Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
2015-11-10
In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper "Stochastic games" to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley's contribution. PMID:26556883
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations
Hauert, Christoph
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations Weini Huanga , Christoph Hauertb , and Arne June 11, 2015 (received for review September 29, 2014) Frequency-dependent selection and demographic, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic
Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis Daniel Wilhelm
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis Daniel Wilhelm Dept. of Computation and Neural Systems circuit, leading to the development of deterministic digital logic. Here, we replace each classical switch with a probabilistic switch (pswitch). We present algorithms for synthesizing circuits closed with a desired
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning
Bowling, Michael
An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning Michael Bowling Manuela and adapt. Stochastic games, first studied in the game theory community, are a natural extension of MDPs techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning
Stochastic Differential Games with Asymmetric Information
Cardaliaguet, Pierre Rainer, Catherine
2009-02-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which the players have an asymmetric information on the random payoff. We prove that the game has a value and characterize this value in terms of dual viscosity solutions of some second order Hamilton-Jacobi equation.
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Cardaliaguet, P.; Rainer, C.
2013-08-01
We introduce a new notion of pathwise strategies for stochastic differential games. This allows us to give a correct meaning to some statement asserted in Cardaliaguet and Rainer (Appl. Math. Optim. 59: 1-36, 2009)
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN Eugene A. FEINBERG INRIA, B This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that fo* *r a large class
Stochastic game dynamics under demographic fluctuations.
Huang, Weini; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne
2015-07-21
Frequency-dependent selection and demographic fluctuations play important roles in evolutionary and ecological processes. Under frequency-dependent selection, the average fitness of the population may increase or decrease based on interactions between individuals within the population. This should be reflected in fluctuations of the population size even in constant environments. Here, we propose a stochastic model that naturally combines these two evolutionary ingredients by assuming frequency-dependent competition between different types in an individual-based model. In contrast to previous game theoretic models, the carrying capacity of the population, and thus the population size, is determined by pairwise competition of individuals mediated by evolutionary games and demographic stochasticity. In the limit of infinite population size, the averaged stochastic dynamics is captured by deterministic competitive Lotka-Volterra equations. In small populations, demographic stochasticity may instead lead to the extinction of the entire population. Because the population size is driven by fitness in evolutionary games, a population of cooperators is less prone to go extinct than a population of defectors, whereas in the usual systems of fixed size the population would thrive regardless of its average payoff. PMID:26150518
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games
Feinberg, Eugene A.
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to stochastic and repeated games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B matrix games. The main result is that for a large class of perturbations the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions of appropriate lexicographic games. We consider
HYSTERESIS-BASED SWITCHING CONTROL OF STOCHASTIC LINEAR SYSTEMS
Hespanha, João Pedro
HYSTERESIS-BASED SWITCHING CONTROL OF STOCHASTIC LINEAR SYSTEMS Maria Prandini£ , Jo~ao P. Hespanha. Abstract We study hysteresis-based switching control for a class of discrete-time stochastic linear systems exceeds its minimum (over all admissible models) by a certain hysteresis factor. The con- troller
Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy
van Oudenaarden, Alexander
Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy Benjamin B. Kaufmann1,2[ , Qiong switching revealed by single-cell genealogy. PLoS Biol 5(9): e239. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.0050239 measurements of phenotype stability, switching, and herit- ability are rare, both because detailed genealogical
Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hamlen, Karla R.
2012-01-01
Stochastic Frontier Regression Analysis was used to investigate strategies and skills that are associated with the minimization of time required to achieve proficiency in video games among students in grades four and five. Students self-reported their video game play habits, including strategies and skills used to become good at the video games…
DYNAMICS OF NETWORKS WITH STOCHASTICALLY SWITCHED CONNECTIONS Igor Belykh
Belykh, Igor
DYNAMICS OF NETWORKS WITH STOCHASTICALLY SWITCHED CONNECTIONS Igor Belykh Department of Mathematics discusses the influence of network structure on the dynamics of networks with fast on-off stochastic system has a unique attractor and whether or not the attractors are invariant under the dynamics
Stochastic gene expression in switching environments.
Gander, Martin J; Mazza, Christian; Rummler, Hansklaus
2007-08-01
Organisms are known to adapt to regularly varying environments. However, in most cases, the fluctuations of the environment are irregular and stochastic, alternating between favorable and unfavorable regimes, so that cells must cope with an uncertain future. A possible response is population diversification. We assume here that the cell population is divided into two groups, corresponding to two phenotypes, having distinct growth rates, and that cells can switch randomly their phenotypes. In static environments, the net growth rate is maximized when the population is homogeneously composed of cells having the largest growth rate. In random environments, growth rates fluctuate and observations reveal that sometimes heterogeneous populations have a larger net growth rate than homogeneous ones, a fact illustrated recently through Monte-Carlo simulations based on a birth and migration process in a random environment. We study this process mathematically by focusing on the proportion f(t) of cells having the largest growth rate at time t, and give explicitly the related steady state distribution pi. We also prove the convergence of empirical averages along trajectories to the first moment E(pi) (f), and provide efficient numerical methods for computing E(pi) (f). PMID:17380334
The Complexity of Nash Equilibria in Simple Stochastic Multiplayer Games
Ummels, Michael; Wojtczak, Dominik
2009-02-01
We analyse the computational complexity of finding Nash equilibria in simple stochastic multiplayer games. We show that restricting the search space to equilibria whose payoffs fall into a certain interval may lead to ...
The evolutionary emergence of stochastic phenotype switching in bacteria
2011-01-01
Stochastic phenotype switching – or bet hedging – is a pervasive feature of living systems and common in bacteria that experience fluctuating (unpredictable) environmental conditions. Under such conditions, the capacity to generate variable offspring spreads the risk of being maladapted in the present environment, against offspring likely to have some chance of survival in the future. While a rich subject for theoretical studies, little is known about the selective causes responsible for the evolutionary emergence of stochastic phenotype switching. Here we review recent work – both theoretical and experimental – that sheds light on ecological factors that favour switching types over non-switching types. Of particular relevance is an experiment that provided evidence for an adaptive origin of stochastic phenotype switching by subjecting bacterial populations to a selective regime that mimicked essential features of the host immune response. Central to the emergence of switching types was frequent imposition of ‘exclusion rules’ and ‘population bottlenecks’ – two complementary faces of frequency dependent selection. While features of the immune response, exclusion rules and bottlenecks are likely to operate in many natural environments. Together these factors define a set of selective conditions relevant to the evolution of stochastic switching, including antigenic variation and bacterial persistence. PMID:21995592
LIDS REPORT 2875 1 Stochastic Shortest Path Games and Q-Learning
Yu, Huizhen Janey
stochastic dynamic games (or Markov games) that have a cost-free termination state. Our main focusLIDS REPORT 2875 1 Stochastic Shortest Path Games and Q-Learning Huizhen Yu Abstract We consider a class of two-player zero-sum stochastic games with finite state and compact control spaces, which we
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
Self-Consistent Proteomic Field Theory of Stochastic Gene Switches
Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.
2005-01-01
We present a self-consistent field approximation approach to the problem of the genetic switch composed of two mutually repressing/activating genes. The protein and DNA state dynamics are treated stochastically and on an equal footing. In this approach the mean influence of the proteomic cloud created by one gene on the action of another is self-consistently computed. Within this approximation a broad range of stochastic genetic switches may be solved exactly in terms of finding the probability distribution and its moments. A much larger class of problems, such as genetic networks and cascades, also remain exactly solvable with this approximation. We discuss, in depth, certain specific types of basic switches used by biological systems and compare their behavior to the expectation for a deterministic switch. PMID:15542546
Evolutionary Rotation in Switching Incentive Zero-Sum Games
Zhijian Wang; Bin Xu
2012-07-24
In a laboratory experiment, round by round, individual interactions should lead to the social evolutionary rotation in population strategy state space. Successive switching the incentive parameter should lead to successive change of the rotation ---- both of its direction and its strength. In data from a switching payoff matrix experiment of extended 2x2 games (Binmore, Swierzbinski and Proulx, 2001 [1]), we find the changing of the social evolutionary rotation can be distinguished quantitatively. The evolutionary rotation can be captured by evolutionary dynamics. With eigenvalue from the Jacobian of a constrained replicator dynamics model, an interpretation for observed rotation strength is given. In addition, equality-of-populations rank test shows that relative response coefficient of a group could persist cross the switching parameter games. The data has successively been used to support Von Neumann's minimax theory. Using the old data, with observed evolutionary rotation, this report provides a new insight into evolutionary game theory and experimental social dynamics.
PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games
Oxford, University of
PRISM-games: A Model Checker for Stochastic Multi-Player Games Taolue Chen1 , Vojtech Forejt1 of Oxford, UK 2 School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, UK Abstract. We present PRISM checker PRISM, benefiting from its existing user interface and simulator, whilst adding novel model
Stochastic analysis of a miRNA-protein toggle switch.
Giampieri, E; Remondini, D; de Oliveira, L; Castellani, G; Lió, P
2011-10-01
Within systems biology there is an increasing interest in the stochastic behavior of genetic and biochemical reaction networks. An appropriate stochastic description is provided by the chemical master equation, which represents a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC). In this paper we consider the stochastic properties of a toggle switch, involving a protein compound (E2Fs and Myc) and a miRNA cluster (miR-17-92), known to control the eukaryotic cell cycle and possibly involved in oncogenesis, recently proposed in the literature within a deterministic framework. Due to the inherent stochasticity of biochemical processes and the small number of molecules involved, the stochastic approach should be more correct in describing the real system: we study the agreement between the two approaches by exploring the system parameter space. We address the problem by proposing a simplified version of the model that allows analytical treatment, and by performing numerical simulations for the full model. We observed optimal agreement between the stochastic and the deterministic description of the circuit in a large range of parameters, but some substantial differences arise in at least two cases: (1) when the deterministic system is in the proximity of a transition from a monostable to a bistable configuration, and (2) when bistability (in the deterministic system) is "masked" in the stochastic system by the distribution tails. The approach provides interesting estimates of the optimal number of molecules involved in the toggle switch. Our discussion of the points of strengths, potentiality and weakness of the chemical master equation in systems biology and the differences with respect to deterministic modeling are leveraged in order to provide useful advice for both the bioinformatician and the theoretical scientist. PMID:21717010
Stochastic heterogeneous interaction promotes cooperation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game.
Zhu, Ping; Wei, Guiyi
2014-01-01
Previous studies mostly investigate player's cooperative behavior as affected by game time-scale or individual diversity. In this paper, by involving both time-scale and diversity simultaneously, we explore the effect of stochastic heterogeneous interaction. In our model, the occurrence of game interaction between each pair of linked player obeys a random probability, which is further described by certain distributions. Simulations on a 4-neighbor square lattice show that the cooperation level is remarkably promoted when stochastic heterogeneous interaction is considered. The results are then explained by investigating the mean payoffs, the mean boundary payoffs and the transition probabilities between cooperators and defectors. We also show some typical snapshots and evolution time series of the system. Finally, the 8-neighbor square lattice and BA scale-free network results indicate that the stochastic heterogeneous interaction can be robust against different network topologies. Our work may sharpen the understanding of the joint effect of game time-scale and individual diversity on spatial games. PMID:24759921
Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistanceINFO classification: 2300 2340 2346 Keywords: Task switching Selective attention Executive control Video games a b switching, suggest- ing that VGPs also have superior cognitive control abilities compared to nVGPs. In two
A Game-Theoretic Control Approach to Mitigate Cyber Switching Attacks in Smart Grid Systems
Kundur, Deepa
that has cyber control over a circuit breaker switching a resistive load. In order to conduct a successfulA Game-Theoretic Control Approach to Mitigate Cyber Switching Attacks in Smart Grid Systems cyber switching attacks. The attacks are based on calculated switchings of external power sources
A Stochastic Maximum Principle for a Stochastic Differential Game of a Mean-Field Type
Hosking, John Joseph Absalom
2012-12-15
We construct a stochastic maximum principle (SMP) which provides necessary conditions for the existence of Nash equilibria in a certain form of N-agent stochastic differential game (SDG) of a mean-field type. The information structure considered for the SDG is of a possible asymmetric and partial type. To prove our SMP we take an approach based on spike-variations and adjoint representation techniques, analogous to that of S. Peng (SIAM J. Control Optim. 28(4):966-979, 1990) in the optimal stochastic control context. In our proof we apply adjoint representation procedures at three points. The first-order adjoint processes are defined as solutions to certain mean-field backward stochastic differential equations, and second-order adjoint processes of a first type are defined as solutions to certain backward stochastic differential equations. Second-order adjoint processes of a second type are defined as solutions of certain backward stochastic equations of a type that we introduce in this paper, and which we term conditional mean-field backward stochastic differential equations. From the resulting representations, we show that the terms relating to these second-order adjoint processes of the second type are of an order such that they do not appear in our final SMP equations. A comparable situation exists in an article by R. Buckdahn, B. Djehiche, and J. Li (Appl. Math. Optim. 64(2):197-216, 2011) that constructs a SMP for a mean-field type optimal stochastic control problem; however, the approach we take of using these second-order adjoint processes of a second type to deal with the type of terms that we refer to as the second form of quadratic-type terms represents an alternative to a development, to our setting, of the approach used in their article for their analogous type of term.
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau &
Shimamura, Arthur P.
Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks Matthew S. Cain & Ayelet N. Landau & Arthur P. Shimamura # Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2012 Abstract Video game expertise has been shown to have beneficial effects for visual attention processes, but the effects of action video game playing on executive
Every stochastic game with perfect information admits a canonical Endre Boros
Elbassioni, Khaled
Every stochastic game with perfect information admits a canonical form Endre Boros Vladimir Gurvich, Rutgers University, 640 Bartholomew Road, Piscataway NJ 08854-8003; (boros@rutcor.rutgers.edu) RUTCOR
Sun Zhiyuan; Yu Xin; Liu Ying; Gao Yitian
2012-12-15
We investigate the dynamics of the bound vector solitons (BVSs) for the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with the nonhomogenously stochastic perturbations added on their dispersion terms. Soliton switching (besides soliton breakup) can be observed between the two components of the BVSs. Rate of the maximum switched energy (absolute values) within the fixed propagation distance (about 10 periods of the BVSs) enhances in the sense of statistics when the amplitudes of stochastic perturbations increase. Additionally, it is revealed that the BVSs with enhanced coherence are more robust against the perturbations with nonhomogenous stochasticity. Diagram describing the approximate borders of the splitting and non-splitting areas is also given. Our results might be helpful in dynamics of the BVSs with stochastic noises in nonlinear optical fibers or with stochastic quantum fluctuations in Bose-Einstein condensates.
Two-Dimensional Route Switching in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Game-Theoretical Framework
Wang, Xinbing
the proposed game to the incomplete-information scenario and provide a method to compute the Bayesian NE of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China (fwu@cs.sjtu.edu.cn). Q. Zhang1 Two-Dimensional Route Switching in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Game-Theoretical Framework Qingkai
Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation in stochastic
Boucherie, Richard J.
Production, Manufacturing and Logistics Cooperation and game-theoretic cost allocation 2013 Keywords: Joint replenishment Stochastic demand Cost allocation Continuous review Game theory their inventories and face Pois- son demand. Our main goal is to analyze stable cost allocations of the joint costs
Robust stability of stochastic delayed additive neural networks with Markovian switching.
Huang, He; Ho, Daniel W C; Qu, Yuzhong
2007-09-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of robust stability for stochastic interval delayed additive neural networks (SIDANN) with Markovian switching. The time delay is assumed to be time-varying. In such neural networks, the features of stochastic systems, interval systems, time-varying delay systems and Markovian switching are taken into account. The mathematical model of this kind of neural networks is first proposed. Secondly, the global exponential stability in the mean square is studied for the SIDANN with Markovian switching. Based on the Lyapunov method, several stability conditions are presented, which can be expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. As a subsequent result, the stochastic interval additive neural networks with time-varying delay are also discussed. A sufficient condition is given to determine its stability. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the results developed. PMID:17714914
On the Expressibility of Stochastic Switching Hongchao Zhou
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
places them in parallel, such that the probability of the resulting circuit is 1 - (1 - p1)(1 - p2) = p1 + p2 - p1p2. In this paper, we focus on simple series-parallel (ssp) switching circuits. An ssp or parallel. Shannon proved that every Boolean function can be realized by a switching relay circuit
A Pumping Algorithm for Ergodic Stochastic Mean Payoff Games with Perfect Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boros, Endre; Elbassioni, Khaled; Gurvich, Vladimir; Makino, Kazuhisa
In this paper, we consider two-person zero-sum stochastic mean payoff games with perfect information, or BWR-games, given by a digraph G = (V = V B ? V W ? V R , E), with local rewards r: E to { R}, and three types of vertices: black V B , white V W , and random V R . The game is played by two players, White and Black: When the play is at a white (black) vertex v, White (Black) selects an outgoing arc (v,u). When the play is at a random vertex v, a vertex u is picked with the given probability p(v,u). In all cases, Black pays White the value r(v,u). The play continues forever, and White aims to maximize (Black aims to minimize) the limiting mean (that is, average) payoff. It was recently shown in [7] that BWR-games are polynomially equivalent with the classical Gillette games, which include many well-known subclasses, such as cyclic games, simple stochastic games (SSG's), stochastic parity games, and Markov decision processes. In this paper, we give a new algorithm for solving BWR-games in the ergodic case, that is when the optimal values do not depend on the initial position. Our algorithm solves a BWR-game by reducing it, using a potential transformation, to a canonical form in which the optimal strategies of both players and the value for every initial position are obvious, since a locally optimal move in it is optimal in the whole game. We show that this algorithm is pseudo-polynomial when the number of random nodes is constant. We also provide an almost matching lower bound on its running time, and show that this bound holds for a wider class of algorithms. Let us add that the general (non-ergodic) case is at least as hard as SSG's, for which no pseudo-polynomial algorithm is known.
Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model
Donnelly, Catherine
2011-10-15
We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.
The Robustness of Stochastic Switching Networks Po-Ling Loh
Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)
to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions--simple series-parallel and general series-parallel circuits--and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robust to small error perturbations, while general series-parallel circuits are not. Specifically, the total error introduced
Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations.
Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter A; Schubert, Torsten
2012-05-01
We examined the relation of action video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills that are needed to coordinate two different tasks. As action video games are similar to real life situations and complex in nature, and include numerous concurrent actions, they may generate an ideal environment for practicing these skills (Green & Bavelier, 2008). For two types of experimental paradigms, dual-task and task switching respectively; we obtained performance advantages for experienced video gamers compared to non-gamers in situations in which two different tasks were processed simultaneously or sequentially. This advantage was absent in single-task situations. These findings indicate optimized executive control skills in video gamers. Similar findings in non-gamers after 15 h of action video game practice when compared to non-gamers with practice on a puzzle game clarified the causal relation between video game practice and the optimization of executive control skills. PMID:22426427
Accelerated Iterations for Finding the Soft-constrained Stochastic Nash Games Equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, I. G.; Rusinova, R. I.; Lomev, B. M.
2010-11-01
In this paper, the stochastic Nash games for weakly coupled large-scale systems with state-dependent noise are considered. The considered stochastic algebraic Riccati equations is quite different from the existing results in the sense that the equations have the additional linear term. The numerical algorithm based on Lyapunov iterations for solving the set of cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations is derived by Mukaidani (American Control Conference, June 2008, USA 4232-4237). We modify this method and derive new iterations based on the solution of linear matrix equations with linear rate of convergence. We carry out numerical experiments to illustrate the effectiveness of the considered iterations.
Synthesis for Multi-Objective Stochastic Games: An Application to Autonomous Urban Driving
Oxford, University of
Synthesis for Multi-Objective Stochastic Games: An Application to Autonomous Urban Driving Taolue in a variety of appli- cations, for example, autonomous parking and driving, medical devices, and communication-level control of autonomous vehicles. 1 Introduction The increasing reliance on sensor-enabled smart devices
Modulating the frequency and bias of stochastic switching to control phenotypic variation.
Hung, Michelle; Chang, Emily; Hussein, Razika; Frazier, Katya; Shin, Jung-Eun; Sagawa, Shiori; Lim, Han N
2014-01-01
Mechanisms that control cell-to-cell variation in gene expression ('phenotypic variation') can determine a population's growth rate, robustness, adaptability and capacity for complex behaviours. Here we describe a general strategy (termed FABMOS) for tuning the phenotypic variation and mean expression of cell populations by modulating the frequency and bias of stochastic transitions between 'OFF' and 'ON' expression states of a genetic switch. We validated the strategy experimentally using a synthetic fim switch in Escherichia coli. Modulating the frequency of switching can generate a bimodal (low frequency) or a unimodal (high frequency) population distribution with the same mean expression. Modulating the bias as well as the frequency of switching can generate a spectrum of bimodal and unimodal distributions with the same mean expression. This remarkable control over phenotypic variation, which cannot be easily achieved with standard gene regulatory mechanisms, has many potential applications for synthetic biology, engineered microbial ecosystems and experimental evolution. PMID:25087841
The effect of action video game experience on task-switching
Green, C.Shawn; Sugarman, Michael A.; Medford, Katherine; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Daphne Bavelier
2012-01-01
There is now a substantial body of work demonstrating that action video game experience results in enhancements in a wide variety of perceptual skills. More recently, several groups have also demonstrated improvements in abilities that are more cognitive in nature, in particular, the ability to efficiently switch between tasks. In a series of four experiments, we add to this body of work, demonstrating that the action video game player advantage is not exclusively due to an ability to map manual responses onto arbitrary buttons, but rather generalizes to vocal responses, is not restricted to tasks that are perceptual in nature (e.g. respond to a physical dimension of the stimulus such as its color), but generalizes to more cognitive tasks (e.g. is a number odd or even), and is present whether the switch requires a goal-switch or only a motor switch. Finally, a training study establishes that the relationship between the reduction in switch cost and action game playing is causal. PMID:22393270
An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch
Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Wu, Xiao-Lun
2015-01-01
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward ?f and backward ?b intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, P(?f) and P(?b), of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor reversal dynamics as a first-passage problem, which results from conformation fluctuations of the motor switch, we calculated P(?f) and P(?b) and found good agreement with the measurements. PMID:26554590
PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE
Cordes, J. M.
