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1

Improving strategies in stochastic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a zero-sum limiting average stochastic game, we evaluate a strategy T for the maximizing player, player 1, by the reward @~(T) that m guarantees to him when starting in state s. A strategy T is called non- improving if 48 (T) ~ q5~ (m(h) ) for any state s and for any finite history h, where ~(h) is the

J. Flesch; F. Thuijsman; O. J. Vrieze

1998-01-01

2

Stability of stochastic switched SIRS models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic stability problems of a stochastic switched SIRS model with or without distributed time delay are considered. By utilizing the Lyapunov methods, sufficient stability conditions of the disease-free equilibrium are established. Stability conditions about the subsystem of the stochastic switched SIRS systems are also obtained.

Meng, Xiaoying; Liu, Xinzhi; Deng, Feiqi

2011-11-01

3

Generalized Riccati Equations Arising in Stochastic Games  

E-print Network

Generalized Riccati Equations Arising in Stochastic Games Michael McAseya a Department the Riccati differential equations. The generalization involves replacing positive definite "weighting" matrices in the usual Riccati equations with either semidefinite or indefinite matrices that arise

Mou, Libin

4

Stochastic stability in spatial games Jacek Miekisz  

E-print Network

. John Maynard Smith [17, 18] has refined the concept of equilibrium to include the stability of Nash of spatial games with multiple Nash equilibria is analyzed. In particular, we construct an example of a spatial game with three strategies, where stochastic stability of Nash equilibria depends on the number

Miekisz, Jacek

5

Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Cardaliaguet@univ-brest.fr; Rainer, Catherine [Universite de Brest, Laboratoire de Mathematique (UMR CNRS 6205) (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2009-02-15

6

SOLVING SIMPLE STOCHASTIC GAMES WITH FEW RANDOM VERTICES  

E-print Network

of the behaviour of the user. The main algorithmic problem about SSGs is the computation of values of the verticesSOLVING SIMPLE STOCHASTIC GAMES WITH FEW RANDOM VERTICES HUGO GIMBERT AND FLORIAN HORN LaBRI, CNRS.horn@cwi.nl Abstract. Simple stochastic games are two-player zero-sum stochastic games with turn- based moves, perfect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion  

SciTech Connect

We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

Ghosh, M. K. [Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Bagchi, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

1998-11-15

8

Pathwise Strategies for Stochastic Differential Games with an Erratum to 'Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information'  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)

Cardaliaguet, P., E-mail: cardaliaguet@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Universite Paris-Dauphine, Ceremade (France); Rainer, C., E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale (France)

2013-08-01

9

Switch dynamics for stochastic model of genetic toggle switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, more and more biological experiments have indicated that noise plays an important role in bistable systems, such as the case of the bimodal population distribution in the genetic toggle switch. In this paper, we further verify that noises in degradation rates can indeed induce switching in the genetic toggle switch. Meanwhile, we apply the theory of mean first passage time (MFPT) in high dimensional system to the above stochastic model. According to our assumption, the high order finite difference method is used to compute the MFPT (that the average time switching from one steady state to the other) and we find that the relationship between the MFPT and noise intensity is negative correlation. The result is also verified through another numerical simulation method.

Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ya-nan; Shen, Jianwei; Su, Jianbin

2014-12-01

10

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games  

E-print Network

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN Eugene A. FEINBERG INRIA, B This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that fo* *r a large class

Feinberg, Eugene A.

11

Value and perfection in stochastic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic game isvalued if for every playerk there is a functionr\\u000a k:S?R from the state spaceS to the real numbers such that for every ?>0 there is an ? equilibrium such that with probability at least 1?? no states is reached where the future expected payoff for any playerk differs fromr\\u000a k(s) by more than ?. We call a

Robert Samuel Simon

2006-01-01

12

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games  

E-print Network

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B matrix games. The main result is that for a large class of perturbations the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions of appropriate lexicographic games. We consider

Feinberg, Eugene A.

13

Qualitative Reachability in Stochastic BPA Games  

E-print Network

We consider a class of infinite-state stochastic games generated by stateless pushdown automata (or, equivalently, 1-exit recursive state machines), where the winning objective is specified by a regular set of target configurations and a qualitative probability constraint `>0' or `=1'. The goal of one player is to maximize the probability of reaching the target set so that the constraint is satisfied, while the other player aims at the opposite. We show that the winner in such games can be determined in PTIME for the `>0' constraint, and both in NP and coNP for the `=1' constraint. Further, we prove that the winning regions for both players are regular, and we design algorithms which compute the associated finite-state automata. Finally, we show that winning strategies can be synthesized effectively.

Brázdil, Tomáš; Ku?era, Antonín; Obdržálek, Jan

2010-01-01

14

Robustness of Stochastic Stability in Game Theoretic Learning  

E-print Network

learning and various cooperative control problems. Other settings include vehicle-target assignment [9Robustness of Stochastic Stability in Game Theoretic Learning Yusun Lim and Jeff S. Shamma Abstract--The notion of stochastic stability is used in game theoretic learning to characterize which joint actions

Shamma, Jeff S.

15

The Gauss-Seidel Numerical Procedure for Markov Stochastic Games  

E-print Network

, with associated costs. Generally, the Gauss-Seidel procedure accelerates convergence. Key words. Stochastic games1 The Gauss-Seidel Numerical Procedure for Markov Stochastic Games Harold J. Kushner Applied. One simply iterates backwards, via a Jacobi-like procedure. The convergence of the Gauss-Seidel form

16

The Gauss-Seidel Numerical Procedure for Markov Stochastic Games  

E-print Network

chooses to stop, with associated costs. Generally, the Gauss-Seidel procedure accelerates convergence. KeyThe Gauss-Seidel Numerical Procedure for Markov Stochastic Games Harold J. Kushner Applied stochastic games. One simply iterates backwards, via a Jacobi-like procedure. The convergence of the Gauss

17

Approximate solutions of stochastic differential delay equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching (SDEwMS) have received a great deal of attention. In this paper, the Euler-Maruyama method is developed, one of the most powerful numerical schemes, for the stochastic differential delay equations with Markovian switching (SDDEwMS).

Yuan, Chenggui; Glover, William

2006-10-01

18

Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games

Hamlen, Karla R.

2012-01-01

19

Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Congestion control at bottleneck routers on the internet is a long standing problem. Many policies have been proposed for effective ways to drop packets from the queues of these routers so that network endpoints will be inclined to share router capacity fairly and minimize the overflow of packets trying to enter the queues. We study just how effective some of these queuing policies are when each network endpoint is a self-interested player with no information about the other players’ actions or preferences. By employing the adaptive learning model of evolutionary game theory, we study policies such as Droptail, RED, and the greedy-flow-punishing policy proposed by Gao et al. [10] to find the stochastically stable states: the states of the system that will be reached in the long run.

Chung, Christine; Pyrga, Evangelia

20

Two-stage allocations for stochastic linear programming games with ...  

E-print Network

example, a group of retailers may decide to share the cost of jointly managing ... making problems; the most related here is the work on stochastic linear production games by Suijs ...... European Journal of Operational Research 179(1

2014-07-14

21

Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games  

SciTech Connect

We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.

Rainer, Catherine [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Victor-le-Gorgeu - CS 93837 (France)], E-mail: Catherine.Rainer@univ-brest.fr

2007-06-15

22

Spatial effect on stochastic dynamics of bistable evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the lifetimes of metastable states in bistable evolutionary games (coordination games), and examine how they are affected by spatial structure. A semiclassical approximation based on a path integral method is applied to stochastic evolutionary game dynamics with and without spatial structure, and the lifetimes of the metastable states are evaluated. It is shown that the population dependence of the lifetimes is qualitatively different in these two models. Our result indicates that spatial structure can accelerate the transitions between metastable states.

So, Kohaku H. Z.; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kato, Takeo

2014-10-01

23

Color Switching Games Gregory P. Tollisen* AND Tam'as Lengyel*  

E-print Network

to solving color switching games. At its most general, a color switching game is a one-person game played Color Switching Games Gregory P. Tollisen* AND Tam-dimensional color switching problems by applying methods ranging from linear algebra to parity

Lengyel, Tamás

24

Empirical Evidence Equilibria in Stochastic Games Nicolas Dudebout Jeff S. Shamma  

E-print Network

. In a stochastic game, agents collectively influence the dynamic of the environment. In standard equilibria, each, there are virtually no results for computing or reaching equilibria in stochastic games. Empirical evidence equilibriaEmpirical Evidence Equilibria in Stochastic Games Nicolas Dudebout Jeff S. Shamma Abstract

Shamma, Jeff S.

25

Stochastic Games for Security in Networks with Interdependent Nodes  

E-print Network

This paper studies a stochastic game theoretic approach to security and intrusion detection in communication and computer networks. Specifically, an Attacker and a Defender take part in a two-player game over a network of nodes whose security assets and vulnerabilities are correlated. Such a network can be modeled using weighted directed graphs with the edges representing the influence among the nodes. The game can be formulated as a non-cooperative zero-sum or nonzero-sum stochastic game. However, due to correlation among the nodes, if some nodes are compromised, the effective security assets and vulnerabilities of the remaining ones will not stay the same in general, which leads to complex system dynamics. We examine existence, uniqueness, and structure of the solution and also provide numerical examples to illustrate our model.

Nguyen, Kien C; Basar, Tamer

2010-01-01

26

Stochastic Games for Verification of Probabilistic Timed Automata  

E-print Network

Stochastic Games for Verification of Probabilistic Timed Automata Marta Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman, and David Parker Oxford University Computing Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QD Abstract. Probabilistic, nondeterminis- tic and real-time behaviour. For non-probabilistic timed automata, for- wards reachability

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

The Gauss-Seidel numerical procedure for Markov stochastic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider the problem of value iteration for solving Markov stochastic games. One simply iterates backward, via a Jacobi-like procedure. The convergence of the Gauss-Seidel form of this procedure is shown for both the discounted and ergodic cost problems, under appropriate conditions, with extensions to problems where one stops when a boundary is hit or if any one of the players

Harold J. Kushner

2004-01-01

28

Evolutionary Rotation in Switching Incentive Zero-Sum Games  

E-print Network

In a laboratory experiment, round by round, individual interactions should lead to the social evolutionary rotation in population strategy state space. Successive switching the incentive parameter should lead to successive change of the rotation ---- both of its direction and its strength. In data from a switching payoff matrix experiment of extended 2x2 games (Binmore, Swierzbinski and Proulx, 2001 [1]), we find the changing of the social evolutionary rotation can be distinguished quantitatively. The evolutionary rotation can be captured by evolutionary dynamics. With eigenvalue from the Jacobian of a constrained replicator dynamics model, an interpretation for observed rotation strength is given. In addition, equality-of-populations rank test shows that relative response coefficient of a group could persist cross the switching parameter games. The data has successively been used to support Von Neumann's minimax theory. Using the old data, with observed evolutionary rotation, this report provides a new insight into evolutionary game theory and experimental social dynamics.

Zhijian Wang; Bin Xu

2012-03-12

29

Stochastic Heterogeneous Interaction Promotes Cooperation in Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

PubMed Central

Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921

Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

2014-01-01

30

Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.  

PubMed

Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921

Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi

2014-01-01

31

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators  

E-print Network

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a non-delayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies, and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

Otti D'Huys; Thomas Juengling; Wolfgang Kinzel

2014-09-01

32

Stochastic switching in delay-coupled oscillators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A delay is known to induce multistability in periodic systems. Under influence of noise, coupled oscillators can switch between coexistent orbits with different frequencies and different oscillation patterns. For coupled phase oscillators we reduce the delay system to a nondelayed Langevin equation, which allows us to analytically compute the distribution of frequencies and their corresponding residence times. The number of stable periodic orbits scales with the roundtrip delay time and coupling strength, but the noisy system visits only a fraction of the orbits, which scales with the square root of the delay time and is independent of the coupling strength. In contrast, the residence time in the different orbits is mainly determined by the coupling strength and the number of oscillators, and only weakly dependent on the coupling delay. Finally we investigate the effect of a detuning between the oscillators. We demonstrate the generality of our results with delay-coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators.

D'Huys, Otti; Jüngling, Thomas; Kinzel, Wolfgang

2014-09-01

33

Robust synthetic biology design: stochastic game theory approach  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Synthetic biology is to engineer artificial biological systems to investigate natural biological phenomena and for a variety of applications. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to uncertain initial conditions and disturbances of extra-cellular environments on the host cell. At present, how to design a robust synthetic gene network to work properly under these uncertain factors is the most important topic of synthetic biology. Results: A robust regulation design is proposed for a stochastic synthetic gene network to achieve the prescribed steady states under these uncertain factors from the minimax regulation perspective. This minimax regulation design problem can be transformed to an equivalent stochastic game problem. Since it is not easy to solve the robust regulation design problem of synthetic gene networks by non-linear stochastic game method directly, the Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model is proposed to approximate the non-linear synthetic gene network via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique through the Robust Control Toolbox in Matlab. Finally, an in silico example is given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed robust gene design method. Availability: http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/bschen/SyntheticBioDesign_supplement.pdf Contact: bschen@ee.nthu.edu.tw Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19435742

Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Chia-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Ching

2009-01-01

34

Neural mechanism for stochastic behaviour during a competitive game.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can generate highly stochastic choice behaviour, especially when this is required during a competitive interaction with another agent. To understand the neural mechanism of such dynamic choice behaviour, we propose a biologically plausible model of decision making endowed with synaptic plasticity that follows a reward-dependent stochastic Hebbian learning rule. This model constitutes a biophysical implementation of reinforcement learning, and it reproduces salient features of behavioural data from an experiment with monkeys playing a matching pennies game. Due to interaction with an opponent and learning dynamics, the model generates quasi-random behaviour robustly in spite of intrinsic biases. Furthermore, non-random choice behaviour can also emerge when the model plays against a non-interactive opponent, as observed in the monkey experiment. Finally, when combined with a meta-learning algorithm, our model accounts for the slow drift in the animal's strategy based on a process of reward maximization. PMID:17015181

Soltani, Alireza; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2006-10-01

35

A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type  

SciTech Connect

We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.

Hosking, John Joseph Absalom, E-mail: j.j.a.hosking@cma.uio.no [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (CMA) (Norway)

2012-12-15

36

The AMES Wholesale Power Market Test Bed as a Stochastic Dynamic State-Space Game  

E-print Network

the AMES state-space equation representation to explain how AMES constitutes an open-ended dynamic gameThe AMES Wholesale Power Market Test Bed as a Stochastic Dynamic State-Space Game Leigh Tesfatsion. The result is a highly nonlinear and highly coupled system of first-order stochastic difference equations

Tesfatsion, Leigh

37

Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game.  

PubMed

In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986

Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

2013-01-01

38

Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game  

PubMed Central

In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors). PMID:23528986

Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

2013-01-01

39

Stability of switched stochastic dynamical systems driven by brownian motion and Markov modulated compound Poisson process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability conditions of continuous-time switched stochastic dynamical systems driven by a Brownian motion and a Markov modulated compound Poisson process are provided. The mode signal, which manages the transition between sub- systems, is modeled as a Markov chain. The state variables of the switched stochastic system are subject to jumps of random size occurring at random instances. The intensity of

Ahmet Cetinkaya; Tomohisa Hayakawa

2011-01-01

40

Nash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections with the  

E-print Network

/33 #12;Brief Historic Background: John Nash John Nash (1950) Equilibrium points in N-Person Games, PNASNash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections and Morgenstern Following the publication of Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by John von Neumann and Oskar

Huang, Minyi

41

Lossy Stochastic Game Abstraction with Bounds Tuomas Sandholm, Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University  

E-print Network

Lossy Stochastic Game Abstraction with Bounds Tuomas Sandholm, Computer Science Department Abstraction followed by equilibrium finding has emerged as the leading approach to solving games. Lossless abstraction typically yields games that are still too large to solve, so lossy abstraction is needed. Unfor

Fiat, Amos

42

Stochastic characterization of the two band two player spectrum sharing game  

E-print Network

Stochastic characterization of the two band two player spectrum sharing game Ilaria Malanchini a natural spectrum sharing game for this problem and characterized the Nash equilibria as a function probability in a game where the transmitter positions form a (low density) Poisson process, which may

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Dynamics or stochastic conductance switching of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers?  

PubMed

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers inserted in alkanethiolate self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are presented. Spontaneous changes in appearance of bundles of inserted molecules during imaging are observed. The results indicate that the appearance changes are caused by fluctuations of the number of molecules in the bundles, by diffusion and exchange of molecules, in contrast to previous reports which attribute the changes to stochastic conductance switching. The packing density of the SAM around the bundles of inserted molecules influence the fluctuations, as the fluctuations observed at 77 K all take place in bundles inserted at locally less-densely packed SAM areas. At room temperature fluctuations of bundles inserted in well-ordered areas are also observed. PMID:17315252

Hallbäck, Ann-Sofie; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J W

2007-04-01

44

Dynamical networks with on-off stochastic connections: beyond fast switching  

E-print Network

. Packet switched networks such as the Internet are an important example. To model realistic networksDynamical networks with on-off stochastic connections: beyond fast switching Russell Jeter is known about the effects of slower switching on the evolution of a network. We review recent analytical

Belykh, Igor

45

Neural Mechanism for Stochastic Behavior During a Competitive Game  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can generate highly stochastic choice behavior, especially when this is required during a competitive interaction with another agent. To understand the neural mechanism of such dynamic choice behavior, we propose a biologically plausible model of decision making endowed with synaptic plasticity that follows a reward-dependent stochastic Hebbian learning rule. This model constitutes a biophysical implementation of reinforcement learning, and it reproduces salient features of behavioral data from an experiment with monkeys playing a matching pennies game. Due to interaction with an opponent and learning dynamics, the model generates quasi-random behavior robustly in spite of intrinsic biases. Furthermore, non-random choice behavior can also emerge when the model plays against a non-interactive opponent, as observed in the monkey experiment. Finally, when combined with a meta-learning algorithm, our model accounts for the slow drift in the animal’s strategy based on a process of reward maximization. PMID:17015181

Soltani, Alireza; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2006-01-01

46

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau &  

E-print Network

Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau & Arthur P. Shimamura # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012 Abstract Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive

Shimamura, Arthur P.

47

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference  

E-print Network

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance s t r a c t Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task

Shedden, Judith M.

48

On Stability of Stochastic Switched Systems Debasish Chatterjee and Daniel Liberzon  

E-print Network

On Stability of Stochastic Switched Systems Debasish Chatterjee and Daniel Liberzon Abstract is simple. The latter method, usually more amenable to applications, was first proposed in [1] and developed

Liberzon, Daniel

49

Switching of bound vector solitons for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.

Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao Yitian [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

2012-12-15

50

Discounted stochastic games poorly approximate undiscounted ones Peter Bro Miltersen  

E-print Network

this game as being played between Dante (Player I) and Lucifer (Player II) as follows. Lucifer repeatedly guesses correctly N times in a row, he wins the game (payoff 1). If he ever overshoots Lucifer's number he

Miltersen, Peter Bro

51

Making Greed Work in Networks: A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Switch Service Disciplines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses congestion control from a game-theoretic perspective. There are twobasic premises: (1) users are assumed to be independent and selfish, and (2) central administrativecontrol is exercised only at the network switches. The operating points resulting from selfishuser behavior depend crucially on the service disciplines implemented in network switches. Thiseffect is investigated in a simple model consisting of a

Scott Shenker

1994-01-01

52

Dynamic awareness of network security situation based on stochastic game theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic game theory is proposed to apply in the research on network security situational awareness (NSSA), which is a research focus in network security field at present. A novel dynamic awareness method of network security situation (NSS) based on analyses of network service states is proposed in this paper. Realizing situation awareness is a dynamic process, and the diverse states

Liang Ying; Li Bingyang; Wang Huiqiang

2010-01-01

53

A stochastic game approach for competition over popularity in social networks  

E-print Network

A stochastic game approach for competition over popularity in social networks Eitan Altman INRIA.Altman@inria.fr June 17, 2012 Abstract The global Internet has enabled a massive access of internauts to content. At the same time it allowed individuals to use the Internet in order to distribute content. When individuals

54

A stochastic game approach for competition over popularity in social networks  

E-print Network

A stochastic game approach for competition over popularity in social networks Eitan Altman INRIA.Altman@inria.fr March 21, 2012 Abstract The global Internet has enabled a massive access of internauts to content. At the same time it allowed individuals to use the Internet in order to distribute content. When individuals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Numerical method for stationary distribution of stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In principle, once the existence of the stationary distribution of a stochastic differential equation with Markovian switching is assured, we may compute it by solving the associated system of the coupled Kolmogorov-Fokker-Planck equations. However, this is nontrivial in practice. As a viable alternative, we use the Euler-Maruyama scheme to obtain the stationary distribution in this paper.

Mao, Xuerong; Yuan, Chenggui; Yin, G.

