These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the Years 2000 to 2003: Association of the GGIIb Genetic Cluster with Infection in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains were studied during three seasons (2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003) among patients of all ages, mainly from the Stockholm region in Sweden. A total of 3,252 fecal samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- PCR. The incidences of norovirus infection among adults were 23, 26, and 30% during the three

Annika Tiveljung Lindell; Lena Grillner; Lennart Svensson; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart



The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge

Teun van der Bom; A. Carla Zomer; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Folkert J. Meijboom; Berto J. Bouma; Barbara J. M. Mulder



Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that

Anh L. Bui; Tamara B. Horwich; Gregg C. Fonarow



Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Epidemiology of Cyanotic Heart Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect, making significant contributions to infant morbidity\\u000a and mortality, but not all CHDs contribute equally to such outcomes. Although cyanotic CHDs constitute some of the most serious\\u000a CHDs, its epidemiology is poorly understood. We present a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on the epidemiology\\u000a of cyanotic CHD, with

Jennifer L. Kornosky; Hamisu M. Salihu



[Epidemiology and prognosis of heart failure].  


Heart failure (HF) is a major and growing health problem in western communities. Recent data indicate that more than 50% of patients with the clinical syndrome of HF have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF). In contrast to the calculated expectations, the observed incidence of HF is rising. Despite the fact that the relative proportion of patients with preserved left ventricular function is also increasing, other factors, such as ageing of the population and the concomitant change of compound risk factors may also contribute to the actual rise in the incidence of HF. Patients with HF suffer from reduced exercise capacity, impaired quality of life and also from recurrent hospitalization due to HF. Over the past decades, an increase of recurrent HF events has been documented. In contrast to earlier reports in which HFpEF was considered to be more benign than HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), recent data suggest that once hospitalized for HF, patients with HFpEF and those with HFrEF have a comparable prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing clinical and economic relevance, no treatment has yet been shown to convincingly reduce mortality in HFpEF. In contrast, strategies for improving survival have now been established for HFrEF. The problem of HF will continue to be major challenge for the healthcare systems in western communities; therefore, consolidated clinical research is necessary to further improve therapeutic strategies for HFrEF and to generally establish treatment options for HFpEF. PMID:25822419

Edelmann, F



Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail:



Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: current epidemiology and future projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide an overview of the epidemiology of congenital heart disease, the results of epidemiological studies done in 4 regions of Saudi Arabia (August 1988-February 2000) and 2604 individuals with congenital heart disease were evaluated. Ventricular septal defect was the commonest lesion (33.9%) followed by atrial septal defect (18.1%). Overall, sex distribution was similar; for 3 condi- tions, more males

A. A. A. Alabdulgader


Insights into the contemporary epidemiology and outpatient management of congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To evaluate the epidemiology, prognosis, and patterns of practice in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) treated and followed at a specialized clinic. Methods Prospective cohort study of consecutive patients referred to and followed up in a specialized heart failure clinic between September 1989 and March 1996. Results Of the 628 patients referred, 566 were confirmed to have

Finlay A. McAlister; Koon K. Teo; Muba Taher; Terrence J. Montague; Dennis Humen; Lawrence Cheung; Mercedeh Kiaii; Rita Yim; Paul W. Armstrong



Acute heart failure: epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.  


Acute heart failure represents the first cause of hospitalization in elderly persons and is the main determinant of the huge healthcare expenditure related to heart failure. Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis of acute heart failure is poor, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 4% to 7%, 60- to 90-day mortality ranging from 7% to 11%, and 60- to 90-day rehospitalization from 25% to 30%. Several factors including cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions as well as patient-related and iatrogenic factors may precipitate the rapid development or deterioration of signs and symptoms of heart failure, thus leading to an acute heart failure episode that usually requires patient hospitalization. The primary prevention of acute heart failure mainly concerns the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease, including coronary artery disease, while the secondary prevention of a new episode of decompensation requires the optimization of heart failure therapy, patient education, and the development of an effective transition and follow-up plan. PMID:25659507

Farmakis, Dimitrios; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos



[Epidemiology and treatment of chronic heart failure; use of bisoprolol].  


The prevalence of chronic heart failure in Hungary is 1.6% in the adult population, but it occurs in 15-20% of subjects over 80 years of age. The base of treatment of heart failure is the blockade of the neuro-hormonal system, which includes the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (angiotensin receptor blockers in case of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors intolerance), beta receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Because of their negative inotropic effect, beta blockers were neglected for a long time from the treatment of heart failure. However, during the past decades several studies have demonstrated that beta blockers decrease mortality in patients with heart failure. The effectiveness of bisoprolol in reducing mortality has also also been documented in a number of studies. PMID:24161596

Nagy, Viktor



Renal dysfunction in acute heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal dysfunction is often present and\\/or worsens in patients with heart failure and this is associated with increased costs\\u000a of care, complications and mortality. The cardiorenal syndrome can be defined as the presence or development of renal dysfunction\\u000a in patients with heart failure. Its mechanisms are likely related to low cardiac output, increased venous congestion and renal\\u000a venous pressure, neurohormonal

Valentina Carubelli; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi; Luca Bettari; Silvia Bugatti; Valentina Lazzarini; Livio Dei Cas


The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Summary On October 11, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of its first participant in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The origin of the study is closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. The present article describes the events leading to the founding of the Framingham Heart Study, and provides a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

Mahmood, Syed S.; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.



Heart failure and the emergency department: epidemiology, characteristics, and outcomes.  


It is widely recognized that the impact of heart failure on society is enormous. The research community has responded, resulting in an ongoing period of rapid advancement across a wide range of fields. The pace of progress is perhaps most apparent in the barrage of new and revised terminology appearing in the heart failure literature. Although sometimes confusing, the complexity of nomenclature directly reflects a growing appreciation that the symptom complex previously labeled "heart failure" is actually a spectrum of complex multisystem pathologies. Accordingly, clinicians must adopt a more sophisticated and more effective approach to evaluation and treatment that is increasingly based on objective measurement of outcome-linked physiologic parameters rather than the subjectively described symptom constellations relied on previously. PMID:19026380

Green, Gary B



Epidemiology of Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational population-based studies have consistently shown an inverse dose-response gradient between physical activity or fitness and coronary heart disease. This relationship is more firmly established in men. Existing studies suggest that the physical activity gradient, and perhaps the fitness gradient, is produced by a combination of varying levels of both the intensity and the amount of habitual physical activity. It

Mitchell H. Whaley; Steven N. Blair



Diastolic dysfunction and diastolic heart failure: Mechanisms and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have demonstrated that diastolic dysfunction is frequently present in asymptomatic community-based individuals, especially\\u000a in the elderly with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes. The presence of diastolic dysfunction is a predictor\\u000a for the development of heart failure (HF) and confers a higher risk of mortality. These findings have raised the question\\u000a of whether treating preclinical diastolic dysfunction will be

Anita Deswal



[The heart, the elderly, and diabetes mellitus. Epidemiologic study of 333 ambulatory clinical cases].  


The paper proposes a new classification to describe the normal senile heart and its pathological forms: "small aortic heart" (nonhypertrophic-dilatative myocardiopathy and its ischemic form) and "large aortic heart" (hypertrophic-dilatative myocardiopathy and its ischemic form). The statistical distribution of 241 elderly patients with diabetes mellitus using this classification was compared to a control group of 92 elderly non-diabetic subjects. The results reveal the significant epidemiological incidence of ischemic cardiopathy with small aortic heart in diabetic patients compared to the control group in which more ischemic hypertrophic-dilatative cardiopathies were present. This observation supports the hypothesis that senile diabetic cardiopathy begins with a metabolic block with reduced contractile energy, and the overlying important ischemic component leads to the development of the small-size clinical phenotype. PMID:1745377

Tamburrini, L R; Di Monte, M; Ponte, E; Vriz, O



STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology  

E-print Network

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology Posted at: Stockholm University 2013-04-02 Refnr: SU FV-4.2.3-xxxx-14 Administrator: Cecilia Törnqvist Stockholm University Department of MeteorologyD student position in XX at the Department of Meteorology SU FV-XXXX-14. Application deadline: 2014

Brandenburg, Axel


Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects  

PubMed Central

This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth



Epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community in northern India.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community (total population 114,610) in northern India was studied by setting up a registry based on primary health care centres. Health workers and schoolteachers were trained to identify suspected patients in school and village surveys (121 villages). Medical specialists screened 5-15-year-olds (n = 31,200). The population was followed up for 3 years (from March 1988 to March 1991). All suspected and registered cases were investigated by serial echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography at a tertiary care centre. A total of 102 cases were confirmed to have rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (prevalence, 0.09%); 66 were aged 5-15 years (prevalence, 0.21%). A total of 48 patients (24 males, 24 females; mean age, 12.11 +/- 3.7 years) were diagnosed to have a possible first attack of rheumatic fever (incidence, 0.54 per 1000 per year). Arthritis was observed in 36 (75%) and carditis in 18 (37.5%) of cases. Prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet into the left atrium occurred in 5 (22%) cases with carditis. Mitral regurgitation was observed in all 18 cases of carditis; over the period of observation it disappeared in three cases and progressed to mitral stenosis in a further three. A total of 22 patients (11 males, 11 females; mean age, 19.41 +/- 8.1 years) were registered as rheumatic fever recurrences, and 32 patients (18 females, 14 males; mean age, 22.1 +/- 10.1 years) had chronic rheumatic heart disease. Of those with recurrences, 9 (41%) had carditis and 11 (50%) had arthritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8440039

Grover, A.; Dhawan, A.; Iyengar, S. D.; Anand, I. S.; Wahi, P. L.; Ganguly, N. K.



The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran) were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17) software. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years). The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014) and 43.8 (n: 1627), respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (16.8%), atrial septal defect (ASD) (15.8%), pulmonary stenosis (PS) (11%) and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (8.9%) were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively. PMID:25538919

Amel-Shahbaz, Sara; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Vafaeenasab, Mohammadreza; Andishmand, Abbas; Moghimi, Samane; Negahdary, Masoud; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi




Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis and contact allergy are common medical conditions. But how common are they? Are they more common in certain\\u000a populations? Are reactions to specific contact allergens more prevalent than to other allergens? This chapter presents some\\u000a basic epidemiologic principles which are important in population-based or clinic-based studies on contact dermatitis. Examples\\u000a of studies on contact allergy as well as

Pieter-Jan Coenraads; Wolfgang Uter; Thomas Diepgen


Diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease incidence, and death from all causes in African American and European American women The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few data are available on risk for coronary heart disease in African American women with diabetes mellitus, a well-established coronary risk factor in European American women. This study tests the hypothesis that medical history of diabetes predicts coronary heart disease incidence in African American women in a national cohort. Participants in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study in this analysis

Richard F Gillum; Michael E Mussolino; Jennifer H Madans



Cardiovascular Epidemiology in a Changing World—Challenges to Investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

PubMed Central

Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries. PMID:22415032

Sorlie, Paul D.; Bild, Diane E.; Lauer, Michael S.



[The aging heart and its pathology. An epidemiological study of 229 cases based on a clinical and radiological classification].  