2013-09-20
Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.
An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch
Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun
2015-01-01
Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward $\\Delta_{f}$ and backward $\\Delta_{b}$ intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, $P(\\Delta_{f})$ and $P(\\Delta_{b})$, of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor re...
Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
Tanimoto, Jun
2014-08-01
In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium. This study introduced an intriguing framework for the strategy update rule that allows any combination of a purely deterministic method, imitation max (IM), and a purely probabilistic one, pairwise Fermi (Fermi-PW). A series of simulations covering the whole range from IM to Fermi-PW reveals that, as a general tendency, the larger fractions of stochastic updating reduce network reciprocity, so long as the underlying lattice contains no noise in the degree of distribution. However, a small amount of stochastic flavor added to an otherwise perfectly deterministic update rule was actually found to enhance network reciprocity. This occurs because a subtle stochastic effect in the update rule improves the evolutionary trail in games having more stag-hunt-type dilemmas, although the same stochastic effect degenerates evolutionary trails in games having more chicken-type dilemmas. We explain these effects by dividing evolutionary trails into the enduring and expanding periods defined by Shigaki et al. [Phys. Rev. E 86, 031141 (2012)]. PMID:25215687
2015-01-01
Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322
Optimal switching strategies for stochastic geocentric/egocentric navigation
O. Peleg; L. Mahadevan
2015-12-18
Animals use a combination of egocentric navigation driven by the internal integration of environmental cues, interspersed with geocentric course correction and reorientation, often with uncertainty in sensory acquisition of information, planning and execution. Inspired directly by observations of dung beetle navigational strategies that show switching between geocentric and egocentric strategies, we consider the question of optimal strategies for the navigation of an agent along a preferred direction in the presence of multiple sources of noise. We address this using a model that takes the form of a correlated random walk at short time scales that is interspersed with reorientation events that yields a biased random walks at long time scales. We identify optimal alternation schemes and characterize their robustness in the context of noisy sensory acquisition, and performance errors linked with variations in environmental conditions and agent-environment interactions.
Control of stochastic and induced switching in biophysical networks
Daniel K. Wells; William L. Kath; Adilson E. Motter
2015-09-10
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks
Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-01-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks. PMID:26451275
Control of Stochastic and Induced Switching in Biophysical Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wells, Daniel K.; Kath, William L.; Motter, Adilson E.
2015-07-01
Noise caused by fluctuations at the molecular level is a fundamental part of intracellular processes. While the response of biological systems to noise has been studied extensively, there has been limited understanding of how to exploit it to induce a desired cell state. Here we present a scalable, quantitative method based on the Freidlin-Wentzell action to predict and control noise-induced switching between different states in genetic networks that, conveniently, can also control transitions between stable states in the absence of noise. We apply this methodology to models of cell differentiation and show how predicted manipulations of tunable factors can induce lineage changes, and further utilize it to identify new candidate strategies for cancer therapy in a cell death pathway model. This framework offers a systems approach to identifying the key factors for rationally manipulating biophysical dynamics, and should also find use in controlling other classes of noisy complex networks.
DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Earnest, Tyler M.; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida
2013-04-01
Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application.
Ward, Emily J; Scholl, Brian J
2015-08-01
What we see is a function not only of incoming stimulation, but of unconscious inferences in visual processing. Among the most powerful demonstrations of this are bistable events, but what causes the percepts of such events to switch? Beyond voluntary effort and stochastic processing, we explore the ways in which ongoing dynamic percepts may switch as a function of the content of brief, unconscious, independent cues. We introduced transient disambiguating occlusion cues into the Spinning Dancer silhouette animation. The dancer is bistable in terms of depth and rotation direction, but many observers see extended rotation in the same direction, interrupted only rarely by involuntary switches. Observers failed to notice these occasional disambiguating cues, but their impact was strong and systematic: Cues typically led to seemingly stochastic perceptual switches shortly thereafter, especially when conflicting with the current percept. These results show how the content of incoming information determines and constrains online conscious perception-even when neither the content nor the brute existence of that information ever reaches awareness. Thus, just as phenomenological ease does not imply a corresponding lack of underlying effortful computation, phenomenological randomness should not be taken to imply a corresponding lack of underlying systematicity. PMID:25915074
DNA looping increases the range of bistability in a stochastic model of the lac genetic switch.
Earnest, Tyler M; Roberts, Elijah; Assaf, Michael; Dahmen, Karin; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida
2013-04-01
Conditions and parameters affecting the range of bistability of the lac genetic switch in Escherichia coli are examined for a model which includes DNA looping interactions with the lac repressor and a lactose analogue. This stochastic gene-mRNA-protein model of the lac switch describes DNA looping using a third transcriptional state. We exploit the fast bursting dynamics of mRNA by combining a novel geometric burst extension with the finite state projection method. This limits the number of protein/mRNA states, allowing for an accelerated search of the model's parameter space. We evaluate how the addition of the third state changes the bistability properties of the model and find a critical region of parameter space where the phenotypic switching occurs in a range seen in single molecule fluorescence studies. Stochastic simulations show induction in the looping model is preceded by a rare complete dissociation of the loop followed by an immediate burst of mRNA rather than a slower build up of mRNA as in the two-state model. The overall effect of the looped state is to allow for faster switching times while at the same time further differentiating the uninduced and induced phenotypes. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters are consistent with free energies derived from thermodynamic studies suggesting that this minimal model of DNA looping could have a broader range of application. PMID:23406725
Zahiripour, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Ali Akbar
2014-09-01
A novel switching function based on an optimization strategy for the sliding mode control (SMC) method has been provided for uncertain stochastic systems subject to actuator degradation such that the closed-loop system is globally asymptotically stable with probability one. In the previous researches the focus on sliding surface has been on proportional or proportional-integral function of states. In this research, from a degree of freedom that depends on designer choice is used to meet certain objectives. In the design of the switching function, there is a parameter which the designer can regulate for specified objectives. A sliding-mode controller is synthesized to ensure the reachability of the specified switching surface, despite actuator degradation and uncertainties. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24954808
A role of stochastic phenotype switching in generating mosaic endothelial cell heterogeneity.
Yuan, Lei; Chan, Gary C; Beeler, David; Janes, Lauren; Spokes, Katherine C; Dharaneeswaran, Harita; Mojiri, Anahita; Adams, William J; Sciuto, Tracey; Garcia-Cardeña, Guillermo; Molema, Grietje; Kang, Peter M; Jahroudi, Nadia; Marsden, Philip A; Dvorak, Ann; Regan, Erzsébet Ravasz; Aird, William C
2016-01-01
Previous studies have shown that biological noise may drive dynamic phenotypic mosaicism in isogenic unicellular organisms. However, there is no evidence for a similar mechanism operating in metazoans. Here we show that the endothelial-restricted gene, von Willebrand factor (VWF), is expressed in a mosaic pattern in the capillaries of many vascular beds and in the aorta. In capillaries, the mosaicism is dynamically regulated, with VWF switching between ON and OFF states during the lifetime of the animal. Clonal analysis of cultured endothelial cells reveals that dynamic mosaic heterogeneity is controlled by a low-barrier, noise-sensitive bistable switch that involves random transitions in the DNA methylation status of the VWF promoter. Finally, the hearts of VWF-null mice demonstrate an abnormal endothelial phenotype as well as cardiac dysfunction. Together, these findings suggest a novel stochastic phenotype switching strategy for adaptive homoeostasis in the adult vasculature. PMID:26744078
Designing a stochastic genetic switch by coupling chaos and bistability.
Zhao, Xiang; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli
2015-11-01
In stem cell differentiation, a pluripotent stem cell becomes progressively specialized and generates specific cell types through a series of epigenetic processes. How cells can precisely determine their fate in a fluctuating environment is a currently unsolved problem. In this paper, we suggest an abstract gene regulatory network to describe mathematically the differentiation phenomenon featuring stochasticity, divergent cell fates, and robustness. The network consists of three functional motifs: an upstream chaotic motif, a buffering motif of incoherent feed forward loop capable of generating a pulse, and a downstream motif which is bistable. The dynamic behavior is typically a transient chaos with fractal basin boundaries. The trajectories take transiently chaotic journeys before divergently settling down to the bistable states. The ratio of the probability that the high state is achieved to the probability that the low state is reached can maintain a constant in a population of cells with varied molecular fluctuations. The ratio can be turned up or down when proper parameters are adjusted. The model suggests a possible mechanism for the robustness against fluctuations that is prominently featured in pluripotent cell differentiations and developmental phenomena. PMID:26627572
Designing a stochastic genetic switch by coupling chaos and bistability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiang; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli
2015-11-01
In stem cell differentiation, a pluripotent stem cell becomes progressively specialized and generates specific cell types through a series of epigenetic processes. How cells can precisely determine their fate in a fluctuating environment is a currently unsolved problem. In this paper, we suggest an abstract gene regulatory network to describe mathematically the differentiation phenomenon featuring stochasticity, divergent cell fates, and robustness. The network consists of three functional motifs: an upstream chaotic motif, a buffering motif of incoherent feed forward loop capable of generating a pulse, and a downstream motif which is bistable. The dynamic behavior is typically a transient chaos with fractal basin boundaries. The trajectories take transiently chaotic journeys before divergently settling down to the bistable states. The ratio of the probability that the high state is achieved to the probability that the low state is reached can maintain a constant in a population of cells with varied molecular fluctuations. The ratio can be turned up or down when proper parameters are adjusted. The model suggests a possible mechanism for the robustness against fluctuations that is prominently featured in pluripotent cell differentiations and developmental phenomena.
Liu, K. J. Ray
simulations. Index Terms--Markov decision processes, game theory, scalable video coding, multicasting, pricingIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 14, NO. 5, MAY 2015 2353 Scalable Video Multicasting: A Stochastic Game Approach With Optimal Pricing Chih-Yu Wang, Member, IEEE, Yan Chen, Senior
Stochastic switching in slow-fast systems: a large-fluctuation approach.
Heckman, Christoffer R; Schwartz, Ira B
2014-02-01
In this paper we develop a perturbation method to predict the rate of occurrence of rare events for singularly perturbed stochastic systems using a probability density function approach. In contrast to a stochastic normal form approach, we model rare event occurrences due to large fluctuations probabilistically and employ a WKB ansatz to approximate their rate of occurrence. This results in the generation of a two-point boundary value problem that models the interaction of the state variables and the most likely noise force required to induce a rare event. The resulting equations of motion of describing the phenomenon are shown to be singularly perturbed. Vastly different time scales among the variables are leveraged to reduce the dimension and predict the dynamics on the slow manifold in a deterministic setting. The resulting constrained equations of motion may be used to directly compute an exponent that determines the probability of rare events. To verify the theory, a stochastic damped Duffing oscillator with three equilibrium points (two sinks separated by a saddle) is analyzed. The predicted switching time between states is computed using the optimal path that resides in an expanded phase space. We show that the exponential scaling of the switching rate as a function of system parameters agrees well with numerical simulations. Moreover, the dynamics of the original system and the reduced system via center manifolds are shown to agree in an exponentially scaling sense. PMID:25353557
Nash Games for Weakly-Coupled Large-Scale Markovian Jump Stochastic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagara, Muneomi; Mukaidani, Hiroaki
In this paper, the stochastic Nash games for stochastic Markov jump systems are investigated. First, the Nash equilibrium is defined and the existence conditions are formulated. In particular, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of two cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations (CSAREs) are developed. Moreover, in order to obtain the required solutions, a numerical algorithm that is based on the Newton's method is proposed. As an important implication, weakly-coupled large-scale systems are also adopted. After establishing the asymptotic structure of the solutions for the CSAREs, the quadratic convergence result that is based on the Newton's method is shown. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.
Stochastic switching in gene networks can occur by a single-molecule event or many molecular steps.
Choi, Paul J; Xie, X Sunney; Shakhnovich, Eugene I
2010-02-12
Due to regulatory feedback, biological networks can exist stably in multiple states, leading to heterogeneous phenotypes among genetically identical cells. Random fluctuations in protein numbers, tuned by specific molecular mechanisms, have been hypothesized to drive transitions between these different states. We develop a minimal theoretical framework to analyze the limits of switching in terms of simple experimental parameters. Our model identifies and distinguishes between two distinct molecular mechanisms for generating stochastic switches. In one class of switches, the stochasticity of a single-molecule event, a specific and rare molecular reaction, directly controls the macroscopic change in a cell's state. In the second class, no individual molecular event is significant, and stochasticity arises from the propagation of biochemical noise through many molecular pathways and steps. As an example, we explore switches based on protein-DNA binding fluctuations and predict relations between transcription factor kinetics, absolute switching rate, robustness, and efficiency that differentiate between switching by single-molecule events or many molecular steps. Finally, we apply our methods to recent experimental data on switching in Escherichia coli lactose metabolism, providing quantitative interpretations of a single-molecule switching mechanism. PMID:19931280
Beyond the Random Coil: Stochastic Conformational Switching in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins
Choi, Ucheor B.; McCann, James J.; Weninger, Keith R.; Bowen, Mark E.
2011-01-01
Summary Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) participate in critical cellular functions that exploit the flexibility and rapid conformational fluctuations of their native state. Limited information about the native state of IDPs can be gained by the averaging over many heterogeneous molecules that is unavoidable in ensemble approaches. We used single molecule fluorescence to characterize native state conformational dynamics in five synaptic proteins confirmed to be disordered by other techniques. For three of the proteins, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin and complexin, their conformational dynamics could be described with a simple semi-flexible polymer model. Surprisingly, two proteins, neuroligin and the NMDAR-2B glutamate receptor, were observed to stochastically switch among distinct conformational states despite the fact that they appeared intrinsically disordered by other measures. The hop-like intramolecular diffusion found in these proteins is suggested to define a class of functionality previously unrecognized for IDPs. PMID:21481779
Cortical Contractility Triggers a Stochastic Switch to Fast Amoeboid Cell Motility
Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Smutny, Michael; Morita, Hitoshi; Sako, Keisuke; Barone, Vanessa; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Sixt, Michael; Voituriez, Raphaël; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2015-01-01
Summary 3D amoeboid cell migration is central to many developmental and disease-related processes such as cancer metastasis. Here, we identify a unique prototypic amoeboid cell migration mode in early zebrafish embryos, termed stable-bleb migration. Stable-bleb cells display an invariant polarized balloon-like shape with exceptional migration speed and persistence. Progenitor cells can be reversibly transformed into stable-bleb cells irrespective of their primary fate and motile characteristics by increasing myosin II activity through biochemical or mechanical stimuli. Using a combination of theory and experiments, we show that, in stable-bleb cells, cortical contractility fluctuations trigger a stochastic switch into amoeboid motility, and a positive feedback between cortical flows and gradients in contractility maintains stable-bleb cell polarization. We further show that rearward cortical flows drive stable-bleb cell migration in various adhesive and non-adhesive environments, unraveling a highly versatile amoeboid migration phenotype. PMID:25679761
A Stochastic Single-Molecule Event Triggers Phenotype Switching of a Bacterial Cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Sunney; Choi, Paul; Cai, Long
2009-03-01
By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype.
A stochastic single-molecule event triggers phenotype switching of a bacterial cell.
Choi, Paul J; Cai, Long; Frieda, Kirsten; Xie, X Sunney
2008-10-17
By monitoring fluorescently labeled lactose permease with single-molecule sensitivity, we investigated the molecular mechanism of how an Escherichia coli cell with the lac operon switches from one phenotype to another. At intermediate inducer concentrations, a population of genetically identical cells exhibits two phenotypes: induced cells with highly fluorescent membranes and uninduced cells with a small number of membrane-bound permeases. We found that this basal-level expression results from partial dissociation of the tetrameric lactose repressor from one of its operators on looped DNA. In contrast, infrequent events of complete dissociation of the repressor from DNA result in large bursts of permease expression that trigger induction of the lac operon. Hence, a stochastic single-molecule event determines a cell's phenotype. PMID:18927393
Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta
2014-01-01
Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564
Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta
2014-01-01
Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564
Stochastic phenotype transition of a single cell in an intermediate region of gene state switching.
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong; Xie, X Sunney
2015-02-20
Multiple phenotypic states often arise in a single cell with different gene-expression states that undergo transcription regulation with positive feedback. Recent experiments show that, at least in E.coli, the gene state switching can be neither extremely slow nor exceedingly rapid as many previous theoretical treatments assumed. Rather, it is in the intermediate region which is difficult to handle mathematically. Under this condition, from a full chemical-master-equation description we derive a model in which the protein copy number, for a given gene state, follows a deterministic mean-field description while the protein-synthesis rates fluctuate due to stochastic gene state switching. The simplified kinetics yields a nonequilibrium landscape function, which, similar to the energy function for equilibrium fluctuation, provides the leading orders of fluctuations around each phenotypic state, as well as the transition rates between the two phenotypic states. This rate formula is analogous to Kramers' theory for chemical reactions. The resulting behaviors are significantly different from the two limiting cases studied previously. PMID:25763973
Stochastic Phenotype Transition of a Single Cell in an Intermediate Region of Gene State Switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong; Xie, X. Sunney
2015-02-01
Multiple phenotypic states often arise in a single cell with different gene-expression states that undergo transcription regulation with positive feedback. Recent experiments show that, at least in E. coli, the gene state switching can be neither extremely slow nor exceedingly rapid as many previous theoretical treatments assumed. Rather, it is in the intermediate region which is difficult to handle mathematically. Under this condition, from a full chemical-master-equation description we derive a model in which the protein copy number, for a given gene state, follows a deterministic mean-field description while the protein-synthesis rates fluctuate due to stochastic gene state switching. The simplified kinetics yields a nonequilibrium landscape function, which, similar to the energy function for equilibrium fluctuation, provides the leading orders of fluctuations around each phenotypic state, as well as the transition rates between the two phenotypic states. This rate formula is analogous to Kramers' theory for chemical reactions. The resulting behaviors are significantly different from the two limiting cases studied previously.
McEneaney, William M.
2004-08-15
Stochastic games under imperfect information are typically computationally intractable even in the discrete-time/discrete-state case considered here. We consider a problem where one player has perfect information.A function of a conditional probability distribution is proposed as an information state.In the problem form here, the payoff is only a function of the terminal state of the system,and the initial information state is either linear ora sum of max-plus delta functions.When the initial information state belongs to these classes, its propagation is finite-dimensional.The state feedback value function is also finite-dimensional,and obtained via dynamic programming,but has a nonstandard form due to the necessity of an expanded state variable.Under a saddle point assumption,Certainty Equivalence is obtained and the proposed function is indeed an information state.
Stochastic and Boltzmann-like models for behavioral changes, and their relation to game theory
Dirk Helbing
1998-05-22
In the last decade, stochastic models have shown to be very useful for quantitative modelling of social processes. Here, a configurational master equation for the description of behavioral changes by pair interactions of individuals is developed. Three kinds of social pair interactions are distinguished: Avoidance processes, compromising processes, and imitative processes. Computational results are presented for a special case of imitative processes: the competition of two equivalent strategies. They show a phase transition that describes the selforganization of a behavioral convention. This phase transition is further analyzed by examining the equations for the most probable behavioral distribution, which are Boltzmann-like equations. Special cases of Boltzmann-like equations do not obey the H-theorem and have oscillatory or even chaotic solutions. A suitable Taylor approximation leads to the socalled game dynamical equations (also known as selection-mutation equations in the theory of evolution).
Feature of Dynamic Games for Discrete-time Weakly Coupled Large-scale Stochastic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukaidani, Hiroaki; Xu, Hua
This paper discusses the dynamic games for a class of discrete time weakly coupled large-scale stochastic systems. First, it is shown that Pareto and Nash strategy set can be designed by solving the cross-coupled stochastic discrete algebraic Riccati equations (CSDAREs). After establishing the asymptotic structure for these solutions of CSDAREs, weak coupling parameter independent strategy sets are given for their problems respectively. It is shown for the first time that these parameter-independent strategy sets are the same and the proposed strategy sets attain the Pareto suboptimarity and the approximate Nash equilibrium. In fact, it is proved that these strategy sets achieve O(?2) approximation for all cost performances. Furthermore, it is worth pointing out that the proposed approximate strategy sets can be constructed by solving the parameter independent reduced-order discrete algebraic Riccati equations (DAREs) via LMI. As a result, the suboptimality of overall cost for each subsystem can be attained. Finally, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed design method, a numerical example is provided.
Biswas, Imran H.; Jakobsen, Espen R.; Karlsen, Kenneth H.
2010-08-15
We develop a viscosity solution theory for a system of nonlinear degenerate parabolic integro-partial differential equations (IPDEs) related to stochastic optimal switching and control problems or stochastic games. In the case of stochastic optimal switching and control, we prove via dynamic programming methods that the value function is a viscosity solution of the IPDEs. In our setting the value functions or the solutions of the IPDEs are not smooth, so classical verification theorems do not apply.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P. P.
1972-01-01
General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qun
2015-09-01
In this paper, a stochastic n-species Gilpin-Ayala competitive model with Lévy jumps and Markovian switching is proposed and studied. Some asymptotic properties are investigated and sufficient conditions for extinction, non-persistence in the mean and weak persistence are established. The threshold between extinction and weak persistence is obtained. The results illustrate that the asymptotic properties of the considered system have close relationships with Lévy jumps and the stationary distribution of the Markovian chain. Moreover, some simulation figures are presented to confirm our main results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagara, Muneomi; Mukaidani, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Toru
This paper discusses the infinite horizon static output feedback stochastic Nash games involving state-dependent noise in weakly coupled large-scale systems. In order to construct the strategy, the conditions for the existence of equilibria have been derived from the solutions of the sets of cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations (CSAREs). After establishing the asymptotic structure along with the positive semidefiniteness for the solutions of CSAREs, recursive algorithm for solving CSAREs is derived. As a result, it is shown that the proposed algorithm attains the reduced-order computations and the reduction of the CPU time. As another important contribution, the uniqueness of the strategy set is proved for the sufficiently small parameter ?. Finally, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, numerical example is given.