2005-02-01

56

DOOM'd to Switch: Superior Cognitive Flexibility in Players of First Person Shooter Games  

PubMed Central

The interest in the influence of videogame experience on our daily life is constantly growing. “First Person Shooter” (FPS) games require players to develop a flexible mindset to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to switch back and forth between different subtasks. This study investigated whether and to which degree experience with such videogames generalizes to other cognitive-control tasks. Video-game players (VGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed on a task switching paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of cognitive flexibility. As predicted, VGPs showed smaller switching costs (i.e., greater cognitive flexibility) than NVGPs. Our findings support the idea that playing FPS games promotes cognitive flexibility. PMID:21833191

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van Leeuwen, Pieter J.A.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P.M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2010-01-01

57

Impact of deterministic and stochastic updates on network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.031141].

Tanimoto, Jun

2014-08-01

58

Pulsar State Switching from Markov Transitions and Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

Cordes, J. M.

2013-09-01

59

PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE  

SciTech Connect

Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.

Cordes, J. M., E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2013-09-20

60

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference.  

PubMed

Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown for task switching, suggesting that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two experiments, we examined which aspects of task switching performance this VGP benefit may be localized to. With minimal trial-to-trial interference from minimally overlapping task set rules, VGPs demonstrated a task switching benefit compared to nVGPs. However, this benefit disappeared when proactive interference between tasks was increased, with substantial stimulus and response overlap in task set rules. We suggest that VGPs have no generalized benefit in task switching-related cognitive control processes compared to nVGPs, with switch cost reductions due instead to a specific benefit in controlling selective attention. PMID:20064634

Karle, James W; Watter, Scott; Shedden, Judith M

2010-05-01

61

Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.

Bhat, V. S.; Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

2014-08-01

62

Approximations of Euler-Maruyama type for stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching, under non-Lipschitz conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the Euler-Maruyama scheme for a class of stochastic differential equations with Markovian switching (SDEwMSs) under non-Lipschitz conditions. Both L1 and L2-convergence are discussed under different non-Lipschitz conditions. To overcome the mathematical difficulties arisen from the Markovian switching as well as the non-Lipschitz coefficients, several new analytical techniques have been developed in this paper which should prove to be very useful in the numerical analysis of stochastic systems.

Mao, Xuerong; Yuan, Chenggui; Yin, G.

2007-08-01

63

Simulation Hemi-metrics between Infinite-State Stochastic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate simulation hemi-metrics between certain forms of turn-based \\u000a 21[`<\\/font\\u000a>2]2^{1}_{\\\\bar 2}\\u000a -player games played on infinite topological spaces. They have the desirable property of bounding the difference in payoffs\\u000a obtained by starting from one state or another. All constructions are described as the special case of a unique one, which\\u000a we call the Hutchinson hemi-metric on various spaces of

Jean Goubault-larrecq

2008-01-01

64

A novel adaptive switching function on fault tolerable sliding mode control for uncertain stochastic systems.  

PubMed

A novel switching function based on an optimization strategy for the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been provided for uncertain stochastic systems subject to actuator degradation such that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable with probability one. In the previous researches the focus on sliding surface has been on proportional or proportional-integral function of states. In this research, from a degree of freedom that depends on designer choice is used to meet certain objectives. In the design of the switching function, there is a parameter which the designer can regulate for specified objectives. A sliding-mode controller is synthesized to ensure the reachability of the specified switching surface, despite actuator degradation and uncertainties. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24954808

Zahiripour, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Ali Akbar

2014-09-01

65

Stochastic game theory: For playing games, not just for doing theory  

PubMed Central

Recent theoretical advances have dramatically increased the relevance of game theory for predicting human behavior in interactive situations. By relaxing the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and perfect foresight, we obtain much improved explanations of initial decisions, dynamic patterns of learning and adjustment, and equilibrium steady-state distributions. PMID:10485862

Goeree, Jacob K.; Holt, Charles A.

1999-01-01

66

Global exponential estimates of delayed stochastic neural networks with Markovian switching.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the global exponential estimating problem of delayed stochastic neural networks with Markovian switching. By fully taking the inherent characteristic of such kinds of neural networks into account, a novel stochastic Lyapunov functional is constructed in which as many as possible of the positive definite matrices are dependent on the system mode and a triple-integral term is introduced. Based on it, a delay- and mode-dependent criterion is derived under which not only the neural network is mean square exponentially stable but also the decay rate is well obtained. Moreover, it is shown that the established stability condition includes some existing ones as its special cases, and is thus less conservative. This approach is then extended to two more general cases where mode-dependent time-varying delays and parameter uncertainties are considered. Finally, three numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the developed approach. PMID:23124276

Huang, He; Huang, Tingwen; Chen, Xiaoping

2012-12-01

67

The coevolution of partner switching and strategy updating in non-excludable public goods game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial public goods game is a popular metaphor to model the dilemma of collective cooperation on graphs, yet the non-excludable property of public goods has seldom been considered in previous models. Based upon a coevolutionary model where agents play public goods games and adjust their partnerships, the present model incorporates the non-excludable property of public goods: agents are able to adjust their participation in the games hosted by others, whereas they cannot exclude others from their own games. In the coevolution, a directed and dynamical network which represents partnerships among autonomous agents is evolved. We find that non-excludable property counteracts the positive effect of partner switching, i.e., the equilibrium level of cooperation is lower than that in the situation of excludable public goods game. Therefore, we study the effect of individual punishment that cooperative agents pay a personal cost to decrease benefits of those defective neighbors who participate in their hosted games. It is found that the cooperation level in the whole population is heightened in the presence of such a costly behavior.

Li, Yixiao; Shen, Bin

2013-10-01

68

L1 group consensus of multi-agent systems with switching topologies and stochastic inputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how interacting subsystems of an overall system lead to cluster/group consensus is a key issue in the investigation of multi-agent systems. In this Letter, we study the L1 group consensus problem of discrete-time multi-agent systems with external stochastic inputs. Based on ergodicity theory and matrix analysis, L1 group consensus criteria are obtained for multi-agent systems with switching topologies. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the theoretical results.

Shang, Yilun

2013-10-01

69

Transcriptional bursting diversifies the behaviour of a toggle switch: hybrid simulation of stochastic gene expression.  

PubMed

Hybrid models for gene expression combine stochastic and deterministic representations of the underlying biophysical mechanisms. According to one of the simplest hybrid formalisms, protein molecules are produced in randomly occurring bursts of a randomly distributed size while they are degraded deterministically. Here, we use this particular formalism to study two key regulatory motifs-the autoregulation loop and the toggle switch. The distribution of burst times is determined and used as a basis for the development of exact simulation algorithms for gene expression dynamics. For the autoregulation loop, the simulations are compared to an analytic solution of a master equation. Simulations of the toggle switch reveal a number of qualitatively distinct scenarios with implications for the modelling of cell-fate selection. PMID:23354929

Bokes, Pavol; King, John R; Wood, Andrew T A; Loose, Matthew

2013-02-01

70

Transition from Gaussian to Levy distributions of stochastic payoff variations in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the impact of stochastic payoff variations with different distributions on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner’s dilemma game. We find that Gaussian-distributed payoff variations are most successful in promoting cooperation irrespective of the temptation to defect. In particular, the facilitative effect of noise on the evolution of cooperation decreases steadily as the frequency of rare events increases. Findings are explained via an analysis of local payoff ranking violations. The relevance of results for economics and sociology is discussed.

Perc, Matjaž

2007-02-01

71

http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimal Stochastic Scheduling of Forest Networks with Switching Penalties  

E-print Network

http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimal Stochastic Scheduling of Forest Networks with Switching, Vol. 26, No. 2, (Jun., 1994), pp. 474-497 Published by: Applied Probability Trust Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1427447 Accessed: 04/04/2008 12:03 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR

Teneketzis, Demosthenis

72

A Stochastic Single-Molecule Event Triggers Phenotype Switching of a Bacterial Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype.

Xie, Sunney; Choi, Paul; Cai, Long

2009-03-01

73

Switching neuronal state: optimal stimuli revealed using a stochastically-seeded gradient algorithm.  

PubMed

Inducing a switch in neuronal state using energy optimal stimuli is relevant to a variety of problems in neuroscience. Analytical techniques from optimal control theory can identify such stimuli; however, solutions to the optimization problem using indirect variational approaches can be elusive in models that describe neuronal behavior. Here we develop and apply a direct gradient-based optimization algorithm to find stimulus waveforms that elicit a change in neuronal state while minimizing energy usage. We analyze standard models of neuronal behavior, the Hodgkin-Huxley and FitzHugh-Nagumo models, to show that the gradient-based algorithm: 1) enables automated exploration of a wide solution space, using stochastically generated initial waveforms that converge to multiple locally optimal solutions; and 2) finds optimal stimulus waveforms that achieve a physiological outcome condition, without a priori knowledge of the optimal terminal condition of all state variables. Analysis of biological systems using stochastically-seeded gradient methods can reveal salient dynamical mechanisms underlying the optimal control of system behavior. The gradient algorithm may also have practical applications in future work, for example, finding energy optimal waveforms for therapeutic neural stimulation that minimizes power usage and diminishes off-target effects and damage to neighboring tissue. PMID:25145955

Chang, Joshua; Paydarfar, David

2014-12-01

74

Some Classes of Imperfect Information Finite State-Space Stochastic Games with Finite-Dimensional Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.

McEneaney, William M. [Departments of Mathematics and Mechanical/Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States)], E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu

2004-08-15

75

Fixation, transient landscape, and diffusion dilemma in stochastic evolutionary game dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agent-based stochastic models for finite populations have recently received much attention in the game theory of evolutionary dynamics. Both the ultimate fixation and the pre-fixation transient behavior are important to a full understanding of the dynamics. In this paper, we study the transient dynamics of the well-mixed Moran process through constructing a landscape function. It is shown that the landscape playing a central theoretical “device” that integrates several lines of inquiries: the stable behavior of the replicator dynamics, the long-time fixation, and continuous diffusion approximation associated with asymptotically large population. Several issues relating to the transient dynamics are discussed: (i) multiple time scales phenomenon associated with intra- and inter-attractoral dynamics; (ii) discontinuous transition in stochastically stationary process akin to Maxwell construction in equilibrium statistical physics; and (iii) the dilemma diffusion approximation facing as a continuous approximation of the discrete evolutionary dynamics. It is found that rare events with exponentially small probabilities, corresponding to the uphill movements and barrier crossing in the landscape with multiple wells that are made possible by strong nonlinear dynamics, plays an important role in understanding the origin of the complexity in evolutionary, nonlinear biological systems.

Zhou, Da; Qian, Hong

2011-09-01

76

Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

2014-01-01

77

Continuous transition of social efficiencies in the stochastic-strategy minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that in a variant of the minority game problem, the agents can reach a state of maximum social efficiency, where the fluctuation between the two choices is minimum, by following a simple stochastic strategy. By imagining a social scenario where the agents can only guess about the number of excess people in the majority, we show that as long as the guessed value is sufficiently close to the reality, the system can reach a state of full efficiency or minimum fluctuation. A continuous transition to less efficient condition is observed when the guessed value becomes worse. Hence, people can optimize their guess for excess population to optimize the period of being in the majority state. We also consider the situation where a finite fraction of agents always decide completely randomly (random trader) as opposed to the rest of the population who follow a certain strategy (chartist). For a single random trader the system becomes fully efficient with majority-minority crossover occurring every 2 days on average. For just two random traders, all the agents have equal gain with arbitrarily small fluctuations.

Biswas, Soumyajyoti; Ghosh, Asim; Chatterjee, Arnab; Naskar, Tapan; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

2012-03-01

78

Convergence of numerical solutions to neutral stochastic delay differential equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, numerical solutions of stochastic differential equations have received a great deal of attention. It is surprising that there are not any numerical methods established for neutral stochastic delay differential equations yet. In the paper, the Euler-Maruyama method for neutral stochastic delay differential equations is developed. The key aim is to show that the numerical solutions will converge to the true solutions under the local Lipschitz condition.

Zhou, Shaobo; Wu, Fuke

2009-07-01

79

Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the perceptual and cognitive effects of playing video games is an area of increasing interest for many investigators. Over the past decade, expert video game players (VGPs) have been shown to display superior performance compared to non-video game players (nVGPs) on a range of visuospatial and attentional tasks. A benefit of video game expertise has recently been shown

James W. Karle; Scott Watter; Judith M. Shedden

2010-01-01

80

Viscosity Solutions for a System of Integro-PDEs and Connections to Optimal Switching and Control of Jump-Diffusion Processes  

SciTech Connect

We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.

Biswas, Imran H., E-mail: imran.biswas@sam.math.ethz.c [ETH-Zurich, Seminar fuer Angewandte Mathematik, D-MATH (Switzerland); Jakobsen, Espen R., E-mail: erj@math.ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Karlsen, Kenneth H., E-mail: kennethk@math.uio.n [University of Oslo, Centre of Mathematics for Applications (Norway)

2010-08-15

81

Strategy switches and co-action equilibria in a minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an analytically tractable variation of the minority game in which rational agents use probabilistic strategies. In our model, N agents choose between two alternatives repeatedly, and those who are in the minority get a pay-off 1, others zero. The agents optimize the expectation value of their discounted future pay-off, the discount parameter being ?. We propose an alternative to the standard Nash equilibrium, called co-action equilibrium, which gives higher expected pay-off for all agents. The optimal choice of probabilities of different actions are determined exactly in terms of simple self-consistent equations. The optimal strategy is characterized by N real parameters, which are non-analytic functions of ?, even for a finite number of agents. The solution for N?7 is worked out explicitly indicating the structure of the solution for larger N. For large enough future time horizon, the optimal strategy switches from random choice to a win-stay lose-shift strategy, with the shift probability depending on the current state and ?.

Sasidevan, V.; Dhar, Deepak

2014-05-01

82

Factor stochastic volatility with time varying loadings and Markov switching regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the factor stochastic volatility (FSV) model of Pitt and Shephard [1999. Time varying covariances: a factor stochastic volatility approach (with discussion). In: Bernardo, J.M., Berger, J.O., Dawid, A.P., Smith, A.F.M. (Eds.), Bayesian Statistics, vol. 6, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 547–570.] and Aguilar and West [2000. Bayesian dynamic factor models and variance matrix discounting for portfolio allocation. J.

Hedibert Freitas Lopes; Carlos Marinho Carvalho

2007-01-01

83

The Stability of a Stochastic CaMKII Switch: Dependence on the Number of Enzyme  

E-print Network

and a deterministic description is not sufficient [4]. Because of the dynamic interaction of opposing reactions of this switch arises from autocatalytic autophosphorylation of CaMKII, a reaction that is countered

Miller, Paul

84

Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.

Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

2004-01-01

85

Explicit conditions for asymptotic stability of stochastic Liénard-type equations with Markovian switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the boundedness in probability and convergence for solutions of stochastic Liénard-type equations. Some explicit conditions to ensure that all solution is bounded in probability and convergent to some fixed sets are obtained. We also show that white noise can affect the boundedness of corresponding deterministic Liénard equations.

Zhao, Liqin; Xi, Fubao

2008-12-01

86

Nash Certainty Equivalence in Large Population Stochastic Dynamic Games: Connections with the Physics of  

E-print Network

], and in a mathematical context they have also provided a rich source for stochastic analysis [9], [8], [17], [5], [6 interests in a random environment. The modelling and analysis of dynamical systems with many competing agents is of im- portance due to their wide appearance in socio-economic and engineering areas [12], [11

Huang, Minyi

87

Evolution of strategies in repeated stochastic games with full information of the payoff matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for studying the evolution of cooperative behaviour, using evolution of finite state strategies, is presented. The interaction between agents is modelled by a repeated game with random observable payoffs. The agents are thus faced with a more complex (and general) situation, compared to the Prisoner's Dilemma that has been widely used for in- vestigating the conditions for cooperation

Anders Eriksson; Kristian Lindgren

88

Is the small-ball strategy effective in winning games? A stochastic frontier production approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the Japanese National Baseball team won the inaugural World Baseball Classic, “small ball” has been accepted, at least\\u000a by the media, as a mainstream form of baseball management in Korea. Small ball refers to a manager’s active intervention or\\u000a strategy implementation in baseball games. In general, the frequency of managers’ orders for play actions such as a sacrifice\\u000a bunt

Young Hoon Lee

2011-01-01

89

Local Replicator Dynamics: A Simple Link Between Deterministic and Stochastic Models of Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical replicator dynamics assumes that individuals play their games and adopt new strategies on a global level: Each player\\u000a interacts with a representative sample of the population and if a strategy yields a payoff above the average, then it is expected\\u000a to spread. In this article, we connect evolutionary models for infinite and finite populations: While the population itself\\u000a is

Christian Hilbe

2011-01-01

90

Stochastic population switch may explain the latent reservoir stability and intermittent viral blips in HIV patients on suppressive therapy.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy can suppress plasma viral loads of HIV-1 infected individuals to below the detection limit of standard clinical assays. However, low-level viremia still persists. Many patients also have transient viral load measurements above the detection limit (the so-called "viral blips"). The latent reservoir consisting of latently infected CD4+ T cells represents a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. These cells can be activated to produce virions but the size of the latent reservoir is relatively stable. The mechanisms underlying low viral load persistence, emergence of intermittent viral blips and stability of the latent reservoir are not well understood. Cellular and viral transcription factors play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency. Infected cells with intermediate transcriptional activities may either revert to a latent state or become highly activated and produce virions due to intracellular perturbations. Here we develop a mathematical model that includes such stochastic population switch. We demonstrate that the model can generate a stable latent reservoir, intermittent viral blips, as well as low-level viremia persistence. Latently infected cells with intermediate transcription activities may maintain their size through a high level of homeostatic proliferation, while cells with low transcriptional activities are likely to be maintained through the reversion from cells with intermediate transcription activities. Simulations also suggest that treatment intensification or activation therapy may not help to eradicate the latent reservoir. Blocking the proliferation of latently infected cells might be a good strategy. These results provide more insights into the long-term dynamics of virus and latently infected cells in HIV patients on suppressive therapy and may help to develop novel treatment strategies. PMID:25016044

Wang, Sunpeng; Rong, Libin

2014-11-01

91

A novel switching guidance law against hypersonic random maneuvering target  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminal guidance problem for the interception of hypersonic maneuvering targets in a stochastic environment is studied. A novel logic based switching differential game guidance law named DGL\\/S, integrated with advanced multiple model filtering algorithm named Fast UKF\\/MMAE for nonlinear system, is developed. Simulation results show fast UKF\\/MMAE has higher estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time after the identification of

Yuzhe Wang; Xiaoping Shi; Yin Zhu

2010-01-01

92

http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimality of Index Policies for Stochastic Scheduling with Switching Penalties  

E-print Network

http://dv1www56.jstor.org:6085 Optimality of Index Policies for Stochastic Scheduling Probability Trust Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3214727 Accessed: 04/04/2008 12:08 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://dv1

Teneketzis, Demosthenis

93

Stability and Multiattractor Dynamics of a Toggle Switch Based on a Two-Stage Model of Stochastic Gene Expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance and monomeric transcription factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multi-attractor dy- namics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. We first study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasi-potential and the probability flux of the system. Second, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed and provide an analytical expression of the distribution. Most importantly we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the stability on a specific cell differentiation mechanism. Our model explains lineage priming and proposes the need of either high protein numbers or long term modifications such as chromatin remodeling to achieve stable cell fate decisions. Notably we present a system with high protein abundance that nevertheless requires a probabilistic description to exhibit multistability, complex switching dynamics and lineage priming.

Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J.; Marr, Carsten

2012-01-01

94

A Stochastic Dynamic Nash Game Analysis of Policies for Managing the Strategic Petroleum Reserves of Consuming Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a Nash dynamic game model of interactions among oil inventory and tariff policies for oil importing countries. The inventory policies consist of the rates for building up and drawing down strategic oil reserves, while the tariff policies consist of setting tariffs as a function of the state of the world oil market. The model represents

Frederic H. Murphy; Michael A. Toman; Howard J. Weiss

1987-01-01

95

Self-organizing patterns in an evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game for stochastic synchronized strategy updates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains.

Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György

2014-10-01

96

Deterministic priority mean-payoff games as limits of discounted games  

E-print Network

Deterministic priority mean-payoff games as limits of discounted games Hugo Gimbert1 and Wieslaw, Henzinger and Majum- dar [2] about discounted µ-calculus we show new surprising links between parity games and different classes of discounted games. 1 Introduction One of the major results in the theory of stochastic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

STOCHASTIC GAMES AND STATIONARY STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we treat stationary strategies and the limiting average cri- terion. Generally, for the average reward criterion, players need history- dependent strategies in playing nearly optimal or in equilibrium. A behav- ioral strategy may condition its choice of mixed action, at any given stage, on the entire history; and therefore its implementation is often a huge task. However,

O. J. VRIEZE

98

A Monetary Policy Simulation Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…

Lengwiler, Yvan

2004-01-01

99

Monte Carlo Planning in RTS Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monte Carlo simulations have been success- fully used in classic turn-based games such as backgam- mon, bridge, poker, and Scrabble. In this paper, we ap- ply the ideas to the problem of planning in games with imperfect information, stochasticity, and simultaneous moves. The domain we consider is real-time strategy games. We present a framework — MCPlan — for Monte Carlo

Michael Chung; Michael Buro; Jonathan Schaeffer

2005-01-01

100

Statistical equilibrium in simple exchange games II. The redistribution game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple stochastic exchange game mimicking taxation and redistribution. There are g agents and n coins; taxation is modeled by randomly extracting some coins; then, these coins are redistributed to agents following Polya's scheme. The individual wealth equilibrium distribution for the resulting Markov chain is the multivariate symmetric Polya distribution. In the continuum limit, the wealth distribution converges to a Gamma distribution, whose form factor is just the initial redistribution weight. The relationship between this taxation-and-redistribution scheme and other simple conservative stochastic exchange games (such as the BDY game) is discussed.