The paper studies epidemiological distribution of the aging heart and its pathology in a sample of 229 subjects (101 male and 128 female) on the basis of a clinical and radiological classification into cardiological phenotypes. This study involved the use of mathematical statistical procedures following a standard method using SIR database (Scientific Information Retrieval) software implemented on the CDC Cyber 170/730 mainframe in the Trieste University Computing Center that is connected with the Chair of Geriatric Pathology. Using this software it was possible to assess the epidemiological significance of the usual clinical parameters, and show that the most representative cardiopathy is the 3rd type, i.e. the hypertrophic-ischemic cardiopathy belonging to the large aortic heart. Its natural pathogenesis is independent of risk factors and relates to the aging of muscular and connective tissues in which the coronary circulation is involved in the deterioration of the cardiovascular system and is therefore different from the primary ischemias of adults. PMID:2622569

Tamburrini, L R; Di Monte, M; Gerometta, R; Ponte, E; Cherubini, M



Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Prognosis, and Treatment of Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underlying causes, risk factors, and precipitating causes of heart failure (HF) should be treated. Drugs known to precipitate or aggravate HF such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs should be stopped. Patients with HF and a low left ventricular ejection fraction (systolic heart failure) or normal ejection fraction (diastolic HF) should be treated with diuretics if fluid retention is present, with an

Wilbert S. Aronow



The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD. PMID:21386976

Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R



Patients' perceptions of their heart attack and recovery: the influence of epidemiological “evidence” and personal experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary prevention of heart disease is widely viewed as likely to be more successful and cost effective than primary prevention. However, people's willingness to adopt lifestyle change is a complex issue in which people's perceptions of disease causation and risk as well as a range of socio-economic factors are important. This paper reports on a qualitative study of people following

Rose Wiles



Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil



An epidemiological study of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Lagos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Lagos 12 755 schoolchildren aged between six and 12 years were screened for evidence of rheumatic heart disease and showed a prevalence rate of 0.03%. Group C (27.7%) and group G (47.3%) predominated in the throat and in cases of pharyngitis, while group A predominated on the skin. Two hundred and sixty-six cases of pharyngitis were recorded, 70 (26.4%)

O Ogunbi; H O Fadahunsi; I Ahmed; A Animashaun; S O Daniel; D U Onuoha; L Q Ogunbi



An epidemiological survey of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Sahafa Town, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and to initiate a programme of secondary prophylaxis in Sahafa Town, Sudan. DESIGN--The study was a prospective case finding survey, carried out by a specially trained team headed by a cardiologist. SETTING--The study involved high risk school children (5-15 years of age) from Sahafa Town

S Ibrahim-Khalil; M Elhag; E Ali; F Mahgoub; S Hakiem; N Omer; S Shafie; E Mahgoub



Publication Bias in the Environmental Tobacco Smoke\\/Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiologic Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches are used to assess publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke\\/coronary heart disease (ETS\\/CHD) literature: (1) Statistical tests applied to all sex-specific relative risk (rr) estimates from 14 previously published studies indicate that publication bias is likely. A funnel graph of the studies? log relative risks plotted against their standard errors is asymmetrical, and weighted regression of the

M. E. Levois; M. W. Layard



Strategic transformation of population studies: recommendations of the working group on epidemiology and population sciences from the national heart, lung, and blood advisory council and board of external experts.  


In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

Roger, Véronique L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D; Douglas, Pamela S; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granger, Christopher B; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M



“Gum Bug, Leave My Heart Alone!”—Epidemiologic and Mechanistic Evidence Linking Periodontal Infections and Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Evidence from epidemiologic studies suggests that periodontal infections are independently associated with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease. Although the strength of the reported associations is modest, the consistency of the data across diverse populations and a variety of exposure and outcome variables suggests that the findings are not spurious or attributable only to the effects of confounders. Analysis of limited data from interventional studies suggests that periodontal treatment generally results in favorable effects on subclinical markers of atherosclerosis, although such analysis also indicates considerable heterogeneity in responses. Experimental mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies have established the plausibility of a link between periodontal infections and atherogenesis, and have identified biological pathways by which these effects may be mediated. However, the utilized models are mostly mono-infections of host cells by a limited number of ‘model’ periodontal pathogens, and therefore may not adequately portray human periodontitis as a polymicrobial, biofilm-mediated disease. Future research must identify in vivo pathways in humans that may (i) lead to periodontitis-induced atherogenesis, or (ii) result in treatment-induced reduction of atherosclerosis risk. Data from these studies will be essential for determining whether periodontal interventions have a role in the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:20639510

Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Papapanou, P.N.



An epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in different ethnic groups in Delhi urban population.  


A community based epidemiologival survey of coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out on a random urban sample of 13,560 adults of different ethnic groups in Delhi. CHD was diagnosed either on the basis of clinical history, supported by documentary evidence of treatment in hospital/home or on the ECG evidence in accordance with Minnesota Code. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis per 1000 adults was the highest in Sikhs (47.3), lowest in Muslims (22.8) and identical in Hindus (31.8) and Christians (31.2). The prevalence rate/1000 of silent CHD on the basis of ECG was high in Muslims (89.5) and Sikhs (87.3), low in Christians (25.0) and intermediate in Hindus (60.0). The Sikhs showed the highest prevalence rate of myocardial infarct (MI) (15.5) and angina (AP) (31.8) compared to other communities. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis was higher in males than females in all communities. The prevalence of silent CHD was higher in females in Hindus and Sikhs but in Muslims it was higher in men (94.8) than in women (85.2). The wide variations in prevalence rates of CHD in different ethnic groups cannot be explained satisfactorily on the basis of conventional risk factors and support the multifactorial etiological character of CHD. PMID:9282636

Gopinath, N; Chadha, S L; Jain, P; Shekhawat, S; Tandon, R



Publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke/coronary heart disease epidemiologic literature.  


Two approaches are used to assess publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke/coronary heart disease (ETS/CHD) literature: (1) Statistical tests applied to all sex-specific relative risk (rr) estimates from 14 previously published studies indicate that publication bias is likely. A funnel graph of the studies' log relative risks plotted against their standard errors is asymmetrical, and weighted regression of the studies' log relative risks on their standard errors is significant (P < 0.01). (2) Previously unpublished ETS/CHD relative risks from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS-I and CPS-II) and the National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) do not show an increased CHD risk associated with ETS exposure. CPS-I: men, rr = 0.97 (0.90-1.05); CPS-I: women, rr = 1.03 (0.98-1.08); CPS-II: men, rr = 0.97 (0.87-1.08); CPS-II: women, rr = 1.00, (0.88-1.14); NMFS: men, rr = 0.97 (0.73-1.28); women, rr = 0.99 (0.84-1.16). Comparison of pooled relative risk estimates from 14 previously published studies (rr = 1.29; 1.18-1.41) and unpublished results from three studies (rr = 1.00; 0.97-1.04) also indicates that published data overestimate the association of spousal smoking and CHD (chi 2 = 25.1; P < 0.0001). PMID:7784630

LeVois, M E; Layard, M W



Epidemiological and Pathogenic Relationship between Sleep Apnea and Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as having high prevalence and causing remarkable cardiovascular risk. Coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea in many reports. The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in obstructive sleep apnea patients probably includes the activation of multiple mechanisms, as the sympathetic activity, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and systemic hypertension. Moreover, chronic intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress have an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary disease and are also fundamental to the development of atherosclerosis and other comorbidities present in coronary artery diseases such as lipid metabolic disorders. Interestingly, the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea and the severity of sleep disordered breathing may have a direct relationship with the morbidity and mortality of patients with coronary diseases. Nevertheless, treatment with CPAP may have important effects, and recent reports have described the benefits of obstructive sleep apnea treatment on the recurrence of acute heart ischaemic events in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:23862060

Carpio, Carlos; Álvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; García-Río, Francisco




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online is Heart (formerly the British Heart Journal), "a leading international clinical journal" reporting advances on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group, online full-text content begins October 1997; online abstracts begin with 1970 issues, and tables of contents go back to 1966. Heart is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.


District cooling in Stockholm using sea water  

SciTech Connect

In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

Fermbaeck, G. [Stockholm Energie (Sweden)



Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources



Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955-1989  

PubMed Central

Aim—To evaluate the incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County between 1955 and 1989. ?Methods—A cohort of 1936 patients with Crohn's disease was retrospectively assembled. Incidence rates and changes in disease distribution were assessed.?Results—The mean increase in incidence was 15% (95% confidence intervals 12% to 18%) per five year period with a mean annual incidence rate at 4.6/105 during the last two decades. The mean incidence for the entire study period was similar for men and women. The mean age at diagnosis increased from 25 years in 1960-64 to 32 years in 1985-89, partly because of an increasing proportion of patients aged at least 60 years at diagnosis. The proportion of patients with colonic Crohn's disease at the time of diagnosis increased from 15% to 32% (17% difference; 95% confidence intervals 12% to 23%) whereas the proportion of patients with ileocaecal disease decreased from 58% to 41% (17% difference; 95% confidence intervals 10% to 24%) during the study period. Elderly patients had a higher proportion of small bowel disease and a lower proportion of ileocolonic disease compared with the younger patients.?Conclusion—The incidence rate of Crohn's disease in Stockholm has stabilised at 4.6/105 and the proportion of elderly patients has increased during a 35 year period. Colonic Crohn's disease has increased in frequency with a reciprocal decrease in ileocaecal disease. ?? Keywords: Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; incidence; epidemiology PMID:9391246

Lapidus, A; Bernell, O; Hellers, G; Persson, P; Lofberg, R




EPA Science Inventory

Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...


ISMB/ECCB 2009 Stockholm  

PubMed Central

The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; presents the Seventeenth Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), organized jointly with the Eighth Annual European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB;, in Stockholm, Sweden, 27 June to 2 July 2009. The organizers are putting the finishing touches on the year's premier computational biology conference, with an expected attendance of 1400 computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, biologists and scientists from other disciplines related to and reliant on this multi-disciplinary science. ISMB/ECCB 2009 ( follows the framework introduced at the ISMB/ECCB 2007 ( in Vienna, and further refined at the ISMB 2008 ( in Toronto; a framework developed to specifically encourage increased participation from often under-represented disciplines at conferences on computational biology. During the main ISMB conference dates of 29 June to 2 July, keynote talks from highly regarded scientists, including ISCB Award winners, are the featured presentations that bring all attendees together twice a day. The remainder of each day offers a carefully balanced selection of parallel sessions to choose from: proceedings papers, special sessions on emerging topics, highlights of the past year's published research, special interest group meetings, technology demonstrations, workshops and several unique sessions of value to the broad audience of students, faculty and industry researchers. Several hundred posters displayed for the duration of the conference has become a standard of the ISMB and ECCB conference series, and an extensive commercial exhibition showcases the latest bioinformatics publications, software, hardware and services available on the market today. The main conference is preceded by 2 days of Special Interest Group (SIG) and Satellite meetings running in parallel to the fifth Student Council Symposium on 27 June, and in parallel to Tutorials on 28 June. All scientific sessions take place at the Stockholmsmässan/Stockholm International Fairs conference and exposition facility. Contact: PMID:19447790

Sagot, Marie-France; McKay, B.J. Morrison; Myers, Gene



Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive Language Learning  

E-print Network

Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive. of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm 2 Dept. of Speech, Music, Hearing, KTH, Stockholm 3 Dept adult-infant interaction, underlie the infant's ability to progressively derive linguistic struc- ture

Holt, Lori L.


A Special Report - What Happened at Stockholm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceptions of the official and unofficial proceedings of the Stockholm conference by staff reporters and by two scientists (Berry and Ehrlich) concerning the achievements and disappointments of the attempt to establish a world organization for the preservation of environmental quality. Includes discussion of political divisions and personal…

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1972



Epidemiological survey of rheumatic heart disease among school children in the Shimla Hills of northern India: prevalence and risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and study the relationship of this disease to factors such as age, sex, housing, and socioeconomic status in Shimla town and the adjoining rural area. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey, carried out by a specially trained examiner in cardiology. SETTING: The study involved high risk school children (5-16 years

J S Thakur; P C Negi; S K Ahluwalia; N K Vaidya




EPA Science Inventory

The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P...


Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block – A Moroccan center-based study  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p < 0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block. PMID:25544816

Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.



The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.



Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF. Objective To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci. Methods In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Results One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 × 10?6) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58–0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01). Conclusions We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. PMID:24239840

Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Arking, Dan E.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Bis, Joshua C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Gupta, Mayetri; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kääb, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.



Associations of NINJ2 Sequence Variants with Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. Methods and Results We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). Conclusion Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24959832

Bis, Joshua C.; DeStefano, Anita; Liu, Xiaoming; Brody, Jennifer A.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Shahar, Eyal; Butler, Kenneth R.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Gupta, Mayetri; Wolf, Philip A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Seshadri, Sudha; Fornage, Myriam



[Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of ischemic heart disease in a group of physically handicapped individuals (blind and mute)].  


Our long clinical experience, with observations of some authors as well, indicate that the epidemic data of the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.) is significantly reduced in some physically handicapped people (the blind and the deaf-mute) if we compare them with the similar ones who have not such anomalies. With no regard to patho-physiologic mechanism of such condition, 233 examinees of both sex, chosen by the method of accidental choice, were examined by clinical, ECG, and laboratory (non- invasive) methods and divided into three groups: the blind 81 (34.76%), the deaf-mute 76 (32.61%), and industrial workers 76 (32.61%) who were taken a as control group. The obtained results show that the incidence of I.H.D. (4,56%), and the control group 11 (8,36%), which, from the point of statistics, offer a significant piece of information. PMID:7862027

Stani?, R



Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming



Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming



Maternal folic Acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects in offspring: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.  


Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I(2) = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming



Short report: Epidemiology C-reactive protein concentration predicts mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Aims Although current American Heart Association guidelines address C-reactive protein concentration and cardiovascular disease risk, it remains unclear whether this paradigm is consistent across populations with differing disease burdens. Individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus represent one group at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subsequent mortality. This study aimed to examine the relationship between C-reactive protein concentrations and risk for all-cause mortality in European Americans with Type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study. Methods A total of 846 European Americans with Type 2 diabetes and baseline measures of C-reactive protein were evaluated. Vital status was determined after a follow-up period of 7.3 ± 2.1 years (mean ± SD). C-reactive protein concentrations were compared between living and deceased subgroups along with other known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including blood lipids. Logistic regression was performed to determine risk for mortality associated with increasing C-reactive protein concentrations. Results At follow-up 160 individuals (18.7%) were deceased. No significant differences in baseline serum glucose or lipid measures were observed between living and deceased subgroups. Baseline C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly higher in the deceased subgroup (9.37 ± 15.94) compared with the living subgroup (5.36 ± 7.91 mg/l; P < 0.0001). Participants with C-reactive protein concentrations of 3–10 mg/l were approximately two times more likely to be deceased at follow-up (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.17–3.62); those with C-reactive protein >10 mg/l were more than five times more likely to be deceased (OR 5.24; CI 2.80–9.38). Conclusions This study documents the utility of C-reactive protein in predicting risk for all-cause mortality in European Americans with Type 2 diabetes and supports its use as a screening tool in risk prediction models. PMID:22211818

Cox, A. J.; Agarwal, S.; Herrington, D. M; Carr, J. J.; Freedman, B. I.; Bowden, D. W.



Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility  

E-print Network

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

Haviland, David


Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming



Sequence Analysis of Six Blood Pressure Candidate Regions in 4,178 Individuals: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes – ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3 – were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods and Results Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (?50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF?1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF?=?0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P?=?0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P?=?0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF?=?0.007, P?=?0.0006) and was not in LD (r2?=?0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF?=?0.27, P?=?0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r2?=?0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures. Conclusion Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample. PMID:25275628

Ehret, Georg B.; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Levy, Daniel



Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.


Five-year epidemiological survey of valvular heart disease: changes in morbidity, etiological spectrum and management in a cardiovascular center of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function and highlight the etiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) in a single cardiovascular center of Southern China in five years. Methods The retrospective study included 19,428 consecutive patients (9,441 men and 9,987 women with a mean age of 52.03±20.50 years) with abnormal valvular structure and function who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the in-patient department of Guangdong General Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential etiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. Results There were 13,549 (69.7%) patients with relatively definite etiology for VHD. VHD was rheumatic in 7,197 (37.0%) patients, congenital in 2,697 (13.9%), degenerative in 2,241 (11.5%), ischemic in 2,460 (12.7%). The prevalence decreased significantly in rheumatic VHD from 2009 to 2013 (from 42.8% to 32.8%, P<0.001), but increased markedly in congenital VHD (from 9.0% to 12.3%, P<0.001), ischemic VHD (from 9.2% to 11.3%, P=0.003) and degenerative VHD (from 8.8% to 14.5%, P<0.001). Meantime, the prevalence of ischemic VHD increased after the age of 45, similar to that of degenerative VHD. From 2009 to 2013, the proportion of patients with VHD undergoing open cardiac valvular surgery decreased (from 49.5% to 44.3%, P<0.001) and that of patients treated with general medication increased (from 49.2% to 54.1%, P<0.001). However, there was markedly increment in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from 2009 to 2013 (from 0.3% to 4.4%, P<0.001). Increasing tendencies were showed in aortic mechanical valve replacement (from 32.1% to 34.5%, P=0.001) and double mechanical valve replacement (from 20.9% to 22.3%, P=0.035), especially in mitral valvuloplasty (from 8.5% to 15.7%, P<0.001). However, the proportion of patients undergoing bioprosthetic valve replacement decreased from 2009 to 2013 (from 26.3% to 15.5%, P<0.001). Conclusions Despite a significant shift from rheumatic towards degenerative etiology from 2009 to 2013, rheumatic VHD remains the leading etiology in Southern China, with a significant increase in the prevalence of ischemic, congenital and degenerative VHD. General medication and cardiac valvular surgery remain the main treatment options. The proportion of VATS increased markedly from 2009 to 2013, and mechanical valve replacement and mitral valvuloplasty showed an increasing tendency. PMID:25589965

Liu, Fang-Zhou; Xue, Yu-Mei; Liao, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xian-Zhang; Guo, Hui-Ming; Huang, Huan-Lei; Fang, Xian-Hong; Wei, Wei; Rao, Fang; Deng, Hai; Liu, Yang; Lin, Wei-Dong



Primary Prevention of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed. PMID:22957272

Butler, Javed



Congenital heart malformations in Jutland, Denmark: a three year necropsy study in children aged 0-14 years. Epidemiology and classification according to sequential segmental analysis.  

PubMed Central

The use of sequential segmental analysis for describing congenital heart malformations was the method of assessment used in a prospective necropsy study covering Jutland, a well defined geographical and demographic area of Denmark. The study group was 1,154 children of whom 261 (22.6%) had a congenital heart malformation. The most common malformations were ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect and there were 77 cases in which connections between chambers or between chambers and great arteries were anomalous (68 liveborn; 37 male and 31 female: nine stillborn; two male and seven female). No difference in sex distribution or seasonal variation was found between those with congenital heart disease and those without. Extracardiac malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were more often seen in children with congenital heart malformation than those without (30.3% vs 16.6%). The sequential segmental analysis is a logical and precise way of describing congenital heart malformations and it should be routinely used to classify cases of congenital heart malformation. PMID:3426901

Vesterby, A; Nielsen, K; Borg, L; Paulsen, S; Baandrup, U



Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa


Wine and Your Heart A Science Advisory for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing of the American Heart Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

ata regarding the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in different populations have generated a series of hypotheses that protective substances in the diet may counteract the harmful effects of high-cholesterol, high- saturated-fat diets. One such potential food substance is wine, especially red wine. The purpose of this advisory is to summarize the current literature on wine intake and cardio-

Ira J. Goldberg; Lori Mosca; Mariann R. Piano; Edward A. Fisher


Heart Health - Brave Heart  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...


Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden USING IMAGING AND MODELING TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATION  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm TO ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS Brad H. Story Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences University of Arizona of the vocal tract as a versatile acoustic device capable of producing a wide range of possible vowel and vowel

Story, Brad H.


Heart Failure  


... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...


[The Stockholm syndrome (attempt at study of its criteria)].  


For more than 14 years, the news have been full of extraordinary stories in which victims of violent and long hostage-taking sometime agree with offenders. They become efficient propagandists. In what kind of situation can these facts happen? What criterions and parameters must be studied to understand the mechanism of what is usually called Stockholm Syndrome. This is what is developed here. PMID:3415129

Skurnik, N



Urban Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40 -75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950 -1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primar- ily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (.85%) resulted in 1,042 cases

Fredrik Nyberg; Per Gustavsson; Lars Jarup; Tom Bellander; Niklas Berglind; Robert Jakobsson; Goran Pershagen


Individual Exposure to NO2 in Relation to Spatial and Temporal Exposure Indices in Stockholm, Sweden: The INDEX Study  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology studies of health effects from air pollution, as well as impact assessments, typically rely on ambient monitoring data or modelled residential levels. The relationship between these and personal exposure is not clear. To investigate personal exposure to NO2 and its relationship with other exposure metrics and time-activity patterns in a randomly selected sample of healthy working adults (20–59 years) living and working in Stockholm. Personal exposure to NO2 was measured with diffusive samplers in sample of 247 individuals. The 7-day average personal exposure was 14.3 µg/m3 and 12.5 µg/m3 for the study population and the inhabitants of Stockholm County, respectively. The personal exposure was significantly lower than the urban background level (20.3 µg/m3). In the univariate analyses the most influential determinants of individual exposure were long-term high-resolution dispersion-modelled levels of NO2 outdoors at home and work, and concurrent NO2 levels measured at a rural location, difference between those measured at an urban background and rural location and difference between those measured in busy street and at an urban background location, explaining 20, 16, 1, 2 and 4% (R2) of the 7-day personal NO2 variation, respectively. A regression model including these variables explained 38% of the variation in personal NO2 exposure. We found a small improvement by adding time-activity variables to the latter model (R2?=?0.44). The results adds credibility primarily to long-term epidemiology studies that utilise long-term indices of NO2 exposure at home or work, but also indicates that such studies may still suffer from exposure misclassification and dilution of any true effects. In contrast, urban background levels of NO2 are poorly related to individual exposure. PMID:22745780

Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, Janine; Lind, Tomas



Heart Failure in South America  

PubMed Central

Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

Bocchi, Edimar Alcides



Diastolic Heart Failure in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now clear that diastolic heart failure (DHF) is an important, perhaps even dominant form of heart failure in older Americans. However, our knowledge base regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and therapy of this relatively recently recognized disorder is limited. A number of normal age related changes in the heart and vascular system may predispose to or lower

Dalane W. Kitzman



65 FR 78177 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Submission...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...



65 FR 25338 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Submission...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...



65 FR 50999 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...



66 FR 31679 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request The Framingham Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 6701...



66 FR 20820 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...



Environmental Epidemiology

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.


Descriptive Epidemiology

Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.


Heart Failure  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...


Epidemiological Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the principles of study design and related methodological issues in the epidemiology of congenital\\u000a anomalies, with specific regard to environmental factors. We present the major types of experimental and observational designs\\u000a used in environmental epidemiology, namely the basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis and the ecological\\u000a designs, which involve groups or geographical areas

A. Rosano; E. Robert-Gnansia


Backcasting images of the future city—Time and space for sustainable development in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and discusses a backcasting study for Stockholm 2050. The focus is on developing images of a future where Stockholm citizens have sustainable energy use—here defined as a 60% reduction per capita over a 50-year period. The perspective is that of households, so all energy is allocated to individuals’ activities rather than being discussed from a sector perspective.

Mattias Höjer; Anders Gullberg; Ronny Pettersson



Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.  


A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A



[Field epidemiology and social epidemiology].  


Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of changing epistemological, methodological and practice grounds, beginning with field epidemiologists teaching programmes. Field epidemiology would tend to act in an absent theoretical frame. On the other hand, social epidemiology would tend to prioritize theoretical developments (thinking and research about social determinants) without correspondent action, because of the limits to change public policies. Other differences are found at intervention level (micro-macrospace), its aim (outbreak control vs. inequalities control) and the way to communicate with society. They are similar in the methodological concern, the predominance of orientation based on positivism and framed through statistic methods, but in process of epistemological opening, the stress experienced between the alternative relationship to a virtual world of data bases or to the real society, their peripherical situation in relation of the political, social, institutional and professional system and the tendency to professional frustration. Finally, we ask ten questions to the field epidemiologists related with their present practice, in order to consider if they are developing social epidemiology, and propose some changes in epidemiologist teaching and practice. PMID:16753093

Segura del Pozo, Javier



Environmental epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F. (eds.)



[Occupational epidemiology].  


