2001-09-01

456

Brownian ratchets and Parrondo's games.  

PubMed

Parrondo's games present an apparently paradoxical situation where individually losing games can be combined to win. In this article we analyze the case of two coin tossing games. Game B is played with two biased coins and has state-dependent rules based on the player's current capital. Game B can exhibit detailed balance or even negative drift (i.e., loss), depending on the chosen parameters. Game A is played with a single biased coin that produces a loss or negative drift in capital. However, a winning expectation is achieved by randomly mixing A and B. One possible interpretation pictures game A as a source of "noise" that is rectified by game B to produce overall positive drift-as in a Brownian ratchet. Game B has a state-dependent rule that favors a losing coin, but when this state dependence is broken up by the noise introduced by game A, a winning coin is favored. In this article we find the parameter space in which the paradoxical effect occurs and carry out a winning rate analysis. The significance of Parrondo's games is that they are physically motivated and were originally derived by considering a Brownian ratchet-the combination of the games can be therefore considered as a discrete-time Brownian ratchet. We postulate the use of games of this type as a toy model for a number of physical and biological processes and raise a number of open questions for future research. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779509

Harmer, Gregory P.; Abbott, Derek; Taylor, Peter G.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

2001-09-01

457

Promoting cooperation by local contribution under stochastic win-stay-lose-shift mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a stochastic win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS) mechanism into evolutionary Prisoner’s Dilemma on small-world networks. At each time step, after playing with all its immediate neighbors, each individual gets a score to evaluate its performance in the game. The score is a linear combination of an individual’s total payoff (i.e., individual gain from the group) and local contribution to its neighbors (i.e., individual

Xiaojie Chen; Feng Fu; Long Wang

2008-01-01

458

Why Game Studies Now? Video Games: A New Art Form  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games are a new art form, and this, the author argues, is one good reason why now is the right time for game studies. As a new art form, one largely immune to traditional tools developed for the analysis of literature and film, video games will challenge researchers to develop new analytical tools and will become a new type

James Paul Gee

2006-01-01

459

Games Children Play: How Games and Sport Help Children Develop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents games for children, teenagers, and adults, explaining how each game can help children develop in a holistic way. It begins by discussing tips for teaching games, how to deal with children who break the rules, and what type of equipment to use. The book provides help on how to approach play within each of the different age…

Brooking-Payne, Kim

460

The egalitarian solution and reduced game properties in convex games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to axiomatise the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray over the class of convex games. The main axioms used are the two reduced game properties due to Davis-Maschler and Hart-Mas Colell. The egalitarian solution is the only solution satisfying either of the two reduced game properties and agreeing with the egalitarian solution on

B. Dutta

1990-01-01

461

Doping Games A Game Theoretical Exploration of Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will discuss the problem of doping from a game theoretical point of view. The first part of the of the article discusses typical 2-person games. The second part goes on to explore the most relevant n-person situations using graph illustrations. The game theoretical aspects are then related to some relevant sociological explanations of doping.

Gunnar Breivik

1992-01-01

462

Games\\/gaming\\/simulation in a new media (literature) classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses some practical issues involved in teaching new media studies in a literature classroom, focusing on the necessity of teaching literature students to consider the language of gaming in the study of new media literary forms, on teaching collaborative writing for the electronic media as a form of writing game, and on considering contemporary computer games in a cultural studies

Scott Rettberg

2004-01-01

463

Computer games are fun? On professional games and players’ motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computer games are becoming more widespread, there is a tendency for young people to spend a growing amount of time playing games. The first part of this paper will deal with various types of computer games and their characteristic features. In the second part we show the results of our recent surveys. We examined the motivations of young people

Dénes Eglesz; István Fekete; Orhidea Edith Kiss; Lajos Izsó

2005-01-01

464

Strategic Claim Games Corresponding to an NTU-Game.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper introduces a way to construct games Gamma(V) and (Gamma sup r)(V) in strategic form to a standard NTU-game V. In these so-called claim games the players are allowed to make claims on the coalition they want to participate in and the payoff they ...

P. E. M. Borm S. H. Tijs

1989-01-01

465

Computer Games Are Fun? On Professional Games and Players' Motivations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As computer games are becoming more widespread, there is a tendency for young people to spend a growing amount of time playing games. The first part of this paper will deal with various types of computer games and their characteristic features. In the second part we show the results of our recent surveys. We examined the motivations of young…

Eglesz, Denes; Fekete, Istvan; Kiss, Orhidea Edith; Izso, Lajos

2005-01-01

466

Stochastic coupled cluster theory.  