Delays-based protein switches in a stochastic single-gene network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chun; Zeng, Jiakui; Tian, Dong; Luo, Hongchun; Yang, Tao; Han, Qinglin; Xiang, Chao; Zeng, Chunhua; Wang, Canjun
2015-09-01
In this paper, the protein switch in a single-gene network with time delays is investigated, where the gene expression is assumed to be disturbed by multiplicative and additive noises. The impacts of time delays ?d and ?s in degradation and synthesis processes, time delay ?g in global process and cross-correlation between two noises (?i, and i = d , s , g) on the probability distribution and switch time (ST) from low protein level (OFF state) to high one (ON state) are discussed, respectively. Our results show that (1) the increase of the cross-correlation between two noises (?i) can induce protein switches from ON state to OFF one; (2) for ?i ? 0, the increase of ?d can induce protein switches from OFF state to ON one, while ?s (or ?g) can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one, but for ?i < 0, the ?d (or ?s) can induce protein switches from the OFF state to the ON one, while ?g can induce protein switches from the ON state to the OFF one; (3) the ST as functions of the noise intensities exhibits a maximum, which is the signature of the noise enhanced stability (NES) of the OFF state, while the increase of ?d can cause the NES phenomenon to disappear; and (4) ?d and ?s play opposing roles in the ST, i.e., the impacts of the time delays ?d and ?s on ST can be canceled each other out.
Stochastic switching of TiO2-based memristive devices with identical initial memory states
2014-01-01
In this work, we show that identical TiO2-based memristive devices that possess the same initial resistive states are only phenomenologically similar as their internal structures may vary significantly, which could render quite dissimilar switching dynamics. We experimentally demonstrated that the resistive switching of practical devices with similar initial states could occur at different programming stimuli cycles. We argue that similar memory states can be transcribed via numerous distinct active core states through the dissimilar reduced TiO2-x filamentary distributions. Our hypothesis was finally verified via simulated results of the memory state evolution, by taking into account dissimilar initial filamentary distribution. PMID:24994953
Stochastic Phenotype Transition of a Single Cell in an Intermediate Region of Gene State Switching
Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney
. Recent experiments show that, at least in E. coli, the gene state switching can be neither extremely slow, it is in the intermediate region which is difficult to handle mathematically. Under this condition, from a full chemical must have only a single peak [3], which is indicative of a sole phenotypic state. A living cell under
Chen, Bor-Sen; Tsai, Kun-Wei; Li, Cheng-Wei
2015-01-01
Molecular biologists have long recognized carcinogenesis as an evolutionary process that involves natural selection. Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages. In this study, the evolution of somatic cancer cell lineages during carcinogenesis was modeled as an equilibrium point (ie, phenotype of attractor) shifting, the process of a nonlinear stochastic evolutionary biological network. This process is subject to intrinsic random fluctuations because of somatic genetic and epigenetic variations, as well as extrinsic disturbances because of carcinogens and stressors. In order to maintain the normal function (ie, phenotype) of an evolutionary biological network subjected to random intrinsic fluctuations and extrinsic disturbances, a network robustness scheme that incorporates natural selection needs to be developed. This can be accomplished by selecting certain genetic and epigenetic variations to modify the network structure to attenuate intrinsic fluctuations efficiently and to resist extrinsic disturbances in order to maintain the phenotype of the evolutionary biological network at an equilibrium point (attractor). However, during carcinogenesis, the remaining (or neutral) genetic and epigenetic variations accumulate, and the extrinsic disturbances become too large to maintain the normal phenotype at the desired equilibrium point for the nonlinear evolutionary biological network. Thus, the network is shifted to a cancer phenotype at a new equilibrium point that begins a new evolutionary process. In this study, the natural selection scheme of an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis was derived from a robust negative feedback scheme based on the nonlinear stochastic Nash game strategy. The evolvability and phenotypic robustness criteria of the evolutionary cancer network were also estimated by solving a Hamilton–Jacobi inequality – constrained optimization problem. The simulation revealed that the phenotypic shift of the lung cancer-associated cell network takes 54.5 years from a normal state to stage I cancer, 1.5 years from stage I to stage II cancer, and 2.5 years from stage II to stage III cancer, with a reasonable match for the statistical result of the average age of lung cancer. These results suggest that a robust negative feedback scheme, based on a stochastic evolutionary game strategy, plays a critical role in an evolutionary biological network of carcinogenesis under a natural selection scheme. PMID:26244004
X. Zhu; L. Yin; L. Hood; D. Galas; P. Ao
2006-02-09
Phage lambda is one of the most studied biological models in modern molecular biology. Over the past 50 years quantitative experimental knowledge on this biological model has been accumulated at all levels: physics, chemistry, genomics, proteomics, functions, and more. All its components have been known to a great detail. The theoretical task has been to integrate its components to make the organism working quantitatively in a harmonic manner. This would test our biological understanding and would lay a solid fundamental for further explorations and applications, an obvious goal of systems biology. One of the outstanding challenges in doing so has been the so-called stability puzzle of lambda switch: the biologically observed robustness and its difficult mathematical reconstruction based on known experimental values. In this chapter we review the recent theoretical and experimental efforts on tackling this problem. An emphasis is put on the minimum quantitative modeling where a successful numerical agreement between experiments and modeling has been achieved. A novel method tentatively named stochastic dynamical structure analysis emerged from such study is also discussed within a broad modeling perspective.
A Pumping Algorithm for Ergodic Stochastic Mean Payoff Games with Perfect Information
Elbassioni, Khaled
(black) vertex v, White (Black) selects an outgoing arc (v, u). When the play is at a random vertex v). The play continues forever, and White aims to maximize (Black aims to minimize) the lim- iting mean (that is, average) payoff. It was recently shown in [BEGM09a] that BWR-games are polynomially equivalent
On the Global Convergence of Stochastic Fictitious Play*
Hofbauer, Josef
On the Global Convergence of Stochastic Fictitious Play* Josef Hofbauer Institut für Mathematik fictitious play for four classes of games: games with an interior ESS, zero sum games, potential games, stochastic fictitious play, supermodular games, discrete choice theory, chain recurrence, stochastic
Unified Systems of FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs with Jumps/Skew Reflections and Stochastic Differential Games
Wanyang Dai
2015-09-14
We study four systems and their interactions. First, we formulate a unified system of coupled forward-backward stochastic partial differential equations (FB-SPDEs) with Levy jumps, whose drift, diffusion, and jump coefficients may involve partial differential operators. A solution to the FB-SPDEs is defined by a 4-tuple general dimensional random vector-field process evolving in time together with position parameters over a domain (e.g., a hyperbox or a manifold). Under an infinite sequence of generalized local linear growth and Lipschitz conditions, the well-posedness of an adapted 4-tuple strong solution is proved over a suitably constructed topological space. Second, we consider a unified system of FB-SDEs, a special form of the FB-SPDEs, however, with skew boundary reflections. Under randomized linear growth and Lipschitz conditions together with a general completely-S condition on reflections, we prove the well-posedness of an adapted 6-tuple weak solution with boundary regulators to the FB-SDEs by the Skorohod problem and an oscillation inequality. Particularly, if the spectral radii in some sense for reflection matrices are strictly less than the unity, an adapted 6-tuple strong solution is concerned. Third, we formulate a stochastic differential game (SDG) with general number of players based on the FB-SDEs. By a solution to the FB-SPDEs, we get a solution to the FB-SDEs under a given control rule and then obtain a Pareto optimal Nash equilibrium policy process to the SDG. Fourth, we study the applications of the FB-SPDEs/FB-SDEs in queueing systems and quantum statistics while we use them to motivate the SDG.
Klamroth, Tillmann; Kroener, Dominik
2008-12-21
We present quantum dynamical simulations for the laser driven isomerization of an ensemble of surface mounted stereoisomers with multiple orientations. The model system 1-(2-cis-fluoroethenyl)-2-fluorobenzene supports two chiral and one achiral atropisomers upon torsion around the C-C single bond connecting phenyl ring and ethylene group. An infrared picosecond pulse is used to excite the internal rotation around the chiral axis, thereby controlling the chirality of the molecule. In order to selectively switch the molecules--independent of their orientation on a surface--from their achiral to either their left- or right-handed form, a stochastic pulse optimization algorithm is applied. The stochastic pulse optimization is performed for different sets of defined orientations of adsorbates corresponding to the rotational symmetry of the surface. The obtained nonlinearly polarized laser pulses are highly enantioselective for each orientation.
Stochastic Evolving Differential Games Toward a Systems Theory of Behavioral Social Dynamics
Marsan, Giulia Ajmone; Gibelli, Livio
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a systems approach to social sciences based on mathematical tools derived from a generalization of the mathematical kinetic theory and on theoretical tools of game theory. Social systems are modeled as a large living evolving ensemble of individuals, who express specific strategies, cooperate, compete, and might aggregate into groups, which pursue a common interest. A critical analysis on the complexity features of social system is developed and a general differential structure is derived to provide a general framework toward modeling. Such a structure is deemed to capture the aforesaid complexity features and provide the time evolution of a probability distribution over the microscopic state of individual entities, by means of which social systems are described.
Strasser, Michael; Theis, Fabian J.; Marr, Carsten
2012-01-01
A toggle switch consists of two genes that mutually repress each other. This regulatory motif is active during cell differentiation and is thought to act as a memory device, being able to choose and maintain cell fate decisions. Commonly, this switch has been modeled in a deterministic framework where transcription and translation are lumped together. In this description, bistability occurs for transcription factor cooperativity, whereas autoactivation leads to a tristable system with an additional undecided state. In this contribution, we study the stability and dynamics of a two-stage gene expression switch within a probabilistic framework inspired by the properties of the Pu/Gata toggle switch in myeloid progenitor cells. We focus on low mRNA numbers, high protein abundance, and monomeric transcription-factor binding. Contrary to the expectation from a deterministic description, this switch shows complex multiattractor dynamics without autoactivation and cooperativity. Most importantly, the four attractors of the system, which only emerge in a probabilistic two-stage description, can be identified with committed and primed states in cell differentiation. To begin, we study the dynamics of the system and infer the mechanisms that move the system between attractors using both the quasipotential and the probability flux of the system. Next, we show that the residence times of the system in one of the committed attractors are geometrically distributed. We derive an analytical expression for the parameter of the geometric distribution, therefore completely describing the statistics of the switching process and elucidate the influence of the system parameters on the residence time. Moreover, we find that the mean residence time increases linearly with the mean protein level. This scaling also holds for a one-stage scenario and for autoactivation. Finally, we study the implications of this distribution for the stability of a switch and discuss the influence of the stability on a specific cell differentiation mechanism. Our model explains lineage priming and proposes the need of either high protein numbers or long-term modifications such as chromatin remodeling to achieve stable cell fate decisions. Notably, we present a system with high protein abundance that nevertheless requires a probabilistic description to exhibit multistability, complex switching dynamics, and lineage priming. PMID:22225794
Sastry, S. Shankar
-wing autonomous aircraft. Novel con- tributions of the work include the real-time use of model-predictive control and Symmetric Pursuit/Evasion Games Using Online Model Predictive Control With Application to Autonomous Aircraft J. Mikael Eklund, Member, IEEE, Jonathan Sprinkle, Member, IEEE, and S. Shankar Sastry, Fellow
Evolutionary Game Theory: Theoretical Concepts and Applications to
Frey, Erwin
Evolutionary Game Theory: Theoretical Concepts and Applications to Microbial Communities Erwin Frey" behavior. A synthesis of evolutionary game theory, nonlinear dynamics, and the theory of stochastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Evolutionary game theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 Nonlinear dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varga, Levente; Vukov, Jeromos; Szabó, György
2014-10-01
We study a spatial evolutionary rock-paper-scissors game with synchronized strategy updating. Players gain their payoff from games with their four neighbors on a square lattice and can update their strategies simultaneously according to the logit rule, which is the noisy version of the best-response dynamics. For the synchronized strategy update two types of global oscillations (with an ordered strategy arrangement and periods of three and six generations) can occur in this system in the zero noise limit. At low noise values, all nine oscillating phases are present in the system by forming a self-organizing spatial pattern due to the comprising invasion and speciation processes along the interfaces separating the different domains.
NonCooperative Games Esteban Moro
Moro, Esteban
Stochastic NonCooperative Games Esteban Moro J. P. Garrahan and D. Sherrington Theoretical Physicscooperative Games http://wwwthphys.physics.ox.ac.uk/users/EstebanMoro #12; Outline ffl Introduction ffl Bounded Rationality: The Minority Game. Results ffl Nonrationality: the Thermal Minority Game. ffl Numerical Methods
Active Learning with Monty Hall in a Game Theory Class
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brokaw, Alan J.; Merz, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
The authors describe a game that students can play on the first day of a game theory class. The game introduces the 4 essential elements of any game and is designed so that its sequel, also played on the first day of class, has students playing the well-known Monty Hall game, which raises the question: Should you switch doors? By implementing a…
A Monetary Policy Simulation Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lengwiler, Yvan
2004-01-01
The author presents a computer game that puts the player in the role of a central bank governor. The game is a stochastic simulation of a standard reduced form macro model, and the user interacts with this simulation by manipulating the interest rate. The problem the player faces is in many ways quite realistic--just as a real monetary authority,…
Stabilization of Nonholonomic Integrators via Logic-Based Switching
Hespanha, João Pedro
time- varying periodic controllers, stochastic control laws, and sliding modes control laws law employing switching and logic is proposed to stabilize a "nonholonomic integrator". Results explains how to stabilize a "nonholonomic integrator" using a hybrid control law employing switching
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits
Najm, Farid N.
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition density, which may be de ned as the average switching rate" at a circuit node. Based on a stochastic model
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits
Najm, Farid N.
Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition density, which may be defined as the ``average switching rate'' at a circuit node. Based on a stochastic
Fuhrman, Marco Hu, Ying
2007-09-15
In this paper we prove the existence of a solution to backward stochastic differential equations in infinite dimensions with continuous driver under various assumptions. We apply our results to a stochastic game problem with infinitely many players.
Lin, G.; Su, C. H.; Karniadakis, G. E.
2004-01-01
We obtain analytical solutions for the perturbed shock paths induced by time-varying random motions of a piston moving inside an adiabatic tube of constant area. The variance of the shock location grows quadratically with time for early times and switches to linear growth for longer times. The analytical results are confirmed by stochastic numerical simulations, and deviations for large random piston motions are established. PMID:15514024
Analysis of Genetic Toggle Switch Systems Encoded on Plasmids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loinger, Adiel; Biham, Ofer
2009-08-01
Genetic switch systems with mutual repression of two transcription factors, encoded on plasmids, are studied using stochastic methods. The plasmid copy number is found to strongly affect the behavior of these systems. More specifically, the average time between spontaneous switching events quickly increases with the number of plasmids. It was shown before that for a single copy encoded on the chromosome, the exclusive switch is more stable than the general switch. Here we show that when the switch is encoded on a sufficiently large number of plasmids, the situation is reversed and the general switch is more stable than the exclusive switch. These predictions can be tested experimentally using methods of synthetic biology.
Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron
2015-09-01
An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foy, William C.
Educational games can make the English classroom a giant playground for natural language opportunities. Some of the games include (1) the use of the animate-inanimate switch for a unit on the language of advertising, where the students use two decks of word cards (one for nouns and the other for adjectives), the purpose being to match the…
David H. Wolpert
2005-12-08
Conventional noncooperative game theory hypothesizes that the joint strategy of a set of players in a game must satisfy an "equilibrium concept". All other joint strategies are considered impossible; the only issue is what equilibrium concept is "correct". This hypothesis violates the desiderata underlying probability theory. Indeed, probability theory renders moot the problem of what equilibrium concept is correct - every joint strategy can arise with non-zero probability. Rather than a first-principles derivation of an equilibrium concept, game theory requires a first-principles derivation of a distribution over joint (mixed) strategies. This paper shows how information theory can provide such a distribution over joint strategies. If a scientist external to the game wants to distill such a distribution to a point prediction, that prediction should be set by decision theory, using their (!) loss function. So the predicted joint strategy - the "equilibrium concept" - varies with the external scientist's loss function. It is shown here that in many games, having a probability distribution with support restricted to Nash equilibria - as stipulated by conventional game theory - is impossible. It is also show how to: i) Derive an information-theoretic quantification of a player's degree of rationality; ii) Derive bounded rationality as a cost of computation; iii) Elaborate the close formal relationship between game theory and statistical physics; iv) Use this relationship to extend game theory to allow stochastically varying numbers of players.
Stochastic Approximation to Understand Simple Simulation Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izquierdo, Segismundo S.; Izquierdo, Luis R.
2013-04-01
This paper illustrates how a deterministic approximation of a stochastic process can be usefully applied to analyse the dynamics of many simple simulation models. To demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained using this approximation, we present two illustrative examples which are meant to serve as methodological references for researchers exploring this area. Finally, we prove some convergence results for simulations of a family of evolutionary games, namely, intra-population imitation models in n-player games with arbitrary payoffs.
Scheduling in switched queueing networks with heavy-tailed trac
Markakis, Mihalis G
2013-01-01
We study scheduling problems arising in switched queueing networks, a class of stochastic systems that are often used to model data communication networks, such as uplinks and downlinks of cellular networks, networks of ...
Optical switches and switching methods
Doty, Michael
2008-03-04
A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.
1985-01-01
A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION HERITABLE STOCHASTIC SWITCHING REVEALED BY
van Oudenaarden, Alexander
, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA 2 Division of Engineering and Applied Movie 1 14 #12;2 S1 Network Description Elaborate regulatory machinery has evolved to help cells focus environment. At intermediate levels of inducer, the OFF or ON status of the cell depends on the history
Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi
2015-09-01
The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of ? band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The ? band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent. PMID:26394522
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.
Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…
High-Performance Multicast Router using an Optical Switching Core
Cafarella, Michael J.
V. Summary #12;3 Growing Need for Multicast · Military Applications War gaming: Generals commanding forces from computers Immediate updates on everyone's terminals · High-end Network Users/Switches Switching Fabric and Fiber Interconnection Combined Linecards Star Coupler Fiber Interconnect
Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)
1982-08-17
The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.
Kirbie, H.C.
1989-04-14
Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.
Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two-Player Games
Senn, Walter
Spike-based Decision Learning of Nash Equilibria in Two- Player Games Johannes Friedrich, Walter that successfully acquires optimal strategies for classical game-theoretical tasks. The suggested population game. It performs optimally according to a pure (deterministic) and mixed (stochastic) Nash equilibrium
A Probabilistic-Numerical Approximation for an Obstacle Problem Arising in Game Theory
Gruen, Christine
2012-12-15
We investigate a two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game in which one of the players has more information on the game than his opponent. We show how to construct numerical schemes for the value function of this game, which is given by the solution of a quasilinear partial differential equation with obstacle.
A gambling game arising in the analysis of adaptive randomized rounding
Mathieu, Claire
A gambling game arising in the analysis of adaptive randomized rounding Richard M. Karp and Claire. We give an interpreta- tion of this stochastic process as a gambling game, characterize optimal play and martingale tail inequalities. 1 Introduction Consider the following gambling game. A player starts
Andrew M. Childs; David Gosset; Daniel Nagaj; Mouktik Raha; Zak Webb
2014-06-17
Certain continuous-time quantum walks can be viewed as scattering processes. These processes can perform quantum computations, but it is challenging to design graphs with desired scattering behavior. In this paper, we study and construct momentum switches, graphs that route particles depending on their momenta. We also give an example where there is no exact momentum switch, although we construct an arbitrarily good approximation.
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-10-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.
Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.
Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei
2013-11-01
Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010
Quantifying the experience of immersion in games Paul Cairns (p.cairns@ucl.ac.uk)
Cairns, Paul
Quantifying the experience of immersion in games Paul Cairns (p.cairns@ucl.ac.uk) Anna Cox (anna frequently refer to the immersive experience of the game as an important aspect to be attained. However of immersion. We describe a study into switching from an immersive gaming experience to an- other task
Reedy, R.P.
1985-01-18
An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching.
Reedy, R.P.
1987-11-10
An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.
Reedy, Robert P. (Livermore, CA)
1987-01-01
An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.
N-player stochastic differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Varaiya, P.
1976-01-01
The paper presents conditions which guarantee that the control strategies adopted by N players constitute an efficient solution, an equilibrium, or a core solution. The system dynamics are described by an Ito equation, and all players have perfect information. When the set of instantaneous joint costs and velocity vectors is convex, the conditions are necessary.
Hysteresis Can Grant Fitness in Stochastically Varying Environment
Friedman, Gary; McCarthy, Stephen; Rachinskii, Dmitrii
2014-01-01
Although the existence of multiple stable phenotypes of living organisms enables random switching between phenotypes as well as non-random history dependent switching called hysteresis, only random switching has been considered in prior experimental and theoretical models of adaptation to variable environments. This work considers the possibility that hysteresis may also evolve together with random phenotype switching to maximize population growth. In addition to allowing the possibility that switching rates between different phenotypes may depend not only on a continuous environmental input variable, but also on the phenotype itself, the present work considers an opportunity cost of the switching events. This opportunity cost arises as a result of a lag phase experimentally observed after phenotype switching and stochastic behavior of the environmental input. It is shown that stochastic environmental variation results in maximal asymptotic growth rate when organisms display hysteresis for sufficiently slowly varying environmental input. At the same time, sinusoidal input does not cause evolution of memory suggesting that the connection between the lag phase, stochastic environmental variation and evolution of hysteresis is a result of a stochastic resonance type phenomenon. PMID:25068284
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie
2007-01-01
This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly
2006-01-01
In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaffer, David Williamson
2005-01-01
In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to be distributed, build in a related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deubel, Patricia
2006-01-01
This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harteveld, Casper
This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory
Lässig, Michael
arXiv:cond-mat/0206093v1[cond-mat.stat-mech]6Jun2002 Quantum Game Theory Michael L¨assig Institut f is introduced that describes stochastic effects in game theory. In a biological context, such effects Classical game theory is a well-known mathematical formalization of competitions with rational rules and ra
Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.
DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco
2015-06-01
We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066
2011-08-01
distribution of the random variable (Xt1 ,...,Xtn ), where t1,...,tn are fixed. The two ...... Let A ? 0. Since ?n takes its values in a finite set, by using the martingale property, it is ...... For instance, let us consider a game in which we toss a fair coin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them many leading experts in the field. During the program, the most recent developments, open quest
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games
Kaiser, £ukasz
Game reductions and FAR for infinite games GAMES, Bordeaux 2004 Lukasz Kaiser Mathematische Grundlagen der Informatik RWTH Aachen #12;Motivation I Parity games with finite number of colours are positionally determined Muller games with finite number of colours are not positionally determined Finitely
Computer Game Architecture 1b -Game Engines
Gordon, Scott
Network CSc 165 Lecture Notes 1b - Game Engines SAGE : Simple Adaptable Game Engine A collection of Java packages 8 sage input display renderer scene shapejogl camera model loader physics jbullet app ... CSc 165(); + abstract void setGameOver(boolean isOver); + abstract boolean isGameOver(); 9 SomeGame > sage
Visco, Paolo - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7
Statistical physics of a model binary genetic switch with linear feedback Paolo Visco, Rosalind J 19 December 2008; published 30 March 2009 We study the statistical properties of a simple genetic of a binary genetic switch in which stochastic flipping between the two switch states is mediated
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbach, Paul
2001-01-01
Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)
... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 46 quiz ... say “I love you”? Shares · 9 Comments · 5 game Crush Shares · 1 Comments · 0 game My Paper ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Werner, Peter; Almond, Len
1990-01-01
Physical educators should be selective in deciding what games to include in the games curriculum. Several theoretical frameworks for selecting and teaching games are discussed, and a framework for developing a well-balanced games program is suggested. (IAH)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.
Life-Game, with Glass Beads and Molecules, on the Principles of the Origin of Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eigen, Manfred; Haglund, Herman
1976-01-01
Discusses a theoretical model that uses a game as a base for studying processes of a stochastic nature, which involve chemical reactions, molecular systems, biological processes, cells, or people in a population. (MLH)
Stochastic memristive nature in Co-doped CeO{sub 2} nanorod arrays
Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei Li, Sean
2013-12-16
In this Letter, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of electrochemically deposited pure and Cobalt doped CeO{sub 2} nanorods architectures were reported. A conducting filament based model to address resistive switching process in these devices was proposed. Furthermore, the randomness in individual switching events and the prediction of switching probabilities were studied by imposing weak programming conditions. The present study offers insights into scrutinize the inherent stochastic nature in resistive switching characteristics within these devices rather than stressfully achieve high switching probabilities using excess voltage or time.
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer
Monderer, Dov
Multipotential Games Dov Monderer TechnionÂIsrael Institute of Technology E-mail: dov@ie.technion.ac.il July 2006 Abstract We introduce and analyze q-potential games and q-congestion games, where q is a positive integer. A 1-potential (congestion) game is a po- tential (congestion) game. We show that a game
Game Theory Social Intelligence
Polani, Daniel
Game Theory Social Intelligence Daniel Polani Game Theory p.1/11 Reminders: Dominance Def): an outcome is Pareto dominated if all players would prefer some other outcome. Game Theory p.3/11 Dominance strategy. Game The #12;Comments on Game Theory Remark: if the prisoner's dilemma game is being iterated
Computer Games and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.
2011-01-01
There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…
Viscosity Solutions of Systems of PDEs with Interconnected Obstacles and Switching Problem
Hamadene, S. Morlais, M. A.
2013-04-15
This paper deals with existence and uniqueness of a solution in viscosity sense, for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. A particular case is the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann system of the Markovian stochastic optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions depend on (t,x). The main tool is the notion of systems of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with oblique reflection.
Emergence of phenotype switching through continuous and discontinuous evolutionary transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan
2015-07-01
Bacterial persistence (phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics) provides a prime example of bet-hedging, where normally growing cells generate slow-growing but antibiotic-tolerant persister cells to survive through periods of exposure to antibiotics. The population dynamics of persistence is explained by a phenotype switching mechanism that allows individual cells to switch between these different cellular states with different environmental sensitivities. Here, we perform a theoretical study based on an exact solution for the case of a periodic variation of the environment to address how phenotype switching emerges and under what conditions switching is or is not beneficial for long-time growth. Specifically we report a bifurcation through which a fitness maximum and minimum emerge above a threshold in the duration of exposure to the antibiotic. Only above this threshold, the optimal phenotype switching rates are adjusted to the time scales of the environment, as emphasized by previous theoretical studies, while below the threshold a non-switching population is fitter than a switching one. The bifurcation can be of different type, depending on how the phenotype switching rates are allowed to vary. If the switching rates for both directions of the switch are coupled, the transition is discontinuous and results in evolutionary hysteresis, which we confirm with a stochastic simulation. If the switching rates vary individually, a continuous transition is obtained and no hysteresis is found. We discuss how both scenarios can be linked to changes in the underlying molecular networks.
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H.-S. Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design. PMID:24198752
Birx, D.; Cook, E.; Hawkins, S.; Poor, S.; Reginato, L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.
1983-06-01
The paper discusses the development program in magnetic switching which was aimed at solving the rep-rate and reliability limitations of the ATA spark gaps. The end result has been a prototype physically very similar to the present Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) pulse power unit but vastly superior in performance. This prototype, which is easily adaptable to the existing systems, has achieved a burst rep-rate of 20 kHz and an output voltage of 500 kV. A one-on-one substitution of the existing pulse power module would result in a 100 MeV accelerator. Furthermore, the high efficiency of the magnetic pulse compression stages has allowed CW operation of the prototype at one kilohertz opening up other applications for the pulse power. Performance and design details will be described.
Jani Anttila; Arto Annila
2011-03-05
Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, when no moves are found to consume more free energy, the extensive-form game has arrived at a solution concept that satisfies the minimax theorem. The equilibrium is Lyapunov-stable against variation in behavior within strategies but will be perturbed by a new strategy that will draw even more surrounding resources to the game. Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making.
Phenotypic switching in bacteria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merrin, Jack
Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.
A Sudoku Game for People with Motor Impairments
Lobo, Stephane Norte Fernando G
2007-01-01
The value of computer games as a vehicle for changing conditions life in our society. Computer games are motivator and benefits to learn different educational skills. Most people use their fingers, hands, and arms when using a computer game, however for people with motor disabilities this task can be a barrier. We present a new Sudoku game for people whose motion is impaired, called Sudoku 4ALL. With this special interface a person can control the game with the voice or with a single switch. Our research aims to cautiously search for issues that might be appropriate for computational support and to build enabling technologies that increase individuals' functional independence in a game environment.
Hespanha, João Pedro
in Non-Cooperative Games with Partial Information Jo~ao P. Hespanha Yusuf S. Ate¸skan H¨useyin H in the context of non-cooperative stochastic games with partial information. We show that, when one negotiation, multi-object auctioning, pursuit-evasion, etc. 1 Introduction Competitive games are usually
Collins, Emily; Freeman, Jonathan
2014-03-01
Action video game players have been found to outperform nonplayers on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, several failures to replicate these video game player advantages have indicated that this relationship may not be straightforward. Moreover, despite the discovery that problematic video game players do not appear to demonstrate the same superior performance as nonproblematic video game players in relation to multiple object tracking paradigms, this has not been investigated for other tasks. Consequently, this study compared gamers and nongamers in task switching ability, visual short-term memory, mental rotation, enumeration, and flanker interference, as well as investigated the influence of self-reported problematic video game use. A total of 66 participants completed the experiment, 26 of whom played action video games, including 20 problematic players. The results revealed no significant effect of playing action video games, nor any influence of problematic video game play. This indicates that the previously reported cognitive advantages in video game players may be restricted to specific task features or samples. Furthermore, problematic video game play may not have a detrimental effect on cognitive performance, although this is difficult to ascertain considering the lack of video game player advantage. More research is therefore sorely needed. PMID:24111600
Serious Games: Video Games for Good?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah
2015-01-01
As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…
Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas
1995-03-01
B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.
The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila
2012-09-01
Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.
Joint Control of Transmission Power and Channel Switching against Adaptive Jamming
Liu, Mingyan
1 Joint Control of Transmission Power and Channel Switching against Adaptive Jamming Qingsi Wang and channel switching for the user in the presence of jamming interference. Instead of adopting a game of the channel condition due to the jamming interference from an attacker, and study the joint control
Latching relay switch assembly
Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)
1991-01-01
A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.
A Stochastic Graph Evolution Framework for Robust Multi-Target Tracking
Chowdhury, Amit K. Roy
A Stochastic Graph Evolution Framework for Robust Multi-Target Tracking Bi Song, Ting-Yueh Jeng up with longer tracks. This is achieved through a stochastic graph evolution step that considers between the targets which may cause errors like switching between tracks, missed detections and false
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzi, Natalie
2012-01-01
Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Kim
2004-01-01
The mere mention of a grammar lesson can set students' eyes rolling. The fun activities described in this article can turn those blank looks into smiles. Here, the author presents grammar games namely: (1) noun tennis; (2) the minister's cat; (3) kids take action; (4) what's my adverb?; (5) and then I saw...; and (6) grammar sing-along.
Winning in Sequential Parrondo Games by Players with Short-Term Memory
Cheung, Ka Wai; Wu, Degang; Lui, Ga Ching; Szeto, Kwok Yip
2015-01-01
Players with one-step memory can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. Here the winning or losing of A and B game is defined by one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability $p=0.5-\\epsilon$, where $\\epsilon=0.003$. Game B is also losing and it has two coins: a good coin with winning probability $p_g=0.75-\\epsilon$ is used if the player`s capital is not divisible by $3$, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability $p_b=0.1-\\epsilon$ is used. The player can win maximally in a game sequence of (A,B) if he knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital. If the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C,D) game, where either (C=A, D=B), or (C=B,D=A). For player with one-step memory, he can achieve the highest gain with switching probability equal to $3/4$ in the (C,D) game sequence. Generalization to AB mod($M$) Parrondo game for other integer $M$ and player with longer than one-step...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat
2011-01-01
Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…
Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)
1990-01-01
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.
Aug 7, 2009 ISITR662 1 The Tetris Switch
Touch, Joe
Aug 7, 2009 ISITR662 1 The Tetris Switch Stephen Suryaputra and Joseph D. Touch USC/ISI Marina del Rey, CA, USA surya@isi.edu and touch@isi.edu Joseph A. Bannister Aerospace Corp. El Segundo, CA, USA as part of a new contention resolution mechanism inspired by the Tetris video game. This paper presents
Usability and game design : improving the MITAR Game Editor
Falconi, Robert F
2010-01-01
Creating MIT Augmented Realty (MITAR) games can be a daunting task. MITAR game designers require a usable game editor to simplify this process. The MITAR Game Editor was the first editor to provide game designers with the ...
Blaskiewicz, M.
2011-01-01
Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weissmann, Haim; Shnerb, Nadav M.
2014-04-01
The process of desertification is usually modeled as a first-order transition, where a change of an external parameter (e.g., precipitation) leads to a catastrophic bifurcation followed by an ecological regime shift. However, vegetation elements like shrubs and trees undergo a stochastic birth-death process with an absorbing state; such a process supports a second-order continuous transition with no hysteresis. Here we study a minimal model of a first-order transition with an absorbing state. When the external parameter varies adiabatically the transition is indeed continuous, and we present some empirical evidence that supports this scenario. The front velocity renormalizes to zero at the extinction transition, leaving a finite “quantum” region where domain walls are stable and the desertification takes place via accumulation of local extinctions. A catastrophic regime shift may occur as a dynamical hysteresis, if the pace of environmental variations is too fast.
Tiered Service in Packet-Switched Networks George N. Rouskas
Tiered Service in Packet-Switched Networks George N. Rouskas Laura Jackson (PhD, 2003), Nikhil tier selection as a directional p-median problem: deterministic demands stochastic demands multiple Qo, 2007 p.5 #12;Bandwidth-Discrete Networks Offer a small number of discrete bandwidth tiers IEEE CCW
The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor - Supporting Information
Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2008-11-19
In this Supporting information we provide background information on our model of the bacterial flagellar motor. We also derive the analytical solution of our coarse-grained model of the switching dynamics and explain the hybrid stochastic algorithm used for the simulations.
... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
Play the Electrocardiogram Game
... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...
Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.
2009-10-01
Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here
Temporal switching jitter in photoconductive switches
GAUDET,JOHN A.; SKIPPER,MICHAEL C.; ABDALLA,MICHAEL D.; AHERN,SEAN M.; MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; ROMERO,SAMUEL P.
2000-04-13
This paper reports on a recent comparison made between the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) gallium arsenide, optically-triggered switch test configuration. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the temporal switch jitter times. It is found that the optical trigger laser characteristics are dominant in determining the PCSS jitter.
Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.
Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo
2009-04-01
Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions. PMID:19141423
The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor
Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde
2008-11-14
Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. While the switching dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of flagellar motors, the mechanisms that control switching are poorly understood. We present a statistical-mechanical model of the flagellar rotary motor, which consists of a number of stator proteins that drive the rotation of a ring of rotor proteins, which in turn drives the rotation of a flagellar filament. At the heart of our model is the assumption that the rotor protein complex can exist in two conformational states corresponding to the two respective rotation directions, and that switching between these states depends on interactions with the stator proteins. This naturally couples the switching dynamics to the rotation dynamics, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element of our model is that after a switching event, it takes time for the load to build up, due to polymorphic transitions of the filament. Our model predicts that this slow relaxation dynamics of the filament, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, leads to a characteristic switching time, in agreement with recent observations.
Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A
2013-05-21
An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.
Small, Dylan
psychology. Keywords: prisoner's dilemma; uncertainty; bayesian analysis; controlled experiments. 1 of deterministic and stochastic prisoner's dilemma games Howard Kunreuther , Gabriel Silvasi, Eric T. Bradlow of individuals playing a classic two-person deterministic prisoner's dilemma (PD) game with choice data obtained
Switching between phenotypes and population extinction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lohmar, Ingo; Meerson, Baruch
2011-11-01
Many types of bacteria can survive under stress by switching stochastically between two different phenotypes: the “normals” who multiply fast, but are vulnerable to stress, and the “persisters” who hardly multiply, but are resilient to stress. Previous theoretical studies of such bacterial populations have focused on the fitness: the asymptotic rate of unbounded growth of the population. Yet for an isolated population of established (and not very large) size, a more relevant measure may be the population extinction risk due to the interplay of adverse extrinsic variations and intrinsic noise of birth, death and switching processes. Applying a WKB approximation to the pertinent master equation of such a two-population system, we quantify the extinction risk, and find the most likely path to extinction under both favorable and adverse conditions. Analytical results are obtained both in the biologically relevant regime when the switching is rare compared with the birth and death processes, and in the opposite regime of frequent switching. We show that rare switches are most beneficial in reducing the extinction risk.
Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.
1969-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.
Dynamics in atomic signaling games.
Fox, Michael J; Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S
2015-07-01
We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss. PMID:25863268
Modeling Subtilin Production in Bacillus subtilis Using Stochastic Hybrid Systems
Sastry, S. Shankar
. The genetic network regulating the biosynthesis of subtilin in Bacillus subtilis is modeled as a stochastic regulating proteins, whose productions are controlled by switches in the genetic network that are in turn the genetics of subtilin is known and its biosynthetic pathways are well characterized [2, 7, 11]. We briefly
On-line minimization of call setup time via local balancing: A stochastic approximation approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simha, Rahul; Kurose, James F.
1994-02-01
With the addition of new network services, it is anticipated that the processing involved in setting up a call in a circuit-switched network or a session in a packet-switched network will vary greatly for different types of services. In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the call setup time in a circuit-switched network, or equivalently the session setup time in a packet-switched network, through the balancing of load across call processors. With a view to designing algorithms to execute on-line in a system, we formulate a stochastic optimization problem and study the use of stochastic approximation techniques. given the distributed nature of the problem, we extent previous results obtained for a single node to the case where several nodes operate simultaneously and in an asynchronous manner. Our results include a theoretical study of convergence as well as several simulation results that compare two stochastic approximation techniques.
Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun
2015-06-01
Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.
Optically Controlled 22 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks
Wai, Ping-kong Alexander
Optically Controlled 2×2 Switching Cell for Packet-Switched Networks C. C. Lee1 , L. F. K. Lui1 a 10 Gb/s optically controlled 2×2 switching cell which can be used to construct N×N all-optical switches for all-optical packet-switched networks. All-optical packet-switching is performed based
Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan
2013-01-29
The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.
2014-01-01
Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.
Triggered plasma opening switch
Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)
1988-01-01
A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.
Maestas, J.H.
1987-03-01
An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.
Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…
Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games
Naoki Kobayashi
2007-11-05
A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a finite quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (3) For any finite quantum sequential game G, there exists a finite quantum simultaneous game equivalent to G.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gee, James Paul
2013-01-01
Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…
Geospatial Games Joske Houtkamp
Volk, Anja Fleischer
Geospatial Games Joske Houtkamp Department of Information and Computing Sciences, UU Alterra #12;Geo(spatial) Games Geo(spatial) games · Games for entertainment, learning or simulation that involve geospatial data; · Map-, virtual and/or location based. · "Playful activities in which
Prestwich, Ken
Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich kprestwi@holycross.edu Department of Biology College of the Holy ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;Game Theory Kenneth Prestwich ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ............. ......... . . . . . . ESS Game theory modeling: Hawks dashed line and Doves solid line. #12;c 1999 by Kenneth Prestwich. All
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekely, George
2000-01-01
Explores children's fascination with creating their own unique games as an art form. Focuses on different games, such as chess, checkers, pogs, and monopoly. States that observing children playing games offers a firsthand lesson in how children create. Discusses what it means to be an art teacher who promotes creative play with games. (CMK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sobel, Jeffrey
1993-01-01
Details instructions for four cooperative games primarily for young children. The games are of low to moderate activity level and involve partners or a group circle. Descriptions include variations of the game and helpful hints for making the game more successful. (KS)
Learning with Calculator Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frahm, Bruce
2013-01-01
Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…
Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.
2009-05-04
After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.
Stochastic resonance in attention control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.
2006-12-01
We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.
Phase Description of Stochastic Oscillations
Justus T. C. Schwabedal; Arkady Pikovsky
2013-01-29
We introduce an invariant phase description of stochastic oscillations by generalizing the concept of standard isophases. The average isophases are constructed as sections in the state space, having a constant mean first return time. The approach allows to obtain a global phase variable of noisy oscillations, even in the cases where the phase is ill-defined in the deterministic limit. A simple numerical method for finding the isophases is illustrated for noise-induced switching between two coexisting limit cycles, and for noise-induced oscillation in an excitable system. We also discuss how to determine the isophases for experimentally observed irregular oscillations, providing a basis for a refined phase description of observed oscillatory dynamics.
Faisal Shah Khan; Simon J. D. Phoenix
2012-11-28
In the time since a merger of quantum mechanics and game theory was proposed formally in 1999, the two distinct perspectives apparent in this merger of applying quantum mechanics to game theory, referred to henceforth as the theory of "quantized games", and of applying game theory to quantum mechanics, referred to henceforth as "gaming the quantum", have become synonymous under the single ill-defined term "quantum game". Here, these two perspectives are delineated and a game-theoretically proper description of what makes a multi-player, non-cooperative game quantum mechanical, is given. Within the context of this description, finding a Nash equilibrium in a strictly competitive quantum game is shown to be equivalent to finding a solution to a simultaneous best approximation problem in the state space of quantum objects, thus setting up a framework for a game theory inspired study of "equilibrium" behavior of quantum physical systems such as those utilized in quantum information processing and computation.
Thought Games: Advancements in Gaming with a Brain-Computer Interface from a Game Design
Theune, Mariët
Thought Games: Advancements in Gaming with a Brain-Computer Interface from a Game Design at hand for using the brain as an input method for modern video games. This paper used literature on game design in order to identify core requirements for creating `good' games. Existing BCI games described
The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shubik, Martin
2002-01-01
Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)
Switching and growth for microbial populations in catastrophic responsive environments
Paolo Visco; Rosalind J. Allen; Satya N. Majumdar; Martin R. Evans
2010-04-12
Phase variation, or stochastic switching between alternative states of gene expression, is common among microbes, and may be important in coping with changing environments. We use a theoretical model to assess whether such switching is a good strategy for growth in environments with occasional catastrophic events. We find that switching can be advantageous, but only when the environment is responsive to the microbial population. In our model, microbes switch randomly between two phenotypic states, with different growth rates. The environment undergoes sudden "catastrophes", the probability of which depends on the composition of the population. We derive a simple analytical result for the population growth rate. For a responsive environment, two alternative strategies emerge. In the "no switching" strategy, the population maximises its instantaneous growth rate, regardless of catastrophes. In the "switching" strategy, the microbial switching rate is tuned to minimise the environmental response. Which of these strategies is most favourable depends on the parameters of the model. Previous studies have shown that microbial switching can be favourable when the environment changes in an unresponsive fashion between several states. Here, we demonstrate an alternative role for phase variation in allowing microbes to maximise their growth in catastrophic responsive environments.