The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N



Association of Levels of Fasting Glucose and Insulin with Rare Variants at the Chromosome 11p11.2-MADD Locus: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study  

PubMed Central

Background Common variation at the 11p11.2 locus, encompassing MADD, ACP2, NR1H3, MYBPC3 and SPI1, has been associated in genome-wide association studies with fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI). In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study, we sequenced five gene regions at 11p11.2 to identify rare, potentially functional variants influencing FG or FI levels. Method & Results Sequencing (mean depth 38×) across 16.1kb in 3,566 non-diabetic individuals identified 653 variants, 79.9% of which were rare (MAF <1%) and novel. We analyzed rare variants in five gene regions with FI or FG using the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). At NR1H3, 53 rare variants were jointly associated with FI (p=2.73 × 10?3); of these, seven were predicted to have regulatory function and showed association with FI (p=1.28 × 10?3). Conditioning on two previously associated variants at MADD (rs7944584, rs10838687) did not attenuate this association, suggesting that there are more than two independent signals at 11p11.2. One predicted regulatory variant, chr11:47227430 (hg18; MAF 0.00068), contributed 20.6% to the overall SKAT score at NR1H3, lies in intron 2 of NR1H3 and is a predicted binding site for FOXA1, a transcription factor associated with insulin regulation. In human HepG2 hepatoma cells, the rare chr11:47227430 A allele disrupted FOXA1 binding and reduced FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. Conclusion Sequencing at 11p11.2- NR1H3 identified rare variation associated with FI. One variant, chr11:47227430, appears to be functional, with the rare A allele reducing transcription factor FOXA1 binding and FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. PMID:24951664

Nikpoor, Naghmeh; Morrison, Alanna C.; Chu, Huan; Ahn, Byung Soo; Wang, Shuai; Dauriz, Marco; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C.; Coresh, Josef; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Liu, Ching-Ti; McKnight, Barbara; Muzny, Donna; Pankow, James S.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; White, Charles C.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Wong, Tien Y.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David S.; Sladek, Robert; Meigs, James B.



Cognitive epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David



Heart to Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. They brainstorm ideas that pertain to various heart conditions and organize these ideas into categories that help them research possible solutions. An expert in the field of cardiac valve research was interviewed for this lesson and shares his ideas with the class. Students conclude by researching various possible heart defects.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,


Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...


Heart Failure  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Prevention & Treatment of Heart Failure Pause Previous Banner ... you agree to the Terms and Conditions Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? (PDF) How Can ...


Heart Health  


... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ... pressure and the related problems. Changes to Your Heart With Age Aging can cause changes in the ...


Heart Transplant  


... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...


Heart Disease  


... blood it needs for more than 20 minutes. Heart failure occurs when the heart is not able to ... not mean that the heart stops. Signs of heart failure include: Shortness of breath (feeling like you can' ...


Outcomes in Pediatric Trauma Care in the Stockholm Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background:\\u000a   Although trauma is a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity in Sweden, few studies have examined the outcome of\\u000a pediatric trauma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   Here, we describe the age and gender distribution, injury mechanisms, injury severity, and outcome of pediatric trauma in\\u000a the Stockholm region.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:\\u000a   This retrospective study comprises all trauma patients (age ? 15 years) admitted to

Kerstin Sluys; Margaretha Lannge; Lennart Iselius; Lars E. Eriksson



Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro



Comparison of two dynamic transportation models: The case of Stockholm congestion charging  

E-print Network

, Congestion pricing, Road pricing, Transportation models, Dynamic assignment, Mesoscopic models, Departure1 Comparison of two dynamic transportation models: The case of Stockholm congestion charging Leonid) Abstract This paper reviews the transportation models used for predicting impacts of congestion charging

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A first report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers and bus drivers were performed in Stockholm during the autumn of 2004. Another field survey of the attitude of the fuel cell bus passengers is planned towards the end of the CUTE Stockholm project, i.e. during the autumn of 2005.The main results from the surveys are:•People are generally positive

K. Haraldsson; A. Folkesson; M. Saxe; P. Alvfors



Heart Failure  


Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...


Exact results in gauge-string dualities (Stockholm, Sweden, 23 January-17 February 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exactly solvable models play a distinguished role in physics, as they help us understand the behavior of strongly correlated, strongly coupled systems in the regimes where other methods fail. For a long time, the exact solvability was associated with (1+1)-dimensional systems, where powerful methods of integrability allow one to find the exact spectrum, to study thermodynamics and to compute correlation functions for a number of strongly interacting field theories. The AdS/CFT duality established a rigorous relationship between gauge fields and strings, and paved the way for applying the methods of integrability in four-dimensional gauge theories. The two-dimensional dynamics on the string worldsheet (dual to the fluctuating electric flux tube in a gauge theory) is in many cases integrable, which opens the avenue for applications of non-perturbative, integrability-based methods to four-dimensional gauge theories. The progress in understanding non-perturbative phenomena in gauge theories has been rapid in recent years, and required synergy of methods from exactly solvable models, gauge theories, strings and integrable systems. The program 'Exact Results in Gauge-String Dualities' took place at Nordita, Stockholm from 23 January to 17 February 2012 and brought together specialists with common interests in string theory, quantum field theory and exactly solvable models. Topics discussed during the program included: (i) exact results in the AdS/CFT correspondence, (ii) scattering amplitudes, (iii) supersymmetric gauge theories, and (iv) Bethe ansatz and exact solvability in quantum field theory and statistical systems. The articles by D Sorokin [1] and M de Leeuw et al [2] give an overview of the string-theory origins of integrability in gauge theories, and of the algebraic structures omnipresent in quantum integrable systems. The topics covered in these articles underpin the integrability approach to gauge--string dualities and lie at the heart of the integrability-based methods, which are being used to obtain exact non-perturbative results in gauge theories.

Zarembo, Konstantin



Epidemiology of ARDS.  


For decades the incidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been unclear. A first effort to tackle the problem was undertaken by the National Heart and Lung Task Force who, in 1972, provided the scientific community with an arguable estimate of 75 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year for the USA. Nearly 20 years later, the first population based studies yielded figures of 1.5-4.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants/year in Europe. Epidemiologic research became much more focused when in 1992 the new ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) definitions of the American-European Consensus Conference became available. In subsequent studies in which these refined definitions were used, incidence figures ranging from 13-23 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year for ARDS and 18 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year for ALI were reported. Latest results from a high-class epidemiological study conducted in Seattle, suggested ARDS/ALI incidence figures of 59 and 79 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year, respectively. These new figures, similar to the one proposed in 1972, led to a paradigm shift: ARDS and ALI are no longer viewed as rare syndromes but as widespread diseases with a massive socio-economic impact that is comparable with the burden from breast cancer, AIDS, asthma or myocardial infarction. PMID:16682918

Lewandowski, K; Lewandowski, M



Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.



Epidemiology Exemption Exam  

E-print Network

. Epidemiology and epidemiologic methods are central to public health, being used to describe and explain, among other uses. While epidemiology and epidemiologists rely on biostatistical theory and methods for meeting this requirement: PH 250A (Epidemiologic Methods I), PH 250B (Epidemiologic Methods II

Doudna, Jennifer A.


Heart pacemaker  


... to help keep your heart rhythm and heart rate at a level that is safe for you. ... Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 34.


Heart Failure  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...



EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. Examination on the prevalence of major risk factors of CVD in American Indian men and women ages 45-74 in the American Indian communities from the three centers that participate in the Strong Heart Study....


Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner


Treatment of Hypertension in the Prevention and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on treatment of hypertension and management of ischemic heart disease from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention



Heart Diseases  


... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...


Heart Transplantation  


A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...


Heart Failure in North America  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J



Heart failure in North America.  


Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J



Heart Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section we will review the major heart problems that you may encounter. Objectives -Understand the possible complications related to your heart -Identify resources that are available for Cardiology Cardiac Compromise 1. Chest pain results from ischemia 2. Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart. 3. If blood flow is not restored, the tissue dies. Heart pumping with electrical activity Atherosclerosis 1. Materials build up inside blood vessels. 2. ...




Engineering the Heart: Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how healthy human heart valves function and the different diseases that can affect heart valves. They also learn about devices and procedures that biomedical engineers have designed to help people with damaged or diseased heart valves. Students learn about the pros and cons of different materials and how doctors choose which engineered artificial heart valves are appropriate for certain people.



Heart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care  

E-print Network

· Heart Failure · Heart arrhythmias · Heart attack #12;Heart Disease Definitions: · Coronary Artery, heart does not get the blood it needs for more than 20 minutes · Heart Failure: Heart is not ableHeart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care Pamela Kostic, RN, CCCC, Chest Pain Coordinator, Stony

Ohta, Shigemi


Heart Failure in South Asia  

PubMed Central

South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay



Heart transplantation.  


Heart failure remains a major global problem with approximately 6 million individuals suffering from heart failure in the United States alone. The surgical technique of heart transplantation, popularized by Dr. Norman Shumway, has led to its success and currently remains the best treatment options for patients with end-stage. However, with the continued limitation of donor organs and the rapid development of ventricular assist device technology, the number of patients bridged to transplant with mechanical circulatory support has increased significantly. This has created some new technical challenges for heart transplantation. Therefore, it is now important to be familiar with multiple new technical challenges associated with the surgical techniques of heart transplantation with an ultimate goal in reducing donor heart ischemic time, recipient cardiopulmonary bypass time and post-operative complications. In this review, we described our technique of heart transplantation including the timing of the operation, recipient cardiectomy and donor heart implantation. PMID:25132977

Cheng, Allen; Slaughter, Mark S



Heart Failure  


... report any unexplained changes to your doctor. Other Organizations ... What is the likely cause of my congestive heart failure? How serious is my condition? How will my life change now that we know I have heart ...


Heart transplant  


... the transplanted heart. Tubes are inserted to drain air, fluid, and blood out of the chest for ... College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the ...


Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Heart Truth  


... Library << 1 2 3 4 >> Show Off Your Red Every year, The Heart Truth ® and its supporters ... and improve their heart health. On National Wear Red Day ® , February 6, 2015, thousands of people, men ...


Heart transplantation  

PubMed Central

Heart failure remains a major global problem with approximately 6 million individuals suffering from heart failure in the United States alone. The surgical technique of heart transplantation, popularized by Dr. Norman Shumway, has led to its success and currently remains the best treatment options for patients with end-stage. However, with the continued limitation of donor organs and the rapid development of ventricular assist device technology, the number of patients bridged to transplant with mechanical circulatory support has increased significantly. This has created some new technical challenges for heart transplantation. Therefore, it is now important to be familiar with multiple new technical challenges associated with the surgical techniques of heart transplantation with an ultimate goal in reducing donor heart ischemic time, recipient cardiopulmonary bypass time and post-operative complications. In this review, we described our technique of heart transplantation including the timing of the operation, recipient cardiectomy and donor heart implantation. PMID:25132977

Cheng, Allen



Heart Attack  


... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...


Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Management 1. When performing the initial evaluation of a patient diagnosed with heart failure (HF), you should assess the following: a. The severity of the symptoms of impaired cardiac function (e.g., dyspnea on exertion, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue, and leg edema) b. Evidence for risk factors strongly associated with HF: ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, valvular heart disease

William Lewis; Jim Nuovo


Heart Attack  


... flow to the heart. Risk factors for a heart attack Smoking Diabetes Age--Risk increases for men older than 45 ... at a higher risk of depression after a heart attack. Many people who have ... just like diabetes or high blood pressure. The emotional and physical ...


Detection efficiency and photometry in supernova surveys. The Stockholm VIMOS Supernova Survey I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The aim of the work presented in this paper is to test and optimise supernova detection methods based on the optimal image subtraction technique. The main focus is on applying the detection methods to wide field supernova imaging surveys and in particular to the Stockholm VIMOS Supernova Survey (SVISS). Methods: We have constructed a supernova detection pipeline for imaging

J. Melinder; S. Mattila; G. Östlin; L. Mencía Trinchant; C. Fransson



A Non-Parametric Analysis of Welfare Redistribution: The Case of Stockholm's Congestion Pricing Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses non-parametric distributional comparison tools to evaluate the equity e ects of a transportation policy. I consider as a case study a congestion pricing plan for Stockholm, Sweden. This case is particularly relevant because the plan has been criticized for its potentially negative equity e ects, and the literature is so-far inconclusive. The welfare e ects for a

Joel P. Franklin


Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 86: 2531 (January 2005) 2005The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 25  

E-print Network

-imaginal development of the ponerine ant Diacamma ceylonense. -- Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 86: 25­31 In the present paper, the larval development of the queenless ponerine ant Diacamma ceylonense is studied. Four instars Bernard, F-75005 Paris, France. E-mail: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. Morphological

Danchin, Etienne


Effects of Fish Stocking on Ecosystem Services: An Overview and Case Study Using the Stockholm Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social

Cecilia M. Holmlund; Monica Hammer



Followup after 11 years – update of mortality results in the Stockholm mammographic screening trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from several randomised mammography screening trials haveshown that it is possible to reduce mortalityin breast cancer by mammographic screening at leastfor women above 50 years of age. Thepurpose of this article is to present dataon mortality in breast cancer in study andcontrol groups of the Stockholm trial after 11years of followup, to analyse which age groupbenefits most from screening.