Garibaldi, U.; Scalas, E.; Viarengo, P.

2007-11-01

101

Winning combinations of history-dependent games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parrondo effect describes the seemingly paradoxical situation in which two losing games can, when combined, become a winning game [Parrondo, Harmer, and Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 24 (2000)]. Here, we generalize this analysis to the case where both games are history dependent, i.e., there is an intrinsic memory in the dynamics of each game. Results are presented for the cases of both random and periodic switching between the two games.

Kay, Roland J.; Johnson, Neil F.

2003-05-01

102

Stochasticity as a Source of Innovation in Language Games Luc Steels (1,2) and Fr'ed'eric Kaplan (1,3)  

E-print Network

model of language interaction in a group of distributed agents, called the naming game. Keywords,3) (1) Sony CSL ­ Paris ­ 6 Rue Amyot, 75005 Paris (2) VUB AI Lab ­ Brussels (3) LIP6 ­ UPMC ­ 4, Place adaptive system has shown that self­organisation can explain how a group of distributed agents can reach

Steels, Luc

103

Seasonality as a Parrondian game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.

Peacock-López, Enrique

2011-08-01

104

Time averages, recurrence and transience in the stochastic replicator dynamics  

E-print Network

We investigate the long-run behavior of a stochastic replicator process, which describes game dynamics for a symmetric two-player game under aggregate shocks. We establish an averaging principle that relates time averages of the process and Nash equilibria of a suitably modified game. Furthermore, a sufficient condition for transience is given in terms of mixed equilibria and definiteness of the payoff matrix. We also present necessary and sufficient conditions for stochastic stability of pure equilibria.

Hofbauer, Josef; 10.1214/08-AAP577

2009-01-01

105

Backward Stochastic Differential Equations in Infinite Dimensions with Continuous Driver and Applications  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.

Fuhrman, Marco [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32 (Italy)], E-mail: marco.fuhrman@polimi.it; Hu, Ying [IRMAR, Universite Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu (France)], E-mail: ying.hu@univ-rennes1.fr

2007-09-15

106

Mean Field Equilibrium in Dynamic Games with Strategic Complementarities  

E-print Network

that influence their payoff (Shapley 1953). The standard solution concept for stochastic games is Markov perfect as the number of play- ers grows large. First is computability: the state space of the preceding games expandsMean Field Equilibrium in Dynamic Games with Strategic Complementarities Sachin Adlakha Center

Adlakha, Sachin

107

Stochasticity and evolutionary stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In stochastic dynamical systems, different concepts of stability can be obtained in different limits. A particularly interesting example is evolutionary game theory, which is traditionally based on infinite populations, where strict Nash equilibria correspond to stable fixed points that are always evolutionarily stable. However, in finite populations stochastic effects can drive the system away from strict Nash equilibria, which gives rise to a new concept for evolutionary stability. The conventional and the new stability concepts may apparently contradict each other leading to conflicting predictions in large yet finite populations. We show that the two concepts can be derived from the frequency dependent Moran process in different limits. Our results help to determine the appropriate stability concept in large finite populations. The general validity of our findings is demonstrated showing that the same results are valid employing vastly different co-evolutionary processes.

Traulsen, Arne; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Imhof, Lorens A.

2006-08-01

108

DYNAMICS OF STOCHASTICALLY BLINKING SYSTEMS. PART II: ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES  

E-print Network

-off interactions. Packet switched networks such as the Internet are an important example. To model realistic example of a blinking dynamical system. Key words. blinking networks, stochastic switching, averaging to the attractor(s) of the averaged system with high probability if switching is fast. In the non- invariant single

Belykh, Igor

109

Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This advanced text introduces the principles of noncooperative game theory - including strategic form games, Nash equilibria, subgame perfection, repeated games, and games of incomplete information - in a direct and uncomplicated style that will acquaint students with the broad spectrum of the field while highlighting and explaining what they need to know at any given point. The analytic material

Drew Fudenberg; Jean Tirole

1991-01-01

110

Geometry Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the games below to learn more about shapes! First, match the shapes in the row with the falling ones before time runs out in the Shape Invasion game! Next, pick the correct shapes in the What shape is this? game. Then, help Telly grow a garden in Telly s Shape Garden game. ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

111

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7.5 minute video educator Ian Byrd proposes three pencil and paper math games that are simple to learn and that develop students' ability to abstract their strategies. Game of 100 and Heaps, both Nim-type games, also develop facility in adding and subtracting whole numbers, while Cram strengthens spatial reasoning. All three games can be adapted, encouraging students to generalize their strategies into algorithms. Byrd includes links to Wikipedia articles on the games.

2013-01-01

112

QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation  

SciTech Connect

Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.

Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-23

113

Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.

Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer

2009-08-01

114

A Predictive Theory of Games  

E-print Network

Conventional noncooperative game theory hypothesizes that the joint strategy of a set of players in a game must satisfy an "equilibrium concept". All other joint strategies are considered impossible; the only issue is what equilibrium concept is "correct". This hypothesis violates the desiderata underlying probability theory. Indeed, probability theory renders moot the problem of what equilibrium concept is correct - every joint strategy can arise with non-zero probability. Rather than a first-principles derivation of an equilibrium concept, game theory requires a first-principles derivation of a distribution over joint (mixed) strategies. This paper shows how information theory can provide such a distribution over joint strategies. If a scientist external to the game wants to distill such a distribution to a point prediction, that prediction should be set by decision theory, using their (!) loss function. So the predicted joint strategy - the "equilibrium concept" - varies with the external scientist's loss function. It is shown here that in many games, having a probability distribution with support restricted to Nash equilibria - as stipulated by conventional game theory - is impossible. It is also show how to: i) Derive an information-theoretic quantification of a player's degree of rationality; ii) Derive bounded rationality as a cost of computation; iii) Elaborate the close formal relationship between game theory and statistical physics; iv) Use this relationship to extend game theory to allow stochastically varying numbers of players.

David H. Wolpert

2005-12-08

115

Math Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are some fun games that will allow you to work on some of your math skills, each game is different so I want you to play the two that you think you would like the most. Everyday you will pick a different two games until you have played all of them. To choose a game, click on the highlighted words. After you have played all of the games you will pick a new game each day and write down the game you played on the game list that will be on the teachers desk. Have fun and learn a lot!! Algebra Playing With Patterns!! This game allows you to help Paul find matching patterns. Click on your answer and see if you are correct! It is a ...

Cooley, Mr.

2011-11-12

116

A Stochastic Model of Consumer Boycotts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model of consumer boycotts where the discrete choices of concerned consumers are represented as a stochastic processes. We solve for the limiting distribution of the process and analyze its properties. We then discuss how the model relates to game-theoretic models of collective action and derive an equi- librium selection result. The type of equilibrium selected depends

Daniel Diermeier; Jan A. Van Mieghem

2009-01-01

117

Task switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Everyday life requires frequent shifts between cognitive tasks. Research reviewed in this article probes the control processes that reconfigure mental resources for a change of task by requiring subjects to switch frequently among a small set of simple tasks. Subjects' responses are substantially slower and, usually, more error-prone immediately after a task switch. This ‘switch cost’ is reduced, but not

Stephen Monsell

2003-01-01

118

Wallet Games  

E-print Network

Mobile games have become increasingly popular with the advancement of cell phones, portable computing devices and mobile gaming consoles such as the Nintendo DS and the Sony PlayStation Portable. However, one of the principal bottlenecks

Min Xin; Ehud Sharlin

119

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners play a game to identify the properties of prime, composite, abundant, deficient and perfect numbers. Learners use a game board comprised of the numbers from 1 to 30 placed in a 5 by 6 grid.

Pbs

2012-01-01

120

Exciter switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

Mcpeak, W. L.

1975-01-01

121

Sequential games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a general construction of sequential games among multiple players, as well as a\\u000aconstruction of the composition of sequential games. We obtain new properties of the\\u000aoptimal class of win-by-k games, including closure under composition and independence\\u000abetween the winner of the game and the number of points played. We obtain new results on\\u000athe asymptotic efficiency of

Kyle Siegrist; John Steele

2001-01-01

122

Array Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arrays are very important in Computer Programming. An array is a way to store similar items in computer memory. The items may be numbers, words, pictures, or even sounds. Many games use an array because it is an easy way to keep track of the objects used to play the game. The Arrow Game uses an array to store arrow ...

Watts, Mrs.

2007-10-05

123

Online Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home of resource collections that support the use of online games and environments for teaching geoscience. There is now a collection of relevant references, examples of online games, and ideas for teaching with online games suggested by participants in the Spring 2008 workshop.

124

Winter Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

125

Game Face  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

Weiner, Jill

2005-01-01

126

Switching Power Supplies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basics of switching power supplies. The content of the site is divided into four areas: SMPS Basics and Switching Regulators; DC-DC Converters: Charge Pumps, Forwards Converters and Flyback Converters; Inverters, UPS and Hysteresis Curve, and SMPS: Advantages, Disadvantages and Troubleshooting. There is a quiz for each area in the Knowledge Probe area, and the Learning Resources section contains five activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and two Questors, a Flash trivia game. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource students and educators in electronics technician programs.

2008-09-05

127

Video games.  

PubMed

The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values. PMID:16111624

Funk, Jeanne B

2005-06-01

128

Variation Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners play the role of monkeys that are trying to get enough resources (food, shelter, and space) to survive. They play several simple games which involve strength, quickness, coordination, intuition, and luck in order to acquire these resources. The games focus attention on the participantsâ individual variations in these areas. There are three âroundsâ which represent three different changing environments, each of which requires different skills for survival. After the games, learners compare who got enough resources and what variations among the players may have affected how the game went.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

129

Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps and  

E-print Network

PWP-073 Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean.ucei.berkeley.edu/ucei #12;Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps-switching and stochastic volatility into these models in order to capture the salient features of energy commodity prices

California at Berkeley. University of

130

Joker: Choice in a simple game with large stakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines data from the Norwegian television game show Joker, where contestants make well-specified choices under risk. The game involves very large stakes, randomly drawn contestants, and ample opportunities for learning. Expected utility (EU) theory gives a simple prediction of choice under weak conditions, as one choice is always first-order stochastically dominating. We document frequent, systematic and costly violations

Egil Matsen; Bjarne Strřm

2006-01-01

131

Competition and Coordination in Stochastic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agent competition and coordination are two classical and most important tasks in multiagent systems. In recent years, there was a number of learning algorithms proposed to resolve such type of problems. Among them, there is an important class of algorithms, called adaptive learning algorithms, that were shown to be able to converge in self-play to a solution in a wide

Andriy Burkov; Abdeslam Boularias; Brahim Chaib-draa

2007-01-01

132

A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.

Gruen, Christine, E-mail: christine.gruen@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques de Brest UMR 6205 (France)

2012-12-15

133

Game Tree Search with Adaptation in Stochastic Imperfect Information Games  

E-print Network

the preferences and biases of users is an important topic in recent ar- ti#12;cial intelligence (AI) research and access patterns [2], and automatically generate customized interfaces [3]. It is usually easy to gather information that a player can glean from the opponent's past history of play can be used to improve

Bowling, Michael

134

The role of migration in the evolution of phenotypic switching.  

PubMed

Stochastic switching is an example of phenotypic bet hedging, where an individual can switch between different phenotypic states in a fluctuating environment. Although the evolution of stochastic switching has been studied when the environment varies temporally, there has been little theoretical work on the evolution of phenotypic switching under both spatially and temporally fluctuating selection pressures. Here, we explore the interaction of temporal and spatial change in determining the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic switching. We find that spatial variation in selection is important; when selection pressures are similar across space, migration can decrease the rate of switching, but when selection pressures differ spatially, increasing migration between demes can facilitate the evolution of higher rates of switching. These results may help explain the diverse array of non-genetic contributions to phenotypic variability and phenotypic inheritance observed in both wild and experimental populations. PMID:25232136

Carja, Oana; Furrow, Robert E; Feldman, Marcus W

2014-11-01

135

Stochastic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, stochastic resonance has continuously attracted considerable attention. The term is given to a phenomenon that is manifest in nonlinear systems whereby generally feeble input information (such as a weak signal) can be be amplified and optimized by the assistance of noise. The effect requires three basic ingredients: (i) an energetic activation barrier or, more generally,

Luca Gammaitoni; Peter Hänggi; Peter Jung; Fabio Marchesoni

1998-01-01

136

Stochastic thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest

Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik

2014-04-01

137

Stochastic cooling  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron.

Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

1982-03-01

138

Designing Cross Media Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross media games focus on a wide variety of gaming devices including traditional media channels, game consoles as well as mobile and pervasive computing technology to allow for a broad variety of game experiences. This paper introduces cross media games. It addresses challenges of cross media games and points out game design, technical, commercial and ethical aspects. A gaming scenario

Irma Lindt; Jan Ohlenburg; Uta Pankoke-Babatz; Sabiha Ghellal; Leif Oppermann; Matt Adams

2005-01-01

139

Quantum Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists studying quantum computation offer new perspectives on coin tossing, chess, and game theory. Theorists intend to apply the peculiarities of quantum behavior to game theory, two previously unrelated fields. These researchers propose that the possibility of a mixed state permits quantum-game strategies that in theory can be more successful than conventional ones. This new type of modeling using quantum computers could greatly affect fields such as economics, international relations, and computer science.

Peterson, Ivars

2007-03-03

140

Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

2013-10-01

141

Multi-player games on the cycle  

PubMed Central

In multi-player games n individuals interact in any one encounter and derive a payoff from that interaction. We assume that individuals adopt one of two strategies, and we consider symmetric games, which means the payoff depends only on the number of players using either strategy, but not on any particular configuration of the encounter. On the cycle we assume that any string of n neighbouring players interacts. We study fixation probabilities of stochastic evolutionary dynamics. We derive analytical results on the cycle both for linear and exponential fitness for any intensity of selection, and compare those to results for the well-mixed population. As particular examples we study multi-player public goods games, stag hunt games and snowdrift games. PMID:21907215

van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin

2011-01-01

142

Potential Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and discuss several notions of potential functions for games in strategic form. We characterize games that have a potential function, and we present a variety of applications.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Numbers:C72, C73.

Dov Monderer; Lloyd S. Shapley

1996-01-01

143

Video Games.  

PubMed

The emergence of video games as a preferred leisure activity has spurred concern about their effect on adolescent behavior. After reviewing the available research, the author outlines prosocial applications of video games, considers future developments, and presents practical recommendations for players. PMID:10356235

Funk

1993-10-01

144

Inuit Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

145

French Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games to help you learn and practice beginning French numbers, verbs and the names of days and months! Try each game at least once. Good luck and have fun! Click here to practice your numbers --> French numbers Click here to work on your verbs and verb tenses --> French verbs: avoir et etre Click here to practice the days and months --> French days and months ...

V, Ms.

2009-02-10

146

Fun & Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

2007-01-01

147

Factor Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Factor Game engages students in a contest in which winning strategies involve distinguishing between numbers with many factors and numbers with few factors. Students are then guided through an analysis of game strategies and introduced to the definitions of prime and composite numbers.

Mathematics, National C.

2009-07-22

148

Gotcha Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Cyberchase activity, learners play a simple game using 15 paper dragons (or any 15 objects). One of the 15 dragons is red. Learners try to make their opponent take the red piece. Learners try to identify the number pattern in this game, so they can win every time.

Wnet

2011-01-01

149

Approximately Bisimilar Symbolic Models for Incrementally Stable Switched Systems  

E-print Network

@ing.univaq.it Abstract. Switched systems constitute an important modeling para- digm faithfully describing many the output voltage at a desired level. 1 Introduction Switched systems constitute an important modeling techniques developed in the areas of supervisory control of discrete- event systems [2] and algorithmic game

Pola, Giordano

150

Game Over?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

Harteveld, Casper

151

Acceleration switch  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-08-17

152

Magnetic switching  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Kirbie, H.C.

1989-04-14

153

Momentum switches  

E-print Network

Certain continuous-time quantum walks can be viewed as scattering processes. These processes can perform quantum computations, but it is challenging to design graphs with desired scattering behavior. In this paper, we study and construct momentum switches, graphs that route particles depending on their momenta. We also give an example where there is no exact momentum switch, although we construct an arbitrarily good approximation.

Andrew M. Childs; David Gosset; Daniel Nagaj; Mouktik Raha; Zak Webb

2014-06-17

154

Good Game/Bad Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the characteristics of "good" and "bad" games used in adventure- or experiential-education settings. Good games are simultaneously familiar and exotic; have minimal rules and no clothing requirements; have an achievable "flow state"; and are cooperative, challenging, and accepting of failure that advances the group's problem-solving…

Rohnke, Karl

1998-01-01

155

Persuasive design of a mobile energy conservation game with direct feedback and social cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive gaming has the potential of transforming the home into a persuasive environment in which the user can learn about appliances and their electricity consumption. Power Explorer is a mobile game with a special sensing approach that provides real-time electricity measurements and feedback when the user switches on and off devices in the home. The game was developed based on

Magnus Bang; Mattias Svahn; Anton Gustafsson

156

Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.  

PubMed

Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010

Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

2013-11-01

157

The Switch Task for Children: Measuring Mental Flexibility in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-related changes in mental flexibility, in the form of task switching, were assessed in 292 children (58-156 months old). Task switching was examined with a new task for young children, the Switch Task for Children (STC). The STC consists of two easy, comparable games and does not require reading skills, which makes it suitable for children…

Dibbets, Pauline; Jolles, Jellemer

2006-01-01

158

Game reductions and FAR for infinite games  

E-print Network

Game reductions and FAR for infinite games GAMES, Bordeaux 2004 Lukasz Kaiser Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen #12;Motivation I Parity games with finite number of colours are positionally determined Muller games with finite number of colours are not positionally determined Finitely

Kaiser, ÂŁukasz

159

Tangram Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners use seven different geometric shapes to make fun pictures. Learners use buttons to rotate, break apart, or put together pieces to create images including a rabbit, cat head, duck and more.

Wnet

2011-01-01

160

Night Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

Steinbach, Paul

2001-01-01

161

Natural games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

2011-10-01

162

Computer Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

1992-01-01

163

Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can you distinguish lion tracks from chimpanzee tracks? This online Flash version of the classic match game hones learners' thinking skills with diverse science topics like technology, biology, and astronomy. Learners can choose to match animals with their tracks, stars to their constellations, technological innovations to their year of invention or fruits to their trees. There are three levels of play (easy, medium, and hard). Each game includes informational background related to the topic.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

164

Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched,  

E-print Network

Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched, Packet switched Electronic vs. Optical) ·switched networks ? (Gigabit Ethernet) · optical core (WAN) · routed virtual topology (circuits/leased lines) ( )·dynamic provisioning (circuits ondemand) ·optical burst (packet/flow) switching (IP) Packet

Shihada, Basem

165

Stochastic Resonance  

E-print Network

Stochastic resonance (SR) - a counter-intuitive phenomenon in which the signal due to a weak periodic force in a nonlinear system can be {\\it enhanced} by the addition of external noise - is reviewed. A theoretical approach based on linear response theory (LRT) is described. It is pointed out that, although the LRT theory of SR is by definition restricted to the small signal limit, it possesses substantial advantages in terms of simplicity, generality and predictive power. The application of LRT to overdamped motion in a bistable potential, the most commonly studied form of SR, is outlined. Two new forms of SR, predicted on the basis of LRT and subsequently observed in analogue electronic experiments, are described.

M. I. Dykman; D. G. Luchinsky; R. Mannella; P. V. E. McClintock; S. M. Soskin; N. D. Stein; N. G. Stocks

1993-07-17

166

Optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01

167

Donor Tag Game  

MedlinePLUS

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Needles Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

168

Optional games on cycles and complete graphs.  