PubMed

We describe a stochastic coupled cluster theory which represents excitation amplitudes as discrete excitors in the space of excitation amplitudes. Reexpressing the coupled cluster (CC) equations as the dynamics of excitors in this space, we show that a simple set of rules suffices to evolve a distribution of excitors to sample the CC solution and correctly evaluate the CC energy. These rules are not truncation specific and this method can calculate CC solutions to an arbitrary level of truncation. We present results of calculation on the neon atom, and nitrogen and water molecules showing the ability to recover both truncated and full CC results. PMID:21231654

Thom, Alex J W

2010-12-28

467

Stochastic ontogenetic growth model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM). This is the first derivation of the interspecies metabolic allometric relation from a dynamical model and the asymptotic steady-state distribution of the TBM is fit to data and shown to be inverse power law.

West, B. J.; West, D.

2012-02-01

468

Differential Games: A Critical View.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A differential game is a mathematical model for a conflict situation which evolves over time. Although the subject has received considerable attention from mathematicians and engineers in recent years, the applicability of differential game theory to real...

M. D. Ciletti A. W. Starr

1970-01-01

469

Mobile Learning and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe how mobile learning can be further explored with computer games or video games. This paper also describes how learning can be achieved beyond the boundaries of traditional classrooms learning at school.

Ibrahim Edris

470

Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.|

Devaney, Robert L.

2004-01-01

471

Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.

Devaney, Robert L.

2004-01-01

472

Quantum models of Parrondo's games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Parrondo's paradox is an effect where two losing games, when combined, can produce a net winning result. We provide a short introduction to quantum versions of Parrondo's games and review the current status of the work.

Flitney, A. P.; Abbott, D.

2003-06-01

473

Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

Weiss, Fran

1979-01-01

474

The Black Hole Explorer Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This board game lets players build a spaceship and fly to a black hole. The game provides many opportunities for understanding phenomena based on current black hole research. During the game, the player will experience the dangers and excitement of a real space mission, and learn about the nature of black holes by launching scientific probes. The game can be played competitively or as a team. Game components are available as PDF downloads; dice and game pieces must be provided by the user. Black Hole Explorer consists of: Game Board, Game Rules, Spacecraft Data sheets, Science Briefing Room document, Event cards (28), Probe result cards (12), Energy tokens (140). NOTE: tokens and cards need to be cut to size from letter-size cardstock.

Steel, Simon

2006-12-01

475

Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)|

Weiss, Fran

1979-01-01

476

Stochastic effects and bistability in T cell receptor signaling  

PubMed Central

The stochastic dynamics of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling are studied using a mathematical model intended to capture kinetic proofreading (sensitivity to ligand-receptor binding kinetics) and negative and positive feedback regulation mediated respectively by the phosphatase SHP1 and the MAP kinase ERK. The model incorporates protein-protein interactions involved in initiating TCR-mediated cellular responses and reproduces several experimental observations about the behavior of TCR signaling, including robust responses to as few as a handful of ligands (agonist peptide-MHC complexes on an antigen-presenting cell), distinct responses to ligands that bind TCR with different lifetimes, and antagonism. Analysis of the model indicates that TCR signaling dynamics are marked by significant stochastic fluctuations and bistability, which is caused by the competition between the positive and negative feedbacks. Stochastic fluctuations are such that single-cell trajectories differ qualitatively from the trajectory predicted in the deterministic approximation of the dynamics. Because of bistability, the average of single-cell trajectories differs markedly from the deterministic trajectory. Bistability combined with stochastic fluctuations allows for switch-like responses to signals, which may aid T cells in making committed cell-fate decisions.

Lipniacki, Tomasz; Hat, Beata; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

2008-01-01

477

Stochastic Simulation of Delay-Induced Circadian Rhythms in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms are ubiquitous in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. Several computational models with or without time delays have been developed for circadian rhythms. Exact stochastic simulations have been carried out for several models without time delays, but no exact stochastic simulation has been done for models with delays. In this paper, we proposed a detailed and a reduced stochastic model with delays for circadian rhythms in Drosophila based on two deterministic models of Smolen et al. and employed exact stochastic simulation to simulate circadian oscillations. Our simulations showed that both models can produce sustained oscillations and that the oscillation is robust to noise in the sense that there is very little variability in oscillation period although there are significant random fluctuations in oscillation peeks. Moreover, although average time delays are essential to simulation of oscillation, random changes in time delays within certain range around fixed average time delay cause little variability in the oscillation period. Our simulation results also showed that both models are robust to parameter variations and that oscillation can be entrained by light/dark circles. Our simulations further demonstrated that within a reasonable range around the experimental result, the rates that dclock and per promoters switch back and forth between activated and repressed sites have little impact on oscillation period.