Can Nintendo get its crown back? : examining the dynamics of the U.S. video game console market
Chow, Samuel W
2007-01-01
Several generations of video game consoles have competed in the market since 1972. Overall, the entire market shares many similar characteristics, such as network effects and switching cost, which are found in other ...
The Evolution of Extortion in Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Games
Sigmund, Karl
'evolutionary' opponent, i.e., any co-player able to learn, and to adapt. In their commentary to Press and Dyson?' In evolutionary game theory, it is the population that adapts: more and more players switch to the more successful 2 , & Karl Sigmund 3,4 1 Max Planck Institut for Evolutionary Biology, Ploen 2 Program
Stabilized multilevel Monte Carlo method for stiff stochastic differential equations
Abdulle, Assyr Blumenthal, Adrian
2013-10-15
A multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for mean square stable stochastic differential equations with multiple scales is proposed. For such problems, that we call stiff, the performance of MLMC methods based on classical explicit methods deteriorates because of the time step restriction to resolve the fastest scales that prevents to exploit all the levels of the MLMC approach. We show that by switching to explicit stabilized stochastic methods and balancing the stabilization procedure simultaneously with the hierarchical sampling strategy of MLMC methods, the computational cost for stiff systems is significantly reduced, while keeping the computational algorithm fully explicit and easy to implement. Numerical experiments on linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations and on a stochastic partial differential equation illustrate the performance of the stabilized MLMC method and corroborate our theoretical findings.
Beating Cheaters at Their Own Game
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauch, Joseph; Kondev, Jane; Sanchez, Alvaro
2014-03-01
Public goods games occur over many different scales in nature, from microbial biofilms to the human commons. On each scale stable populations of cooperators (members who invest into producing some good shared by the entire population) and cheaters (members who make no investment yet still share the common goods) has been observed. This observation raises interesting questions, like how do cooperators maintain their presence in a game that seems to heavily favor cheaters, and what strategies for cooperation could populations employ to increase their success? We propose a model of a public goods game with two different player populations, S and D, which employ two different strategies: the D population always cheats and the S population makes a stochastic decision whether to cooperate or not. We find that stochastic cooperation improves the success of the S population over the competing D population, but at a price. As the probability of cheating by the S players increases they outcompete the D players but the total population becomes more ecologically unstable (i.e., the likelihood of its extinction grows). We investigate this trade off between evolutionary success and ecological stability and propose experiments using populations of yeast cells to test our predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitting Andersen, J.; Sornette, D.
2003-01-01
We propose a payoff function extending Minority Games (MG) that captures the competition between agents to make money. In contrast with previous MG, the best strategies are not always targeting the minority but are shifting opportunistically between the minority and the majority. The emergent properties of the price dynamics and of the wealth of agents are strikingly different from those found in MG. As the memory of agents is increased, we find a phase transition between a self-sustained speculative phase in which a ``stubborn majority'' of agents effectively collaborate to arbitrage a market-maker for their mutual benefit and a phase where the market-maker always arbitrages the agents. A subset of agents exhibit a sustained non-equilibrium risk-return profile.
Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter
Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)
2007-08-07
A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.
Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation
Schlicher, Bob G; Abercrombie, Robert K
2012-01-01
Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.
Tactile Switch (SMD) B3FS1138 Tactile Switch (SMD)
Berns, Hans-Gerd
Switching capacity 50 mA, 24 VDC (resistive load) Contact form SPST-NO Contact material Silver platingTactile Switch (SMD) B3FS1138 Tactile Switch (SMD) B3FS Surface-mounting Switches Ideal for High mechanism that ensures sharp switching operations D 3 actuator heights for design flexibility D Ro
Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games
?ukasz Pawela; Jan S?adkowski
2013-05-07
Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox in cooperative quantum games and some interesting phenomena can be observed.
TOWARD A STOCHASTIC CALCULUS, II*
McShane, E. J.
1969-01-01
In a preceding note (these Proceedings, 63, 275 (1969)) singly and doubly stochastic integrals were defined. Here correspondingly generalized stochastic differential equations are studied. For constructing stochastic models of physical processes with random noises, by proper selection of the doubly stochastic terms, we remove the apparent discordances between classical and stochastic models. PMID:16578704
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part I. Impartial Combinatorial Games 1. Take-Away Games. 1 are partizan. In Part I, we treat only the theory of impartial games. An elementary introduction to impartial.1 A Simple Take-Away Game. 1.2 What is a Combinatorial Game? 1.3 P-positions, N-positions. 1.4 Subtraction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torrence, Bruce
2011-01-01
The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…
Thermally actuated thermionic switch
Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.
1982-09-30
A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.
Configurational anisotropy and thermally activated switching in magnetic nanosquares
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, L.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Martínez, E.; Iñiguez, J.
2001-12-01
Switching processes in magnetic nanosquares of size 10 lex< a<64 lex and thickness t=1.5 lex have been systematically analyzed for different applied field angles. The effect of configurational anisotropy in all the cases is discussed. Thermally activated switching is studied in nanosquares of a=20 lex and 40 lex with t=1.5 lex by solving the stochastic Landau-Lifschitz-Gilbert equation. The dependence of the relaxation time on applied field and temperature is investigated. Superparamagnetic effects are found to be significant for a=20 lex.
Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.
1983-12-21
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)
1986-01-01
A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.
Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)
1982-01-01
An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.
... Abusive Relationships Life After High School Confidence Babysitting: Time for Bed Game KidsHealth > Teens > Babysitting Center > Fun With Kids > Babysitting: Time for Bed Game Print A A A Text ...
... screen reader or refreshable braille display, try these games! New: a special Jumble for kids who have ... friends. Would you like to know when new games and activities are added to the Braille Bug ...
Chroboczek, Juliusz
Game Semantics is a relatively new framework for the description of the semantics of programming languages. By combining the mathematical elegance of Denotational Semantics with explicitly operational concepts, Game Semantics ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeRosa, Bill
1988-01-01
Describes a learning center game which is designed to help elementary school students learn about wolves. Includes playing instructions, game board, and questions and answers. Also included is a record of wolf calls narrated by actor Robert Redford. (TW)
... Safety Education) Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) Michael's Inside Scoop: ... Safety Education) Food Safety Mobile Game (Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service) Foodborne Illness Food ...
Games, puzzles, and computation
Hearn, Robert A. (Robert Aubrey), 1965-
2006-01-01
There is a fundamental connection between the notions of game and of computation. At its most basic level, this is implied by any game complexity result, but the connection is deeper than this. One example is the concept ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Cedric
1979-01-01
Design is described as a social process and a game. Games provide an experience and environment in which aspects of design skill may be learned. Self-expression (involving no one else) and design (product must satisfy requirements imposed by others) are contrasted. Games described: JOIN, GAMBIT, URBISM, SPIEL, etc. (MLW)
Peter Takacs
2008-10-21
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herrig, Brian; Taranto, Greg
2012-01-01
One of the key features that draws many people to play video games is the fact that they are interactive. Video games allow the user to be actively engaged and in control of the action (Prensky, 2006). Seventh grade students at Canonsburg Middle School are actively engaging in the creation of video games. The students are engaged at a much deeper…
Educational Games for Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos
2014-01-01
The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen
1982-01-01
Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…
Biform Games Adam Brandenburger
Kimbrough, Steven Orla
-cooperative game model can be used. But for unstruc- tured interaction, when the moves are more fluid and free. But for the more fluid, free-form moves and countermoves, a cooper- ative game model is more natural. AccordinglyBiform Games Adam Brandenburger Stern School of Business New York University 44 West Fourth Street
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boocock, Sarane S., Ed.; Schild, E.O., Ed.
Simulation games serve many functions, but the important one to educators is that they present the student player with a real-life situation allowing him to use his knowledge and abilities while discovering decision-making skills for himself. To provide a basic reference on simulation gaming, essays on various aspects of games were collected from…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silberg, Jackie
2001-01-01
Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)
Inventing Music Education Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghere, David; Amram, Fred M. B.
2007-01-01
The first British patent describing an educational game designed for musical "amusement and instruction" was granted in 1801 to Ann Young of Edinburgh, Scotland. The authors' discovery of Young's game box has prompted an examination of the nature and purpose of the six games she designed. Ann Young's patent is discussed in the context of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKnight, Regis Q.; McBride, Susan
1980-01-01
States that more use should be made of simulation games in elementary school social studies classrooms because pupils enjoy games and can learn a lot from playing them. Describes a simulation game which is modeled on the function of a zoning board. Objectives and evaluation are discussed. (DB)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.
1980-01-01
Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.
This booklet consists of 220 questions about Native North Americans and Metis people that can be used as learning activities for elementary and secondary school students. Suggestions for using the questions include playing games in pairs or teams, locating resources to find answers to questions, playing trivia games and board games, and using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Will
2012-01-01
The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…
Peter Takacs
2010-01-08
Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy
This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dye, Bryan
2002-01-01
A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)
Organometallic Spintronics: Dicobaltocene Switch
Baranger, Harold U.
Organometallic Spintronics: Dicobaltocene Switch Rui Liu, San-Huang Ke,, Harold U. Baranger Received August 16, 2005 ABSTRACT A single-molecule spintronic switch and spin valve using two cobaltocene phenomena that have come to light in the two fields of spintronics and single-molecule transport suggest
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praver, Gerald A.; Theisinger, Peter C.; Genofsky, John
1987-01-01
Functions of circuit breakers, meters, and switches combined. Circuit that includes power field-effect transistors (PFET's) provides on/off switching, soft starting, current monitoring, current tripping, and protection against overcurrent for 30-Vdc power supply at normal load currents up to 2 A. Has no moving parts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackel, J. L.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G.
1982-01-01
Continuous electrowetting (CEW) and refractive index matching have been used as the physical basis of an optical switch for multimode fibers. This switch has low cross talk (approximately - 30 dB), fast response times (approximately 20 ms), low operating voltage (approximately 1 V), and low power consumption (approximately 1 microwatt).
Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)
1994-01-01
A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.
Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.
1994-09-27
A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zambrano, Samuel; Bianchi, Marco E.; Agresti, Alessandra; Molina, Nacho
2015-08-01
Gene expression is an inherently stochastic process that depends on the structure of the biochemical regulatory network in which the gene is embedded. Here we study the dynamical consequences of the interplay between stochastic gene switching and the widespread negative feedback regulatory loop in a simple model of a biochemical regulatory network. Using a simplified hybrid simulation approach, in which only the gene activation is modeled stochastically, we find that stochasticity in gene switching by itself can induce pulses in the system, providing also analytical insights into their origin. Furthermore, we find that this simple network is able to reproduce both exponential and peaked distributions of gene active and inactive times similar to those that have been observed experimentally. This simplified hybrid simulation approach also allows us to link these patterns to the dynamics of the system for each gene state.
Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Partington, Anthony
2010-01-01
This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity and…
Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg
2015-01-01
The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...
Allen, James J.
2005-06-07
A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.
Phase-shifts in stochastic resonance in a Chua circuit
Wojciech Korneta; Iacyel Gomes; Claudio R. Mirasso; Raul Toral
2007-10-29
We present an experimental study of stochastic resonance in an electronic Chua circuit operating in the chaotic regime. We study in detail the switch-phase distribution and the phase-shift between sinusoidal forcing for two responses of the circuit: one depending on both inter-well and intra-well dynamics and the other depending only on inter-well dynamics. We describe the two relevant de-synchronizatrion mechanisms for high and low frequencies of the forcing and present a method to detect the optimal noise intensity from switch phases which coincides with the one derived from the observation of the signal-to-noise ratio or residence times.
Towards single molecule switches.
Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhong, Jian Qiang; Lin, Jia Dan; Hu, Wen Ping; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew T S; Chen, Wei
2015-05-21
The concept of using single molecules as key building blocks for logic gates, diodes and transistors to perform basic functions of digital electronic devices at the molecular scale has been explored over the past decades. However, in addition to mimicking the basic functions of current silicon devices, molecules often possess unique properties that have no parallel in conventional materials and promise new hybrid devices with novel functions that cannot be achieved with equivalent solid-state devices. The most appealing example is the molecular switch. Over the past decade, molecular switches on surfaces have been intensely investigated. A variety of external stimuli such as light, electric field, temperature, tunneling electrons and even chemical stimulus have been used to activate these molecular switches between bistable or even multiple states by manipulating molecular conformations, dipole orientations, spin states, charge states and even chemical bond formation. The switching event can occur either on surfaces or in break junctions. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli, as investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) and the break junction technique. We begin by presenting the molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli that do not provide single molecule selectivity, referred to as non-selective switching. Special focus is then given to selective single molecule switching realized using the LT-STM tip on surfaces. Single molecule switches operated by different mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. Finally, molecular switches embedded in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and single molecule junctions are addressed. PMID:25757483
Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: strong and weak Parrondo effect.
Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip
2014-02-01
Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin p(b) is used, otherwise a favorable p(g) coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M(1) or M(2). Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M(2) is not a multiple of M(1), the combination of B(M(1)) and B(M(2)) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (p(b),p(g)), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M(2) is a multiple of M(1). Furthermore, when M(2) is not a multiple of M(1), a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials. PMID:25353457
Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip
2014-02-01
Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hochgerner, Simon
2010-12-01
We mimic the stochastic Hamiltonian reduction of Lazaro-Cami and Ortega [18, 19] for the case of certain nonholonomic systems with symmetries. Using the nonholonomic connection it is shown that the drift of the stochastically perturbed n-dimensional Chaplygin ball is a certain gradient of the density of the preserved measure of the deterministic system.
Succession Model Landscape Stochasticity
100 1000 10000 patch sizes birth rate both Disturbance Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High" accomplished by incrementing the patch birth rate (Control: s = a = 10) A simple model of species viabilitySuccession Model Landscape Stochasticity Low Control High Very High ThresholdMultiplier 0.1 1 10
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Amplification by stochastic interference
K. Svozil; D. Felix; K. Ehrenberger
2002-11-19
A new method is introduced to obtain a strong signal by the interference of weak signals in noisy channels. The method is based on the interference of 1/f noise from parallel channels. One realization of stochastic interference is the auditory nervous system. Stochastic interference may have broad potential applications in the information transmission by parallel noisy channels.
Stochastic gene expression as a many-body problem
Sasai, Masaki; Wolynes, Peter G.
2003-01-01
Gene expression has a stochastic component because of the single-molecule nature of the gene and the small number of copies of individual DNA-binding proteins in the cell. We show how the statistics of such systems can be mapped onto quantum many-body problems. The dynamics of a single gene switch resembles the spin-boson model of a two-site polaron or an electron transfer reaction. Networks of switches can be approximately described as quantum spin systems by using an appropriate variational principle. In this way, the concept of frustration for magnetic systems can be taken over into gene networks. The landscape of stable attractors depends on the degree and style of frustration, much as for neural networks. We show the number of attractors, which may represent cell types, is much smaller for appropriately designed weakly frustrated stochastic networks than for randomly connected networks. PMID:12606710
Stochastic gene expression with bursting and positive feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platini, Thierry; Pendar, Hodjat; Kulkarni, Rahul
2012-02-01
Stochasticity (or noise) in the process of gene expression can play a critical role in cellular circuits that control switching between probabilistic cell-fate decisions in diverse organisms. Such circuits often include positive feedback loops as critical elements. In some cases (e.g. HIV-1 viral infections), switching between different cell fates occurs even in the absence of bistability in the underlying deterministic model. To characterize the role of noise in such systems, we analyze a simple gene expression circuit that includes contributions from both transcriptional and translational bursting and positive feedback effects. Using a combination of analytical approaches and stochastic simulations, we explore how the underlying parameters control the corresponding mean and variance in protein distributions.
Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.
2012-02-01
Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).
Optical Circuit Switched Protocol
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.
Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on
Zhong, Lin
Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made when studying resistive switching in nanosystems on oxide substrates, since oxide breakdown extrinsic
Photoconductive switch package
Ca[rasp, George J
2013-10-22
A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.
Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.
1994-07-19
A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.
Photoconductive switch package
Caporaso, George J.
2015-10-27
A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.
Photoconductive switch package
Caporaso, George J
2015-11-05
A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.
A stochastic model of evolutionary dynamics with deterministic large-population asymptotics
Simon, Burt
: Evolutionary games Adaptive dynamics Replicator equation Evolutionary birthdeath process FitnessA stochastic model of evolutionary dynamics with deterministic large-population asymptotics Burton-diffusion equation Reactive strategies Iterated prisoner's dilemma a b s t r a c t An evolutionary birth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja
2007-01-01
Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part IV. Games in Coalitional Form 1. Many-Person TU Games. 1 they work apart. The assumption of superadditivity is not needed for some of the theory of coalitional games.1 Coalitional Form. Characteristic Functions. 1.2 Relation to Strategic Form. 1.3 Constant-Sum Games. 1
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson University of California at Los Angeles INTRODUCTION. Game theory be modeled as a game played between genes, Smith (1982). There is a connection between game theory introduce some of the key words and terminology used in game theory. First there is the number of players
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part II. Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 1. The Strategic Form of a Game.3 The Kuhn Tree. 5.4 The Representation of a Strategic Form Game in Extensive Form. 5.5 Reduction of a Game
Genetic and behavioral analysis of flagellar switch mutants of Salmonella typhimurium.
Magariyama, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Aizawa, S
1990-01-01
At the interface between the sensory transduction system and the flagellar motor system of Salmonella typhimurium, the switch complex plays an important role in both sensory transduction and energy transduction. To examine the function of the switch complex, we isolated from 10 cheY mutants 500 pseudorevertants with a suppressor mutation in one of the three genes (fliG, fliM, and fliN) encoding the switch complex. Detailed mapping revealed that these suppressor mutations were localized to several segments of each switch gene, suggesting localization of functional sites on the switch complex. These switch mutations were introduced into the wild-type background and into a chemotaxis deletion background. Behavior of the pseudorevertants and their derivatives (1,500 strains in all) was observed by light microscopy. In the chemotaxis deletion background, about 70% of the switch mutants showed smooth swimming and the rest showed more or less tumbly swimming. There was some correlation between the mutational sites and the swimming patterns in the chemotaxis deletion background, suggesting that there is segregation of functional sites on the switch complex. The interaction of the switch complex with the chemotaxis protein, CheY, and the stochastic nature of switching in the absence of CheY are discussed. Images PMID:2198255
Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.
Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.
2009-09-01
Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.
Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.
1987-04-30
The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.
Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya
2014-01-01
Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models.
Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.
2014-09-01
Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation.
Optimal control of switched linear systems based on Migrant Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Fuqiang; Wang, Yongji; Zheng, Zongzhun; Li, Chuanfeng
2009-10-01
The optimal control problem for switched linear systems with internally forced switching has more constraints than with externally forced switching. Heavy computations and slow convergence in solving this problem is a major obstacle. In this paper we describe a new approach for solving this problem, which is called Migrant Particle Swarm Optimization (Migrant PSO). Imitating the behavior of a flock of migrant birds, the Migrant PSO applies naturally to both continuous and discrete spaces, in which definitive optimization algorithm and stochastic search method are combined. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is illustrated via a numerical example.
Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.
2008-03-01
The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.
C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.
2007-07-21
The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.
Optical shutter switching matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grove, Charles H.
1990-03-01
A switching matrix enables switching of optical signals from any of a plurality of optical input paths to selected optical output paths, without requiring physical reconnecting of the inputs or outputs. Plural broadband optical waveguides are defined preferably in otherwise non-transmissive quartz crystalline wafers, to provide relatively high signal isolation. The wafers are fused to electronic shutter windows situated in an array and discretely operable under processor x-y address control. Optical signals passed through actuated electronic shutter windows are summed in output wafers, having waveguide structure generally reverse to that of the input quartz wafers. Through selected segment actuation, optical signals from selected optical input paths may be transmitted or blocked at the electronically controlled shutter array, for being output on selected optical output paths. Alternatively, fiber optic bundles may replace input or output quartz wafers. The switching matrix is useful as a switching module which may be variously associated in series and/or parallel connections for obtaining a desired number of switching channels, and required levels of signal separation therewith. Input/output signal characteristics and parameters are maintained by power summation at the outputs with automatic gain control, regardless of the number of paths or the like selectively summed in a given output. Connectors may be used in conjunction with the optical input and output paths, whereby both electrical and optical signals may be switched. Various modules may include converters as built-in features, so as to meet particular applications.
A radiation hard vacuum switch
Boettcher, G.E.
1988-07-19
A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.
Borenstein, Greg
2015-01-01
Tabletop games and digital games offer designers divergent affordances and provide players with different kinds of pleasures. Tabletop games excel at creating rich and immediate social interactions. They require players ...
Combinatorial optimization games
Deng, X.; Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi
1997-06-01
We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.
Cycle frequency in standard Rock-Paper-Scissors games: Evidence from experimental economics
Xu, Bin
2013-01-01
In the iconic game, standard Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS) game, cyclic trajectory is predicted by evolutionary game theory but not by classical game theory. We conduct lab experiments of the standard RPS game to index the cycle. Our experiments are of traditional setting with discrete time and random matched. In the 12 samples of 300 rounds 'stochastic' social evolution trajectories, (1) We find the cycles not only exist but also persist; (2) We firstly test out the frequencies of cycles in this experiments; The observed frequency is about 0.028 +/- 0.007 period per experimental round. The application of the observed frequency on a dynamics model is illustrated. Using frequency of cycles to index the distance from equilibrium, we consider both of the time symmetry and the sampling size effect, both of which have the root in non-equilibrium statistical physics.
Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.
2007-10-01
The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.
Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health
Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.
2011-01-01
Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.
Spring, William Joseph
2009-04-13
We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].
Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.
1993-07-01
The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach
Huang, Jianwei
Wind Power Integration via Aggregator-Consumer Coordination: A Game Theoretic Approach Chenye Wu@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Due to the stochastic nature of wind power, its large-scale integration into the power grid-side resources via pricing in order to tackle the intermittency and fluctuations in wind power generation
Controllability of Fokker-Planck equations and the planning problem for mean field games
Porretta, Alessio
developed by Huang-Caines-Malham´e in terms of stochastic dynamics. Main goal: describe games with large's formula since E T 0 (Xt)dt = T 0 (x)m(t, x) dt Hence, the evolution of the state of the agents
Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.