PubMed

We study stochastic evolution of optional games on simple graphs. There are two strategies, A and B, whose interaction is described by a general payoff matrix. In addition, there are one or several possibilities to opt out from the game by adopting loner strategies. Optional games lead to relaxed social dilemmas. Here we explore the interaction between spatial structure and optional games. We find that increasing the number of loner strategies (or equivalently increasing mutational bias toward loner strategies) facilitates evolution of cooperation both in well-mixed and in structured populations. We derive various limits for weak selection and large population size. For some cases we derive analytic results for strong selection. We also analyze strategy selection numerically for finite selection intensity and discuss combined effects of optionality and spatial structure. PMID:24780293

Jeong, Hyeong-Chai; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

2014-09-01

169

Game as life --- life as game  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Game As Life --- Life As Game (GALLAG), ubiquitous computing and personally-tailored game scenarios integrate activities across the virtual and physical domains to further extend emerging avant-garde \\

Winslow Burleson; Collin Ruffenach; Camilla Nřrgaard Jensen; Uday Kumar Bandaru; Kasia Muldner

2009-01-01

170

Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)

Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman

1976-01-01

171

Steady-state simulation of metastable stochastic chemical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of steady-state simulation for metastable continuous-time Markov chains with application to stochastic chemical kinetics. Such systems are characterized by the existence of two or more pseudo-equilibrium states and very slow convergence towards global equilibrium. Approximation of the stationary distribution of these systems by direct application of the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) is known to be very inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new method for steady-state simulation of metastable Markov chains that is centered around the concept of stochastic complementation. The use of this mathematical device along with SSA results in an algorithm with much better convergence properties, that facilitates the analysis of rarely switching stochastic biochemical systems. The efficiency of our method is demonstrated by its application to two genetic toggle switch models.

Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Lygeros, John

2013-05-01

172

Steady-state simulation of metastable stochastic chemical systems.  

PubMed

We address the problem of steady-state simulation for metastable continuous-time Markov chains with application to stochastic chemical kinetics. Such systems are characterized by the existence of two or more pseudo-equilibrium states and very slow convergence towards global equilibrium. Approximation of the stationary distribution of these systems by direct application of the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) is known to be very inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new method for steady-state simulation of metastable Markov chains that is centered around the concept of stochastic complementation. The use of this mathematical device along with SSA results in an algorithm with much better convergence properties, that facilitates the analysis of rarely switching stochastic biochemical systems. The efficiency of our method is demonstrated by its application to two genetic toggle switch models. PMID:23676031

Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Lygeros, John

2013-05-14

173

Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

Palmer, R.B.

1988-01-01

174

Switching Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

1981-01-01

175

Computer Games and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

2011-01-01

176

[Biofeedback computer games].  

PubMed

Biofeedback systems for game training are reviewed. The origins, evolution, main principles, and specific features of biofeedback game training are considered. A line of novel biofeedback game systems is described. These game systems can be classified as game screens included into an integrated treating system or as individual computer games based on biological feedback. PMID:17882776

Dzhafarov, O A; Donskaia, O G; Zubkov, A A

2007-01-01

177

Common and unique network dynamics in football games.  

PubMed

The sport of football is played between two teams of eleven players each using a spherical ball. Each team strives to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal as the result of skillful interactions among players. Football can be regarded from the network perspective as a competitive relationship between two cooperative networks with a dynamic network topology and dynamic network node. Many complex large-scale networks have been shown to have topological properties in common, based on a small-world network and scale-free network models. However, the human dynamic movement pattern of this network has never been investigated in a real-world setting. Here, we show that the power law in degree distribution emerged in the passing behavior in the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final and an international "A" match in Japan, by describing players as vertices connected by links representing passes. The exponent values ? ~ 3.1 are similar to the typical values that occur in many real-world networks, which are in the range of 2stochastically switched dynamics of the hub player throughout the game as a unique feature in football games. It suggests that this feature could result not only in securing vulnerability against intentional attack, but also in a power law for self-organization. Our results suggest common and unique network dynamics of two competitive networks, compared with the large-scale networks that have previously been investigated in numerous works. Our findings may lead to improved resilience and survivability not only in biological networks, but also in communication networks. PMID:22216336

Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko

2011-01-01

178

Natural games  

E-print Network

Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, when no moves are found to consume more free energy, the extensive-form game has arrived at a solution concept that satisfies the minimax theorem. The equilibrium is Lyapunov-stable against variation in behavior within strategies but will be perturbed by a new strategy that will draw even more surrounding resources to the game. Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making.

Jani Anttila; Arto Annila

2011-03-05

179

Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Christine Chung1  

E-print Network

Stochastic Stability in Internet Router Congestion Games Christine Chung1 and Evangelia Pyrga2 1¨ur Informatik, Saarbr¨ucken, Germany, pyrga@mpi-inf.mpg.de Abstract. Congestion control at bottleneck routers- ets from the queues of these routers so that network endpoints will be inclined to share router

Chung, Christine

180

Fraction Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game provides an opportunity for students to think about how fractions are related to a unit whole, compare fractional parts of a whole, and find equivalent fractions. Players move markers a total distance that is less than or equal to the random target fraction, along their choice of seven parallel number line tracks, which are divided into different fractional parts. The goal is to move each of the seven markers to the right side of the game board using as few fraction target cards as possible. Instructions and exploration questions are included.

2011-01-01

181

Marble Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct a simple game to test their hand-eye coordination and steadiness of hand. Learners draw face in a small piece of wood, drill indentations in the eyes and nose, and glue a clear cup over the face, with 3 marbles inside. Learners attach two craft sticks to create a handle and add decorations. To play, they slowly move the game board around until all marbles land in a hole. This toy can also be used to demonstrate how objects in nature tend to seek the position of lowest energy.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

182

Mating Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game (on pages 14-21), learners explore how each human being inherits genetic traits such as eye color. Learners use "Smiley Mother's Genes" cards and "Smiley Father's Genes" cards to "mate" them into a Smiley Face Baby that the learner draws. The Mating Game Results page shows how the pairs translate into features such as face, eye, and mouth shape, skin color, hair type, and sex. The Thinking It Over section asks questions about how learners would feel if their baby had "Upsidedown Smile Syndrome," which can open up a discussion about genetic engineering.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2002-01-01

183

Stochastic volatility models with persistent latent factors: theory and its applications to asset prices  

E-print Network

, the stochastic volatility is assumed to be generated by a logistic transformation of an AR latent factor. The logistic function has several desirable properties to be used in the volatility model. In particular, it may be inter- preted as representing... switching model, which presumes an exogenous and abrupt change in switching regimes. I believe that smooth transition is much more realistic than discontinuous jump in modelling volatility with regime shifting. Our stochastic volatility model with logistic...

Lee, Hyoung Il

2008-10-10

184

Dominated choices in a simple game with large stakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines data from the Norwegian television game show Joker, where contestants make well-specified choices under risk. The game involves very large stakes, randomly drawn contestants,\\u000a and ample opportunities for learning. Central models of risk choice, including expected utility theory, give a simple prediction\\u000a of choice under weak conditions, as one decision is always first-order stochastically dominating. We document

Egil Matsen; Bjarne Strřm

2010-01-01

185

Joker: Choice in a simple game with large stakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines data from the Norwegian television game show Joker, where contestants make well-speci…ed choices under risk. The game involves very large stakes, randomly drawn contestants, and ample opportunities for learning. Expected utility (EU) theory gives a simple prediction of choice under weak conditions, as one choice is always …rst-order stochastically dominating. We document frequent, systematic and costly violations

Egil Matsen; Bjarne Strřmy

2007-01-01

186

Stochastic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are taught by conventional wisdom that the transmission and detection of signals is hindered by noise. However, during the last two decades, the paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR) proved this assertion wrong: indeed, addition of the appropriate amount of noise can boost a signal and hence facilitate its detection in a noisy environment. Due to its simplicity and robustness, SR has been implemented by mother nature on almost every scale, thus attracting interdisciplinary interest from physicists, geologists, engineers, biologists and medical doctors, who nowadays use it as an instrument for their specific purposes. At the present time, there exist a lot of diversified models of SR. Taking into account the progress achieved in both theoretical understanding and practical application of this phenomenon, we put the focus of the present review not on discussing in depth technical details of different models and approaches but rather on presenting a general and clear physical picture of SR on a pedagogical level. Particular emphasis will be given to the implementation of SR in generic quantum systems—an issue that has received limited attention in earlier review papers on the topic. The major part of our presentation relies on the two-state model of SR (or on simple variants thereof), which is general enough to exhibit the main features of SR and, in fact, covers many (if not most) of the examples of SR published so far. In order to highlight the diversity of the two-state model, we shall discuss several examples from such different fields as condensed matter, nonlinear and quantum optics and biophysics. Finally, we also discuss some situations that go beyond the generic SR scenario but are still characterized by a constructive role of noise.

Wellens, Thomas; Shatokhin, Vyacheslav; Buchleitner, Andreas

2004-01-01

187

Reset Switching Probability of Resistive Switching Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reset switching probability of resistive switching devices is characterized in array testing. The measured switching probability can be quantitatively explained based on the mecha- nism of a thermally activated reset process. An analytical model of switching probability is developed to describe the dependence of reset probability on operation parameters, including applied voltage, selection transistor gate voltage, and pulsewidth. The

An Chen; Ming-Ren Lin

2011-01-01

188

Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with  

E-print Network

Stochastic Models of Energy Commodity Prices and Their Applications: Mean-reversion with Jumps usion models to describe energy commodity spot prices. We incorporate multiple jumps, regime-switching and stochastic volatility in these models. Prices of various energy commodity derivatives are obtained under each

189

Pattern Games!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Test your pattern making skills by trying your best at these games! How Does My Pattern Grow? Click continue on the main screen. For each new page you will be trying to figure out what the next pattern will look like. Drag the shapes at the bottom to the correct place on the ...

Ivy, Miss

2012-02-15

190

Density games?  

PubMed Central

The basic idea of evolutionary game theory is that payoff determines reproductive rate. Successful individuals have a higher payoff and produce more offspring. But in evolutionary and ecological situations there is not only reproductive rate but also carrying capacity. Individuals may differ in their exposure to density limiting effects. Here we explore an alternative approach to evolutionary game theory by assuming that the payoff from the game determines the carrying capacity of individual phenotypes. Successful strategies are less affected by density limitation (crowding) and reach higher equilibrium abundance. We demonstrate similarities and differences between our framework and the standard replicator equation. Our equation is defined on the positive orthant, instead of the simplex, but has the same equilibrium points as the replicator equation. Linear stability analysis produces the classical conditions for asymptotic stability of pure strategies, but the stability properties of internal equilibria can differ in the two frameworks. For example, in a two-strategy game with an internal equilibrium that is always stable under the replicator equation, the corresponding equilibrium can be unstable in the new framework resulting in a limit cycle. PMID:23770399

Novak, Sebastian; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A.

2013-01-01

191

Grammar Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.

Brown, Kim

2004-01-01

192

Games & Icebreakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

193

Alphabet Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with the alphabet! Watch the video How the Alphabet Got It s Order Practice matching letters with Paint by Letter. Pick the object that starts with the letter with theABC Game-Pick the letter. Order the alphabet with Alphabet Order Whac-A-Mole! Help Dog spell words with Dog s Letter Pit ...

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-02-23

194

Minority Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour

R Metzler

2005-01-01

195

Shell Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

Atkinson, Bill

1982-01-01

196

Got Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

Lum, Lydia

2007-01-01

197

Math Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

Lorenzi, Natalie

2012-01-01

198

Evil games.  

PubMed

A defining characteristic of humans is our capacity to create a better world through mutual action. Traditional ethics attempts to define and impose the one or several things we should all want. The alternative argued here is that we can retain our individual definitions of what matters and still work together for mutual improvement. Agreeing on common ethical principles is not a precondition for an effective moral life. This approach to morality is based on game theory, which holds that in purposely social interactions: (a) there are basic understandings, (b) individuals pursue their own interests, (c) we can judge others' interests, and (d) the distribution of benefits and burdens depends on the joint action of individuals, not on the action of individuals in isolation. In this view, immorality becomes a matter of cheating in the game of life. The three primary forms of cheating are deception (misleading others into thinking they are playing a game other than the one that is to their advantage to play), coercion (blocking courses of action others would normally be entitled to), and reneging (playing the game and then dodging the payoff if one does not like the outcome). These three evils are illustrated by Shakespeare's plays Othello, Richard III, and Antony and Cleopatra. PMID:20481069

Chambers, David W

2010-01-01

199

Integrated photonic switches for nanosecond packet-switched  

E-print Network

-speed waveguide switches for optical packet-switched routers and networks," OFC, paper MF53, Los Angeles, CAIntegrated photonic switches for nanosecond packet-switched optical wavelength conversion Onur controlled packet switching with a reconfiguration time of packet switching

Demir, Hilmi Volkan

200

Stochastic Optimization Modeling  

E-print Network

study, the expected profit of the stochastic approach has been favorably compared with the ex- ..... An experimental case is analyzed for showing the improvement that the ..... Competitive advertising under uncertainty: A stochastic differential.

2014-07-04

201

Teaching Using Computer Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

2011-01-01

202

Video games in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Computer and video games are a maturing medium,and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences,of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of

Kurt Squire

2003-01-01

203

Stochastic amplification in epidemics  

E-print Network

REPORT Stochastic amplification in epidemics David Alonso1, *, Alan J. McKane2 and Mercedes Pascual, we present a stochastic theory for the major dynamical transitions in epidemics from regular in nonlinear ecological systems in general. Keywords: epidemics; oscillations; stochastic modelling; childhood

McKane, Alan

204

Mechanical Stochastic Resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise and nonlinearity can produce a stochastic resonance that maximizes a system's output signal-to-noise ratio. Stochastic resonance has been observed in electronic, chemical, optical, magnetic, and biological systems. Here, we report stochastic resonance in a simple mechanical system consisting of a bistable pendulum driven by a harmonic oscillator and the broad-band noise of a flapping flag.

Wainwright, Elliot; Lindner, John

2013-03-01

205

Ender's game redux [computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author explains the context of his brother's e-mail, who is a US Army surgeon in Iraq. The e-mail concisely summarizes the convergence of entertainment technology and military training. He also describes the influence of game technology in his training.

2005-01-01

206

Video game use and cognitive performance: does it vary with the presence of problematic video game use?  

PubMed

Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600

Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan

2014-03-01

207

A Sudoku Game for People with Motor Impairments  

E-print Network

The value of computer games as a vehicle for changing conditions life in our society. Computer games are motivator and benefits to learn different educational skills. Most people use their fingers, hands, and arms when using a computer game, however for people with motor disabilities this task can be a barrier. We present a new Sudoku game for people whose motion is impaired, called Sudoku 4ALL. With this special interface a person can control the game with the voice or with a single switch. Our research aims to cautiously search for issues that might be appropriate for computational support and to build enabling technologies that increase individuals' functional independence in a game environment.

Lobo, Stephane Norte Fernando G

2007-01-01

208

Usability and game design : improving the MITAR Game Editor  

E-print Network

Creating MIT Augmented Realty (MITAR) games can be a daunting task. MITAR game designers require a usable game editor to simplify this process. The MITAR Game Editor was the first editor to provide game designers with the ...

Falconi, Robert F

2010-01-01

209

Packet switching. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

This report assembles information on the theories of store-and-forward packet switching, and surveys existing operational packet-switching networks. It includes a comparison of the types of packet switching; packet-switching techniques; procedures for controlling errors, flow, and congestion; and protocol layers used in packet-switching networks. 132 references, 25 figures, 2 tables.

Derr, K.W.

1980-03-01

210

Tax Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between a set of taxes and income distribution is an important, but difficult, concept taught in economics principles courses. The Tax Game simulation requires a student to set tax rates for an income tax, a property tax, a wealth tax, a payroll tax, a corporate income tax, a sales tax,and an excise tax. The student can choose any rates he or she wishes, but must achieve a given revenue target.

Blecha, Betty J.

211

Stop Playing Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how training games have changed and become more prevalent. Looks at characteristics of games and suggests how they should and should not be used in training. Describes 26 types of games and the use of icebreakers. (JOW)

Salopek, Jennifer J.

1999-01-01

212

Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.  

PubMed

Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions. PMID:19141423

Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

2009-04-01

213

Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

2009-10-01

214

Probabilistic Bidirectional Promoter Switches: Noncoding RNA Takes Control  

PubMed Central

The discovery of probabilistic promoter switches in genes that code for class I major histocompatibility complex receptors in mouse and human provides a useful paradigm to explain programmed cell fate decisions. These switches have preset probabilities of transcribing in either the sense or antisense direction, and the characteristics of individual switches are programmed by the relative affinity of competing transcription factor–binding sites. The noncoding RNAs produced from these switches can either activate or suppress gene transcription, based on their location relative to the promoter responsible for gene expression in mature cells. The switches are active in a developmental phase that precedes gene expression by mature cells, thus temporally separating the stochastic events that determine gene activation from the protein expression phase. This allows the probabilistic generation of variegated gene expression in the absence of selection and ensures that mature cells have stable expression of the genes. Programmed probabilistic switches may control cell fate decisions in many developmental systems, and therefore, it is important to investigate noncoding RNAs expressed by progenitor cells to determine if they are expressed in a stochastic manner at the single cell level. This review provides a summary of current knowledge regarding murine and human switches, followed by speculation on the possible involvement of probabilistic switches in other systems of programmed differentiation. PMID:25181276

Anderson, Stephen K

2014-01-01

215

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

216

Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.

1969-01-01

217

Serious Games – An Overview  

E-print Network

This report discusses some issues concerning serious games, that is, (digital) games used for purposes other than mere entertainment. The starting point is the serious games concept itself, and what the actually means. Further, serious games allow learners to experience situations that are impossible in the real world for reasons of safety, cost, time, etc., but they are also claimed to have positive impacts on the players ’ development of a number of different skills. Subsequently, some possible positive (and negative) impacts of serious games are discussed. Further, some of the markets such games are used in are considered here, including, military games, government games, educational games, corporate games, and healthcare games. This report also identifies some (mainly

Tarja Susi; Mikael Johannesson

218

Stochastic counterfactuals and stochastic sufficient causes  

PubMed Central

Most work in causal inference concerns deterministic counterfactuals; the literature on stochastic counterfactuals is small. In the stochastic counterfactual setting, the outcome for each individual under each possible set of exposures follows a probability distribution so that for any given exposure combination, outcomes vary not only between individuals but also probabilistically for each particular individual. The deterministic sufficient cause framework supplements the deterministic counterfactual framework by allowing for the representation of counterfactual outcomes in terms of sufficient causes or causal mechanisms. In the deterministic sufficient cause framework it is possible to test for the joint presence of two causes in the same causal mechanism, referred to as a sufficient cause interaction. In this paper, these ideas are extended to the setting of stochastic counterfactuals and stochastic sufficient causes. Formal definitions are given for a stochastic sufficient cause framework. It is shown that the empirical conditions that suffice to conclude the presence of a sufficient cause interaction in the deterministic sufficient cause framework suffice also to conclude the presence of a sufficient cause interaction in the stochastic sufficient cause framework. Two examples from the genetics literature, in which there is evidence that sufficient cause interactions are present, are discussed in light of the results in this paper.

VANDERWEELE, TYLER J.; ROBINS, JAMES M.

2014-01-01

219

Game Theoretic Methods for Action Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many popular computer games feature conflict between a human-controlled player character and mul- tiple computer-controlled opponents. Computer games often overlook the fact that the cooperation between the computer controlled opponents needs not to be perfect: in fact, they seem more realistic if each of them pursues its own goals and the possible cooperation only emerges from this fact. Game theory

Ismo Puustinen; Tomi A. Pasanen

220

Dilemma games: game parameters and matching protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of changes in pecuniary payoffs and the linkages between players in the game environment on strategy choice in repeated PD games. Rates of cooperation are found to be correlated with variations in game parameters related to concepts of Fear, Greed, and Cooperators’ Gain. In addition, rates of cooperation are affected by the information that subjects

David Schmidt; Robert Shupp; James Walker; T. K. Ahn; Elinor Ostrom

2001-01-01

221

3 Introduction to Noncooperative Game Theory: Games in Normal Form  

E-print Network

3 Introduction to Noncooperative Game Theory: Games in Normal Form Game theory is the mathematical the dominant branch of game theory, called noncooperative game theory, and specifi- cally on normal-form games, a canonical representation in this discipline. As an aside, the name "noncooperative game theory" could

Chen, Yiling

222

Fast and accurate clock recovery in packet switched networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time periodic transmission across packet switched networks requires clock recovery at the destination. The stochastic nature of packet traffic makes clock recovery difficult. A new packet network clock recovery algorithm is proposed for fast and accurate synchronization. The algorithm has the ability to filter out buffer level fluctuations efficiently and remove the negative contribution of delay jitter in clock recovery.

G. Shen; M. H. M. Nizam; E. Liu; L. Gui; X. Xu

2004-01-01

223

Games for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

Gee, James Paul

2013-01-01

224

Video game violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of video games, especially violent video games, has reached phenomenal proportions. The theoretical line of reasoning that hypothesizes a causal relationship between violent video-game play and aggression draws on the very large literature on media violence effects. Additionally, there are theoretical reasons to believe that video game effects should be stronger than movie or television violence effects. This

Karen E. Dill; Jody C. Dill

1998-01-01

225

Computer Games With Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is playing an increasingly important role in the success or failure of computer games and the quality and complexity of the AI techniques employed in games is steadily increasing. The paper explores the use of AI in games focusing on difficulties faced by game developers and techniques that have proven useful. Particular attention is given to a

Daniel Johnson; Janet Wiles

2001-01-01

226

Learning with Calculator Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

Frahm, Bruce

2013-01-01

227

Making educational computer games \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational computer games provide an appealing context for engaging children in activities that deliver substantive educational content and customized feedback. However, creators of such games can only take full advantage of the power of the medium if the educational content is integrated effectively into the structure of the game. Drawing upon experiences in the creation of numerous real-life games and

Shalom M. Fisch

2005-01-01

228

FlowGames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer vision-based interfaces to games hold the promise of rich natural interaction and thus a more realistic gaming experience. Therefore, the video games industry started to develop and market computer vision-based games recently with great success. Due to limited computational resources, they employ mostly simple algorithms such as background subtraction, instead of sophisticated motion estimation or gesture recognition methods. This

Jakob Santner; Manuel Werlberger; Thomas Mauthner; Wolfgang Paier; Horst Bischof

2010-01-01

229

Game Board Artists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)

Szekely, George

2000-01-01

230

Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games  

E-print Network

A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a finite quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (3) For any finite quantum sequential game G, there exists a finite quantum simultaneous game equivalent to G.