2009-01-01

478

Using Games in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this one-page article describes the pedagogical benefits of using math games in the classroom. She analyzes the game context in terms of the kinds of learning that takes place, the behaviors that students exhibit, and the social-emotional experience of students. She concludes by recommending strategies for effective introduction and management of games. [While the author's observations were in the context of geometry games, they generalize to most topics.

Hatch, Gillian

2005-09-01

479

Special Issue on Ubiquitous Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionComputer games have grown during recent yearsinto a popular entertainment form with a widevariety of game types and a large consumer groupspread across the world. An increasing number ofpeople are playing electronic games, placingthem among other favorite leisure activities.When surveyed on the most fun entertainmentactivities in the year 2000, 35 percent of allAmericans identified computer and video games,where watching television

Staffan Bjork; Jussi Holopainen; Peter Ljungstrand; Regan Mandryk

2002-01-01

480

Linear quadratic Gaussian differential games with different information patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discrete-time linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) differential game is considered where the players have access to unshared control- and measurement-histories. The particular problem that is solved is where one adversary has access to only noisy partial information of the state while the other makes a perfect measurement of the state vector. The system dynamics are assumed linear with additive process noise. The solutions show a significant departure from previously published results. First, process noise is included in the dynamical system and a quadratic weighting in the state is included in the cost criterion. Secondly, no prior assumption is made about the structure of the strategies. Specifically, the equilibrium strategies of both players are shown to be finite-dimensional, not infinite-dimensional as was originally thought. Thirdly, it is assumed that the perfect-measurement adversary's control matrix is in the range space of the other adversary's measurement matrix. Then, by a limit of the linear-exponential-Gaussian game solution to the LQG game solution, it is seen that the partial information player avoids reproducing an estimated version of his adversary's strategy. A key feature of this problem solution is the filter structure of the player with partial measurements. In particular, the error of the filter is a Gaussian random variable whose statistics are independent of the opponent's control history. This filter also allows the partial measurement player to estimate the entire state without having to guess/estimate his opponent's strategy. It is noted that for this class of stochastic games, for all possible pure control strategy pairs, there always exist correlations using which each player can improve his performance. Since the error variance of the filter derived here is independent of the opponent's strategy and his control action, the improvements in cost for each player appears minimal. This property is used to extend the notion of a saddle point for deterministic games to that of a saddle interval in pure strategies for games with uncertainty.

Swarup, Ashitosh

481

Stochastic automata for language modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic language models are widely used in spoken language understanding to recognize and interpret the speech signal: the speech samples are decoded into word transcriptions by means of acoustic and syntactic models and then interpreted according to a semantic model. Both for speech recognition and understanding, search algorithms use stochastic models to extract the most likely uttered sentence and its

Giuseppe Riccardi; Roberto Pieraccini; Enrico Bocchieri

1996-01-01

482

Stochastic Approach to Highway Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the characteristic features of jam formation on a circular one-lane road. We have applied an optimal velocity model including stochastic noise, where cars are treated as moving and interacting particles. The motion of N cars is described by the system of 2N stochastic differential equations with multiplicative white noise. Our system of cars behaves in qualitatively different ways

R. Mahnkea

483

Stochastic approach to highway traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the characteristic features of jam formation on a circular one-lane road. We have applied an optimal velocity model including stochastic noise, where cars are treated as moving and interacting particles. The motion of N cars is described by the system of 2N stochastic differential equations with multiplicative white noise. Our system of cars behaves in qualitatively different ways

Reinhard Mahnke; Jevgenijs Kaupuzs; Ihor Lubashevsky; Julia Tolmacheva

2004-01-01

484

Hydrodynamics of stochastic cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a stochastic version of cellular automata used for simulating hydrodynamical flows, e.g. the HPP and FHP models. The extra stochasticity consists of “random exchanges” between neighboring cells which conserve momentum. We prove that, in suitable limits, these models satisfy the appropriate continuous Boltzmann and hydrodynamic equations, the same as those conjectured for the original models (except that there

A. Demasi; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; E. Presutti

1989-01-01

485

Stochastic representation of fluid equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stochastic representation of fluid equations describing a plasma transport in the peripheral region is discussed, which is based on the theorem of Yasue (1983 J. Funct. Anal. 51, 133). The scheme solving the stochastic equations is given by employing a path integral method.

Kanno, Ryutaro

2004-06-01

486

Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects.

Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.