1984-04-05
The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.
Aaland, K.
1983-08-09
A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.
Dynamic switch matrix for the TDMA satellite switching system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, P. T.; Wisniewski, J. H.; Pelose, J. R.; Perasso, H. M.
1982-01-01
Future high capacity satellite communication systems require signal processing on board satellites. The on-board signal processing includes switching of RF signals between multiple antennas to provide interconnection between the uplink and downlink beams. This paper describes the development of a dynamic switch matrix for a TDMA satellite switching system to be used in the next generation communications satellites. In this paper, a dynamic switch matrix, which includes the microwave switch matrix, the distribution control unit and the timing source, will be described. Several different microwave switch matrix architectures and switching devices were evaluated and compared. A unique coupler crossbar switch matrix architecture with dual-gate field effect transistor as switching element was developed. Experimental results of both microwave switch matrix (MSM) and distribution control unit (DCU) are presented. These test results verify the MSM with coupler crossbar architecture and dual-gate FET as switching element will meet the future SS-TDMA system requirements. Finally, the reliability of the dynamic switch matrix is addressed. The analysis shows reliability of 0.9981 for 7 year space operation can be achieved for the designed dynamic switch matrix.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities - a graph-theoretic approach
Piotr Gnaci?ski; Monika Rosicka; Ravishankar Ramanathan; Karol Horodecki; Micha? Horodecki; Pawe? Horodecki; Simone Severini
2015-11-17
We study the classical and quantum values of one- and two-party linear games, an important class of unique games that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. We introduce a ``constraint graph" associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the linear game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of more general XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lov\\'{a}sz theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. Linear games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite linear game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Optimal switching using coherent control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trøst Kristensen, Philip; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
We introduce a general framework for the analysis of coherent control in coupled optical cavity-waveguide systems. Within this framework, we use an analytically solvable model, which is validated by independent numerical calculations, to investigate switching in a micro cavity and demonstrate that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy.
Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch
Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-05-11
A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.
Optical computer switching network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.
1985-01-01
The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.
Mihalka, A.M.
1984-06-05
The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.
Self-concept in fairness and rule establishment during a competitive game: a computational approach
Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung-Phil; Cho, Yang Seok
2015-01-01
People consider fairness as well as their own interest when making decisions in economic games. The present study proposes a model that encompasses the self-concept determined by one's own kindness as a factor of fairness. To observe behavioral patterns that reflect self-concept and fairness, a chicken game experiment was conducted. Behavioral data demonstrates four distinct patterns; “switching,” “mutual rush,” “mutual avoidance,” and “unfair” patterns. Model estimation of chicken game data shows that a model with self-concept predicts those behaviors better than previous models of fairness, suggesting that self-concept indeed affects human behavior in competitive economic games. Moreover, a non-stationary parameter analysis revealed the process of reaching consensus between the players in a game. When the models were fitted to a continuous time window, the parameters of the players in a pair with “switching” and “mutual avoidance” patterns became similar as the game proceeded, suggesting that the players gradually formed a shared rule during the game. In contrast, the difference of parameters between the players in the “unfair” and “mutual rush” patterns did not become stable. The outcomes of the present study showed that people are likely to change their strategy until they reach a mutually beneficial status. PMID:26441707
Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...
Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...
41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...
43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...
35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...
36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games
Perturbed zero-sum games with applications to dynamic games Eitan ALTMAN INRIA, B.P. 93 2004 Route of South Australia The Levels, Australia, 5095 Abstract This paper deals with perturbed matrix games. The main result is that the sets of solutions of perturbed games converge to subsets of solutions
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs
Zhu, Xuding
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, Hong Kong, China lcai@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs
Digital Game-Based Learning: Towards an Experiential Gaming Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiili, Kristian
2005-01-01
Online games satisfy the basic requirements of learning environments and can provide engaging learning experiences for students. However, a model that successfully integrates educational theory and game design aspects do not exist. Thus, in this paper an experiential gaming model that is based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game…
Distributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming
Eisert, Peter
graphics rendering, the game output is locally rendered at the server and streamed as H.264/AVC videoDistributed video game streaming system for pervasive gaming A. Jurgelionis1 , F. Bellotti2 , A. De video game streaming system. Newly developed streaming protocols and system architectures enable
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Gaming in Technology Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…
Games on Sustainable Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara
This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials (many…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckman, Steven R.
2003-01-01
Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna
2012-01-01
Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shor, Mikhael
2003-01-01
States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…
Domination game Bostjan Bresar
KlavÂ?ar, Sandi
.rall@furman.edu January 8, 2009 Abstract The domination game played on a graph G consists of two players, Domina- tor in as few steps as possible and Staller wishes to delay the process as much as possible. The game domina
Koch, Christof; Buice, Michael A
2015-10-01
The digital reconstruction of a slice of rat somatosensory cortex from the Blue Brain Project provides the most complete simulation of a piece of excitable brain matter to date. To place these efforts in context and highlight their strengths and limitations, we introduce a Biological Imitation Game, based on Alan Turing's Imitation Game, that operationalizes the difference between real and simulated brains. PMID:26451478
Environmental Education Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of General and Academic Education.
Six environmental education simulation games are presented in this manual, developed by Project SESAME G (Susquehanna ESEA Synergetic Activities for Maximal-involvement via Education Games). The simulations are models of social situations which provide an opportunity for social interaction in the classroom, maximize student involvement, and change…
Kosters, Walter
games' NCL part II games in particular plank puzzle river crossing PSPACE - QBF NP - 3SAT #12: legal edge reversal goal: reverse given edge 2 1 2 1 NCL - nondet constraint logic instance: constraint graph G, edge e question: sequence which reverses e BOUNDED NCL ... reverses each edge at most once p.9
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat
2015-01-01
Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VerBruggen, Robert
2012-01-01
Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alger, Sandra L. H.
This teacher's guide gives directions, models, and illustrations for 24 games in art history, criticism, aesthetics, and art production. The games present specific art concepts and vocabulary based on clearly stated objectives and they can be adapted to a variety of lesson types. The goal of each activity is to encourage students to engage in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Todd, Ed.
A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alden, Lori
2003-01-01
In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avalone-King, Deborah
2000-01-01
Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.
2009-01-01
A number of years have passed since the development of the "Voyager: Satellites" educational card game reported in "Physics Education" in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the feedback received…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liye; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua
2015-04-01
Evolutionary game theory is crucial to capturing the characteristic interaction patterns among selfish individuals. In a population of coordination games of two strategies, one of the central problems is to determine the fixation probability that the system reaches a state of networkwide of only one strategy, and the corresponding expectation times. The deterministic replicator equations predict the critical value of initial density of one strategy, which separates the two absorbing states of the system. However, numerical estimations of this separatrix show large deviations from the theory in finite populations. Here we provide a stochastic treatment of this dynamic process on complex networks of finite sizes as Markov processes, showing the evolutionary time explicitly. We describe analytically the effects of network structures on the intermediate fixations as observed in numerical simulations. Our theoretical predictions are validated by various simulations on both random and scale free networks. Therefore, our stochastic framework can be helpful in dealing with other networked game dynamics.
Zhang, Liye; Zou, Yong; Guan, Shuguang; Liu, Zonghua
2015-04-01
Evolutionary game theory is crucial to capturing the characteristic interaction patterns among selfish individuals. In a population of coordination games of two strategies, one of the central problems is to determine the fixation probability that the system reaches a state of networkwide of only one strategy, and the corresponding expectation times. The deterministic replicator equations predict the critical value of initial density of one strategy, which separates the two absorbing states of the system. However, numerical estimations of this separatrix show large deviations from the theory in finite populations. Here we provide a stochastic treatment of this dynamic process on complex networks of finite sizes as Markov processes, showing the evolutionary time explicitly. We describe analytically the effects of network structures on the intermediate fixations as observed in numerical simulations. Our theoretical predictions are validated by various simulations on both random and scale free networks. Therefore, our stochastic framework can be helpful in dealing with other networked game dynamics. PMID:25974547
Asymptotic and numerical methods for metastable events in stochastic gene networks
Jay Newby
2014-12-29
A general class of stochastic gene expression models with self regulation is considered. One or more genes randomly switch between regulatory states, each having a different mRNA transcription rate. The gene or genes are self regulating when the proteins they produce affect the rate of switching between regulatory states. Under weak noise conditions, the deterministic forces are much stronger than fluctuations from gene switching and protein synthesis. Metastable transitions, such as bistable switching, can occur under weak noise conditions, causing dramatic shifts in the expression of a gene. A general tool used to describe metastability is the quasi stationary analysis (QSA). A large deviation principle is derived so that the QSA can explicitly account for random gene switching without using an adiabatic limit or diffusion approximation, which are unreliable and inaccurate for metastable events.This allows the existing asymptotic and numerical methods that have been developed for continuous Markov processes to be used to analyze the full model.
Stochastic Dynamics Underlying Cognitive Stability and Flexibility
Ueltzhöffer, Kai; Armbruster-Genç, Diana J. N.; Fiebach, Christian J.
2015-01-01
Cognitive stability and flexibility are core functions in the successful pursuit of behavioral goals. While there is evidence for a common frontoparietal network underlying both functions and for a key role of dopamine in the modulation of flexible versus stable behavior, the exact neurocomputational mechanisms underlying those executive functions and their adaptation to environmental demands are still unclear. In this work we study the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying cue based task switching (flexibility) and distractor inhibition (stability) in a paradigm specifically designed to probe both functions. We develop a physiologically plausible, explicit model of neural networks that maintain the currently active task rule in working memory and implement the decision process. We simplify the four-choice decision network to a nonlinear drift-diffusion process that we canonically derive from a generic winner-take-all network model. By fitting our model to the behavioral data of individual subjects, we can reproduce their full behavior in terms of decisions and reaction time distributions in baseline as well as distractor inhibition and switch conditions. Furthermore, we predict the individual hemodynamic response timecourse of the rule-representing network and localize it to a frontoparietal network including the inferior frontal junction area and the intraparietal sulcus, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. This refines the understanding of task-switch-related frontoparietal brain activity as reflecting attractor-like working memory representations of task rules. Finally, we estimate the subject-specific stability of the rule-representing attractor states in terms of the minimal action associated with a transition between different rule states in the phase-space of the fitted models. This stability measure correlates with switching-specific thalamocorticostriatal activation, i.e., with a system associated with flexible working memory updating and dopaminergic modulation of cognitive flexibility. These results show that stochastic dynamical systems can implement the basic computations underlying cognitive stability and flexibility and explain neurobiological bases of individual differences. PMID:26068119
Bearingless switched reluctance motor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)
2004-01-01
A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
The MOS-Controlled Thyristor is a new type of power switching device for faster and more efficient control and management of power electronics. It enables power electronic switching at frequencies of 50 to 100 thousand times a second with much lower power losses than other semiconductor devices. Advantages include electric power savings and smaller space. The device is used in motor and power controllers, AC & DC motor drives and induction heating. Early development was supported by Lewis Research Center (LEW) and other agencies. General Electric''s power semiconductor operation, the initial NASA contractor, was later purchased by Harris Semiconductor.
Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.
2009-08-29
This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.
Automatically Generating Game Tactics via Evolutionary Learning
Spronck, Pieter
-controlled opponents in video games is called game AI. Adaptive game AI can improve the entertainment value of games the time and effort needed to create adaptive game AI. Introduction Today's video games are becoming is typically short; most game companies assign graphics and storytelling the highest priorities and do
A Game Development Platform for Serious
Cooper, Kendra M.L.
©2012 SimSYS A Game Development Platform for Serious Educational Games Creating Game-Based Learning. Serious games have significant pedagogical potential as they provide immersive, engaging and fun for advancing further into the game. Fundamentally integrating serious games into curricula, i.e., creating game
49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch...Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...
49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch...Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...
49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch...Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...
49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch...Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...
49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch...Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...
SWITCH-WECC http://rael.berkeley.edu/switch
Kammen, Daniel M.
SWITCH-WECC http://rael.berkeley.edu/switch Ph.D. Candidates: Josiah Johnston, Ana Mileva, Jimmy University of California, Berkeley September 2013 #12;The SWITCH Model · Model created to study the cost and solar power in California. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Energy and Resources
Dynamical systems game theory and dynamics of games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiyama, E.; Kaneko, K.
2000-12-01
A theoretical framework we call dynamical systems game is presented, in which the game itself can change due to the influence of players’ behaviors and states. That is, the nature of the game itself is described as a dynamical system. The relation between game dynamics and the evolution of strategies is discussed by applying this framework. Computer experiments are carried out for simple one-person games to demonstrate the evolution of dynamical systems with the effective use of dynamical resources.
Stages for Children Inventing Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Joy
2013-01-01
This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pill, Shane
2012-01-01
"Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…
Situating Ethics in Games Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Butler, Joy
2013-01-01
This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…
Computer Games for Visualization and
Wright, Dawn Jeannine
Games Get Serious Computer Games for Visualization and More by Tim Holt #12;The Story Historically solution Consider computer game concepts and technology to enable visualization and interaction in 3d virtual space #12;Computer games are a powerful and driving force in 3d visualization and interaction
Games on graphs Milos Stojakovic
Stojakovic, Milos
Games on graphs Milos StojakoviÂ´c Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Novi Sad, Serbia milos.stojakovic@dmi.uns.ac.rs http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/smilos/ Abstract. Positional Games is a branch of Combinatorics which focuses on a variety of two player games, ranging from well-known games
Video Games and Civic Engagement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perkins-Gough, Deborah
2009-01-01
According to a national telephone survey by the Pew Internet Project, 99 percent of boys and 94 percent of girls ages 12-17 play computer, Web, portable, or console games; and 50 percent play such games daily. The survey report, Teens, Video Games, and Civics, examines the extent and nature of teens' game playing and sheds some light on the…
Czárán, Tamás
BOOK REVIEWS Game theory and evolutionary ecology Evolutionary Games & Population Dynamics by J 521 62365 0 / 0 521 62579 X Game Theory & Animal Behaviour edited by L.A. Dugatkin and H.K. Reeve Oxford University Press, 1998. £55.00 hbk (xiv 320 pages) ISBN 0 19 509692 4 The liaison between game
Game Trees for Decision Analysis
Shenoy, Prakash P.
1998-04-01
Game trees (or extensive-form games) were first defined by von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944. In this paper, we examine the use of game trees for representing Bayesian decision problems. We propose a method for solving game trees using local...
PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck
Spronck, Pieter
-managers, translators, e-books, databases, barcode-scanners and even remote controls. Of course, games weren't left of Palm games as it is today, we see games of many types and qualities. There are arcade games like "Pac
Video Games: Competing with Machines.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanson, Jarice
This study was designed to compare the attitudinal and lifestyle patterns of video game players with the amount of time they play, the number of games they play, and the types of video games they play, to determine whether their personal use of time and attitude toward leisure is different when playing video games. Subjects were 200 individuals…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.
1974-01-01
Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.
Stochastic Optimization for Machine Learning
Powell, Warren B.
Stochastic Optimization for Machine Learning ICML 2010, Haifa, Israel Tutorial by Nati Srebro Descent: formulation, analysis and use in machine learning · Learn about extensions and generalizations, and their Machine Learning counterparts Main Goal: Machine Learning is Stochastic Optimization #12;Outline
STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH MEMORY
Mohammed, Salah-Eldin
- ery of the stochastic calculus of variations. It seemed appropriate at this tim* *e to include on the past history of* * the state. We shall frequently refer to such systems as stochastic functional
STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS WITH MEMORY
Mohammed, Salah-Eldin
the machin ery of the stochastic calculus of variations. It seemed appropriate at this time to include the reader to certain aspects of stochastic di#erential systems, whose evolution depends on the past history
CMOS analog switches for adaptive filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dixon, C. E.
1980-01-01
Adaptive active low-pass filters incorporate CMOS (Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) analog switches (such as 4066 switch) that reduce variation in switch resistance when filter is switched to any selected transfer function.
Transparent electrode for optical switch
Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.
1984-10-19
The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.
Not Available
1990-03-01
The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Multipath star switch controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, T. O.
1980-01-01
Device concept permits parallel computers to scan several commonnetwork-connected data stations at maximum rate. Sequencers leap-frog to bypass ports already being serviced by another computer. Two-path system for 16-port star switch controller is cost effective if added bandwidth or increased reliability is desired. Triple-path system would be cost effective for 32-port controller.
Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.
2012-01-01
The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.
Bhogale, Prasanna M.; Sorg, Robin A.; Veening, Jan-Willem; Berg, Johannes
2014-01-01
Multistable gene regulatory systems sustain different levels of gene expression under identical external conditions. Such multistability is used to encode phenotypic states in processes including nutrient uptake and persistence in bacteria, fate selection in viral infection, cell-cycle control and development. Stochastic switching between different phenotypes can occur as the result of random fluctuations in molecular copy numbers of mRNA and proteins arising in transcription, translation, transport and binding. However, which component of a pathway triggers such a transition is generally not known. By linking single-cell experiments on the lactose-uptake pathway in E. coli to molecular simulations, we devise a general method to pinpoint the particular fluctuation driving phenotype switching and apply this method to the transition between the uninduced and induced states of the lac-genes. We find that the transition to the induced state is not caused only by the single event of lac-repressor unbinding, but depends crucially on the time period over which the repressor remains unbound from the lac-operon. We confirm this notion in strains with a high expression level of the lac-repressor (leading to shorter periods over which the lac-operon remains unbound), which show a reduced switching rate. Our techniques apply to multistable gene regulatory systems in general and allow to identify the molecular mechanisms behind stochastic transitions in gene regulatory circuits. PMID:25245949
Bhogale, Prasanna M; Sorg, Robin A; Veening, Jan-Willem; Berg, Johannes
2014-10-01
Multistable gene regulatory systems sustain different levels of gene expression under identical external conditions. Such multistability is used to encode phenotypic states in processes including nutrient uptake and persistence in bacteria, fate selection in viral infection, cell-cycle control and development. Stochastic switching between different phenotypes can occur as the result of random fluctuations in molecular copy numbers of mRNA and proteins arising in transcription, translation, transport and binding. However, which component of a pathway triggers such a transition is generally not known. By linking single-cell experiments on the lactose-uptake pathway in E. coli to molecular simulations, we devise a general method to pinpoint the particular fluctuation driving phenotype switching and apply this method to the transition between the uninduced and induced states of the lac-genes. We find that the transition to the induced state is not caused only by the single event of lac-repressor unbinding, but depends crucially on the time period over which the repressor remains unbound from the lac-operon. We confirm this notion in strains with a high expression level of the lac-repressor (leading to shorter periods over which the lac-operon remains unbound), which show a reduced switching rate. Our techniques apply to multistable gene regulatory systems in general and allow to identify the molecular mechanisms behind stochastic transitions in gene regulatory circuits. PMID:25245949
Understanding of stochastic noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seo-Min; Lim, Chang-Moon; Jung, Mi-Rim; Kim, Young-Sik; Kwon, Won-Taik; Ahn, Chang-Nam; Sun, Kyu-Tae; Fumar-Pici, Anita; Chen, Alek C.
2015-03-01
Stochastic noise has strong impact on local variability such as LWR (Line Width Roughness), LCDU (Local Critical Dimension Uniformity) and LPE (Local Placement Error), and it is basically originated from the particle nature of photon. Statistical uncertainties of particles, same as the stochastic noises, can be analytically calculated by considering aerial image as a probability density function of photons. Contact-hole is the best pattern for counting its photon, so LCDU of contact-hole array is estimated and compared with experimental results. Among several possible statistical events from mask to resist pattern, three independent events of aerial image formation, photon absorption in resist, and chemical reaction including acid generation are considered to predict stochastic noise for both EUV (Extreme Ultra Violet) and ArF immersion lithography.
Altarelli, F; Braunstein, A; Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R
2011-05-13
The matching problem plays a basic role in combinatorial optimization and in statistical mechanics. In its stochastic variants, optimization decisions have to be taken given only some probabilistic information about the instance. While the deterministic case can be solved in polynomial time, stochastic variants are worst-case intractable. We propose an efficient method to solve stochastic matching problems which combines some features of the survey propagation equations and of the cavity method. We test it on random bipartite graphs, for which we analyze the phase diagram and compare the results with exact bounds. Our approach is shown numerically to be effective on the full range of parameters, and to outperform state-of-the-art methods. Finally we discuss how the method can be generalized to other problems of optimization under uncertainty. PMID:21668134
Organic Materials For Optical Switching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cardelino, Beatriz H.
1993-01-01
Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.
Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)
1983-01-01
A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.
Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games
Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C
2011-01-01
We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game
Morrow, James A.
Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game Will Johnson June 9, 2011 Theory 23 2 Introduction 24 2.1 Combinatorial Game Theory in general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2 #12;Contents 1 To Knot or Not to Knot 4 1.1 Some facts from Knot Theory
Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo
2011-01-01
This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…
Wolbachia spread dynamics in stochastic environments.
Hu, Linchao; Huang, Mugen; Tang, Moxun; Yu, Jianshe; Zheng, Bo
2015-12-01
Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease with 100 million people infected annually. A novel strategy for dengue control uses the bacterium Wolbachia to invade dengue vector Aedes mosquitoes. As the impact of environmental heterogeneity on Wolbachia spread dynamics in natural areas has been rarely quantified, we develop a model of differential equations for which the environmental conditions switch randomly between two regimes. We find some striking phenomena that random regime transitions could drive Wolbachia to extinction from certain initial states confirmed Wolbachia fixation in homogeneous environments, and mosquito releasing facilitates Wolbachia invasion more effectively when the regimes transit frequently. By superimposing the phase spaces of the ODE systems defined in each regime, we identify the threshold curves below which Wolbachia invades the whole population, which extends the theory of threshold infection frequency to stochastic environments. PMID:26428255
Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.
McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph
2015-08-01
Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326
McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph
2015-01-01
Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierret, Frédéric
2015-10-01
We derived the equations of Celestial Mechanics governing the variation of the orbital elements under a stochastic perturbation, thereby generalizing the classical Gauss equations. Explicit formulas are given for the semimajor axis, the eccentricity, the inclination, the longitude of the ascending node, the pericenter angle, and the mean anomaly, which are expressed in term of the angular momentum vector H per unit of mass and the energy E per unit of mass. Together, these formulas are called the stochastic Gauss equations, and they are illustrated numerically on an example from satellite dynamics.
Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog
1995-10-01
This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.
High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity
Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.
1998-07-01
Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.
Game theoretic algorithms for Protein-DNA binding Luis Perez-Breva
Ortiz, Luis
properties. Resource constraints, for example, are critical to understanding who binds where. At low nuclear Jaakkola CSAIL - MIT tommi@csail.mit.edu Abstract We develop and analyze game-theoretic algorithms of the -phage switch. 1 Introduction Transcriptional control relies in part on coordinate operation of DNA
Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology
Volk, Anja Fleischer
planning Parts orientation for industry Physicsbased animation #12;1032015 13 Virtual Worlds & software production Virtual Worlds · incl. graphics & animation Four divisions #12;1032015 2 Bachelor (Utrecht Center for GAme Research and TEchnology) Mediator between academia, industries, and end users
Graduate Program Game Research Intro Game Technology
Volk, Anja Fleischer
Virtual Worlds · incl. graphics & animation Four divisions #12;2962014 2 Bachelor of Science (BSc for GAme Research and TEchnology) Mediator between academia, industries, and end users Graduate program Reconstruction #12;2962014 12 Virtual Worlds · Animation Motion capture (lab) Facial expressions Motion
Page, K M; Nowak, M A; Sigmund, K
2000-01-01
In the ultimatum game, two players are asked to split a certain sum of money. The proposer has to make an offer. If the responder accepts the offer, the money will be shared accordingly. If the responder rejects the offer, both players receive nothing. The rational solution is for the proposer to offer the smallest possible share, and for the responder to accept it. Human players, in contrast, usually prefer fair splits. In this paper, we use evolutionary game theory to analyse the ultimatum game. We first show that in a non-spatial setting, natural selection chooses the unfair, rational solution. In a spatial setting, however, much fairer outcomes evolve. PMID:11413630
Learning process in public goods games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amado, André; Huang, Weini; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Ferreira, Fernando Fagundes
2015-07-01
We propose an individual-based model to describe the effects of memory and learning in the evolution of cooperation in a public goods game (PGG) in a well-mixed population. Individuals are endowed with a set of strategies, and in every round of the game they use one strategy out of this set based on their memory and learning process. The payoff of a player using a given strategy depends on the public goods enhancement factor r and the collective action of all players. We investigate the distribution of used strategies as well as the distribution of information patterns. The outcome depends on the learning process, which can be dynamic or static. In the dynamic learning process, the players can switch their strategies along the whole game, and use the strategy providing the highest payoff at current time step. In the static learning process, there is a training period where the players randomly explore different strategies out of their strategy sets. In the rest of the game, players only use the strategy providing the highest payoff during the training period. In the dynamic learning process, we observe a transition from a non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation reaches about 50 %. As in the standard PGG, in the static learning process there is a transition from the non-cooperative regime to a regime where the level of cooperation can be higher than 50% at r = N. In both learning processes the transition becomes smoother as the memory size of individuals increases, which means that the lack of information is a key ingredient causing the defection.
Overshoot during phenotypic switching of cancer cell populations
Sellerio, Alessandro L; Ben-Moshe, Noa Bossel; Coco, Stefania; Piccinini, Andrea; Myers, Christopher R; Sethna, James P; Giampietro, Costanza; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A M
2015-01-01
The dynamics of tumor cell populations is hotly debated: do populations derive hierarchically from a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), or are stochastic transitions that mutate differentiated cancer cells to CSCs important? Here we argue that regulation must also be important. We sort human melanoma cells using three distinct cancer stem cell (CSC) markers - CXCR6, CD271 and ABCG2 - and observe that the fraction of non-CSC-marked cells first overshoots to a higher level and then returns to the level of unsorted cells. This clearly indicates that the CSC population is homeostatically regulated. Combining experimental measurements with theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, we show that the population dynamics of cancer cells is associated with a complex miRNA network regulating the Wnt and PI3K pathways. Hence phenotypic switching is not stochastic, but is tightly regulated by the balance between positive and negative cells in the population. Reducing the fraction of CSCs below a threshold tr...
Seasonally forced disease dynamics explored as switching between attractors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keeling, Matt J.; Rohani, Pejman; Grenfell, Bryan T.
2001-01-01
Biological phenomena offer a rich diversity of problems that can be understood using mathematical techniques. Three key features common to many biological systems are temporal forcing, stochasticity and nonlinearity. Here, using simple disease models compared to data, we examine how these three factors interact to produce a range of complicated dynamics. The study of disease dynamics has been amongst the most theoretically developed areas of mathematical biology; simple models have been highly successful in explaining the dynamics of a wide variety of diseases. Models of childhood diseases incorporate seasonal variation in contact rates due to the increased mixing during school terms compared to school holidays. This ‘binary’ nature of the seasonal forcing results in dynamics that can be explained as switching between two nonlinear spiral sinks. Finally, we consider the stability of the attractors to understand the interaction between the deterministic dynamics and demographic and environmental stochasticity. Throughout attention is focused on the behaviour of measles, whooping cough and rubella.
Stochastic entrainment of a stochastic oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guanyu; Peskin, Charles S.
2015-11-01
In this work, we consider a stochastic oscillator described by a discrete-state continuous-time Markov chain, in which the states are arranged in a circle, and there is a constant probability per unit time of jumping from one state to the next in a specified direction around the circle. At each of a sequence of equally spaced times, the oscillator has a specified probability of being reset to a particular state. The focus of this work is the entrainment of the oscillator by this periodic but stochastic stimulus. We consider a distinguished limit, in which (i) the number of states of the oscillator approaches infinity, as does the probability per unit time of jumping from one state to the next, so that the natural mean period of the oscillator remains constant, (ii) the resetting probability approaches zero, and (iii) the period of the resetting signal approaches a multiple, by a ratio of small integers, of the natural mean period of the oscillator. In this distinguished limit, we use analytic and numerical methods to study the extent to which entrainment occurs.
Switching mechanism in amorphous chalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popescu, M.; ?im?ndan, I. D.
2010-11-01
The electrical switching in solid compositions based on chalcogenide materials is discussed. Different mechanisms proposed for switching effect are reviewed. A new description of the switching phenomenon is done. The switching is regarded as due to formation and breaking of the links between the dendrites of crystalline nuclei in bulk materials, as a consequence of the energy pumped by an electrical field. This mechanism explains the very short switching time (<20ns), the possibility to get smart memories based on multisteps of resistivity and the high number of cycles supported by the cell (1016).
Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G
1983-12-01
Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)
Pre-dispositions and epigenetic inheritance in the Escherichia coli lactose operon bistable switch.
Robert, Lydia; Paul, Gregory; Chen, Yong; Taddei, François; Baigl, Damien; Lindner, Ariel B
2010-04-13
The lactose operon regulation in Escherichia coli is a primary model of phenotypic switching, reminiscent of cell fate determination in higher organisms. Under conditions of bistability, an isogenic cell population partitions into two subpopulations, with the operon's genes turned on or remaining off. It is generally hypothesized that the final state of a cell depends solely on stochastic fluctuations of the network's protein concentrations, particularly on bursts of lactose permease expression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the cell switching decision are not fully understood. We designed a microfluidic system to follow the formation of a transiently bimodal population within growing microcolonies. The analysis of genealogy and cell history revealed the existence of pre-disposing factors for switching that are epigenetically inherited. Both the pre-induction expression stochasticity of the lactose operon repressor LacI and the cellular growth rate are predictive factors of the cell's response upon induction, with low LacI concentration and slow growth correlating with higher switching probability. Thus, stochasticity at the local level of the network and global physiology are synergistically involved in cell response determination. PMID:20393577
Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models
Bradonjic, Milan; Cohen, Albert
2010-01-01
We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.
... Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...
Vedrashko, Ilya
2006-01-01
This paper suggests advertisers should experiment with in-game advertising to gain skills that could become vital in the near future. It compiles, arranges and analyzes the existing body of academic and industry knowledge ...
... of the Cell Cycle Diabetes and Insulin DNA - RNA - Protein DNA - the Double Helix Ear Pages ECG/ ... About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common diseases, caused by a parasite that ...
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C. Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F.; Merzenich, Michael M.; Gentile, Douglas A.
2015-01-01
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games ‘damage the brain’ or ‘boost brain power’ do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065
Blankinship, Erik Jackson, 1974-
2005-01-01
Many players enjoy the challenge of outwitting computer opponents in strategy games. Devising strategies to defeat a computer opponent may enhance certain cognitive skills (e.g., analysis, evaluation, planning). This thesis ...
Graduate Program Game Research
Volk, Anja Fleischer
information and communication technologies (games, websites, mobile) transforming the (construction of the persuasive effects Humanities approach: understanding (the construction of) persuasiveness Design approach Projects 1. Playful Identities. From Narrative to Ludic Self- Construction (2005-2010) Are digital
Graduate Program Game Research
Volk, Anja Fleischer
information and communication technologies (games, websites, mobile) transforming the (construction of. From theory- based design to validation and back Humanities approach: understanding (the construction Projects 1. Playful Identities. From Narrative to Ludic Self- Construction (2005-2010) Are digital
Unknown
2011-08-17
This thesis addresses an important current problem in the game industry, the problem of moving multiple characters along predefined paths in a two-dimensional plane while avoiding collisions between them. It demonstrates ...
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A
2011-12-01
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward. PMID:22095065
Alon, Noga
We study a natural network creation game, in which each node locally tries to minimize its local diameter or its local average distance to other nodes, by swapping one incident edge at a time. The central question is what ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cummo, Evelyn; Matthews, Catherine E.
2002-01-01
Presents an activity designed to provide students with opportunities to practice drawing atomic models and discover the logical pairings of whole families on the periodic table. Follows the format of a television game show. (DDR)
Distribution of supercurrent switching in graphene under the proximity effect.
Coskun, U. C.; Brenner, M.; Hymel, T.; vakaryuk, V.; Levchenko, A.; Bezryadin, A.
2012-01-01
We study the stochastic nature of switching current in hysteretic current-voltage characteristics of superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions. We find that the dispersion of the switching current distribution scales with temperature as {sigma}{sub I} {proportional_to} T{sup {alpha}{sub G}} with {alpha}{sub G} as low as 1/3. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known Josephson junction behavior where {sigma}{sub I} {proportional_to} T{sup {alpha}{sub J}} with {alpha}{sub J} = 2/3. We propose an explanation using a generalized version of Kurkijaervi's theory for the flux stability in rf-SQUID and attribute this anomalous effect to the temperature dependence of the critical current which persists down to low temperatures.
Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)
2002-01-01
Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.
Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)
2001-01-01
A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.
The quantum cryptographic switch
Narayanaswamy, Srinatha; Srikanth, R; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban
2011-01-01
We illustrate using a quantum system the principle of a cryptographic switch, in which a third party (Charlie) can control to a continuously varying degree the amount of information the receiver (Bob) receives, after the sender (Alice) has sent her information. Suppose Charlie transmits a Bell state to Alice and Bob. Alice uses dense coding to transmit two bits to Bob. Only if the 2-bit information corresponding to choice of Bell state is made available by Charlie to Bob can the latter recover Alice's information. By varying the information he gives, Charlie can continuously vary the information recovered by Bob. The performance of the protocol subjected to the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel is considered. We also present a number of practical situations where a cryptographic switch would be of use.
The quantum cryptographic switch
Srinatha Narayanaswamy; Omkar Srikrishna; R. Srikanth; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak
2011-11-21
We illustrate using a quantum system the principle of a cryptographic switch, in which a third party (Charlie) can control to a continuously varying degree the amount of information the receiver (Bob) receives, after the sender (Alice) has sent her information. Suppose Charlie transmits a Bell state to Alice and Bob. Alice uses dense coding to transmit two bits to Bob. Only if the 2-bit information corresponding to choice of Bell state is made available by Charlie to Bob can the latter recover Alice's information. By varying the information he gives, Charlie can continuously vary the information recovered by Bob. The performance of the protocol subjected to the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel is considered. We also present a number of practical situations where a cryptographic switch would be of use.
Playing Games with Quantum Mechanics
Simon J. D. Phoenix; Faisal Shah Khan
2012-02-22
We present a perspective on quantum games that focuses on the physical aspects of the quantities that are used to implement a game. If a game is to be played, it has to be played with objects and actions that have some physical existence. We call such games playable. By focusing on the notion of playability for games we can more clearly see the distinction between classical and quantum games and tackle the thorny issue of what it means to quantize a game. The approach we take can more properly be thought of as gaming the quantum rather than quantizing a game and we find that in this perspective we can think of a complete quantum game, for a given set of preferences, as representing a single family of quantum games with many different playable versions. The versions of Quantum Prisoners Dilemma presented in the literature can therefore be thought of specific instances of the single family of Quantum Prisoner's Dilemma with respect to a particular measurement. The conditions for equilibrium are given for playable quantum games both in terms of expected outcomes and a geometric approach. We discuss how any quantum game can be simulated with a classical game played with classical coins as far as the strategy selections and expected outcomes are concerned.
Wolfe, Alan J.
2005-01-01
To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the “acetate switch,” occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the “switch” (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl?P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl?P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl?P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl?P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to “flip the switch,” the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the “acetate switch” as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described. PMID:15755952
Schlecht, Martin F. (Cambridge, MA); Kassakian, John G. (Newton, MA); Caloggero, Anthony J. (Lynn, MA); Rhodes, Bruce (Dorchester, MA); Otten, David (Newton, MA); Rasmussen, Neil (Sudbury, MA)
1982-01-01
An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.
Grider, David; Palmer, John
2014-03-06
CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.
Grider, David; Palmer, John
2014-04-09
CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galuszka, Peter
2009-01-01
Malcolm Perdue faces a dilemma as challenging as the computer games he loves to play. The 19-year-old student at Atlanta Metropolitan College wants to learn how to become a game designer. Not only would doing so be a lot of fun, designers can make $80,000 a year early in their careers. But his school has limited options in the field. Nearby…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana
2015-04-01
Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes; contribute to innovative pedagogies for scientific learning; create a scientific feedback-loop with students and teachers; implement a multi-level video game for scientific outreach.
Quantum Games under Decoherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen
2015-07-01
Quantum systems are easily influenced by ambient environments. Decoherence is generated by system interaction with external environment. In this paper, we analyse the effects of decoherence on quantum games with Eisert-Wilkens-Lewenstein (EWL) (Eisert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 3077 1999) and Marinatto-Weber (MW) (Marinatto and Weber, Phys. Lett. A 272, 291 2000) schemes. Firstly, referring to the analytical approach that was introduced by Eisert et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(15), 3077 1999), we analyse the effects of decoherence on quantum Chicken game by considering different traditional noisy channels. We investigate the Nash equilibria and changes of payoff in specific two-parameter strategy set for maximally entangled initial states. We find that the Nash equilibria are different in different noisy channels. Since Unruh effect produces a decoherence-like effect and can be perceived as a quantum noise channel (Omkar et al., arXiv: 1408.1477v1), with the same two parameter strategy set, we investigate the influences of decoherence generated by the Unruh effect on three-player quantum Prisoners' Dilemma, the non-zero sum symmetric multiplayer quantum game both for unentangled and entangled initial states. We discuss the effect of the acceleration of noninertial frames on the the game's properties such as payoffs, symmetry, Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimal, dominant strategy, etc. Finally, we study the decoherent influences of correlated noise and Unruh effect on quantum Stackelberg duopoly for entangled and unentangled initial states with the depolarizing channel. Our investigations show that under the influence of correlated depolarizing channel and acceleration in noninertial frame, some critical points exist for an unentangled initial state at which firms get equal payoffs and the game becomes a follower advantage game. It is shown that the game is always a leader advantage game for a maximally entangled initial state and there appear some points at which the payoffs become zero.
ID201202961, DOE S-124,539, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation
Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G
2012-01-01
Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic simulations of Agent Based Models (ABMs). Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. Our approach addresses imperfect information and scalability that allows us to also address previous limitations of current stochastic game models. Such models only consider perfect information assuming that the defender is always able to detect attacks; assuming that the state transition probabilities are fixed before the game assuming that the players actions are always synchronous; and that most models are not scalable with the size and complexity of systems under consideration. Our use of ABMs yields results of selected experiments that demonstrate our proposed approach and provides a quantitative measure for realistic information systems and their related security scenarios.
Ultrafast gas switching experiments
Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.
1996-11-01
We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.
Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis
G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.
2008-02-01
The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.
Nanomechanics of flexoelectric switching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O?enášek, J.; Lu, H.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Alcalá, J.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.
2015-07-01
We examine the phenomenon of flexoelectric switching of polarization in ultrathin films of barium titanate induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spatial distribution of the tip-induced flexoelectricity is computationally modeled both for perpendicular mechanical load (point measurements) and for sliding load (scanning measurements), and compared with experiments. We find that (i) perpendicular load does not lead to stable ferroelectric switching in contrast to the load applied in the sliding contact load regime, due to nontrivial differences between the strain distributions in both regimes: ferroelectric switching for the perpendicular load mode is impaired by a strain gradient inversion layer immediately underneath the AFM tip; while for the sliding load regime, domain inversion is unimpaired within a greater material volume subjected to larger values of the mechanically induced electric field that includes the region behind the sliding tip; (ii) beyond a relatively small value of an applied force, increasing mechanical pressure does not increase the flexoelectric field inside the film, but results instead in a growing volume of the region subjected to such field that aids domain nucleation processes; and (iii) the flexoelectric coefficients of the films are of the order of few nC/m, which is much smaller than for bulk BaTi O3 ceramics, indicating that there is a "flexoelectric size effect" that mirrors the ferroelectric one.
Ferroelectric switching of elastin
Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu
2014-01-01
Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890
Ultrafast gas switching experiments
Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.
1993-08-01
We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and technology to practical systems antennas and bounded wave developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > Khz at > 100 kV/m E field.
Ferroelectric switching of elastin.
Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu
2014-07-01
Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm(2), whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890
Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives
Kuss, Daria J
2013-01-01
In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that evidences neurobiologic correlates of Internet gaming addiction and the establishment of a preliminary diagnosis, but also emphasizes the necessity of an indepth understanding of the meaning, context, and practices associated with gaming. PMID:24255603
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Kuntal
2014-01-01
Straintronic logic is a promising platform for beyond Moore's law computing. Using Bennett clocking mechanism, information can propagate through an array of strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets, exploiting the dipolar coupling between the magnets without having to physically interconnect them. Here, we perform a critical analysis of switching failures, i.e., error in information propagation due to thermal fluctuations through a chain of such straintronic devices. We solved stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation considering room-temperature thermal perturbations and show that magnetization switching may fail due to inherent magnetization dynamics accompanied by thermally broadened switching delay distribution. Avenues available to circumvent such issue are proposed.
Roy, Kuntal
2014-01-06
Straintronic logic is a promising platform for beyond Moore's law computing. Using Bennett clocking mechanism, information can propagate through an array of strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets, exploiting the dipolar coupling between the magnets without having to physically interconnect them. Here, we perform a critical analysis of switching failures, i.e., error in information propagation due to thermal fluctuations through a chain of such straintronic devices. We solved stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation considering room-temperature thermal perturbations and show that magnetization switching may fail due to inherent magnetization dynamics accompanied by thermally broadened switching delay distribution. Avenues available to circumvent such issue are proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng; Peng, Pan
2014-12-01
It seems a universal phenomenon of networks that the attacks on a small number of nodes by an adversary player Alice may generate a global cascading failure of the networks. It has been shown (Li et al., 2013) that classic scale-free networks (Barabási and Albert, 1999, Barabási, 2009) are insecure against attacks of as small as O(logn) many nodes. This poses a natural and fundamental question: Can we introduce a second player Bob to prevent Alice from global cascading failure of the networks? We proposed a game in networks. We say that a network has an equilibrium game if the second player Bob has a strategy to balance the cascading influence of attacks by the adversary player Alice. It was shown that networks of the preferential attachment model (Barabási and Albert, 1999) fail to have equilibrium games, that random graphs of the Erdös-Rényi model (Erdös and Rényi, 1959, Erdös and Rényi, 1960) have, for which randomness is the mechanism, and that homophyly networks (Li et al., 2013) have equilibrium games, for which homophyly and preferential attachment are the underlying mechanisms. We found that some real networks have equilibrium games, but most real networks fail to have. We anticipate that our results lead to an interesting new direction of network theory, that is, equilibrium games in networks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaize, L.
Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.
Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning
Parra, Rainier Romero
2010-06-17
This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.
Weber, Stefan
Markov processes Stochastic analysis for additive functionals Geometry of rough spaces Stochastic analysis for Markov processes Michael Hinz Bielefeld University Colloquium Stochastic Analysis, Leibniz for Markov processes #12;Markov processes Stochastic analysis for additive functionals Geometry of rough
Application and Evaluation of Analytic Gaming
Riensche, Roderick M.; Martucci, Louis M.; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.
2009-08-31
We describe an "analytic gaming" framework and methodology, and introduce formal methods for evaluation of the analytic gaming process. This process involves conception, development, and playing of games that are informed by predictive models and driven by players. Evaluation of analytic gaming examines both the process of game development and the results of game play exercises.