Naoki Kobayashi

2007-11-05

231

Discrete bidding games  

E-print Network

We study variations on combinatorial games in which, instead of alternating moves, the players bid with discrete bidding chips for the right to determine who moves next. We consider both symmetric and partisan games, and explore differences between discrete bidding games and Richman games, which allow real-valued bidding. Unlike Richman games, discrete bidding game variations of many familiar games, such as chess, Connect Four, and even Tic-Tac-Toe, are suitable for recreational play. We also present an analysis of Tic-Tac-Toe for both discrete and real-valued bidding.

Develin, Mike

2008-01-01

232

Stochastic model of coliphage lambda regulatory network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic properties of the regulatory network governing the choice between lytic and lysogenic growths of coliphage lambda is studied using a Markov chain stochastic model. Our computer simulation confirms the finding by Li [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 4781 (2004)] on the dynamics of budding yeast: that the biological stationary states are global attractors; the biological pathways of lytic and lysogenic growths are attracting trajectories; and the network functions are robustly designed against structural perturbations. In addition, our model shows the stochastic switch from lysogen to lytic growth, which has been observed in experiments. A definition of pseudoenergy is introduced in the network dynamics to reveal a transitionlike behavior in the system.

Wang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yuping; Ouyang, Qi

2006-04-01

233

Game Development: Graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Casual games were once the domain of Flash and the Web. Today, casual gaming is making big waves in the mobile space. While\\u000a there have been mobile gaming devices for some time, the advent of smartphones that are capable of playing games has in effect\\u000a put a gaming device in the pockets of millions of people who would never buy

Lucas Jordan; Pieter Greyling

234

Switching behaviour of two-phenotype bacteria in varying environment  

E-print Network

Switching behaviour of two-phenotype bacteria in varying environment G Friedman1, P Gurevich2, S McCarthy3 and D Rachinskii3 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Drexel University conditions and that an environmental memory can grant fitness to bacteria in the evolutionary game

Fiedler, Bernold

235

Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics  

E-print Network

Strategic Behavior in Spot Markets for Electricity when Load is Stochastic T.D. Mount Department in the PJM wholesale market are used to estimate a stochastic regime switching model. These data show that the average price in 1999, when market-based offers were allowed, was twice as high as it was in the previous

236

Stochastic Processes for Physicists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A review of probability theory; 2. Differential equations; 3. Stochastic equations with Gaussian noise; 4. Further properties of stochastic processes; 5. Some applications of Gaussian noise; 6. Numerical methods for Gaussian noise; 7. Fokker-Planck equations and reaction-diffusion systems; 8. Jump processes; 9. Levy processes; 10. Modern probability theory; Appendix; References; Index.

Jacobs, Kurt

2010-02-01

237

Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.

GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.

2000-04-13

238

Stick or switch : data analysis and probability (grades 6-8)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can play an interactive version of the game Let's Make a Deal. Players are given a choice of three doors--one of which hides a good prize, while the other two hide loser prizes. They select, but do not see, one door. Host Monty Hall reveals a prize behind one of the remaining doors. Players can either stick with the originally selected door and prize or switch to the other door. The cumulative percentages generated by sticking or switching after playing multiple games is displayed. One button labeled Strategy leads to questions that discuss the probability of winning with each strategy. A Multiple Game option generates outcome data based on playing a large number of games. Instructions for using the game and a link to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standard for data analysis and probability are included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Mathematics, Utah S.

2003-01-01

239

Distributed Gaming usingDistributed Gaming using Student: Padmini Paladugu  

E-print Network

Player 1 (Palm Device) Game Player 2 (Palm Device) Game Server Oracle 9i Database XML XML con duit conDistributed Gaming usingDistributed Gaming using XMLXML Student: Padmini Paladugu Advisor: Dr distributed games on PDAs ­ communication between game players ­ maintaining consistent state between players

Pollett, Chris

240

Teaching game development using microsoft XNA game studio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics games, including video games and computer games, are an important part of American culture and entertainment. According to the Entertainment Software Association (ESA) [1], about 65 percent of American families play video or computer games. With the introduction of new generation game consoles, including Microsoft Xbox 360, Nintendo Wii, and Sony PlayStation 3, the game player population is growing

Yuzhong Shen

2009-01-01

241

To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning  

E-print Network

To game or not to game: teaching transportation planning with board games Arthur Huang and David Levinson Department of Civil Engineering University of Minnesota 1/23/2012 #12;#12;Why board games? Board games Transport networks Nexus between transport & land use Game economy Competition vs monopoly CE 5212

Levinson, David M.

242

Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.

Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL] [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

243

Diversity and critical behavior in prisoner's dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game is a simple model for understanding cooperative patterns in complex systems. Here, we study a PD game problem in scale-free networks containing hierarchically organized modules and controllable shortcuts connecting separated hubs. We find that cooperator clusters exhibit a percolation transition in the parameter space (p,b), where p is the occupation probability of shortcuts and b is the temptation payoff in the PD game. The cluster size distribution follows a power law at the transition point. Such a critical behavior, resulting from the combined effect of stochastic processes in the PD game and the heterogeneity of complex network structure, illustrates diversities arising in social relationships and in forming cooperator groups in real-world systems.

Yun, C. K.; Masuda, N.; Kahng, B.

2011-05-01

244

Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games  

E-print Network

Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox in cooperative quantum games and some interesting phenomena can be observed.

?ukasz Pawela; Jan S?adkowski

2012-07-30

245

Quantum Matching Pennies Game  

E-print Network

A quantum version of the Matching Pennies (MP) game is proposed that is played using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPR-Bohm) setting. We construct the quantum game without using the state vectors, while considering only the quantum mechanical joint probabilities relevant to the EPR-Bohm setting. We embed the classical game within the quantum game such that the classical MP game results when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities become factorizable. We report new Nash equilibria in the quantum MP game that emerge when the quantum mechanical joint probabilities maximally violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality.

Azhar Iqbal; Derek Abbott

2008-07-23

246

Economic and Game Theory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David Levine, Professor of Economics at the University of California, Los Angeles has created a web site devoted to game theory. This site contains many useful resources on game theory including an introductory essay and a suggested reading list. There is also a collection of working papers by David Levine and coauthors on economic theory, mathematical economics and game theory. A highlight of the site is the availability of a 348 page book by Drew Fudenberg and David K. Levine, Theory of Learning in Games, in Acrobat format. The site also contains an on-line zero-sum game solver, an on-line forecaster and cooperative learning games (Java based).

Levine, David K.

1997-01-01

247

Latching micro optical switch  

DOEpatents

An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

2013-05-21

248

Use of Business Simulations and Games in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulation and business games can meet the need to teach decision making in that they offer a dynamic context in which the results of a decision has to be lived with. This view was reached after a switch from business to higher education prompted a search for teaching methods more suitable and effective for business education than the lecture…

Lloyd, John W.

249

Real-Time Strategy Game Training: Emergence of a Cognitive Flexibility Trait  

PubMed Central

Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

Glass, Brian D.; Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.

2013-01-01

250

Real-time strategy game training: emergence of a cognitive flexibility trait.  

PubMed

Training in action video games can increase the speed of perceptual processing. However, it is unknown whether video-game training can lead to broad-based changes in higher-level competencies such as cognitive flexibility, a core and neurally distributed component of cognition. To determine whether video gaming can enhance cognitive flexibility and, if so, why these changes occur, the current study compares two versions of a real-time strategy (RTS) game. Using a meta-analytic Bayes factor approach, we found that the gaming condition that emphasized maintenance and rapid switching between multiple information and action sources led to a large increase in cognitive flexibility as measured by a wide array of non-video gaming tasks. Theoretically, the results suggest that the distributed brain networks supporting cognitive flexibility can be tuned by engrossing video game experience that stresses maintenance and rapid manipulation of multiple information sources. Practically, these results suggest avenues for increasing cognitive function. PMID:23950921

Glass, Brian D; Maddox, W Todd; Love, Bradley C

2013-01-01

251

Theoretic design of differential minimax controllers for stochastic cellular neural networks.  

PubMed

This paper presents a theoretical design of how a minimax equilibrium of differential game is achieved in stochastic cellular neural networks. In order to realize the equilibrium, two opposing players are selected for the model of stochastic cellular neural networks. One is the vector of external inputs and the other is the vector of internal noises. The design procedure follows the nonlinear H infinity optimal control methodology to accomplish the best rational stabilization in probability for stochastic cellular neural networks, and to attenuate noises to a predefined level with stability margins. Three numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:22000751

Liu, Ziqian; Schurz, Henri; Ansari, Nirwan; Wang, Qunjing

2012-02-01

252

The Easiest Lights Out Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

Torrence, Bruce

2011-01-01

253

Game AI Research Michael Buro  

E-print Network

Game AI Research Michael Buro GAMES Group University of Alberta Game-playing, Analytical methods Checkers 15-Puzzle Heuristic search Combinatorial game theory Opponent Modeling Acting under uncertainty Endgame/pattern databases Evaluation function learning Multiplayer games ... Video Games RTS (Star

Buro, Michael

254

Personality, motivation and video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored relationships between personality, video game preference and gaming experiences. Two hundred and thirty-five participants completed an online survey in which they recalled a recent gaming experience, and provided measures of personality and their gaming experience via the Player Experience of Need Satisfaction (PENS) measure. Relationships between game genre, personality and gaming experience were found. Results are interpreted

Daniel Johnson; John A. Gardner

2010-01-01

255

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part III. Two-Person General-Sum Games 1. Bimatrix Games -- Safety Levels. 1.1 General-Sum Strategic Form Games. 1.2 General-Sum Extensive Form Games. 1.3 Reducing Extensive Form to Strategic Form. 1.4 Overview. 1.5 Safety Levels. 1.6 Exercises. 2. Noncooperative Games. 2

Ferguson, Thomas S.

256

Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals face decision tasks in an uncertain multi-agent environment where an agent's strategy may change in time due to the co-adaptation of others strategies. The neuronal substrate and the computational algorithms underlying such adaptive decision making, however, is largely unknown. We propose a population coding model of spiking neurons with a policy gradient procedure that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population reinforcement learning reproduces data from human behavioral experiments for the blackjack and the inspector game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium, respectively. In contrast, temporal-difference(TD)-learning, covariance-learning, and basic reinforcement learning fail to perform optimally for the stochastic strategy. Spike-based population reinforcement learning, shown to follow the stochastic reward gradient, is therefore a viable candidate to explain automated decision learning of a Nash equilibrium in two-player games. PMID:23028289

Friedrich, Johannes; Senn, Walter

2012-01-01

257

Quantum Stochastic Generators  

E-print Network

We discuss stochastic derivations, stochastic Hamiltonians and the flows that they generate, algebraic fluctuaion-dissipation theorems, etc., in a language common to both classical and quantum algebras. It is convenient to define distinct notions of time-ordered exponentials to take account of the breakdown of the Leibniz rule in the Ito calculus. We introduce a notion of quantum Stratonovich calculus and show how it relates to Stratonovich-Dyson time ordered exponentials. We then use it to demonstrate a natural way to add stochastic derivations.

John Gough

2003-09-12

258

Can Nintendo get its crown back? : examining the dynamics of the U.S. video game console market  

E-print Network

Several generations of video game consoles have competed in the market since 1972. Overall, the entire market shares many similar characteristics, such as network effects and switching cost, which are found in other ...

Chow, Samuel W

2007-01-01

259

Intrinsic Noise in Game Dynamical Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demographic noise has profound effects on evolutionary and population dynamics, as well as on chemical reaction systems and models of epidemiology. Such noise is intrinsic and due to the discreteness of the dynamics in finite populations. We here show that similar noise-sustained trajectories arise in game dynamical learning, where the stochasticity has a different origin: agents sample a finite number of moves of their opponents in between adaptation events. The limit of infinite batches results in deterministic modified replicator equations, whereas finite sampling leads to a stochastic dynamics. The characteristics of these fluctuations can be computed analytically using methods from statistical physics, and such noise can affect the attractors significantly, leading to noise-sustained cycling or removing periodic orbits of the standard replicator dynamics.

Galla, Tobias

2009-11-01

260

Game-Based Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the pedagogy of teaching with games. Game-based learning uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate and engage them in learning.

Teed, Rebecca

261

Games, puzzles, and computation  

E-print Network

There is a fundamental connection between the notions of game and of computation. At its most basic level, this is implied by any game complexity result, but the connection is deeper than this. One example is the concept ...

Hearn, Robert A. (Robert Aubrey), 1965-

2006-01-01

262

Braille Bug: Games  

MedlinePLUS

... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...

263

Quantum signaling game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantum approach to a signaling game; a special kind of extensive game of incomplete information. Our model is based on quantum schemes for games in strategic form where players perform unitary operators on their own qubits of some fixed initial state and the payoff function is given by a measurement on the resulting final state. We show that the quantum game induced by our scheme coincides with a signaling game as a special case and outputs nonclassical results in general. As an example, we consider a quantum extension of the signaling game in which the chance move is a three-parameter unitary operator whereas the players' actions are equivalent to classical ones. In this case, we study the game in terms of Nash equilibria and refine the pure Nash equilibria adapting to the quantum game the notion of a weak perfect Bayesian equilibrium.

Frackiewicz, Piotr

2014-08-01

264

Nobel Prize Educational Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On this site from the Nobel Foundation you can play educational games and explore information about the Nobel Prize. The games cover a variety of science and health topics including the immune system, diabetes, DNA and laser technology.

2010-10-28

265

Sheppard Software: Learning Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of games, puzzles, and quizzes helps students learn world and U.S. geography, vocabulary, and trivia. There are also games for chemistry and math, and quizzes on animals, health, astronomy, and puzzles on endangered animals.

266

Mang Kung Dice Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Mang Kung Dice Game, popular in China, which uses six special dice. Discusses the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Poses questions about the game to help students understand statistical concepts. (MKR)

Chan, Wai-Sum

1996-01-01

267

MATEC Animations: Questor Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features a number of interactive educational games from MATEC. Games are available on the topics of semiconductor physics, implant process, implant equipment, oxidation process, photolithography, etch troubleshooting, deposition process and more.

2010-11-12

268

The Game of Fif  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java game, played against the computer, develops strategic thinking while providing addition practice with with single-digit whole numbers. Players take turns selecting numbers from 1 through 9, trying to be the first to have exactly three numbers that sum to 15. The author provides some background and theory on the game as well as links to other interactive strategy games. An article with more information and adaptations, What is the Name of This Game?, is cataloged separately.

2012-01-01

269

Evaluating Exertion Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Games that demand exertion of the players through bodily movements are experiencing increasing commercial success and have\\u000a been attributed with many physical, mental and social benefits, thus changing the way we play computer games. However, there\\u000a is a lack of understanding of how to evaluate such exertion games, mainly because the games’ facilitated bodily movements\\u000a are believed to be responsible

Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller; Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze

270

Optically Controlled 22 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks  

E-print Network

Optically Controlled 2Ă?2 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks C. C. Lee1 , L. F. K. Lui1-optical switches for all-optical packet-switched networks. All-optical packet-switching is performed based-optical packet add-drop for an all-optical packet-switched network [3]. In this paper, we demonstrated a 10 Gb

Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

271

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

272

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, C.W.

1988-02-23

273

Apollo Ring Optical Switch  

SciTech Connect

An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

Maestas, J.H.

1987-03-01

274

Game Theory Wireless Networking  

E-print Network

over the action set Ai (pure strategies) enlarges the space of strategies Existence of NE (John Nash-Channel Game Theory Nash Equilibrium Mixed Strategies Example ­ A Channel-Access Game Game vs. Socially Optimal - economics and political science J. Von Neumann and O. Morgenstern J. Nash (1950 work, 1994 Nobel) R. Aumann

Blum, Howard S.

275

Evolutionary Game Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This text introduces current evolutionary game theory--where ideas from evolutionary biology and rationalistic economics meet--emphasizing the links between static and dynamic approaches and noncooperative game theory. The author provides an overview of the developments that have taken place in this branch of game theory, discusses the mathematical tools needed to understand the area, describes both the motivation and intuition for

Jorgen W. Weibull

1999-01-01

276

Cores of convex games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core of ann-person game is the set of feasible outcomes that cannot be improved upon by any coalition of players. A convex game is defined as one that is based on a convex set function. In this paper it is shown that the core of a convex game is not empty and that it has an especially regular structure.

Lloyd S. Shapley

1971-01-01

277

First Video Game  

SciTech Connect

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2008-10-21

278

Online Strategy Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

Dye, Bryan

2002-01-01

279

Prototyping mobile game applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mobile game devices today include novel features, such as ad - hoc wireless connections, advanced audio and visuals, and peer - to - peer networking Using these devices to design new game concepts, however, can be difficult and take much time We have developed OpenTrek - a free, Rapid Application Development game platform for mobile devices OpenTrek is to

Johan Sanneblad; Lars Erik Holmquist

2002-01-01

280

Fun and Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Your DROID excels at many things. It is a multimedia workhorse, and it can keep track of your busy life. Your DROID also serves\\u000a as a nice gaming device. You can even find versions of popular games for the device that you might expect to find only on\\u000a dedicated gaming consoles.

Martin Trautschold; Gary Mazo; Marziah Karch

281

Big Games, Small Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One thing that becomes immediately apparent when creating and distributing mobile 3D games is that there are fundamental differences between the cellphone market and the more traditional games markets, such as consoles and handheld gaming devices. The most striking of these are the number of delivery platforms; the severe constraints of the devices, including small screens whose orientation can be

Mark Callow; Paul Beardow; David Brittain

2007-01-01

282

Use of Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During nine days of camping and canoe travel, games were used to promote teamwork and forge cohesive groups out of previously unacquainted college seniors. Types of games included icebreakers, gathering, change of pace, small group closure, large group closure. Eleven games are described. Includes the program's nine-day schedule. (SAS)

Henderson, Bob

1997-01-01

283

Violence in video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the longstanding and controversial topic of the effects of video game violence on children. Examines existing research and draws on personal experience and an interview with Doug Lowenstein, President of the Entertainment Software Association, for a view from the video game industry. Reports limitations on the significance of the research: some is short-term, on one type of game only,

Ellen Wolock; Craig A. Anderson

2004-01-01

284

War and Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

War has been a subject of many different mediums. Through the portrayal of war, great movies have given insights on human conditions in wartime. War has also been the subject of several video games that are incredibly popular in mass culture. The difference between war movies and war games are that war games are interactive, requiring the players to act

Nicholas A. Perry

2009-01-01

285

COMPUTER GAMES AS HOMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in exploring how entertainment in games can be combined with educational goals to make a compelling experience. In this paper we present our design study for the development of a mod game, Antarctic NWN. We first present the background for the game, objectives, and then discuss the gameplay of Antarctic NWN. We then explore issues that influence

C. Dormann; J. P. Fiset; S. Caquard; B. Woods; A. Hadziomerovic; E. Whitworth; A. Hayes; R. Biddle

286

Computer Games \\/ Cinema \\/ Interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the relationship between computer games and cinema? Spin-off games based on major fi lm franchises are common, especially in genres such as science fi ction, action-adventure and horror. Some games have also made the transition to the big screen, none more prominently than the Tomb Raider series in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001). The potential benefi ts of

Geoff King; Tanya Krzywinska

2002-01-01

287

Game Architecture Introduction  

E-print Network

Game Architecture #12;Introduction · When you sit down and start typing code, what do you type language do I write my game in" ­ C / Assembly ­ Maybe C++, without advanced features, if you were feeling an order of magnitude longer to write · Games usually try to play it a little safe and use a mixture ­ C

Stephenson, Ben

288

Games of Rapport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Board games called Games of Rapport are being developed at the University of Alberta. The first, "Angels and Devils," is designed for play by nursing home residents. Results of a study involving "Angels and Devils" show that board games are useful in communicating rehabilitative objectives and sources of conflict. (Author/BEF)

Corbin, Sandra J.

1980-01-01

289

Gollywood Squares Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Cyberchase activity, roll the die and count off spaces on the game board to earn money and collect CyberSquad autographs. To win the game, be the first to buy four different autographs. This game enables learners to practice adding and subtracting and counting money.