Jan Frisell; Elisabet Lidbrink; Lars Hellström; Lars-Erik Rutqvist



Goods in the Anthroposphere as a Metal Emission Source A Case Study of Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to quantify the diffuse emissionsduring use of metal containing goods in the capital of Sweden,Stockholm. The following metals were studied: Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn).A major part of the metals are found in a protected environmentwhere degrading processes like corrosion are most limited. However,

L. Sörme; B. Bergbäck; U. Lohm



Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden Copyright © 2014 by EPUAP Biomechanical simulation of the Charcot neuroarthropathic foot with plantar ulcer. A. Perrier1 and dysfunctional foot and ankle complex. For 15 to 43% of the patients, joints are damaged in the tarso

Payan, Yohan


Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 84: 3340 (January 2003) 2003The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 33  

E-print Network

, and their significance in phylogeny of Paraneoptera (Insecta: Neoptera). -- Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 84: 33 mouthparts and on the phylogeny of Paraneoptera were provided, based on these revised interpretations. K for a discussion of the evolution of piercing and sucking mouthparts and the phylogeny of Paraneoptera. Materials

Yoshizawa, Kazunori


Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden Copyright © 2014 by EPUAP Does the calcaneus morphology have an influence on the risk of posterior heel ulcer? V. Luboz1 , A-Grenoble1/AGIM & 5 Institut Universitaire de France, France Introduction Pressure ulcers (PU) affect almost

Payan, Yohan


Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden Copyright © 2014, 4 IDS, France, 5 AGIM, France Introduction It is now well known that deep pressure ulcers are due particularly suffer from pressure ulcers in the buttock area because of the inactivity of their leg muscles

Payan, Yohan


Epidemiologic Methods Manuscript 1005  

E-print Network

Epidemiologic Methods Manuscript 1005 Use of Individual-level Covariates to Improve Latent Class and Development, and Epidemiology Graduate Program, University of Arizona Ricardo Castillo Neyra, Universidad and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine ©2011 Berkeley Electronic Press. All

Small, Dylan


What Causes Heart Murmurs?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Murmurs? Innocent Heart Murmurs Why some people have innocent heart murmurs ... that occur in pregnant women are innocent. Abnormal Heart Murmurs Congenital heart defects or acquired heart valve ...


Heart Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available online the journal Heart (formerly the British Heart Journal), "a leading international clinical journal" reports advances on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group, online full-text content begins October 1997; online abstracts begin with 1970 issues, and tables of contents go back to 1966. Heart is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.


Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery



The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz



Heart Transplant  


... defects, may need a heart transplant because the blood flow through the venous system is slow and the veins are congested, which can lead to swelling, fluid accumulation, and protein loss. How does ... is matched to the recipient by blood type and body size. As the heart transplant ...


Heart River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....


Heart Attack  


... and how to act fast to save a life. Click the links to download or order the NHLBI's new heart attack materials: “Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast” (also available in ...


Heart Block  


... and how to act fast to save a life. Click the links to download or order the NHLBI's new heart attack materials: “Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast” (also available in ...


Heart failure and Alzheimer's disease.  


It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer's disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D



Periodontal Disease and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological cohort randomized studies have demonstrated an association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease. The study was conducted on 241 subjects with verified CHD from a Department of Cardiology and 50 subject without CHD from Govt. Dental College PGIMS, Rohtak. Information on diabetic states, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and lipid profile was obtained. Full month probing depth, clinical

Balwant Rai; Jasdeep Kaur; R. K Jain; S. C. Anand


Nutrient transport scenarios in a changing Stockholm and Mälaren valley region, Sweden.  


Norrström catchment, west of Stockholm, covers most of the Mälaren valley. Provision of drinking water from Lake Mälaren is an absolute precondition for continued growth in the region. Stockholm County's population is expected to increase by 600,000 people before 2030. Current climate change predictions anticipate significant temperature and precipitation increases. We implement the PolFlow model embedded in PCRaster for quantifying water and substances fluxes on the catchment scale over a 30-year time horizon. We formulate scenarios for changes in water quality and quantity due to climate change and population development. Results indicate a mild impact from climate change on surface flow rates but substantial effects on sub-surface residence times. Population development slightly affects nutrients loads. Using source apportionment and sensitivity analysis, we identify a number of critical parameters/processes to be further studied, in order for future results to be more reliable and usable in a water resources management context. PMID:15850171

Darracq, A; Greffe, F; Hannerz, F; Destouni, G; Cvetkovic, V



The development of a sustainable urban district in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 2012, Hammarby Sjöstad, a former large industrial harbor area in southern Stockholm, Sweden, will be a fully developed\\u000a residential district containing approximately 11,000 apartments and accommodating 35,000 people. The transformation of the\\u000a area began in 1996, and the development soon became renowned for its ambitious environmental program, inspired by Agenda 21\\u000a (United Nations in Rio declaration on environment and

Sofie Pandis Iverot; Nils Brandt



Biological and chemical characterization of harbour sediments from the Stockholm area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of pleasure boat activities on harbour sediment quality in\\u000a the Stockholm area. Sediment contamination is a growing ecological issue, and there is consequently a need to use sediment\\u000a bioassays in combination with chemical analysis to determine the impact on the ecosystem. To generate sediment toxicity data\\u000a relevant for

Britta Eklund; Maria Elfström; Irene Gallego; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson; Magnus Breitholtz



The Department of Epidemiology and  

E-print Network

) EPI 808 Biostatistics I 3 EPI 809 Biostatistics II 3 EPI 826 Research Methods in Epidemiology 3 Epidemiology EPI 920 Advanced Methods in Epidemiology and Applied Statistics EPI 945 Molecular Epidemiology EPIThe Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics GRADUATE HANDBOOK #12;Fall 2013 (Aug. 14) Page1 I


Heart rate variability in isolated rabbit hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical evidence for the presence of heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with cardiac denervation after heart transplantation raised our interest in HRV in an isolated heart preparation. Therefore hearts of seven adult white ELCO rabbits were transferred to a perfusion apparatus. After a stabilization of 30 min in the Langendorff mode, the hearts were perfused in the working heart

G. Heger; B. Frey; B. Kiegler; T. Kos; G. Steurer



Bristol Heart Institute issue broken heart  

E-print Network

operations. In some forms of heart failure, the heart becomes baggy and pumps poorly, so a new operationBristol Heart Institute issue Mending a broken heart The energy powerhouse Plaques, cracks and heart attacks re:search University of Bristol · June 2006 #12;BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE ISSUE · JUNE 2006

Bristol, University of


Heart Failure Medications  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Medications Updated:Mar 24,2015 Heart failure patients ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...


What Causes Heart Failure?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Failure? Conditions that damage or overwork the heart muscle ... and they worsen heart failure. Common Causes of Heart Failure The most common causes of heart failure are ...


Heart Failure Overview  


CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...


Wine and heart health  


Health and wine: Wine and heart disease: Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...


Faculty Profiles PhD Program in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

in such areas as aging, health outcomes research, sickle cell epidemiology, pediatric cancer survivorship large longitudinal studies, where he worked for three years in the Bogalusa Heart Study; the renowned longitudinal, community-based study of natural evolution of cardiovascular disease. Dr. Mzayek also has

Dasgupta, Dipankar


The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983;

J. A. Cauley; L. H. Kuller; D. LeDonne; J. P. Gutai; J. G. Powell



Heart palpitations  


... have never had heart palpitations before, see your health care provider. Call 911 or your local emergency number if you have: Loss of alertness (consciousness) Chest pain Shortness of breath Unusual sweating, Dizziness ...


Heart Surgery  


... surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body ... rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. CABG can relieve chest pain and may lower your ...


Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.


[Epidemiology of schizophrenic disorders].  


Epidemiological research has demonstrated that schizophrenic disorders disorders occur in all countries and in all cultures with a relatively comparable frequency and with the same symptomatics. Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that the incidence of this disorder has not increased in the past 180 years. The clinical epidemiological findings have activated various research approaches: The protective effect of estrogen appears to explain the later occurrence of schizophrenic disorders and their more favourable course in women. Other areas of applied epidemiology (comorbidity research, ecological and social epidemiology) and their effects on suicide prevention are also discussed. Thanks to improved knowledge of prevalence and incidence, of distribution and the various social and ecological factors in schizophrenic disorders epidemiological research has been able to demonstrate that it has acquired increasing significance for basic research. PMID:9746967

Hinterhuber, H; Liensberger, D



The future of epidemiology.  


In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H



Epidemiologic evidence of cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution.  

PubMed Central

In the past decade researchers have developed a body of epidemiologic evidence showing increased daily cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with acute exposures to particulate air pollution. Associations have been found not only with cardiovascular deaths reported on death certificates but also with myocardial infarctions and ventricular fibrillation. Particulate air pollution exposure has been associated with indicators of autonomic function of the heart including increased heart rate, decreased heart rate variability, and increased cardiac arrhythmias. Several markers of increased risk for sudden cardiac death have also been associated with such exposures. These epidemiologic studies provide early guidance to possible pathways of particulate air pollution health effects, which can only be addressed fully in toxicologic and physiologic studies. PMID:11544151

Dockery, D W



[Epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome in Europe].  


Epidemiological data concerning acute coronary syndromes in Europe are based on national registries, studies by the European Society of Cardiology within the framework of the EuroHeart Survey and on the study of European population sub-groups in large international cohorts. In this article, recently published studies will be reviewed, and the principal developments in different countries as well as the characteristics and particularities of the most recent epidemiological data will be highlighted. In Europe, the presentation of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has evolved considerably over the last ten years. This evolution is characterized by a reduction in the proportion of acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and by ageing populations. PMID:17719353

Lorgis, L; Zeller, M; Beer, J C; Lagrost, A C; Buffet, P; L'Huillier, I; Sicard, P; Cottin, Y



Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

Marion Fass (Beloit College; Biology)



Heart Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program discusses heart attacks including their symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention. It also reviews the anatomy of the heart, the difference between a heart attack and angina, emergency planning, and the need for CPR if cardiac arrest occurs. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute


Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia



Spatiotemporal Reasoning about Epidemiological Data  

E-print Network

information systems. Methodology. We describe the general methods of how to (1) store epidemiolog- ical data in geographic information systems. We propose new methods to visualize and reason about epidemiological dataSpatiotemporal Reasoning about Epidemiological Data Peter Revesz , Shasha Wu Keywords Epidemiology

Revesz, Peter


Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm InP-based HBTs  

E-print Network

Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm Applications: #12;Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm Applications

Rodwell, Mark J. W.


Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden).  


By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945

Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Åkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart



The Stockholm Vimos Supernova Survey (SVISS) - First Results From An Intermediate Redshift Sn Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the Stockholm VIMOS Supernova Survey is to find and characterize supernovae in the redshift range 0.1 to 1.2 and to derive accurate supernova rate densities for this redshift range. A preliminary analysis show that we have 14 prime SN candidates and an additional 23 less secure detections in one of our search fields. A sample of R+I light curves for the prime candidates will be presented. We will also show some results from testing of our supernova search pipeline and our supernova typing method.

Dahlen, Tomas; Melinder, J.; Mencia Trinchant, L.; Mattila, S.; Ostlin, G.; Fransson, C.



Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:



EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...


Weekly Epidemiological Record  


... ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER ... Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO Google+ page WHO iTunes WHO Play Store © WHO 2015 Back to top ...


Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....


Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...


Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009  


... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...


International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Formed in 2001, the Consortium is a group of international investigators who have completed or have ongoing case-control studies and who discuss and undertake research projects that pool data across studies or otherwise undertake collaborative research.


Epidemiology of Stone Disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology has improved our understanding and management of stone. These types of studies have quantified changes in patterns and burden of disease, while identification of risk factors has changed clinical practice and provided insight into pathophysiologic processes related to stone formation. Because nephrolithiasis is a complex disease, an understanding of the epidemiology, particularly the interactions among different factors, may help lead to approaches that reduce the risk of stone formation. PMID:17678980

Curhan, Gary C.



Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh


Heart Disease  


... monitor. Stress test. For this test, the person exercises while the doctor checks the electrocardiogram machine to see how the heart muscle reacts. Catheterization (say: kah-thuh-tuh-ruh-ZAY-shun). In this test a long, thin tube is inserted into the patient's body to inject a special dye, which can ...


Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome often characterized by elevated left ventricular fi lling pressures (LVEDP). Therapy for decompensated CHF aims at normalizing fi lling pressures and thereby improves both symptoms and outcomes. However, therapy guided by direct measurements of fi lling pressure is not practical in most patients, focusing attention on non-invasive surrogate measures of LVEDP

Susan Isakson BA; Alan Maisel


Who Needs Heart Surgery?  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat many heart problems. For ... t worked or can't be used, heart surgery might be an option. Specialists Involved Your primary ...


Nuclear Heart Scan  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...


Total Artificial Heart  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...


Coronary heart disease  


Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...


What Causes Heart Disease?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) ... Red: Eileen's Story 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 ...


Diabetic Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...


Heart attack first aid  


First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...


Adult Congenital Heart Association  


... Grant Funders Careers Store | Blog | Espanol | Contact Us Heart to Heart Where You Live ACHA and our local partners ... to connect with others with CHD. Register Today Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors connect ACHA patient and ...


Depression and Heart Disease  


... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of ... and save your life. How are depression and heart disease linked? People with heart disease are more ...


How Many Hearts?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students practice adding one or more heart(s) and recording drawings and equations on white boards. Students will also repeat this activity by subtracting a given number of hearts from a larger number hearts.

Clara Mathis



Coronary Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a disease ... Coronary Heart Disease, visit . Coronary Heart Disease in the News November 18, 2014 NHLBI Media ...


Heart disease and diet  


Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, and obesity ...


Heart attack - discharge  


... were in the hospital because you had a heart attack . A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of ... will depend on: Your physical condition before your heart attack The size of your heart attack If you ...


Hepatitis C among injecting drug users is two times higher in Stockholm, Sweden than in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.  


This study assessed risk behavior and preventive measures for hepatitis C among injecting drug users in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (452 participants, 2002-2003) and Stockholm, Sweden (310 participants, 2004-2006), two cities with contrasting drug policies. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression models were used. We found that the prevalence of hepatitis C was almost two times higher in participants from Stockholm than in participants from Rotterdam, even after adjustment for sex sharing paraphernalia (adjusted relative risk: 1.92, 95% confidence interval: 1.60-2.29). Follow-up comparative studies are needed to determine if policies with structured health programs can decrease transmission of hepatitis C. PMID:23750711

Norden, Lillebil; van Veen, Maaike; Lidman, Christer; Todorov, Ivo; Guarita, Bruno; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wiessing, Lucas



The Stockholm populations of Adalia bipunctata (L) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)--a case of extreme female-biased population sex ratio.  


The genetic composition and sex ratio in the Stockholm populations of Adalia bipunctata have been studied. The overall frequency of melanics is 3.2%, which is significantly lower than in the populations of St. Petersburg and other large cities along the Baltic Sea. The secondary sex ratio in the Stockholm populations is female-biased 82:18. More than half of A. bipunctata females are infected with the male-killing Spiroplasma bacterium. Beetles of the co-existing species Adalia decempunctata are infected with a different bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia. PMID:11833290

Zakharov, I A; Shaikevich, E V



Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-print Network

of the heart being overworked can cause the beginning of heart failure (i.e. shortness of breath, fatigueArtificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one

Provancher, William


Pediatric heart surgery  


Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...


The Mighty Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through the dissection of sheep hearts. They learn about the different parts of the heart and are able to identify the anatomical structures and compare them to the all of the structural components of the human heart they learned about in the associated lesson, Heart to Heart.



Emerging Flame Retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in Indoor and Outdoor Media in Stockholm, Sweden.  


Dust, indoor air, outgoing air from ventilation systems, outdoor air, and soil were sampled in and around Stockholm, Sweden during the winter and spring 2012. The concentrations of several emerging flame retardants (EFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured. The most commonly found EFR was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), which was found in nearly all indoor, ventilation, and outdoor air samples, most dust samples, but not in soil samples. Other frequently detected EFRs included pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (EHTBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). PBDE concentrations were significantly lower in air and dust samples compared to a previous study in Stockholm. In outdoor air, DBE-DBCH, PBT, EHTBB, DBDPE, and PBDEs showed an "urban pulse" with concentrations increasing as samples were taken in more urban areas compared to rural areas. These EFRs show similar environmental behavior as PBDEs. Higher brominated BDEs showed this same urban pulse in soil but lower brominated BDEs did not. Air-soil fugacity fractions were calculated, and these indicated that most compounds are undergoing net deposition from atmosphere to soil, with the higher brominated PBDEs furthest from equilibrium. PMID:25668286

Newton, Seth; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A



Stockholm Arlanda Airport as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to water, sediment and fish.  


Fire training facilities are potential sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the nearby environment due to the usage of PFAS-containing aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs). The multimedia distribution of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) was investigated near a fire training facility at Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sweden. The whole body burden of PFASs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) was 334±80?g absolute and was distributed as follows: Gonad>liver?muscle>blood>gill. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and sediment/water partition coefficient (Kd) increased by 0.6-1.7 and 0.2-0.5 log units, respectively, for each additional CF2 moiety for PFCAs and PFSAs. PFAS concentrations in water showed no significant decreasing trend between 2009 and 2013 (p>0.05), which indicates that Stockholm Arlanda Airport may be an important source for long-term contamination of the nearby environment with PFASs. PMID:24821232

Ahrens, Lutz; Norström, Karin; Viktor, Tomas; Cousins, Anna Palm; Josefsson, Sarah



The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Diseases (ESETCID). First epidemiological results.  


By including immunohistochemical parameters the WHF Task Force for the Definition of Acute and Chronic Myocarditis expanded the light microscopical Dallas criteria of myocarditis. The rapid development of new molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-situ hybridization has improved our understanding of the underlying etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory heart disease. Treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with inflammation is still controversial, however. The American Myocarditis Treatment Trial could not demonstrate a significant difference in the improvement of ejection fraction between patients with active myocarditis in the cyclosporine/prednisolone treated group when compared to placebo. In the European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Inflammatory Heart Disease (ESETCID) patients with acute or chronic myocarditis are treated specifically according to the etiology of the disease. Patients are screened not only for infiltrating cells, but also for the presence of persisting viral genome (enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and adenovirus). By investigating endomyocardial biopsies of 3,055 patients ongoing inflammatory processes in the heart could be found in 17.2%. Only 182 showed a reduced ejection fraction below 45% fulfilling the entrance criteria for the ESETCID trial. These data imply that in symptomatic patients inflammatory heart muscle disease has to be considered regardless of left ventricular function and that endomyocardial biopsy can be an important tool for diagnosis. Virus could be detected in 11.8% (enterovirus 2.2%, cytomegalovirus 5.4%, adenovirus 4.2%). These first epidemiological results of this prospective randomized study demonstrate that viral persistence may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart muscle disease, and that in chronic myocarditis viral persistence occurs in a smaller percentage of patients compared to previously published studies which were performed on highly selected patients. PMID:10904853

Hufnagel, G; Pankuweit, S; Richter, A; Schönian, U; Maisch, B



Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997, an estimated $5,501 was spent for every hospital-discharge diagnosis of heart failure, and another $1,742 per month was required to care for each patient after dis- charge. Accordingly, substantial efforts have been made to identify and treat the factors that predict recurrent hospitalization. End points of large randomized trials now include the effect of the studied intervention on

Mariell Jessup; Susan Brozena



Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart transplantation (HTX) has evolved over the past 39 years from a rarely performed experimental procedure to a clinically\\u000a well established therapy with an excellent circumoperative outcome regarding survival and quality of life. It was Christiaan\\u000a Barnard who performed unexpectedly the first successfulhuman-to-humanhearttransplant(allograft) on 3 December, 1967 at Groote\\u000a Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa (Barnard 1967, 1968); however,

Herwig Antretter; Guenther Laufer; Janet E. Kuhlman


Heart Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.




EPA Science Inventory

This report is an interpretive analysis of formal and informal developments at the Ninth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Stockholm, Sweden, on June 12-14, 1978, and has been prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the U.S.A. National ...


Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep Johan Nilsson, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden.  

E-print Network

Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep water? Johan Nilsson, Department. As a consequence, the Atlantic Ocean forms all deep water in the northern hemisphere and therefore carries of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden. Background The Atlantic Ocean stands out as the most saline

Nilsson, Johan


Proceedings, FONETIK 2009, Dept. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Studies on Using the SynFace Talking Head for the  

E-print Network

, which aims to re-create the visible articulation of a speaker, in the form of an animated talking headProceedings, FONETIK 2009, Dept. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Studies on Using the Syn for the hearing impaired. In this paper we present the large scale hearing impaired user studies carried out

Beskow, Jonas


Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth



Do Students Correctly Estimate Their Reading Ability? A Study of Stockholm Students in Grades 3 and 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a survey in Stockholm are used to look at differences between how students' self-concepts and self-efficacy relate to actual reading skills, differences between how boys and girls estimate their reading, and differences between how older and younger students estimate their reading. A quarter of the students made correct self-assessments…

Fredriksson, Ulf; Villalba, Ernesto; Taube, Karin



Pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Our knowledge of the epidemiology,\\u000a pathophysiology, and therapy has improved dramatically during the last 20 years. Pharmacological treatment, as it stands today,\\u000a is a combination of preventive and symptomatic strategies. The mainstay life-saving drugs are angiotensin-converting enzyme\\u000a inhibitors and ?-blockers. Additional benefits are obtained when

Rachele Adorisio; Leonardo De Luca; Joseph Rossi; Mihai Gheorghiade



Reproducible epidemiologic research.  


The replication of important findings by multiple independent investigators is fundamental to the accumulation of scientific evidence. Researchers in the biologic and physical sciences expect results to be replicated by independent data, analytical methods, laboratories, and instruments. Epidemiologic studies are commonly used to quantify small health effects of important, but subtle, risk factors, and replication is of critical importance where results can inform substantial policy decisions. However, because of the time, expense, and opportunism of many current epidemiologic studies, it is often impossible to fully replicate their findings. An attainable minimum standard is "reproducibility," which calls for data sets and software to be made available for verifying published findings and conducting alternative analyses. The authors outline a standard for reproducibility and evaluate the reproducibility of current epidemiologic research. They also propose methods for reproducible research and implement them by use of a case study in air pollution and health. PMID:16510544

Peng, Roger D; Dominici, Francesca; Zeger, Scott L



Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

Weber, David J.


Diastology 2010: clinical approach to diastolic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of echocardiography in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function is increasingly important in both systolic\\u000a and diastolic heart failure. In routine clinical practice, the diastolic dysfunction associated with diastolic heart failure\\u000a can mainly be evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. In order to use echocardiographic techniques for this purpose, one should\\u000a recognize the definition, terminology, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of

Hirotsugu Yamada; Allan L. Klein



Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  


Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz



Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.



Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the dis- ease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging,

Debra L. Foley; Jeffrey M. Craig; Ruth Morley; Craig J. Olsson; Terence Dwyer; Katherine Smith; Richard Saffery



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper provides an overview of the use of mathematical models to explain the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and to assess the potential benefits of proposed control strategies. The development is broadly historical: beginning with the concept of mass action and compartmental models; proceeding through models for vector-born infections with special reference to malaria; touching on ideas arising in

M. G. Roberts


Mending a broken heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most promising and ambitious approach towards combating the leading cause of death in America today, heart failure, arises from cardiac tissue engineering. The lack of heart donors, the complications of open heart surgery, and the uncertainty of artificial hearts necessitate new solutions to repair damaged hearts. Unlike many of the other organs in the body, such as the skin

M. J. Davies; Bradley H. Morneweck



Attributing mortality from extreme temperatures to climate change in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A changing climate is increasing the frequency, intensity, duration and spatial extent of heat waves. These changes are associated with increased human mortality during heat extremes. At the other end of the temperature scale, it has been widely speculated that cold-related mortality could decrease in a warmer world. We aim to answer a key question; the extent to which mortality due to temperature extremes in Stockholm, Sweden during 1980-2009 can be attributed to climate change that has occurred since our reference period (1900-1929). Mortality from heat extremes in 1980-2009 was double what would have occurred without climate change. Although temperature shifted towards warmer temperatures in the winter season, cold extremes occurred more frequently, contributing to a small increase of mortality during the winter months. No evidence was found for adaptation over 1980-2009.