2013-01-01

487

Time series analysis for minority game simulations of financial markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minority game (MG) model introduced recently provides promising insights into the understanding of the evolution of prices, indices and rates in the financial markets. In this paper we perform a time series analysis of the model employing tools from statistics, dynamical systems theory and stochastic processes. Using benchmark systems and a financial index for comparison, several conclusions are obtained about the generating mechanism for this kind of evolution. The motion is deterministic, driven by occasional random external perturbation. When the interval between two successive perturbations is sufficiently large, one can find low dimensional chaos in this regime. However, the full motion of the MG model is found to be similar to that of the first differences of the SP500 index: stochastic, nonlinear and (unit root) stationary.

Ferreira, Fernando F.; Francisco, Gerson; Machado, Birajara S.; Muruganandam, Paulsamy

2003-04-01

488

Computerized History Games: Narrative Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

Kee, Kevin

2011-01-01

489

Serious Gaming for Predictive Analytics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a methodology and architecture to support the development of games in a predictive analytics context. These games serve as part of an overall family of systems designed to gather input knowledge, calculate results of complex predictive technical and social models, and explore those results in an engaging fashion. The games provide an environment shaped and driven in part

Roderick M. Riensche; Patrick R. Paulson; Gary R. Danielson; Stephen D. Unwin; R. Scott Butner; Sarah M. Miller; Lyndsey R. Franklin; Nino Zuljevic

2009-01-01

490

Computerized History Games: Narrative Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

Kee, Kevin

2011-01-01

491

Gaming Research for Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assesses the use of gaming to teach Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) in public education. The intent of the investigation was to identify attitudes about gaming and its use in education, as well as the need to utilize gaming as a platform to serve as an integrator of STEM subject matter. Participants included…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy

2009-01-01

492

Matching Game in Bipartite Graphs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Matching Game is a two person game, which is played on a (possibly infinite) bipartite graph (X,Y). The analysis of this game leads to some interesting results in the theory of matchings. It turns out that the first player has a winning strategy if an...

J. Waestlund

1996-01-01

493

What About Those Electronic Games?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at the educational merits of some of the new hand-held computer games, such as "The Little Professor,"" Speak and Spell," and "Astrowar." Games are grouped in five categories: mathematics; spelling and words; pattern-logic; strategy sports games; and miscellaneous. Manufacturers and prices are provided. (SJL)

Bitter, Gary

1979-01-01

494

Social characters for computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many current video games feature virtual worlds inhabited by autonomous 3D animated characters. These characters often fall short in their ability to participate in social interactions with each other or with people. Increasing the social capabilities of game characters could increase the potential of games as a platform for social learning. This article presents advances in the area of social

Bill Tomlinson

2005-01-01

495

Can Video Games Be Educational?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the biggest debates among music educators today is about whether or not video games are a valid educational tool. As far back as the early 1990s, teachers were using games such as Sid Meier's Civilization to reinforce history and social studies concepts, but until recently games that dealt with areas of music education have been few and…

Criswell, Chad

2009-01-01

496

Quantum models of Parrondo's games  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to have two games that are losing when played in isolation but that, because of some form of feedback, produce a winning game when played alternately or even in a random mixture. This effect is known as Parrondo's paradox. Quantum mechanics provides novel methods of combining two games through interference and entanglement. Two models of quantum Parrondo's

Adrian P. Flitney; Derek Abbott

2002-01-01

497

Games as personality profiling tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate whether a personality profile can be determined by observing a player's behavior in a game. Five personality traits are used to define a personality profile. They are adopted from the Five Factor Model of personality. The five traits are measured by the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. For our purpose, we developed a game module for the game

Giel van Lankveld; Pieter Spronck; Jaap van den Herik; Arnoud Arntz

2011-01-01

498

Video Games and Digital Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's youth are situated in a complex information ecology that includes video games and print texts. At the basic level, video game play itself is a form of digital literacy practice. If we widen our focus from the "individual player + technology" to the online communities that play them, we find that video games also lie at the nexus of a…

Steinkuehler, Constance

2010-01-01

499

Violent video games and forgiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of playing a violent video game on forgiveness was investigated. A transgression context was created in an experimental setting and video game violence was manipulated in two levels (violence or no violence). Subsequent measures of empathy, hostility, and forgiveness were made. No evidence was found of an effect of video game violence on forgiveness or hostility. Empathy was

William Stone Iii

2010-01-01

500

Video games: Issues and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games have become part of young adult life since 30 years ago. It affects their daily activities and the way they think and behave. Study and intensive review on the issues and problems of the influence of video games are important to ensure the games have some kind of limitation and boundary. There are two main issues have been

W. A. Wan Rozali; X. H. A. Hamid; M. I. M. Sabri

2007-01-01