Wnet

2011-01-01

290

Being a Game Changer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…

Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg

2012-01-01

291

VIDEO GAMES AND CRIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological studies find that video game play is associated with markers for violent and antisocial attitudes. It is plausible that these markers indicate either whetted or sated preferences for antisocial behavior. I investigate whether a proxy for video gaming is associated with the prevalence of various crimes and find evidence that gaming is associated with significant declines in crime and

MICHAEL R. WARD

2011-01-01

292

Resource Allocation Games: A Priming Game for a Series of Instructional Games (The POE Game).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes in detail the paper-and-pencil POE (Pelham Odd 'R Even) game, in which units of space are the allocated resources. The game is designed to provide an introduction to the rule structure common to the games of EQUATIONS, WFF 'N PROOF, and ON-SENTS & NON-SENTS. Techniques of playing POE, including goals, solutions, moves, scoring…

Allen, Layman E.

293

The Validity of Games.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the concept of validity in relation to games and simulations, including four aspects of validity that apply to simulations and games (psychological reality, structural validity, process validity, and predictive validity). Factors that may threaten validity during game design are discussed, and suggestions are made to avert these threats.…

Peters, Vincent; Vissers, Geert; Heijne, Gerton

1998-01-01

294

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

295

Video Games in Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games have found their way into the clinical care of youth in most medical fields, and academic interest in their use is increasing steadily. The popularity of video games among youth may qualify them as a useful tool in psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Limited literature on use of video games in mental health care suggests that they can

T. Atilla Ceranoglu

2010-01-01

296

Gaming Gains Respect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

Richardson, Will

2012-01-01

297

An Extended Duopoly Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

Eckalbar, John C.

2002-01-01

298

Repeated Signaling Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many signaling situations are best interpreted as repeated games, prior research often models them as one-shot games. We analyze a class of repeated signaling games in which the informed player's type is persistent and the history of actions are perfectly observable. In this context a large class of possibly complex sequences of signals can be supported as the separating

Ayça Kaya

2005-01-01

299

Reasoning about coalitional games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Article history: We develop, investigate, and compare two logic-based knowledge representation formalisms for reasoning about coalitional games. The main constructs of Coalitional Game Logic (cgl) are expressions for representing the ability of coalitions, which may be combined with expressions for representing the preferences that agents have over outcomes. Modal Coalitional Game Logic (mcgl) is a normal modal logic, in which

Thomas Ĺgotnes; Wiebe Van Der Hoek; Michael Wooldridge

2009-01-01

300

Playing the Cell Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

1980-01-01

301

GAME: A language for writing business GAMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GAME Language is designed to greatly simplify the process of designing business and other organizational simulations. A successful game requires not only a well-specified model with appropriate relationships between variables, but also a specification of input data, output reports, file structures and error checks. It is these latter components which are usually the most tedious to code, the most

Leonard Fertuck

1977-01-01

302

Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…

Partington, Anthony

2010-01-01

303

Multivariate Stochastic Volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a detailed summary of the large and vibrant emerging literature that deals with the multivariate modeling of conditional\\u000a volatility of financial time series within the framework of stochastic volatility. The developments and achievements in this\\u000a area represent one of the great success stories of financial econometrics. Three broad classes of multivariate stochastic\\u000a volatility models have emerged: one that

Siddhartha Chib; Yasuhiro Omori; Manabu Asai

2007-01-01

304

Stochastic Models of Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.

Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

305

Positive stochastic volatility simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a positivity preserving numerical scheme for the pathwise solu- tion of nonlinear stochastic differential equations driven by a multi-dimensional Wiener process and governed by non-commutative linear and non-Lipschitz vector fields. This strong order one scheme uses: (i) Strang exponential splitting, an approximation that decomposes the stochastic flow separately into the drift flow, and the pure diffusion flow

Anke Wiese

306

Dynamics or Stochastic Conductance Switching of Phenylene-Ethynylene Oligomers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers inserted in alkanethiolate self assembled monolayers (SAMs) are presented. Spontaneous changes in appearance of bundles of inserted molecules during imaging are observed. The results indicate that the appearance changes are caused by fluctuations of the number of molecules in the bundles, by diffusion and exchange of molecules, in contrast to previous reports

Ann-Sofie Hallbäck; Bene Poelsema; Harold J. W. Zandvliet

2007-01-01

307

Fast electroholographic switching.  

PubMed

Electroholographic switching with a rise time of 13 ns is henceforth presented. The switching was demonstrated in a potassium lithium tantalate crystal doped with copper and titanium with Tc=10 degrees C. The crystal was operated at 17 degrees C. The switching operation was done in the g11/g12 configuration, in which the Bragg condition remains fulfilled at all levels of the applied field. As electroholography is a wavelength-selective switching method, this opens the way for implementing optical packet switching and fast wavelength addressing schemes in optical fiber networks that apply wavelength division multiplexing. PMID:19183656

Sapiens, Noam; Weissbrod, Aharon; Agranat, Aharon J

2009-02-01

308

Photoconductive power switches  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

1983-01-01

309

Stochastic evolutionary dynamics resolve the Traveler's Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Behavior in social dilemmas is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory: people (and a wide variety of other organisms) are more cooperative than might be expected. Here we consider behavior in one such social dilemma, the Traveler's Dilemma, that has received considerable attention in the economics literature but is little known among theoretical biologists. The rules of the game are as follows. Two players each choose a value between R and M, where 0 < R < M. If the players choose the same value, both receive that amount. If the players choose different values v1 and v2, where v1 < v2, then the player choosing v1 earns v1 + R and the player choosing v2 earns v1 ? R. While the players would maximize their payoffs by both declaring the largest possible value, M, the Nash equilibrium is to declare the smallest possible value, R. In behavioral experiments, however, people generally declare values much larger than the minimum and the deviation from the expected equilibrium decreases with R. In this paper, we show that the cooperative behavior observed in the Traveler's Dilemma can be explained in an evolutionary framework. We study stochastic evolutionary dynamics in finite populations with varying intensity of selection and varying mutation rate. We derive analytic results showing that strategies declaring high values can be favored when selection is weak. More generally, selection favors strategies that declare high values if R is small (relative to M) and strategies that declare low values if R is large. Finally, we show that a two-parameter model involving the intensity of selection and the mutation rate can quantitatively reproduce data that from a Traveler's Dilemma experiment. These results demonstrate the power of evolutionary game theory for explaining human behavior in contexts that are challenging for standard economic game theory. PMID:22465111

Manapat, Michael L.; Rand, David G.; Pawlowitsch, Christina; Nowak, Martin A.

2012-01-01

310

Stochastic congestion and pricing model with endogenous departure time selection and heterogeneous travelers  

E-print Network

and heterogeneous travelers Wuping Xin and David Levinson1 Civil Engineering Department, University of Minnesota schemes. 1 Corresponding Author: email dlevinson@umn.edu Xin, Wuping and D. Levinson (2007) Stochastic considered the arrival rates as exogenous variables irrelevant to equilibrium fees (Daniel 1992). Game

Levinson, David M.

311

World Wildlife Fund: Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Games are a great medium for introducing kids to complex topics like biodiversity. From the World Wildlife Fund, this website offers an inventive and fun collection of biodiversity games. The interactive games are designed for middle-school students and include a Virtual Safari, a Mapping Biodiversity game, a genetic diversity game, and more. The site also features a trailer for Biodiversity 911, a movie produced by Aardman, the clever creators of Wallace and Gromit. The website's Biodiversity 911 section also links to interactive activities that address fish sustainability, soil composition, toxic elements, and the ecology of a Sumatran rain forest.

312

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games 1. Take-Away Games. 1.1 A Simple Take-Away Game. 1.2 What is a Combinatorial Game? 1.3 P-positions, N-positions. 1.4 Subtraction Games. 1.5 Exercises. 2. The Game of Nim. 2.1 Preliminary Analysis. 2.2 Nim-Sum. 2.3 Nim With a Larger

Ferguson, Thomas S.

313

Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.

Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya

2014-01-01

314

Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation.

Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.

2014-09-01

315

Switching Languages, Switching Palabras (Words): An Electrophysiological Study of Code Switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switching languages has often been associated with a processing cost. In this study, the authors used event-related potentials to compare switches between two languages with within-language lexical switches as bilinguals read for comprehension. Stimuli included English sentences and idioms ending either with the expected English words, their Spanish translations (code switches), or English synonyms (lexical switches). As expected, lexical switches

Eva M. Moreno; Kara D. Federmeier; Marta Kutas

2002-01-01

316

FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET  

E-print Network

FACEBOOK GAMES: THE POINT WHERE TRIBES AND CASUAL GAMES MEET Di Loreto Ines UniversitĂ  degli Studi gouaich@lirmm.fr Pierre-Alain Laur Feerik pal@feerik.com ABSTRACT The focus on social games in recent Games) such as World of Warcraft (WoW). However, the rise of social games in social networks has also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Games@Large Distributed Gaming System Arto Laikari1  

E-print Network

devices (CE) without the need of game software modification. The key innovations of the Games@Large system or more servers and the game display and audio is captured and streamed to the end device, where the stream is rendered and the game is actually played. Game control is captured at the end device streamed

Eisert, Peter

318

Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming  

E-print Network

Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming A. Jurgelionis1 , F. Bellotti2 , A. De video game streaming system. Newly developed streaming protocols and system architectures enable that the Games@Large system is capable of running video games of different genres, also including First Person

Eisert, Peter

319

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs  

E-print Network

The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1

Zhu, Xuding

320

Optoelectronic techniques for broadband switching  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optoelectronic switching employs a hybrid optical/electronic principle to perform the switching function and is applicable for either analog broadband or high-bit rate digital switching. The major advantages of optoelectronic switching include high isolation, low crosstalk, small physical size, light weight, and low power consumption. These advantages make optoelectronic switching an excellent candidate for on-board satellite switching. This paper describes a number of optoelectronic switching architectures. System components required for implementing these switching architectures are discussed. Performance of these architectures are evaluated by calculating their crosstalk, isolation, insertion loss, matrix size, drive power, throughput, and switching speed. Technologies needed for monolithic optoelectronic switching are also identified.

Su, S. F.; Jou, L.; Lenart, J.

1988-01-01

321

Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

2014-02-01

322

STOCHASTIC STABILITY OF A CLASS OF STOCHASTIC BILINEAR HYBRID SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

stochastic stability - Positive invariance - LMI. 1. INTRODUCTION Active fault tolerant control systems stochastic sta- bilization of continuous time Bilinear Active Fault Tolerant Control Systems with Markovian: Active Fault Tolerant Control - Bilinear systems - Hybrid systems - Markovian jumping parameters - Local

Boyer, Edmond

323

Educational Games in Today's Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational games have received increasing attention as one teaching technique for individualizing instruction. The use of games for education was borrowed from the business community, which in turn had borrowed the idea from the military. Educational games include several distinct types--simulations, role playing, games and simulation games. Two…

Smith, Roger A.

324

Sex, Lies and Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

2007-01-01

325

game design lecture # IV.1  

E-print Network

-script with dialogues for games that have "cut scenes" · also includes "stage directions" · can be contain pseudo-code" · any text that appears in the game should be in the script · keep in mind when writing the scriptcisc3665 game design fall 2011 lecture # IV.1 game development documentation topics: · game design

Sklar, Elizabeth

326

Music Learning Grows with Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Games are a child's way of thinking, and without being instructed in a procedural method a child develops mentally, physically, and emotionally as he works to accomplish the series of tasks required to reach the completion of his game. Defines games, tells how to design a game, when they should be used, and gives some sources for music games.…

Hotchkiss, Gwen; Athey, Margaret

1978-01-01

327

Heuristics evaluation in computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heuristics Evaluation is commonly used in the evaluation process of computer games and it has been expended from general evaluation to more specific computer games evaluation such as mobile games, video games and MMORPg. Developed heuristics evaluation of computer games were thoroughly analyzed based on specific criteria being used in the heuristics. As a conclusion, Playability Heuristics Evaluation for Educational

H. Omar; A. Jaafar

2010-01-01

328

Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter  

DOEpatents

A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

2007-08-07

329

Game Technology and Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).

330

Robust Control of Immune Systems Under Noises: Stochastic Game Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A robust control of immune response is proposed for therapeutic en- hancement to match a prescribed immune response under\\u000a uncertain initial states and environmental noises, including continuous intrusion of exogenous pathogens. The worst-case effect\\u000a of all possible noises and uncertain initial states on the matching for a desired immune response is minimized for the enhanced\\u000a immune system, i.e., a robust

Bor-Sen Chen; Chia-Hung Chang; Yung-Jen Chuang

331

Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Learning behaviors in a multiagent environment are crucial for developing and adapting multiagent systems. Reinforcement learning techniques have addressed this problem for a single agent acting in a stationary environment, which is modeled as a Markov de...

M. Bowling, M. Veloso

2000-01-01

332

Robust Stable Payoff Distribution in Stochastic Cooperative Games  

E-print Network

of players can enter into binding agreements and form coalitions in order to ..... explains why we choose the term “robust imputation” for this solution concept. ...... for the last iterations because the local search involves solving sub-problems ...

2014-03-15

333

Inefficiency of voting in Parrondo games  

E-print Network

We study a modification of the so-called Parrondo's paradox where a large number of individuals choose the game they want to play by voting. We show that it can be better for the players to vote randomly than to vote according to their own benefit in one turn. The former yields a winning tendency while the latter results in steady losses. An explanation of this behaviour is given by noting that selfish voting prevents the switching between games that is essential for the total capital to grow. Results for both finite and infinite number of players are presented. It is shown that the extension of the model to the history-dependent Parrondo's paradox also displays the same effect.

Dinis, L

2014-01-01

334

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16

335

Stochastic resonance of quantum discord  

E-print Network

We study the stochastic resonance of quantum discord (“discord resonance”) in coupled quantum systems and make a comparison with the stochastic resonance of entanglement (“entanglement resonance”). It is found that the ...

Lee, Chee Kong

336

AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch  

SciTech Connect

A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

2000-03-02

337

Thermally actuated thermionic switch  

SciTech Connect

A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA)

1988-01-01

338

Hamiltonian mechanics of stochastic acceleration.  

PubMed

We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems. PMID:24266476

Burby, J W; Zhmoginov, A I; Qin, H

2013-11-01

339

Stochastic homogenization and random lattices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present some variants of stochastic homogenization theory for scalar elliptic equations of the form ?div[A(x?,?)?u(x,?)]=f. These variants basically consist in defining stochastic coefficients A(x?,?) from stochastic deformations (using random diffeomorphisms) of the periodic setting, as announced in [X. Blanc, C. Le Bris, P.-L. Lions, Une variante de la théorie de l'homogénéisation stochastique des opérateurs elliptiques (A variant of stochastic

X. Blanc; C. Le Bris; P.-L. Lions

2007-01-01

340

Stochastic Feedforward Control Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Class of commanded trajectories modeled as stochastic process. Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) research and development program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center aimed at developing capabilities for increases in capacities of airports, safe and accurate flight in adverse weather conditions including shear, winds, avoidance of wake vortexes, and reduced consumption of fuel. Advances in techniques for design of modern controls and increased capabilities of digital flight computers coupled with accurate guidance information from Microwave Landing System (MLS). Stochastic feedforward control technique developed within context of ATOPS program.

Halyo, Nesim

1990-01-01

341

Stochastic modeling of rainfall  

SciTech Connect

We review several approaches in the literature for stochastic modeling of rainfall, and discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages. While stochastic precipitation models have been around at least since the 1850`s, the last two decades have seen an increased development of models based (more or less) on the physical processes involved in precipitation. There are interesting questions of scale and measurement that pertain to these modeling efforts. Recent modeling efforts aim at including meteorological variables, and may be useful for regional down-scaling of general circulation models.

Guttorp, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-31

342

Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game  

E-print Network

Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game Will Johnson June 9, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.2 Sums of Knots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 I Combinatorial Game Theory 23 2 Introduction 24 2.1 Combinatorial Game Theory in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2

Morrow, James A.

343

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

344

Remote gaming on resource-constrained devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Games have become important applications on mobile devices. A mobile gaming approach known as remote gaming is being developed to support games on low cost mobile devices. In the remote gaming approach, the responsibility of rendering a game and advancing the game play is put on remote servers instead of the resource constrained mobile devices. The games rendered on the

Waazim Reza; Hari Kalva; Richard Kaufman

2010-01-01

345

Combinatorial optimization games  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.

Deng, X. [York Univ., North York, Ontario (Canada); Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-06-01

346

Educational card games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of years have passed since the development of the 'Voyager: Satellites' educational card game reported in Physics Education in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the feedback received about the game over the five years of the project and gives some examples of how the game has been incorporated into the school curriculum. The recent development of other science-related educational card games that are now available for use in schools is also discussed and it is hoped that this article will give inspiration to others to generate their own educational card games and enjoy some of the positive benefits of 'playing' in the classroom.

Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.

2009-09-01

347

National Indian Gaming Commission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

348

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

349

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

350

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...State of Montana concerning Class III Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective...

2013-03-21

351

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

352

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

353

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

354

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

355

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

356

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

357

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

358

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

359

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

360

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

361

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

362

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

363

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

364

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...publishes an extension of the Tribal-State gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-08-10

365

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

366

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

367

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

368

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact (Amendment), between the...

2013-10-22

369

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

370

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

371

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

372

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

373

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

374

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

375

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

376

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

377

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

378

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

379

Interference Games in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a game-theoretic approach to the study of scheduling communications in wireless networks and introduce and study a class of games that we call Interference Games. In our setting, a player can successfully transmit if it \\

Vincenzo Auletta; Luca Moscardelli; Paolo Penna; Giuseppe Persiano

2008-01-01

380

Grab the Candy Corn Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog post presents a game that provides provides practice in locating positions on a coordinate grid. A downloadable PDF document includes the game board, optional game pieces, directions and a recording sheet.

Kawas, Terry

2009-10-09

381

Predictive Game Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

Wolpert, David H.

2005-01-01

382

Factor Game (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson uses the context of a two-person game to develop the concepts of prime and composite numbers as well as strategic thinking. The game may be played on paper or with an online applet (cataloged separately). Students analyze the results of first moves to arrive at an effective game strategy. The included student worksheet (pdf) extends the range of numbers played and introduces students to abundant, deficient, and perfect numbers.

2012-01-01

383

Science Review Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These games are intended to help prepare students for the New York State Regent's Exams, but may be used by anyone to review science topics in a fun, interactive atmosphere. Subjects include Earth science, geology, astrononomy, and chemistry. Users are asked a question, and if they choose the correct answer, may attempt to score points in the game setting. A teacher's page provides information on how to search the site to locate games on specific topics.

384

Get-Moving Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this invention challenge activity, learners create an indoor game for one or two people that gets you moving. This lesson guide includes instructions on how to play an âimagine new uses for old thingsâ game to play before the activity. Learners will also brainstorm activities that get people up and moving and follow the design process to invent a game, including the equipment and rules for playing it.

Wgbh

2009-01-01

385

Factor Trail Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math game, learners identify the factors of a number to earn points. The score sheet used for this game provides a built-in assessment tool that teachers can use to check their students' understanding. This game also provides an opportunity for cooperative learning--learners check one another's work before points are awarded. This lesson guide includes questions for learners, assessment options, extensions, and reflection questions.

Vennebush., G. P.

2008-01-01

386

Stochastic epidemics and rumours on finite random networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the stochastic spread of epidemics and rumours on networks. We focus on the general stochastic (SIR) epidemic model and a recently proposed rumour model on networks in Nekovee et al. (2007) [3], and on networks with different random structures, taking into account the structure of the underlying network at the level of the degree-degree correlation function. Using embedded Markov chain techniques and ignoring density correlations between neighbouring nodes, we derive a set of equations for the final size of the epidemic/rumour on a homogeneous network that can be solved numerically, and compare the resulting distribution with the solution of the corresponding mean-field deterministic model. The final size distribution is found to switch from unimodal to bimodal form (indicating the possibility of substantial spread of the epidemic/rumour) at a threshold value that is higher than that for the deterministic model. However, the difference between the two thresholds decreases with the network size, n, following a n behaviour. We then compare results (obtained by Monte Carlo simulation) for the full stochastic model on a homogeneous network, including density correlations at neighbouring nodes, with those for the approximating stochastic model and show that the latter reproduces the exact simulation results with great accuracy. Finally, further Monte Carlo simulations of the full stochastic model are used to explore the effects on the final size distribution of network size and structure (using homogeneous networks, simple random graphs and the Barabasi-Albert scale-free networks).

Isham, Valerie; Harden, Simon; Nekovee, Maziar

2010-02-01

387

Static Quantum Games Revisited  

E-print Network

The so called \\emph{quantum game theory} has recently been proclaimed as one of the new branches in the development of both quantum information theory and game theory. However, the notion of a quantum game itself has never been strictly defined, which has led to a lot of conceptual confusion among different authors. In this paper we introduce a new conceptual framework of a \\emph{scenario} and an \\emph{implementation} of a game. It is shown that the procedures of "quantization" of games proposed in the literature lead in fact to several different games which can be defined within the same scenario, but apart from this they may have nothing in common with the original game. Within the framework we put forward, a lot of conceptual misunderstandings that have arisen around "quantum games" can be stated clearly and resolved uniquely. In particular, the proclaimed essential role of entanglement in several static "quantum games", and their connection with Bell inequalities, is disproved.