Oudin Åström, Daniel; Forsberg, Bertil; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim



Drug abuse epidemiology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of drug abuse epidemiology is a relatively new one and recognition of drug abuse as a phenomenon amenable to study within the field of epidemiology is still forthcoming. Reviews of programmes for meetings of epidemiologic research societies rarely highlight drug abuse, even in association with the transmission of, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis




E-print Network

an epidemiologic methods topic first covered in Epi Bio 301, and a 30 minute guided discussion of a paper from and critically interpret literature using epidemiologic methods. · Describe the pathophysiology and basicEpi Bio 401 INTERMEDIATE EPIDEMIOLOGY 1.0 Credit Fall Quarter 2013 (September 25 ­ December 11

Contractor, Anis


'Hearts and minds': association, causation and implication of cognitive impairment in heart failure.  


The clinical syndrome of heart failure is one of the leading causes of hospitalisation and mortality in older adults. An association between cognitive impairment and heart failure is well described but our understanding of the relationship between the two conditions remains limited. In this review we provide a synthesis of available evidence, focussing on epidemiology, the potential pathogenesis, and treatment implications of cognitive decline in heart failure. Most evidence available relates to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and the syndromes of chronic cognitive decline or dementia. These conditions are only part of a complex heart failure-cognition paradigm. Associations between cognition and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and between acute delirium and heart failure also seem evident and where data are available we will discuss these syndromes. Many questions remain unanswered regarding heart failure and cognition. Much of the observational evidence on the association is confounded by study design, comorbidity and insensitive cognitive assessment tools. If a causal link exists, there are several potential pathophysiological explanations. Plausible underlying mechanisms relating to cerebral hypoperfusion or occult cerebrovascular disease have been described and it seems likely that these may coexist and exert synergistic effects. Despite the prevalence of the two conditions, when cognitive impairment coexists with heart failure there is no specific guidance on treatment. Institution of evidence-based heart failure therapies that reduce mortality and hospitalisations seems intuitive and there is no signal that these interventions have an adverse effect on cognition. However, cognitive impairment will present a further barrier to the often complex medication self-management that is required in contemporary heart failure treatment. PMID:25722749

Cannon, Jane A; McMurray, John Jv; Quinn, Terry J



Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update  

PubMed Central

Background & Aim. Changing socio-economic conditions generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of urolithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical-physical composition of the calculi. In the latter part of the 20th century the prevalence of upper urinary tract stones was increasing in Western countries whereas endemic infantile bladder stone disease was fairly widespread in huge areas of developing countries. The aim of this paper was to update previous epidemiological reports of urolithiasis by reviewing the more recent literature. Methods. Citations were extracted using PubMed database from January 2003 through December 2007 on the basis of the key words epidemiology AND urinary calculi. Results. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis was described in Germany whereas data from the United States were contradictory with stone disease rates increased only for women with a change of male-to-female ratio. Prevalence figures of stone disease observed in some developing country in tropical regions were similar to rates of Western countries with incidence of renal colic particularly high in warm months. African Americans had a reduced risk of stone disease compared to other racial groups but in renal stone patients all racial groups demonstrated a similarity in the incidence of underlying metabolic abnormalities. Upper urinary tract stones in children were associated more frequently with metabolic disturbances rather than with urinary tract anomalies and infection. Endemic childhood bladder stones are still present in some developing countries. Dietary risk factors for stone disease were shown different by age and sex. In particular in younger women dietary calcium, phytate and fluid intake were associated with a reduced risk of stone formation whereas animal protein and sucrose increased the risk of stone incidence. In older adults there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation whereas magnesium, potassium and fluid intakes decreased and total vitamin C intake increased the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2. Type 2 diabetes and several other coronary heart disease risk factors, including hypertension and obesity are associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:22460989

Trinchieri, Alberto



Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.


Heart disease - resources  


Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -


Heart Rhythm Society  


... of arrhythmias using the Heart Rhythm Society’s searchable directory. Learn More Common Heart Problems Although people can ... advanced cardiovascular practice. We also provide a searchable directory consisting of Heart Rhythm Society members ( e.g. , ...


Living with Heart Failure  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...


Left heart catheterization  


Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...


Heart Disease in Women  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...


Living with Heart Disease  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), ... it harder for you to make lifestyle changes. Heart Attack Warning Signs If you have CHD, learn ...


Right heart ventriculography  


Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...


Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease  


... and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are ...


Protein and Heart Health  


... Look for the Heart-Check mark to find products in the grocery store that can help you make smarter choices about the foods you eat. ... Target Heart Rates 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 What ...


Congenital Heart Information Network  


... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...


Cyanotic heart disease  


... with a pulse oximeter Complete blood count (CBC) ECG (echocardiogram) Looking at the heart structure and blood ... side of the heart, usually from the groin ( cardiac catheterization ) ... oximeter) Echo-Doppler Testing the heart's electrical system


Heart disease in infants of diabetic mothers  

PubMed Central

Congenital anomalies occur more commonly in infants born to diabetic mothers, and cardiac defects predominate. Although respiratory problems are also frequently found in those infants, they need to be differentiated from cardiovascular problems that such patients may also have, which include cardiovascular maladaptation to extra-uterine life, congenital heart defects and hypertrophic septal cardiomyopathy. A high index of suspicion is required as the specific management may vary and digoxin, or inotropic agents which may be used in heart failure associated with structural heart defects are contraindicated if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is present. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prognosis and available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The need for antenatal fetal echocardiography in pregnant diabetic mothers is also reviewed, as well as the controversial role of maternal glycemic control in the prevention of these anomalies. PMID:22368579

Narchi, H; Kulaylat, N



Examining the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the heart (on page 22 of the PDF), learners examine sheep or chicken hearts to learn about the heart's structure and the flow of blood through the heart. Learners will note various components of the heart (atria, auricles, aorta, etc.) as well as discover how blood circulates through the heart to the body. This activity can be conducted as a demonstration. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and handouts.

Barbara Z. Tharp



Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum)  

E-print Network

Epidemiologic Methods (All 3 courses required for 9 Credits) Credit PHC 6001 Principles of Epidemiology 3 PHC 6000 Epidemiology Research Methods I 3 PHC 6011 Epidemiology Research Methods II 3 Course Epidemiology Regression Methods 3 PHC 7065 Critical Skills in Epidemiology Data Management 2 Course Epidemiology Electives

Kane, Andrew S.


A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008.  


In September 2008, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among guests and staff at a wedding reception in a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden. The most probable source of the outbreak was bearnaise sauce containing chopped fresh parsley. PMID:19094915

Insulander, M; de Jong, B; Svenungsson, B



Hazards, Risks, and Threats of Heart Disease from the Early Stages to Symptomatic Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiac Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic approach to investigation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has provided many insights into the preclinical and clinical spectrum of the disease. The hazard of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is substantial with coronary heart disease (CHD), the most common and most lethal feature. The outlook in those who manage to survive the initial episode is also serious, with a 10-year

William B. Kannel



Dengue: update on epidemiology.  


The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H



International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.


Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders

Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen


Cancer epidemiology of woodworking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries ist reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, expecially wood processing using high-speed

E. Mohtashamipur; K. Norpoth; F. Liihmann



The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.



Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Over recent years, wheezing illness in children of the Western world has become synonymous with asthma, but as in adults there\\u000a remains no universally accepted epidemiological definition of the condition. Existing definitions of asthma in adults are\\u000a more descriptive than definitive, focussing on the clinical characteristics of reversible airways obstruction, chronic airway\\u000a inflammation, and increased bronchial responsiveness to a variety

John R. Britton; Sarah A. Lewis


Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.  


Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers. PMID:25124661

Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B



Heart murmurs and other sounds  


Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...


To be a teacher, a tutor and a friend: the physician's role according to the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) showed that lower blood glucose levels led to halted or retarded microvascular complications in patients with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Modern education was combined with tutoring, which led to improved blood glucose control in a randomized group of patients. In this setting, the expert-physician met an expert-patient in a mutual effort to

Per Reichard



Lesson 1, Volume 13—Understanding and Managing the Patient With Acute and Chronic Heart Failure  

E-print Network

2. Know the epidemiology of heart failure in the United States. 3. Recognize the multiple etiologies of heart failure in the United States. 4. Understand the appropriate diagnostic evaluation for patients with heart failure. 5. Know the appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients with heart failure. Key words congestive heart failure; diagnosis; epidemiology; left-ventricular systolic dysfunction; prognosis; therapy Abbreviations ACE=angiotensin-converting enzyme Heart failure is one of the most common problems seen in the practices of physicians who care for adults. In hospitalized Medicare patients, heart failure is the most frequently cited diagnosis-related group. Heart failure prevalence increases with age; it ranges from 3 to 20 persons per 1,000 when all ages are considered, but when only persons>65 years of age are considered, the prevalence of heart failure lies between 30 and 130 per 1,000. 1 The crude incidence for heart failure, unadjusted for age, ranges from 1 to 5 cases per 1,000 population per year with a steep increase associated with advancing age. The incidence rate for persons>75 years of age is approximately 40 per 1,000 population per year. Etiology Hypertension was formerly the most common etiology for heart failure. Coronary artery disease has recently moved into the first

S. Alpert


Types of Heart Failure  


Types of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 9,2014 Left-sided heart failure The heart's pumping action moves oxygen-rich blood as it ... give support. Join now - it's free and easy. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...


Heart Valve Disease  


... and affect its ability to pump blood. Overview How the Heart Valves Work At the start of each heartbeat, blood returning ... and detailed animations, go to the Health Topics How the Heart Works article. Heart Valve Problems Heart valves can have ...


Target Heart Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice how to calculate their Target Heart Rate to use during exercise routines. This will help students monitor the intensity of their workouts, and ultimately help them achieve results from their workout. Standard 2: Objective 2: a,b,c Before we discuss what the Target Heart Range is and how we can us it, we must first have some basic knowledge of the heart and it's functions. Click the "habits of the heart" to learn the basics of the heart and how it circulates blood throughout the body. Habits of the Heart The hearts ...

Mr. Peterson



Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne\\u000a pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and\\/or the dynamics of disease\\u000a transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious\\u000a agents, and distribution and relationships of different

Yi Chen; Eric Brown; Stephen J. Knabel



Heart Rate and Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about heart health (on page 27 of the PDF), learners measure their heart rates after a variety of physical activities and compare the results with their resting heart rates, and with the heart rates of other learners in their groups. Learners also make predictions about their pulse rates. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extension ideas, information about the heart in space and a handout.

Barbara Z. Tharp



Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

Vlassov, V.



Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.



Animal influenza epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted successfully between species, these three selected examples have spread and evolved in different ways, exemplifying the complexity of influenza A virus epidemiology. PMID:19230163

Ducatez, M.F.; Webster, R.G.; Webby, R.J.



[Epidemiology of allergic diseases].  


The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

Aleraj, Borislav; Tomi?, Branimir



Cross sectional study of a workforce exposed to hand-arm vibration: with objective tests and the Stockholm workshop scales  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Medical surveillance of workforces exposed to vibration has been recommended with the Stockholm workshop scales. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate how the results of the objective tests individually and jointly associated with the final Stockholm workshop staging, (b) how this staging related to the history of exposure to vibration, and (c) how different trades were affected by the hazards from vibrating tools.?METHODS—All workers exposed to vibration in a heavy engineering company were examined with a questionnaire and a battery of tests. An assessment of staging by the Stockholm workshop scales was made. Estimates of the daily exposure and lifetime dosage of vibration of the various trades were reached.?RESULTS—The average years of tool use was 23.3 years (range 3-47 years) and the mean lifetime exposure was 11 022 (range 1012-46 125) hours. The individual neurological tests were all strongly associated with the Stockholm neurological staging but the cold provocation test was not associated with the Stockholm vascular staging. Neurological staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, and total hours of exposure to vibration, but not with trade or smoking. Vascular staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, total hours of exposure to vibration, and trade, but not with smoking. The mean neurological latent period was 19.7 (range 2-40) years and for the vascular component 19.1 (range 2-40) years. These means varied significantly by trade. The overall prevalence of neurological findings of 62% was greater than the overall prevalence of vascular findings, which was 33%.?CONCLUSIONS—(1) The neurological objective tests were found to be of use in neurological staging. The cold provocation test was not associated with the vascular staging and therefore was of little value. (2) Years of tool use was the exposure variable most significantly associated with evidence of damage to neurological component while years of tool use and trade were the variables most associated with vascular damage. (3) The prevalence of neurological symptoms (62%) was greater than the prevalence of vascular symptoms (33%). (4) Dressers and welders have shorter latent periods than platers and fitters.???Keywords: hand-arm vibration syndrome; neurological objective tests PMID:10711267

McGeoch, K.; Gilmour, W



Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H



Hepatitis B seroprevalence in persons attending youth clinics in Stockholm, Sweden in 2008.  