Meta-Games in Information Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huvila, Isto
2013-01-01
Introduction: Meta-games and meta-gaming refer to various second-order conceptions of games and gaming. The present article discusses the applicability of the notions of meta-game and meta-gaming in understanding the patterns of how people use, misuse, work and work-around information and information infrastructures. Method: Twenty-two qualitative…
Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag
Jipsen, Peter
Game theory and modal logic Alexandru Baltag CWI P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB Amsterdam, The Netherlands investigated in two other LUATCS'99 courses. The second approach uses logic for the purposes of game theory Games Lecture 2. Basic GameTheory Lecture 3. Game Logics Lecture 4. Games as Processes \\Lambda Email
History of Computer Games John E. Laird
Evett, Matthew
Game Developer's Sourcebook The First Quarter: A 25 year history of video games, S.Kent and sources graphics on PDP-1 · Sega releases Periscope: electronic shooting game - first arcade game #12 arcade game · Based on SpaceWar · Vector graphics, but really cool real-time space game · Too
Flows and Decompositions of Games: Harmonic and Potential Games
Candogan, Utku Ozan
In this paper we introduce a novel flow representation for finite games in strategic form. This representation allows us to develop a canonical direct sum decomposition of an arbitrary game into three components, which we ...
Interpreting abstract games : the metaphorical potential of formal game elements
Begy, Jason Scott
2010-01-01
As cultural artifacts, abstract games offer unique challenges to critical interpretation. This is largely due to the fact that such games lack a fictional element: there are no characters, no settings, and no narratives ...
Developing game worlds : gaming, technology, and innovation in Peru
Marisca Alvarez, Eduardo
2014-01-01
In this work, I've documented the origins, growth and structure of the Peruvian video game industry. Because of its underground origins, the Peruvian game industry provides an alternative, more organic gateway to developing ...
Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John
2015-02-01
Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.
Multi-scenario modelling of uncertainty in stochastic chemical systems
Evans, R. David; Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.
2014-09-15
Uncertainty analysis has not been well studied at the molecular scale, despite extensive knowledge of uncertainty in macroscale systems. The ability to predict the effect of uncertainty allows for robust control of small scale systems such as nanoreactors, surface reactions, and gene toggle switches. However, it is difficult to model uncertainty in such chemical systems as they are stochastic in nature, and require a large computational cost. To address this issue, a new model of uncertainty propagation in stochastic chemical systems, based on the Chemical Master Equation, is proposed in the present study. The uncertain solution is approximated by a composite state comprised of the averaged effect of samples from the uncertain parameter distributions. This model is then used to study the effect of uncertainty on an isomerization system and a two gene regulation network called a repressilator. The results of this model show that uncertainty in stochastic systems is dependent on both the uncertain distribution, and the system under investigation. -- Highlights: •A method to model uncertainty on stochastic systems was developed. •The method is based on the Chemical Master Equation. •Uncertainty in an isomerization reaction and a gene regulation network was modelled. •Effects were significant and dependent on the uncertain input and reaction system. •The model was computationally more efficient than Kinetic Monte Carlo.
On Path Attractors, Stochastic Bifurcation and Dephasing In Genetic Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potoyan, Davit
2015-03-01
Gene regulatory networks are driven stochastic systems with the noise having two distinct components due to the to birth and death of metabolite molecules and dichotomous nature of gene state switching. Presence of dichotomous gene noise alone has the capacity to significantly perturb the optimal transition paths and steady state probability distributions compared to the macroscopic models and their weak noise approximations. Most importantly dichotomous gene noise can also lead to multimodal distributions due to stochastic bifurcation of the underlying nonlinear dynamical system, which underlies the mechanism of formation of population heterogeneity. In this note we derive approximate path based expression of the time dependent probability of gene circuits which enables deeper exploration of the role of gene noise in formation of epigenetic states and dephasing-like phenomena.
Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane
2013-02-01
Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.
Games: Design, Strategy, Philosophy, and Society Writing Assignment: Game Design First Draft
Laison, Josh
Games: Design, Strategy, Philosophy, and Society Writing Assignment: Game Design First Draft For this assignment, you will write a first draft of the rules to a game you design. Your game can have a mix of any of the features of a game discussed in class, and can be any of a variety of genres (board game, card game, verbal
He, Sheng
Non-stationary Policy Learning in 2-player Zero Sum Games Content Areas: machine learning, Markov over the space of stochastic actions. Many previous machine learning approaches apply to single agent decision processes, reinforcement learning Abstract A key challenge in multiagent environments is the con
Gaming Personality and Game Dynamics in Online Discussion Instructions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Roberts, Gayle A.
2015-01-01
Gamification is the use of game mechanics to drive game-like engagements and actions. It applies game mechanics, dynamics and frameworks to promote desired learning behaviours. Positive and effective gamification could enhance learning and engage learners in more social and context-rich decision-making for problem-solving in learning tasks.…
Computer Games Are Fun? On Professional Games and Players' Motivations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eglesz, Denes; Fekete, Istvan; Kiss, Orhidea Edith; Izso, Lajos
2005-01-01
As computer games are becoming more widespread, there is a tendency for young people to spend a growing amount of time playing games. The first part of this paper will deal with various types of computer games and their characteristic features. In the second part we show the results of our recent surveys. We examined the motivations of young…
ALTEC Learning Games: Successful Integration of Learning and Gaming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Melanie A.; Ault, Marilyn M.
2009-01-01
Of the 53 million K-12 students in the United States, 93%, or 51 million, of them play video games (Etuk, 2008). ALTEC Learning Games utilize the excitement of video games to engage students and provide teachers authentic online resources that reinforce skills in math and language arts. Our recent work was partially supported by a partnership with…
Games Children Play: How Games and Sport Help Children Develop.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooking-Payne, Kim
This book presents games for children, teenagers, and adults, explaining how each game can help children develop in a holistic way. It begins by discussing tips for teaching games, how to deal with children who break the rules, and what type of equipment to use. The book provides help on how to approach play within each of the different age…
Mapping Learning and Game Mechanics for Serious Games Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnab, Sylvester; Lim, Theodore; Carvalho, Maira B.; Bellotti, Francesco; de Freitas, Sara; Louchart, Sandy; Suttie, Neil; Berta, Riccardo; De Gloria, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Although there is a consensus on the instructional potential of Serious Games (SGs), there is still a lack of methodologies and tools not only for design but also to support analysis and assessment. Filling this gap is one of the main aims of the Games and Learning Alliance (http://www.galanoe.eu) European Network of Excellence on Serious Games,…
Multiobjective optimization in structural design with uncertain parameters and stochastic processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rao, S. S.
1984-01-01
The application of multiobjective optimization techniques to structural design problems involving uncertain parameters and random processes is studied. The design of a cantilever beam with a tip mass subjected to a stochastic base excitation is considered for illustration. Several of the problem parameters are assumed to be random variables and the structural mass, fatigue damage, and negative of natural frequency of vibration are considered for minimization. The solution of this three-criteria design problem is found by using global criterion, utility function, game theory, goal programming, goal attainment, bounded objective function, and lexicographic methods. It is observed that the game theory approach is superior in finding a better optimum solution, assuming the proper balance of the various objective functions. The procedures used in the present investigation are expected to be useful in the design of general dynamic systems involving uncertain parameters, stochastic process, and multiple objectives.
BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.
2003-05-12
Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-09
...for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This Amendment allows for multi- player games on video lottery terminals (VLTs). Dated: November 1, 2010. Larry Echo Hawk, Assistant Secretary--Indian...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-12-28
...State Compact for review and approval. The Compact increases the number of Video Gaming Machines from 76 to 816, and authorizes the operation of additional types of games including live poker and simulcast racing. The term of the Compact runs...
Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiss, Fran
1979-01-01
Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-01
...Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact authorizes up to 2,000 video lottery terminals, up to 70 table games, and establishes the Oregon Benefit Fund to receive payments from the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs...
Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Devaney, Robert L.
2004-01-01
Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.
Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch
Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.
2003-06-10
An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.
Stochastic calcium oscillations.
Keener, James P
2006-03-01
While the oscillatory release of calcium from intracellular stores is comprised of fundamentally stochastic events, most models of calcium oscillations are deterministic. As a result, the transition to calcium oscillations as parameters, such as IP(3) concentration, are changed is not described correctly. The fundamental difficulty is that whole-cell models of calcium dynamics are based on the assumptions that the calcium concentration is spatially homogeneous, and that there are a sufficiently large number of release sites per unit volume so that the law of large numbers is applicable. For situations where these underlying assumptions are not applicable, a new modelling approach is needed. In this paper, we present a model and its analysis of calcium dynamics that incorporates the fundamental stochasticity of release events. The model is based on the assumptions that release events are rapid, while reactivation is slow. The model presented here is comprised of two parts. In the first, a stochastic version of the fire-diffuse-fire model is studied in order to understand the spark-to-wave transition and the probability of sparks resulting in abortive waves versus whole-cell calcium release. In the second, this information about the spark-to-wave transition is incorporated into a stochastic model (a Chapman-Kolmogorov equation) that tracks the number of activated and inactivated calcium release sites as a function of time. By solving this model numerically, information about the timing of whole-cell calcium release is obtained. The results of this analysis show a transition to oscillations that agrees well with data and with Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:16517550
Dorogovtsev, Andrei A
2010-06-29
For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.
A Monte-Carlo game theoretic approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making under uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madani, Kaveh; Lund, Jay R.
2011-05-01
Game theory provides a useful framework for studying Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems. This paper suggests modeling Multi-Criteria Decision Making problems as strategic games and solving them using non-cooperative game theory concepts. The suggested method can be used to prescribe non-dominated solutions and also can be used as a method to predict the outcome of a decision making problem. Non-cooperative stability definitions for solving the games allow consideration of non-cooperative behaviors, often neglected by other methods which assume perfect cooperation among decision makers. To deal with the uncertainty in input variables a Monte-Carlo Game Theory (MCGT) approach is suggested which maps the stochastic problem into many deterministic strategic games. The games are solved using non-cooperative stability definitions and the results include possible effects of uncertainty in input variables on outcomes. The method can handle multi-criteria multi-decision-maker problems with uncertainty. The suggested method does not require criteria weighting, developing a compound decision objective, and accurate quantitative (cardinal) information as it simplifies the decision analysis by solving problems based on qualitative (ordinal) information, reducing the computational burden substantially. The MCGT method is applied to analyze California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta problem. The suggested method provides insights, identifies non-dominated alternatives, and predicts likely decision outcomes.
Time series analysis for minority game simulations of financial markets
Fernando F. Ferreira; Gerson Francisco; Birajara S. Machado; Paulsamy Muruganandam
2002-10-26
The minority game (MG) model introduced recently provides promising insights into the understanding of the evolution of prices, indices and rates in the financial markets. In this paper we perform a time series analysis of the model employing tools from statistics, dynamical systems theory and stochastic processes. Using benchmark systems and a financial index for comparison, several conclusions are obtained about the generating mechanism for this kind of evolut ion. The motion is deterministic, driven by occasional random external perturbation. When the interval between two successive perturbations is sufficiently large, one can find low dimensional chaos in this regime. However, the full motion of the MG model is found to be similar to that of the first differences of the SP500 index: stochastic, nonlinear and (unit root) stationary.
Optical switch based on thermocapillarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa
2001-11-01
Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.
Power transistor switching characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackburn, D. L.
1981-01-01
The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.
VanDevender, J.P.; Emin, D.
1986-07-01
A reusable fast opening switch is described for pulse power applications comprising: a pair of spaced, plate, conductors; a bulk magnetic semiconductor disposed between the conductors, the magnetic semiconductor being highly conductive below a critical temperature (T/sub C/) and rapidly transforming into an insulator above T/sub C/ by undergoing at least an order of magnitude change in resistivity for a temperature change 10/sup 0/C: and shock absorber means for protecting the semiconductor from shock waves generated during a resistivity transition.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael
2011-01-01
Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly and halts current flow in the hottest parts of the cell first. The coating can be applied to metal foil and supplied as a cell component onto which the active electrode materials are coated.
Preparation in language switching 1 RUNNING HEAD: Preparation in language switching
Bustamante, Fabián E.
Preparation in language switching 1 RUNNING HEAD: Preparation in language switching Pervasive benefits of preparation in language switching Angela Fink and Matthew Goldrick Northwestern discussion and comments. #12;Preparation in language switching 2 Abstract Many theories
Hybrid switch for resonant power converters
Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong
2014-09-09
A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.
Enhancing Cognition with Video Games: A Multiple Game Training Study
Oei, Adam C.; Patterson, Michael D.
2013-01-01
Background Previous evidence points to a causal link between playing action video games and enhanced cognition and perception. However, benefits of playing other video games are under-investigated. We examined whether playing non-action games also improves cognition. Hence, we compared transfer effects of an action and other non-action types that required different cognitive demands. Methodology/Principal Findings We instructed 5 groups of non-gamer participants to play one game each on a mobile device (iPhone/iPod Touch) for one hour a day/five days a week over four weeks (20 hours). Games included action, spatial memory, match-3, hidden- object, and an agent-based life simulation. Participants performed four behavioral tasks before and after video game training to assess for transfer effects. Tasks included an attentional blink task, a spatial memory and visual search dual task, a visual filter memory task to assess for multiple object tracking and cognitive control, as well as a complex verbal span task. Action game playing eliminated attentional blink and improved cognitive control and multiple-object tracking. Match-3, spatial memory and hidden object games improved visual search performance while the latter two also improved spatial working memory. Complex verbal span improved after match-3 and action game training. Conclusion/Significance Cognitive improvements were not limited to action game training alone and different games enhanced different aspects of cognition. We conclude that training specific cognitive abilities frequently in a video game improves performance in tasks that share common underlying demands. Overall, these results suggest that many video game-related cognitive improvements may not be due to training of general broad cognitive systems such as executive attentional control, but instead due to frequent utilization of specific cognitive processes during game play. Thus, many video game training related improvements to cognition may be attributed to near-transfer effects. PMID:23516504
A retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm
Vaughan, T.G. Drummond, P.D.; Drummond, A.J.
2010-05-20
In this paper we describe a simple method for inferring the initial states of systems evolving stochastically according to master equations, given knowledge of the final states. This is achieved through the use of a retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm which complements the usual predictive stochastic simulation approach. We demonstrate the utility of this new algorithm by applying it to example problems, including the derivation of likely ancestral states of a gene sequence given a Markovian model of genetic mutation.
Simulation Games in Architectural Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonta, Juan Pablo
1979-01-01
Playing simulation games is seen as having obvious educational value with players learning through personal involvement. Several games are described, including Communication Networks, Heating and Air-Conditioning (HAC), Construction Management Game, Semiotics, Awards, Blocks, Would You Like to Be an Architect?, POLIGRIP, and PASS. (MLW)
RESEARCH ARTICLE Asymmetric Evolutionary Games
Hauert, Christoph
RESEARCH ARTICLE Asymmetric Evolutionary Games Alex McAvoy*, Christoph Hauert Department Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interac- tions are symmetric, which means
COOPERATIVE GAMES ON COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES
Bilbao Arrese, JesÃºs Mario
COOPERATIVE GAMES ON COMBINATORIAL STRUCTURES JESÃ?S MARIO BILBAO University of Seville Spain KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS #12;Contents Preface ix 1 Structures 1 1.1 Cooperative games of cooperative games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.4 Closure spaces and convex geometries
Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glakas, Barbara A.
1991-01-01
Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)
Video Games and Digital Literacies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinkuehler, Constance
2010-01-01
Today's youth are situated in a complex information ecology that includes video games and print texts. At the basic level, video game play itself is a form of digital literacy practice. If we widen our focus from the "individual player + technology" to the online communities that play them, we find that video games also lie at the nexus of a…
"Voyager": An Educational Card Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, David Ryan
2003-01-01
"Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were produced…
Gaming Frequency and Academic Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ip, Barry; Jacobs, Gabriel; Watkins, Alan
2008-01-01
There are numerous claims that playing computer and video games may be educationally beneficial, but there has been little formal investigation into whether or not the frequency of exposure to such games actually affects academic performance. This paper explores the issue by analysing the relationships between gaming frequency--measured as the…
Hamiltotian Formalism of Game Theory
Jinshan Wu
2005-04-12
A new representation of Game Theory is developed in this paper. State of players is represented by a density matrix, and payoff function is a set of hermitian operators, which when applied onto the density matrix give the payoff of players. By this formulism, a new way to find the equilibria of games is given by generalizing the thermodynamical evolutionary process leading to equilibrium in Statistical Mechanics. And in this formulism, when quantum objects instead of classical objects are used as the objects in the game, it's naturally leads to the so-called Quantum Game Theory, but with a slight difference in the definition of strategy state of players: the probability distribution is replaced with a density matrix. Further more, both games of correlated and independent players can be reached in this single framework, while traditionally, they are treated separately by Non-cooperative Game Theory and Coalitional Game Theory. Because of the density matrix is used as state of players, besides classical correlated strategy, quantum entangled states can also be used as strategies, which is an entanglement of strategies between players, and it is different with the entanglement of objects' states as in the so-called Quantum Game Theory. At last, in the form of density matrix, a class of quantum games, where the payoff matrixes are commutative, can be reduced into classical games. In this sense, it will put the classical game as a special case of our quantum game.
Recreational Games for Physical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hume, Donald
2005-01-01
Recreational games can be incorporated into physical education programs to encourage play and activity among students during their leisure time. Students can play their own games during recess, before or after school, during intramural programs, or in their neighborhood with family and friends. This article describes five such games namely:…
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson
Ferguson, Thomas S.
GAME THEORY Thomas S. Ferguson Part III. Two-Person General-Sum Games 1. Bimatrix Games -- Safety at each terminal vertex of the Kuhn tree how much is won by Player I and how much is won by Player II. We
Games, the Socialization of Conflict.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sutton-Smith, Brian
The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…
Can Video Games Be Educational?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Criswell, Chad
2009-01-01
One of the biggest debates among music educators today is about whether or not video games are a valid educational tool. As far back as the early 1990s, teachers were using games such as Sid Meier's Civilization to reinforce history and social studies concepts, but until recently games that dealt with areas of music education have been few and far…
Matrix Games: Correlation and Minimax
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norman, Max C.
1973-01-01
A game is presented in which computation by a stepping-stone method is used to solve minimax problems. An additional application of this game is used for finding the Pearson correlation coefficient by non-parametric techniques. The game provides considerable computational practice as well as a motivational problem solving situation. (JP)
Gaming and Gamification Part II
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mallon, Melissa
2013-01-01
Just as academic gaming in general cannot be limited to any one topic or genre, the "Public Services Quarterly" Internet Resources column is not limited to a single entry on gaming and gamification in libraries. Public services librarians interested in designing their own games have many successful examples to draw from. The previous…
Declarative Game Programming Distilled Tutorial
Nilsson, Henrik
set of domains such as graphical user interfaces, robotics, and computer vision. As video games often@cs.nott.ac.uk Ivan Perez University of Nottingham psxip1@nottingham.ac.uk Abstract Video games are usually and implement video games in a more declarative way. This tutorial shows how this can be achieved through
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-07-06
...the compact is four years calculated from the date of commencement of gaming. The compact permits the Tribe to offer the full gamut of casino-style gaming authorized by the Nevada Gaming Commission and/or lawfully permitted to be played by the...
Alliances in "The Hunger Games"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Painter, Judith
2012-01-01
This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…
Computerized History Games: Narrative Options
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kee, Kevin
2011-01-01
How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…
Vavilov, Maxim G
- tory magnetic field,47 a numerical study of ferromagnetic resonance spectra,8 a study of resistance noise in spin valves,9 a study of the magnetization switching and relax- ation in the presenceStochastic dynamics of magnetization in a ferromagnetic nanoparticle out of equilibrium Denis M
Degree Distribution of Position-Dependent Ball-Passing Networks in Football Games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narizuka, Takuma; Yamamoto, Ken; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro
2015-08-01
We propose a simple stochastic model describing the position-dependent ball-passing network in football (soccer) games. In this network, a player in a certain area in a divided field is a node, and a pass between two nodes corresponds to an edge. Our stochastic process model is characterized by the consecutive choice of a node depending on its intrinsic fitness. We derive an explicit expression for the degree distribution and find that the derived distribution reproduces that for actual data reasonably well.
A numerical scheme for optimal transition paths of stochastic chemical kinetic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Di
2008-10-01
We present a new framework for finding the optimal transition paths of metastable stochastic chemical kinetic systems with large system size. The optimal transition paths are identified to be the most probable paths according to the Large Deviation Theory of stochastic processes. Dynamical equations for the optimal transition paths are derived using the variational principle. A modified Minimum Action Method (MAM) is proposed as a numerical scheme to solve the optimal transition paths. Applications to Gene Regulatory Networks such as the toggle switch model and the Lactose Operon Model in Escherichia coli are presented as numerical examples.
Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe
1987-01-01
The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.
Task switching: effects of practice on switch and mixing costs.
Strobach, Tilo; Liepelt, Roman; Schubert, Torsten; Kiesel, Andrea
2012-01-01
In the task-switching paradigm, mixing costs indicate the performance costs to mix two different tasks, while switch costs indicate the performance costs to switch between two sequentially presented tasks. Applying tasks with bivalent stimuli and responses, many studies demonstrated substantial mixing and switch costs and a reduction of these costs as a result of practice. The present study investigates whether extensive practice of a task-switching situation including tasks with univalent stimuli eliminates these costs. Participants practiced switching between a visual and an auditory task. These tasks were chosen because they had shown eliminated performance costs in a comparable dual-task practice study (Schumacher et al. Psychol Sci 12:101-108, 2001). Participants either performed the tasks with univalent responses (i.e., visual-manual and auditory-verbal stimulus-response mappings) or bivalent responses (i.e., visual-manual and auditory-manual stimulus-response mappings). Both valence conditions revealed substantial mixing and switch costs at the beginning of practice, yet, mixing costs were largely eliminated after eight practice sessions while switch costs were still existent. PMID:21360303