Marcin Markiewicz; Adrian Kosowski; Tomasz Tylec; Jaroslaw Pykacz; Cyril Gavoille

2010-01-13

388

Gaming in the Outdoors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this set of outdoor games, learners increase their awareness of the outdoor environment by going on a scavenger hunt and an out-of-place hunt. In the first game, learners hunt for things like animal homes, food for different animals, and natural objects with shapes like square, circle, and triangle. In the second game, learners search on a trail that has been set up with natural objects in areas where they do not belong. Both games can be made simpler or more difficult depending on the learners' ages. Instructions are also provided for making ink prints and crayon rubbings of objects.

Science, Lawrence H.

1980-01-01

389

Rescue Mission Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math meets physics game, learners pretend they are pilots of rescue helicopters and must fly their helicopters to the top of a mountain to rescue lost hikers. Learners first explore the four forces of flight: lift, drag, thrust, and weight. Before playing the game, learners conduct a probability experiment with spinners and record their results in tally tables and bar graphs. They then use their findings to select spinners with the greatest probability of helping them win the game. In a portion of the game, learners use ordered pairs to plot points on the coordinate plane to show their flight path.

Mathematics, National C.

2008-01-01

390

Extraversion in Games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of a human player in a game expresses the personality of that player. Personality is an important characteristic for modeling the player's profile. In our research we use the five factor model of personality, in which extraversion is a notable factor. Extraversion is the human tendency of being sensitive to rewards. This often results in humans seeking socially rewarding situations. Extraversion plays a prominent part in the in-game behavior of a player. The in-game behavior can be decomposed in 20 different in-game elements.

van Lankveld, Giel; Schreurs, Sonny; Spronck, Pieter; van den Herik, Jaap

391

Professional, Applied & Continuing Education SERIOUS GAMES CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

to Game Engines (21 Hours) Project Whitecard Inc. is known for ground breaking success using video game as government and industry around the world. Project Whitecard creates Video Games, Learning Games, TrainingProfessional, Applied & Continuing Education SERIOUS GAMES CERTIFICATE

Martin, Jeff

392

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part II. Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 1. The Strategic Form of a Game.4 The Minimax Theorem. 1.5 Exercises. 2. Matrix Games. Domination. 2.1 Saddle Points. 2.2 Solution of All 2 by 2 Matrix Games. 2.3 Removing Dominated Strategies. 2.4 Solving 2 Ă? n and m Ă? 2 Games. 2.5 Latin Square

Ferguson, Thomas S.

393

Third-order leader-following consensus with circumstance noise under impulsive and switching control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is aimed at investigating the leader-follower problem of third-order multi-agent with noise perturbation over fixed network under impulsive and switching control. Based on stochastic differential equation theory and hybrid control theory, effective impulsive and switching controllers are proposed, and the sufficient conditions for reaching multi-agent leader-following consensus are acquired. Numerical simulations verify the validity of the theoretical research results.

Sun, Mei; Han, Dun; Li, Dandan; Jia, Qiang; Wang, Yaqi

2014-02-01

394

Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary game theory is the study of frequency-dependent selection. The success of an individual depends on the frequencies of strategies that are used in the population. We propose a new model for studying evolutionary dynamics in games with a continuous strategy space. The population size is finite. All members of the population use the same strategy. A mutant strategy is chosen from some distribution over the strategy space. The fixation probability of the mutant strategy in the resident population is calculated. The new mutant takes over the population with this probability. In this case, the mutant becomes the new resident. Otherwise, the existing resident remains. Then, another mutant is generated. These dynamics lead to a stationary distribution over the entire strategy space. Our new approach generalizes classical adaptive dynamics in three ways: (i) the population size is finite; (ii) mutants can be drawn non-locally and (iii) the dynamics are stochastic. We explore reactive strategies in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. We perform ‘knock-out experiments’ to study how various strategies affect the evolution of cooperation. We find that ‘tit-for-tat’ is a weak catalyst for the emergence of cooperation, while ‘always cooperate’ is a strong catalyst for the emergence of defection. Our analysis leads to a new understanding of the optimal level of forgiveness that is needed for the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity. PMID:19846456

Imhof, Lorens A.; Nowak, Martin A.

2010-01-01

395

On Stochastic Approximation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…

Wolff, Hans

396

Multistage quadratic stochastic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadratic stochastic programming (QSP) in which each subproblem is a convex piecewise quadratic program with stochastic data, is a natural extension of stochastic linear programming. This allows the use of quadratic or piecewise quadratic objective functions which are essential for controlling risk in financial and project planning. Two-stage QSP is a special case of extended linear-quadratic programming (ELQP). The recourse functions in QSP are piecewise quadratic convex and Lipschitz continuous. Moreover, they have Lipschitz gradients if each QP subproblem is strictly convex and differentiable. Using these properties, a generalized Newton algorithm exhibiting global and superlinear convergence has been proposed recently for the two stage case. We extend the generalized Newton algorithm to multistage QSP and show that it is globally and finitely convergent under suitable conditions. We present numerical results on randomly generated data and modified publicly available stochastic linear programming test sets. Efficiency schemes on different scenario tree structures are discussed. The large-scale deterministic equivalent of the multistage QSP is also generated and their accuracy compared.

Lau, Karen K.; Womersley, Robert S.

2001-04-01

397

On stochastic bilinear control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object is to provide a condensed review of current research on bilinear stochastic systems, BLSS and their application, along with preliminary results on optimal filtering. BLSS arise naturally for generalized demographic processes such as may appear in immunology, nuclear physics, biological populations of species and human demography. For example, in the immune system bilinear differential equations describe cell division

R. R. Mohler; W. J. Kolodziej

1979-01-01

398

The stochastic Burgers Equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Burgers Equation perturbed by a white noise in space and time. We prove the existence of solutions by showing that the Cole-Hopf transformation is meaningful also in the stochastic case. The problem is thus reduced to the anaylsis of a linear equation with multiplicativehalf white noise. An explicit solution of the latter is constructed through a generalized Feynman-Kac

L. Bertini; N. Cancrini; G. Jona-Lasinio

1994-01-01

399

PROBABILITY AND STOCHASTIC PROCESSES  

E-print Network

107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission Probability and Stochastic Processes to Rutgers undergraduates in 1991, we never dreamed we would write, in itself, of minor interest. What the students want most is an intuitive grasp of the basic concepts

Kozick, Richard J.

400

Task switching and the measurement of “switch costs”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The measurement of “switch costs” is held to be of interest because, as is widely believed, they may reflect the control\\u000a processes that are engaged when subjects switch between two (or more) competing tasks. [In task-switching experiments, the\\u000a reaction time (RT) switch cost is typically measured as the difference in RT between switch and non-switch (repeat) trials.]\\u000a In this report

Glenn Wylie; Alan Allport

2000-01-01

401

INSTRUCTIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE THEORY OF STOCHASTIC PROCESSES: Operator stochastic differential equations and stochastic semigroups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CONTENTSIntroduction § 1. The finite-dimensional case § 2. Stochastic semigroups in the L2-strong theory § 3. Homogeneous strongly continuous semigroups with the group of the first moments § 4. Stochastic equations of diffusion type with constant coefficients § 5. Continuous homogeneous stochastic semigroups in the presence of two moments References

Skorokhod, A. V.

1982-12-01

402

Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.

Adar, Rivka; Benenson, Yaakov; Linshiz, Gregory; Rosner, Amit; Tishby, Naftali; Shapiro, Ehud

2004-07-01

403

Photonic switching fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strengths and limitations of the photonic technology are reviewed, beginning with the temporal bandwidth limitations of photonic devices and then focusing on spatial bandwidth, commonly referred to as the parallelism of optics, and how it can be used in photonic fabrics. Some of the proposed photonic switching fabrics that are based on guided-wave devices are discussed, comprising switching fabrics

H. Scott Hinton

1990-01-01

404

Novel RF MEMS Switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews three novel RF MEMS ohmic contact switches, each being designed for specific applications. All three were developed at Imperial College London. The first is a packaged single-pole double throw (SPDT) version intended for space applications, operating from DC to 6 GHz; the second is a single-pole single throw (SPST) switch for high power applications in the 40

S. Lucyszyn; S. Pranonsatit; J. Y. Choi; R. W. Moseley; E. M. Yeatman; A. S. Holmes

2007-01-01

405

Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach  

E-print Network

Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach Chenye Wu@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Due to the stochastic nature of wind power, its large-scale integration into the power grid-side resources via pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and fluctuations in wind power generation

Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

406

Joker: Trying to explain choice in a simple game with large stakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines data from the Norwegian television game show Joker, where contestants make high-stake choices under risk. The stan- dard, rational maximization model should predict choice under weak conditions, as one choice is always …rst-order stochastically dominat- ing. We document frequent and systematic violations of dominance. These violations are costly; on average contestant that do not fol- low the

Egil Matsen; Bjarne Strřmy

407

Optical Label Switching Technologies for Optical Packet Switched Networks.  

E-print Network

??Optical packet switching (OPS) is the most prominent candidate transport solution that can seamlessly integrate electrical and optical layers by transferring certain switching functionality from… (more)

Chowdhury, Arshad M.

2006-01-01

408

Triggered plasma opening switch  

SciTech Connect

A triggerable plasma opening switch for connecting a megavolt, megampere power supply to a load is described comprising: cathode means having an input end, an output end, and a switch portion between the ends; anode means having an input end, an output end, and a switch portion between the ends and spaced from the switch portion of the cathode means by a gap; whereby the power supply is connectable between the input ends and the load is connectable between the output ends; plasma source means for filling the gap with a plasma for providing a current path for shorting current from the load; and triggering means for generating a magnetic field for controllably moving the plasma away from one of the anode or the cathode to generate an insulating gap and to block the electron flow across the gap, thereby opening the switch and permitting current to flow from the power supply to the load.

Mendel, C.W.

1988-02-23

409

Almost sure and moment exponential stability of Euler-Maruyama discretizations for hybrid stochastic differential equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positive results are derived concerning the long time dynamics of numerical simulations of stochastic differential equation systems with Markovian switching. Euler-Maruyama discretizations are shown to capture almost sure and moment exponential stability for all sufficiently small timesteps under appropriate conditions.

Pang, Sulin; Deng, Feiqi; Mao, Xuerong

2008-03-01

410

Robust detection filters for jump Markov systems with doubly stochastic Poisson process models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we consider a dynamic M-ary detection problem when Markov chains are observed through a doubly stochastic Poisson process. These systems are fully specified by a candidate set of parameters, whose elements are, a rate matrix for the Markov chain and a vector of Poisson intensities for the observation model. Further, we suppose these parameter sets can switch

W. P. Malcolm; R. J. Elliott

2002-01-01

411

Entanglement Guarantees Emergence of Cooperation in Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma Games on Networks  

PubMed Central

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold , then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases. PMID:25190217

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-01-01

412

Entanglement Guarantees Emergence of Cooperation in Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma Games on Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold , then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases.

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-09-01

413

Entanglement guarantees emergence of cooperation in quantum prisoner's dilemma games on networks.  

PubMed

It was known that cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games fails to emerge in homogenous networks such as random graphs. Here we proposed a quantum prisoner's dilemma game. The game consists of two players, in which each player has three choices of strategy: cooperator (C), defector (D) and super cooperator (denoted by Q). We found that quantum entanglement guarantees emergence of a new cooperation, the super cooperation of the quantum prisoner's dilemma games, and that entanglement is the mechanism of guaranteed emergence of cooperation of evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on networks. We showed that for a game with temptation b, there exists a threshold arccos ?b/b for a measurement of entanglement, beyond which, (super) cooperation of evolutionary quantum prisoner's dilemma games is guaranteed to quickly emerge, giving rise to stochastic convergence of the cooperations, that if the entanglement degree ? is less than the threshold arccos ?b/b, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games is positively correlated to the entanglement degree ?, and that if ? is less than arccos ?b/b and b is beyond some boundary, then the equilibrium frequency of cooperations of the games on random graphs decreases as the average degree of the graphs increases. PMID:25190217

Li, Angsheng; Yong, Xi

2014-01-01

414

Phenotypic switching in gene regulatory networks  

PubMed Central

Noise in gene expression can lead to reversible phenotypic switching. Several experimental studies have shown that the abundance distributions of proteins in a population of isogenic cells may display multiple distinct maxima. Each of these maxima may be associated with a subpopulation of a particular phenotype, the quantification of which is important for understanding cellular decision-making. Here, we devise a methodology which allows us to quantify multimodal gene expression distributions and single-cell power spectra in gene regulatory networks. Extending the commonly used linear noise approximation, we rigorously show that, in the limit of slow promoter dynamics, these distributions can be systematically approximated as a mixture of Gaussian components in a wide class of networks. The resulting closed-form approximation provides a practical tool for studying complex nonlinear gene regulatory networks that have thus far been amenable only to stochastic simulation. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach in a number of genetic networks, uncovering previously unidentified dynamical characteristics associated with phenotypic switching. Specifically, we elucidate how the interplay of transcriptional and translational regulation can be exploited to control the multimodality of gene expression distributions in two-promoter networks. We demonstrate how phenotypic switching leads to birhythmical expression in a genetic oscillator, and to hysteresis in phenotypic induction, thus highlighting the ability of regulatory networks to retain memory. PMID:24782538

Thomas, Philipp; Popovic, Nikola; Grima, Ramon

2014-01-01

415

Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).

Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.

2012-02-01

416

Gaming in Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

417

Games and Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational games present the complex realities of simultaneous interactive processes more accurately and effectively than serial processes such as lecturing and reading. Objectives of educational gaming are to motivate students by presenting relevant and realistic problems and to induce more efficient and active understanding of information.…

Abt, Clark C.

418

Gaming and Gamification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

Mallon, Melissa

2013-01-01

419

Communication Games and Simulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Games and simulations can be thought of as experiential learning activities for classroom use. Games are activities in which people agree to abide by a set of conditions in order to attain a desired state or end, and simulations are activities that model reality. In this publication, it is suggested that five dimensions be considered in…

Covert, Anita; Thomas, Gordon L.

420

The Chinese House Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

Lee, James R.

1989-01-01

421

Educational Card Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of years have passed since the development of the "Voyager: Satellites" educational card game reported in "Physics Education" in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the feedback received…

Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.

2009-01-01

422

Police Patrol Game Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

Clark, Todd, Ed.

423

Skill Games for Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is to assist teachers with motivational ideas for teaching elementary school mathematics. The items included are a wide variety of games (paper and pencil, verbal, and physical), jingles, contests, teaching devices, and thought provoking exercises. Suggestions for selection of mathematical games are offered. The devices are used to…

Corle, Clyde G.

424

The Computer Games Manifesto  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose computer game AI as a suitable topic for research with the long term goal of artificial general intelligence in mind. Mod ern games include large virtual worlds and a growing but unsatisfied demand for h uman-like computer characters inhabiting them. Significant research challenge s are present in building an agent capable of intelligent timely behaviour in such complex

Martin MAGNUSSON

425

The Guppy Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

2012-01-01

426

Game Theory .net.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

Shor, Mikhael

2003-01-01

427

The Super Volcano Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How would you handle a volcano diasater? In this game, you've just been appointed chief of the Emergency Management Agency for Bluebear County. Everyone is counting on you to handle the eruption of Mount Spur. Download this game to find out. Before you play, make sure Flash is installed on your computer.

Corporation, British B.

428

Towards Virtual Reality Games  

E-print Network

Game engines of cinematic quality, broadband networking and advances in Virtual Reality (VR) technologies are setting the stage to allow players to have shared, “better-than-life ” experiences in online virtual worlds. We propose a mechanism of merit-based selection of players, as a solution to the long-standing problem of limited access to VR hardware. 1 Games and Virtual Reality: Worlds Apart Games, including online virtual worlds, populate the entertainment arena of the consumer market. They are engaging, mass produced, inexpensive, targeting wide audiences. Visual realism in games approaches cinematic quality. The amount of 3D content available online today exceeds what can be explored in a single person’s lifetime. In contrast to gaming, VR systems require expensive hardware and customized software. They are available for limited audiences. VR systems are difficult to maintain and upgrade. Both the visual quality and the extent of virtual content are typically lower than in games. Nevertheless, VR has one feature that makes it stand out from all other platforms: the unmatched sense of presence, delivered by immersion and body tracking. The ability to make users believe that they actually “are there ” has made VR a tool of choice for medical, military, and extreme condition training applications. We discuss a concept of Virtual Reality Games that will combine the best features of games and VR: large persistent worlds experienced in photorealistic immersive settings. We suggest several solutions for bridging the gap between the two platforms.

Andrei Sherstyuk; Dale Vincent; Anton Treskunov

429

The Campus Information Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME is to help to induct new students into their unfamiliar study environment. Typically it forms an early element of an overall induction program for their course of study. THE CAMPUS INFORMATION GAME has a key secondary theme of information quality that is particularly appropriate for students of…

Martin, Andrew

2006-01-01

430

Accessible games SIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games are early adopters of emerging technologies and introduce them to the mainstream market. Increasingly work-related applications follow the lead of entertainment systems. Yet with the growing importance and complexity of 3D technologies and virtual worlds, motion and gesture interfaces, more barriers are being raised that prevent people with disabilities from using or fully enjoying them. These new gaming

Arnold M. Lund; Annuska Perkins; Sri Kurniawan; Lennart Nacke

2011-01-01

431

Video game induced seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but

C D Ferrie; P De Marco; R A Grünewald; S Giannakodimos; C P Panayiotopoulos

1994-01-01

432

Games People Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

VerBruggen, Robert

2012-01-01

433

Chemistry Game Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

Susan Campbell; Jennifer Muzyka

2002-01-01

434

Food Chain Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor game, learners role play populations linked in a food chain. The resource suggests a chain with plant, grasshopper, frog, and hawk, but other food chains can be role-played, for example plankton, anchovy, salmon, sea lion. The more "animals" (learners!) the merrier for this active game.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

435

Carbon Cycle Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive, regionally-relevant carbon cycle game, students are challenged to understand the role of carbon in global climate change. They imagine that they are carbon molecules and travel via different processes through carbon reservoirs on the Colorado Plateau (the Four Corners area of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah). This game can be adapted to other regions.

Partnership, Colorado P.; Northern Arizona University; Biological Sciences Curriculum Study

436

The Clean Air Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

Avalone-King, Deborah

2000-01-01

437

Pinning distributed synchronization of stochastic dynamical networks: a mixed optimization approach.  

PubMed

This paper is concerned with the problem of pinning synchronization of nonlinear dynamical networks with multiple stochastic disturbances. Two kinds of pinning schemes are considered: 1) pinned nodes are fixed along the time evolution and 2) pinned nodes are switched from time to time according to a set of Bernoulli stochastic variables. Using Lyapunov function methods and stochastic analysis techniques, several easily verifiable criteria are derived for the problem of pinning distributed synchronization. For the case of fixed pinned nodes, a novel mixed optimization method is developed to select the pinned nodes and find feasible solutions, which is composed of a traditional convex optimization method and a constraint optimization evolutionary algorithm. For the case of switching pinning scheme, upper bounds of the convergence rate and the mean control gain are obtained theoretically. Simulation examples are provided to show the advantages of our proposed optimization method over previous ones and verify the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25291734

Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen Kurthsrgen

2014-10-01

438

Learning to imitate stochastic time series in a compositional way by chaos  

E-print Network

This study shows that a mixture of RNN experts model can acquire the ability to generate sequences combining multiple primitive patterns by means of self-organizing chaos. By training of the model, each expert learns a primitive sequence pattern, and a gating network learns to imitate stochastic switching of the multiple primitives via a chaotic dynamics, utilizing a sensitive dependence on initial conditions. As a demonstration, we present a numerical simulation in which the model learns Markov chain switching among some Lissajous curves by a chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that by using a sufficient amount of training data, balanced with the network memory capacity, it is possible to satisfy the conditions for embedding the target stochastic sequences into a chaotic dynamical system. It is also shown that reconstruction of a stochastic time series by a chaotic model can be stabilized by adding a negligible amount of noise to the dynamics of the model.

Jun Namikawa; Jun Tani

2008-05-13

439

Second-Chance Signal Transduction Explains Cooperative Flagellar Switching  

PubMed Central

The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv–vii). PMID:22844429

Zot, Henry G.; Hasbun, Javier E.; Van Minh, Nguyen

2012-01-01

440

Second-chance signal transduction explains cooperative flagellar switching.  

PubMed

The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv-vii). PMID:22844429

Zot, Henry G; Hasbun, Javier E; Minh, Nguyen Van

2012-01-01

441

Permissive strategies: from parity games to safety games  

E-print Network

Permissive strategies: from parity games to safety games Julien Bernet, David Janin, Igor {bernet|janin|igw}@labri.fr Abstract It is proposed to compare strategies in a parity game by comparing the sets of behaviours they allow. For such a game, there may be no winning strategy that encompasses all

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

442

Games Technology: Console Architectures, Game Engines and Invisible Interaction  

E-print Network

Games Technology: Console Architectures, Game Engines and Invisible Interaction Edmond Prakash at three core developments in games technology. First we will look at the architectural foundations on which the consoles are built to deliver games performance. Millions of consoles are sold and the console

Li, Baihua

443

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games  

E-print Network

Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B.P. 93 2004 Route of South Australia The Levels, Australia, 5095 Abstract This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions

444

Representation of Finite Games as Network Congestion Games  

E-print Network

Representation of Finite Games as Network Congestion Games Igal Milchtaich Department of Economics Bar-Ilan University Israel Abstract--Weighted network congestion games are used for modeling or communication links. In spite of their special form, these games are not fundamentally special: every finite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

Population games, stable games, and passivity Michael J. Fox  

E-print Network

Population games, stable games, and passivity Michael J. Fox Jeff S. Shamma March 31, 2013 July 23, 2013 (revised) September 2, 2013 (revised) Abstract The class of "stable games", introduced by Hofbauer evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback

Shamma, Jeff S.

446

In-game tactic adaptation for interactive computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer controlled characters in games typically lack the ability to adapt to situations that were not envisaged by the game artificial intelligence (AI) programmer. Consequently game characters tend to be lifeless and susceptible to repetitive and predictable behaviour. The focus of this work is to provide practical approaches to in-game learning and thus produce NPCs that are more believable and

Thomas P. Hartley; Qasim H. Mehdi

2011-01-01

447

Playing Games with Algorithms: Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory  

E-print Network

Introduction Many classic games are known to be computationally intractable: one-player puzzles are often NP cases, particularly with one-player puzzles, the computationally tractable games are still interesting, there are exceptions: some games (such as Life and Chess) can be drawn out forever, and some games (such as tic

Demaine, Erik

448

GAME-BASED LEARNING THROUGH ONLINE COMPUTER GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer games become one of the most attractive and enjoyable tools for people especially children in today's world. Almost all of them play in their spare time for fun. Due to these aspects and characteristics of the computer games, there have been conducted many researches on games so as to implement and integrate into educational settings for setting up game-based

Berrin Dogusoy; Yavuz Inal

449

Video game values: Human-computer interaction and games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current human–computer interaction (HCI) research into video games rarely considers how they are different from other forms of software. This leads to research that, while useful concerning standard issues of interface design, does not address the nature of video games as games specifically. Unlike most software, video games are not made to support external, user-defined tasks, but instead define their

Pippin Barr; James Noble; Robert Biddle

2007-01-01

450

GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System  

E-print Network

believe, will stimulate more research innovations on cloud gaming systems and applications. Categories: Design, Measurement Additional Key Words and Phrases: Cloud games, remote rendering, live video streaming1 GamingAnywhere--The First Open Source Cloud Gaming System CHUN-YING HUANG, National Taiwan Ocean

Chen, Sheng-Wei

451

Playing to learn game design skills in a game context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interactive session presents early research findings resulting from a game simulation currently called Gamestar Mechanic through which 70 middle and high school-age players learn to design video games. Gamestar Mechanic is an RPG (Role-Playing Game) style online game through which players \\

James Paul Gee; Elisabeth Hayes; Robert J. Torres; Ivan Alex Games; Kurt Squire; Katie Salen

452

Heuristic evaluation for games: usability principles for video game design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most video games require constant interaction, so game designers must pay careful attention to usability issues. However, there are few formal methods for evaluating the usability of game interfaces. In this paper, we introduce a new set of heuristics that can be used to carry out usability inspections of video games. The heuristics were developed to help identify usability problems

David Pinelle; Nelson Wong; Tadeusz Stach

2008-01-01

453

Critical review on video game evaluation heuristics: social games perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first step in creating design and evaluation heuristics for social games which emerge from the domain of social media. Initial high level heuristics for social games are offered by reviewing four existing video game heuristic models and analyzing two social games design frameworks.

Janne Paavilainen

2010-01-01

454

Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games  

E-print Network

Game Quantification on Automatic Structures Hierarchical Model Checking Games Lukasz Kaiser kaiser@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen Computer Science Logic 2006 Lukasz Kaiser (RWTH Aachen) Game Quantifier on Automatic Structures 1 / 21 #12;Overview Introduction Logic with Game Quantifier Hierarchical

Kaiser, ÂŁukasz

455

Avatars in Analytical Gaming  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

2009-08-29

456

A game for space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As countermeasure to heavy workloads or monotony, astronauts have drawn on leisure activities imported from Earth or invented in situ. Aside from consumption of media, physical exercise, Earth observation, communication with ground or crew and the practising of instruments, also games play an important role. With a few exceptions, the emphasis, however, lies on virtual games and software applications. A review of play activities in orbit and their benefits to date suggests a need for additional recreational opportunities. In response, an interactive strategy game for use in microgravity is presented that relies on interlocking sphere-shaped game pieces in order to make the most of the kinetic and sensory potential of reduced gravity conditions. Aside from the play value and aesthetics of this reconfigurable modular game structure, the activity may help maintain and enhance manual dexterity, mental alertness and sociability amongst the crew. The design solution and prototype are presented and needs for further research and development are outlined.

Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Aguzzi, Manuela; Peldszus, Regina

2010-02-01

457

Derivative Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

2009-05-29

458

Derivative Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the Mathematical Association of America has struck instructional gold with this latest gem from their online collection of resources for mathematics educators. Created by Barbara Margolius, this derivative matching game presents users with a game board showing graphs of functions on cards. Essentially, the goal of the game is to match the functions with their derivatives. Visitors can begin by reading an overview of the game, along with some brief instructions, and then they should dive right in. The game can also be customized to match functions with just first derivatives or both first and second derivatives. Mathematics educators will have a lot of fun with this one, and even the mathematically uncertain can be drawn into the fold with this easy to use resource.

459

Stochastic dynamics of macromolecular-assembly networks.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation and regulation of macromolecular complexes provides the backbone of most cellular processes, including gene regulation and signal transduction. The inherent complexity of assembling macromolecular structures makes current computational methods strongly limited for understanding how the physical interactions between cellular components give rise to systemic properties of cells. Here we present a stochastic approach to study the dynamics of networks formed by macromolecular complexes in terms of the molecular interactions of their components [1]. Exploiting key thermodynamic concepts, this approach makes it possible to both estimate reaction rates and incorporate the resulting assembly dynamics into the stochastic kinetics of cellular networks. As prototype systems, we consider the lac operon and phage ? induction switches, which rely on the formation of DNA loops by proteins [2] and on the integration of these protein-DNA complexes into intracellular networks. This cross-scale approach offers an effective starting point to move forward from network diagrams, such as those of protein-protein and DNA-protein interaction networks, to the actual dynamics of cellular processes. [1] L. Saiz and J.M.G. Vilar, submitted (2005). [2] J.M.G. Vilar and L. Saiz, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 15, 136-144 (2005).

Saiz, Leonor; Vilar, Jose

2006-03-01

460

Stability and Flipping Dynamics of Delayed Genetic Toggle Switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed analysis of the stability and flipping dynamics of a delayed exclusive toggle switch is performed. We use forward flux sampling method combined with delayed stochastic simulation algorithm to get the stationary distribution function, the switching rate, and pathways, as well as the transition state ensemble. Interestingly, under the influence of time delay, the stationary distribution corresponding to the stable states become narrower and the population in the transition region is significantly enhanced. In addition, the flipping rate increases monotonically with delay. Such findings demonstrate that time delay could reduce the stability of the bistable genetic switch dramatically. Furthermore, the transition pathways, characterized by the difference in the protein numbers and the state of operator, show larger discrepancy between the forward and backward switching process with increasing delay, indicating that transcriptional and translational delay can remarkably affect the flipping dynamics. Specifically, for the transition state, the difference in the probability of finding the operator site bound by the two different protein dimers is enlarged by delay, which further illustrates the crucial role of time delay on the stability and switching dynamics of genetic toggle switches.

Zhang, Rui-ting; Chen, Han-shuang; Hou, Zhong-huai

2012-02-01

461

Sleep State Switching  

PubMed Central

We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

462

Photoconductive switch package  

SciTech Connect

A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

Ca[rasp, George J

2013-10-22

463

Switching between oral anticoagulants.  

PubMed

Until about 4 years ago, warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant approved in the United States, and switching between oral anticoagulants has become an option since the emergence of the novel oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. What are the reasons one may switch between the agents and how is this done? Discussed in this article are the 4 agents approved in the United States, their characteristics, reasons one may switch, and methods for conversion. After a thorough search of original trial data and recent expert review articles, we have summarized the most recent recommendations below and briefly discuss upcoming oral anticoagulants that show promise. PMID:25255408

Strasser, Kristen M; Qasem, Abdulraheem; Madhusudhana, Sheshadri

2014-08-01

464

Stochastic predation events and population persistence in bighorn sheep  

PubMed Central

Many studies have reported temporal changes in the relative importance of density-dependence and environmental stochasticity in affecting population growth rates, but they typically assume that the predominant factor limiting growth remains constant over long periods of time. Stochastic switches in limiting factors that persist for multiple time-steps have received little attention, but most wild populations may periodically experience such switches. Here, we consider the dynamics of three populations of individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) monitored for 24–28 years. Each population experienced one or two distinct cougar (Puma concolor) predation events leading to population declines. The onset and duration of predation events were stochastic and consistent with predation by specialist individuals. A realistic Markov chain model confirms that predation by specialist cougars can cause extinction of isolated populations. We suggest that such processes may be common. In such cases, predator–prey equilibria may only occur at large geographical and temporal scales, and are unlikely with increasing habitat fragmentation. PMID:16777749

Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coulson, Tim; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hogg, John T; Pelletier, Fanie

2006-01-01

465

Dynamical systems game theory and dynamics of games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical framework we call dynamical systems game is presented, in which the game itself can change due to the influence of players’ behaviors and states. That is, the nature of the game itself is described as a dynamical system. The relation between game dynamics and the evolution of strategies is discussed by applying this framework. Computer experiments are carried out for simple one-person games to demonstrate the evolution of dynamical systems with the effective use of dynamical resources.

Akiyama, E.; Kaneko, K.

2000-12-01

466

Making real games virtual: Tracking board game pieces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The same game is often played in real and virtual worlds. We integrate in-person and on-line playing of board games such as Go, bringing the real world into the virtual world. A player may record an in-person game by placing their camera on the table next to the game board, taking photos of the game. After automatically detecting the board

Steven Scher; Ryan Crabb; James Davis

2008-01-01

467

When the macroscopic game is the quantum game?  

E-print Network

An example of the macroscopic game of two partners consisting of two classical games played simultaneously with special dependence of strategies is considered. The average profit of each partner is equal to the average profit obtained in the quantum game with two noncommuting operators for the spin one half system with strategies defined by the wave function. Nash equilibria in the macroscopic game coincide with Nash equilibria of the quantum game.

A. A. Grib; G. N. Parfionov

2005-02-07

468

SLOB: a switch with large optical buffers for packet switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, optical packet switch architectures, composed of devices such as optical switches, fiber delay lines, and passive couplers, have been proposed to overcome the electromagnetic interference (EMI), pinout and interconnection problems that would be encountered in future large electronic switch cores. However, attaining the buffer size (buffer depth) in optical packet switches required in practice is a major problem; in

David K. Hunter; W. David Cornwell; Tim H. Gilfedder; A. Franzen; I. Andonovic

1998-01-01

469

Games on graphs Milos Stojakovic  

E-print Network

Games on graphs Milos Stojakovi�c Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia milos.stojakovic@dmi.uns.ac.rs http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/smilos/ Abstract. Positional Games is a branch of Combinatorics which focuses on a variety of two player games, ranging from well-known games

Stojakovic, Milos

470

Stages for Children Inventing Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…

Butler, Joy

2013-01-01

471

Teaching Game Sense in Soccer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

Pill, Shane

2012-01-01

472

Computer Games for Visualization and  

E-print Network

Games Get Serious Computer Games for Visualization and More by Tim Holt #12;The Story Historically solution Consider computer game concepts and technology to enable visualization and interaction in 3d virtual space #12;Computer games are a powerful and driving force in 3d visualization and interaction

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

473

Simple Games: Weightedness and Generalizations  

E-print Network

Simple Games: Weightedness and Generalizations A Dissertation Submitted to the Department contributes to the program of numerical characterisation and classifi- cation of simple games outlined is what makes a simple game a weighted majority game. The necessary and sufficient con- ditions

Slinko, Arkadii

474

Classifying input for active games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active games are video games that involve physical activity. Active games capture input via a variety of devices such as accelerometers, cameras, pressure sensors and exercise equipment. Although active games have become highly popular, the interaction styles they support are poorly understood, and largely driven by the capabilities of individual hardware devices. In order to allow for a standard development

Tadeusz Stach; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Matthew Brehmer; Andreas Hollatz

2009-01-01

475

3D Game Programming Introduction  

E-print Network

Graphics Advance Computer Graphics Game Design Visual Effect Computer Animation Programming C/C++ Human type of object location of vertex end of object definition GAMEGAME What is video game?What is video2012/9/18 1 3D Game Programming Introduction 3D Game Programming Introduction Ming-Te Chi

Ouhyoung, Ming

476

Mobile educational game: adventure anywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main topic of this work is development of educational games that can be used on mobile devices. Paper describes a novel approach to educational game defining and interpretation. Idea is based on extracting knowledge, game rules and scenarios outside the program thus enabling reusability. On the other hand by applying a layered approach to educational game interpretation we enable use

Milovanovi? Miloš; Minovi? Miroslav; Lazovi? Miroslav; Star?evi? Dušan

2009-01-01

477

Therapeutic Applications of Online Gaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses online gaming in the twenty-first century, describes online gaming, considers negative and positive aspects of gaming, and proposes several possible research, practice, and educational strategies for subsequent development of this genre into a useful tool for human service interventions. Positive characteristics of online gaming environments such as high levels of social interaction and the potential for transformative

Paul P. Freddolino; Christina M. Blaschke

2008-01-01

478

Scaling games to epic proportion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce scalability for computer games as the next frontier for techniques from data management. A very important aspect of computer games is the artificial intelligence (AI) of non- player characters. To create interesting AI in games today, developers or players have to create complex, dynamic behavior for a very small number of characters, but neither the game engines nor

Walker M. White; Alan J. Demers; Christoph Koch; Johannes Gehrke; Rajmohan Rajagopalan

2007-01-01

479

Computer Game - Discussing Development Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing game is anymore essentially a personal effort. The game development process is an important issue. In fact, games are becoming more and more complex task, involving multidisciplinary teams composed by member with specialised knowledge and skills. In this paper, we propose a framework, based in the information systems development literature and aplied to game development. This framework is also

Carlos J. Costa; Manuela Aparício

480

GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson  

E-print Network

. We all know many entertaining games, such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, bridge, baseball, computer and the mathematical areas of logic and computer science. One may view theoretical statistics as a two person game)). There are even things called "zero-person games", such as the "game of life" of Conway (see Berlekamp et al

Ferguson, Thomas S.

481

game design lecture # I.1  

E-print Network

the intelligence behind computer games. ­ Fundamentals of designing, programming and troubleshooting game behavior2011-sklar-lecI.1 6 aspects of game design [schell] · animation : "to give life" to characters in yourcisc3665 game design fall 2011 lecture # I.1 introduction topics: · introduction to the course

Sklar, Elizabeth

482

Mathematical Modeling of Social Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human computation is a technique that makes use of human abilities for computation to solve problems. Social games use the power of the Internet game players to solve human computation problems. In previous works, many social games were proposed and were quite successful, but no formal framework exists for designing social games in general. A formal framework is important because

Kam Tong Chan; Irwin King; Man-ching Yuen

2009-01-01

483

Video Games and Civic Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…

Perkins-Gough, Deborah

2009-01-01

484

Video Games: Competing with Machines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…

Hanson, Jarice

485

APPLIED RESEARCH IN VIDEO GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three uses of video games are described: 1. Video games as assessment and as measures of performance. 2. Video games as training and practice in cognitive and perceptual skills, biological and physiological functioning, and cooperation and teamwork. 3. Video games as entertainment. Selected studies are described for each domain. The purpose is to suggest the many possible roles for video

Jeffrey Goldstein

486

Simple Games . . . or Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students today begin using computers and playing video games as early as two years old. The technology behind these games is more complicated than most people can imagine. In this article, the author presents some simple number games which seem easy at the beginning, but as the games are repeated, mathematical content becomes more of the focus…

Arn, Susan Kyle

2006-01-01

487

RISK AVERSION IN GAME SHOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game

Steffen Andersen; Glenn W. Harrison; Morten I. Lau; E. Elisabet Rutstrom

488

Evolutionary game Karl Sigmund* and  

E-print Network

Primer Evolutionary game theory Karl Sigmund* and Martin A. Nowak Ever since Darwin read Malthus, the theory of evolution has benefited from the interaction of ecology with economics. Evolutionary game theory belongs to this tradition: it merges population ecology with game theory. Game theory originally

Nowak, Martin A.

489

Entropy of stochastic flows  

SciTech Connect

For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.

Dorogovtsev, Andrei A [Institute of Mathematics of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

2010-06-29

490

Stochastic resonance without tuning  

Microsoft Academic Search

STOCHASTIC resonance1á¤-4 (SR) is a phenomenon wherein the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular, non-zero level of noise5 á¤-7. SR has been proposed as a means for improving signal detection in a wide variety of systems, including superconducting quantum interference devices8, and may be used in some

J. J. Collins; Carson C. Chow; Thomas T. Imhoff

1995-01-01

491

Knowledge acquisition for adaptive game AI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Game artificial intelligence (AI) controls the decision-making process of computer- controlled opponents in computer games. Adaptive game AI (i.e., game AI that can automatically adapt the behaviour of the computer players to changes in the environment) can increase the entertainment value of computer games. Successful adaptive game AI is invariably based on the game's domain knowledge. We show that an

Marc J. V. Ponsen; Pieter Spronck; Héctor Muńoz-avila; David W. Aha

2007-01-01

492

Designing Games to Effect Social Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serious games, persuasive games, news games - these are all terms used for games which let players gain an experiential understanding of real world issues through play. Many in this growing class of games deal with social causes; recent examples include Peacemaker, about solving Middle East peace, The Redistricting Game, about congressional redistricting and redistricting reform, and the online game

Chris Swain

2007-01-01

493

Signal-dependent turnover of the bacterial flagellar switch protein FliM  

E-print Network

-resolution fluorescence microscopy of E. coli expressing genomically encoded YPet derivatives of FliM at physio- logical complexes that push on a central rotor. The Escherichia coli motor switches direction stochastically complexes. chemotaxis single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence in vivo microscopy

Berry, Richard

494

Video game induced seizures.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen patients who experienced epileptic seizures while playing video games are described together with a review of 20 cases in the English literature. Nine of the 15 cases and all but two of the reported cases experienced their first seizure while playing video games. Two thirds of patients had idiopathic generalised epilepsy and mainly reported generalised tonic clonic seizures, but some had typical absence seizures and myoclonic jerks while playing video games. In this series, 30% with idiopathic generalised epilepsy had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Overall, 70% of patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy were photosensitive to intermittent photic stimulation and the mechanism of seizure provocation was probably similar to that of television induced seizures, although sensitivity to specific patterns was sometimes important. Two children had self induced video game seizures. Non-photic factors such as excitement, fatigue, sleep deprivation, cognitive processing, and diurnal variation in susceptibility seemed to be important seizure precipitants, particularly in non-photo-sensitive patients. Twenty nine per cent of patients had partial (mainly occipital) video game associated seizures. Occipital spikes were common in the EEG of these patients. Photosensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation may have been important in two patients but in the others, who all played arcade video games, other mechanisms need to be considered. Video game associated seizures are a feature of several epileptic syndromes and differ in precipitants and appropriate management. PMID:8057115

Ferrie, C D; De Marco, P; Grunewald, R A; Giannakodimos, S; Panayiotopoulos, C P

1994-01-01

495

Basics of Safety Switches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.

2008-11-25

496

Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.  

SciTech Connect

Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

2009-09-01

497

Effects of adaptive dynamical linking in networked games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of dynamical topologies in the evolution of cooperation has received considerable attention, as some studies have demonstrated that dynamical networks are much better than static networks in terms of boosting cooperation. Here we study a dynamical model of evolution of cooperation on stochastic dynamical networks in which there are no permanent partners to each agent. Whenever a new link is created, its duration is randomly assigned without any bias or preference. We allow the agent to adaptively adjust the duration of each link during the evolution in accordance with the feedback from game interactions. By Monte Carlo simulations, we find that cooperation can be remarkably promoted by this adaptive dynamical linking mechanism both for the game of pairwise interactions, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma game (PDG), and for the game of group interactions, illustrated by the public goods game (PGG). And the faster the adjusting rate, the more successful the evolution of cooperation. We also show that in this context weak selection favors cooperation much more than strong selection does. What is particularly meaningful is that the prosperity of cooperation in this study indicates that the rationality and selfishness of a single agent in adjusting social ties can lead to the progress of altruism of the whole population.

Yang, Zhihu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

2013-10-01

498

Switching power supply filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

1989-01-01

499

uv preilluminated gas switches  

SciTech Connect

We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

1980-06-03

500

Optical shutter switching matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

Grove, Charles H.

1991-01-01