Sweden is a low endemicity country for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The previously reported prevalence of chronic HBV is <1% and of overall markers <5%. HBV is not included in the universal childhood vaccination programme. Instead, selected high-risk groups are targeted. Our aim was to examine the HBV seroprevalence in youth clinic clients in Stockholm and identify if this population might be a new target group for vaccination. In total, 515 clients aged 18-22 years were recruited. They completed a risk-assessment questionnaire and 464 (90%) had a serum specimen tested for HBV serology. Chronic HBV was found in 0.6% and 0.9% had previously been infected with HBV. A seroprevalence of 1.8% HBV markers was found among non-vaccinated persons. This is lower than reported from other countries and not different from the general population in Sweden. However, in persons originating from HBV endemic countries (n = 123), the prevalence was higher, 6.5%. Only 14% were vaccinated and the majority hence susceptible to HBV. The target groups are not reached by the present vaccination strategy. Youth clinics are ideal settings for catch-up vaccination. PMID:23155094

Stenkvist, J; Lidbrink, P; Olofsson, I; von Sydow, M; Lindh, G



Climate-induced variability of sea level in Stockholm: Influence of air temperature and atmospheric circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873 1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale temperature and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and temperature. While the wind is important in the period January May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic variables (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air temperature during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the variability.

Chen, Deliang; Omstedt, Anders



Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn



Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.  


Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei



Epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever in New Zealand 1996-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and its sequela chronic rheumatic heart disease remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality in New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific peoples. Despite its importance, ARF epidemiology has not been reviewed recently. The aims of this study were to assess trends in ARF incidence rates between 1996 and 2005 and the extent to which

Richard Jaine; Michael Baker; Kamalesh Venugopal



Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

Zhang, Yuwei



Accident and disaster epidemiology.  


Natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and cyclones are responsible each year for a large number of deaths and injuries. Over recent years, the emphasis in disaster management has shifted from post-disaster improvisation to pre-disaster planning. There is a strong feeling that one should be able to prevent or mitigate the human consequences through improved preparedness. The decade 1990-99 has been proclaimed by the United Nations the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Epidemiology is proving an essential tool to study the health effects of disasters and to suggest appropriate control measures at each of the phases of the disaster process, from prevention to long-term rehabilitation. Case-studies have shown that rescue by the disaster-struck community is the most effective way to reduce the death toll due to earthquakes. Disaster preparedness should be part and parcel of primary health care in disaster-prone areas. Appropriate information to evaluate needs should be preferred to precipitate relief. Epidemiological surveillance should replace indiscriminate vaccination. In the long term, disaster preparedness can provide a stimulus for setting up more efficient health services. PMID:8047651

Lechat, M F


2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting

The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.


CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available



The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination  

E-print Network

The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination Sylvain Gandon1,* and Troy Day2 1 Ge´ne´tique et 3N6, Canada Vaccination leads to dramatic perturbations of the environment of parasite populations for modelling the short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary consequences of vaccination


Spatial Statistics for Environmental Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of methods and techniques of spatial data analysis used in environmental epidemiology. Speci c topics includeSpatial Statistics for Environmental Epidemiology Peter Diggle (Medical Statistics Unit, Lancaster intensities 2.2 Poisson processes 2.3 Cox processes/cluster processes 3. Case-control methods 3.1 Spatial

Diggle, Peter J.


Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367



Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease: National heart, lung, and blood institute working group report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an interdisciplinary working group of experts to develop recommendations for the assessment and treatment of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method: Consensus of experts. Results: Our current recommendations are that the Beck Depression Inventory-I be employed for epidemiological studies of depression and CHD, that the Patient Health Questionnaire

Karina W. Davidson; David J. Kupfer; J. Thomas Bigger; Robert M. Califf; Robert M. Carney; James C. Coyne; Susan M. Czajkowski; Ellen Frank; Nancy Frasure-Smith; Kenneth E. Freedland; Erika S. Froelicher; Alexander H. Glassman; Wayne J. Katon; Peter G. Kaufmann; Ronald C. Kessler; Helena C. Kraemer; K. Ranga R. Krishnan; François Lespérance; Nina Rieckmann; David S. Sheps; Jerry M. Suls



Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)



Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)



Antithrombotics in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

Mili?i?, Davor; Samardži?, Jure; Petri?evi?, Mate



The Epidemiology of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164



The epidemiology of sarcoma.  


Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi's sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing's sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

Burningham, Zachary; Hashibe, Mia; Spector, Logan; Schiffman, Joshua D



Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson



Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  


Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H



[Epidemiology of lung tumors].  


Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will be provided on the epidemiology of lung tumors and predominantly preventable risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:22753285

Ott, S; Geiser, T



Asthma, allergy and eczema among adults in multifamily houses in Stockholm (3-HE study)--associations with building characteristics, home environment and energy use for heating.  


Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin



Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating  

PubMed Central

Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR?=?1.74) and mould odour (OR?=?1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR?=?1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR?=?1.48) and mould odour (OR?=?2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR?=?1.76) and mould odour (OR?=?2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR?=?1.47), humid air (OR?=?1.73) and mould odour (OR?=?2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR?=?0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR?=?0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR?=?1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin



About Heart Attacks  


... started on the road to recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Questions and ... severely reduced or cut off completely ( View an animation of blood flow ). This happens because coronary arteries ...


Kids and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Kids and Heart Health HealthDay March 18, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child ... An ideal diet was the least prevalent heart health indicator. For example, fewer than 10% of the ...


Texas Heart Institute  


... THI Careers & Human Resources Clinical services for the Texas Heart Institute are provided by CHI St. Luke's ... Houston. James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Series Texas Heart Institute Journal Resources for Physicians Continuing Medical ...


Stress and Heart Health  


... variety of health problems — and that’s why it’s critical to know what you can do about it. “ ... your risk. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...


Heart PET scan  


Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...


Working Model Hearts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory syst

David Brock



Classes of Heart Failure  


... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Dec 17,2014 Doctors usually classify patients' ... is classified: Functional Capacity IV, Objective Assessment A Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...


Heart failure - home monitoring  


... body and the symptoms that tell you your heart failure is getting worse will help you stay healthier ... Januzi JL, Mann DL. Clinical assessment of heart failure. In: ... of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...


Women and Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...


Men and Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...


Heart Disease Risk Factors  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Heart disease and intimacy  


... the first 2 weeks after a heart attack, sex is not safe. Make sure you know the symptoms that could mean your heart is working too hard. Chest pain or pressure Feeling lightheaded, dizzy, faint ...


Patterns of heart attacks  

E-print Network

Myocardial infarction is a derivative of heart disease that is a growing concern in the United States today. With heart disease becoming increasingly predominant, it is important to not only take steps toward preventing ...

Shenk, Kimberly N



Cholesterol and Heart Disease  


... right-hand corner of the player. Cholesterol and Heart Disease HealthDay February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Heart Diseases Transcript When should you start worrying about your ...


Inflammation and Heart Disease  


Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Jul 29,2014 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...


Types of Heart Surgery  


... the device senses one, it sends an electric shock to your heart to restore a normal heart ... to treat atrial fibrillation. These procedures use high heat or intense cold to prevent abnormal electrical signals ...


Heart failure - tests  


... American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation . Published online June 5, 2013. Mann DL. Management of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. ...


Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: Case studies in Stockholm, Sweden.  


Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Råcksta Träsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Långsjön and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus, loadings by different pathways were apparently less sensitive to climate change. PMID:25770952

Wu, Jiechen; Malmström, Maria E



Managing Feelings about Heart Failure  


... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...


Life After a Heart Attack  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry ...


Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)  


... and any related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ... affect its ability to function properly. Continue Common Heart Defects Common types of congenital heart defects, which ...


Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD  


... page It's been added to your dashboard . Congenital heart defects and CCHD Congenital means present at birth. ... babies and children with heart problems. How can heart defects affect your baby? Heart defects can affect ...


How Is Heart Disease Treated?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Heart Disease Treated? Treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) ... Red: Eileen's Story 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 ...


What Causes a Heart Attack?  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if the flow ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 10/14/2014 All of Our Stories ...


Congenital Heart Defects  


... congenital heart defects. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video New pediatric imaging facility aims to improve treatment for congenital heart disease 10/14/2014 Google+ Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing analysis of congenital heart disease 10/14/2014 Researchers ...


Cancer and the heart  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 28 chapters. Some of the titles are: Computed tomography of neoplastic disease of the pericardium; Radiation therapy and the heart; Valvular involvement in cancer; Smoking, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease; Carcinoid heart disease; Cardiac amyloidosis; and Anemia of cancer and its cardiac effects.

Kapoor, A.S.



Heart valve tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valvular heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Classical replacement surgery involves the implantation of mechanical valves or biological valves (xeno- or homografts). Tissue engineering of heart valves represents a new experimental concept to improve current modes of therapy in valvular heart surgery. Various approaches have been developed differing either in the choice of scaffold (synthetic

Stefan Neuenschwander; Simon P. Hoerstrup



Heart Attack Risk Assessment  


Heart Attack Risk Assessment Updated:Oct 24,2014 Do you know how these controllable risk factors affect your risk of heart disease, ... new window) Q & A about the Heart Attack Risk Assessment Who should use this tool? This risk assessment ...


Heart failure - palliative care  


Chronic heart failure very often gets worse over time. Many people who have heart failure die of the condition. It can be hard ... whether to continue active or aggressive treatment of heart failure. Then, you may want to discuss the option ...


Assemble the Human Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity about anatomy, learners will drag and drop pieces of the heart into their proper positions and explore what function each part of the heart has. This activity is part of a rather extensive collection of activities and information surrounding the wonder of the human heart.




Heart Valve Diseases  


Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...


Heart 1: Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students use the internet to learn about the workings and anatomy of the heart and new medical techniques that help people live longer, healthier lives. Students then use their knowledge to discuss controversial issues surrounding heart transplants. Students also perform an online heart transplant to get a more realistic idea of what is involved.

Science Netlinks



Working Model Hearts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

Brock, David



Heart Disease in Women  


... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...


The Heart of Coaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan



Matters of the heart.  


What does it take to make a heart? Even in the fruit fly, in which matters of the heart don't extend to either pop music or pulp fiction, making a heart requires big decisions and processes of surprising complexity. PMID:24058774

Bausek, Nina; Zeidler, Martin P



Target Heart Rates  


... safer than others. Learn more: All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Blood Pressure Vs. Heart Rate The AHA Recommendations for Physical ... of High Blood Pressure? 5 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 6 Low Blood Pressure 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Warning ...


Menopause and Heart Disease  


Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 1,2013 Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but for women symptoms can ... women is seen about 10 years after menopause. Heart disease is the leading killer of women . Estrogen Levels ...


Travel and Heart Disease  


Travel and Heart Disease Updated:Nov 11,2014 Travel precautions help people with heart disease. Traveling to a faraway place doesn’t need to be off limits because you have heart disease or are a caretaker of someone who has ...


Primitive Heart Turnabout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation displays both sides of the two chambered heart. It begins with a ventral view, labeling the chambers and aortic arches. The heart then turns around to a dorsal view, labeling the major vessels. A button allows one to see the inside of the heart and the openings of the major vessels.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)



Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is ... used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta ...


OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Dean, Andrew G.


Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested parties who care about their own heart, or the heart of a loved one, will find that the Texas Heart Institute website has a wealth of information in the "For Patients and Consumers" section on the homepage. Researchers and doctors will also find much to love about the Texas Heart Institute website, with its "For Medical Professionals" section, also on its homepage. Patients interested in enrolling in the Stem Cell Center's clinical trials, can click on the "Enrolling Patients" tab near the top of the page on the left hand side. Patients interested in finding out if they have the ten classic risk factors that lead to an unhealthy heart, can click "How healthy is your heart?", near the bottom of the page, to take the quiz. Doctors can read a guide to the website by clicking on the link "Resources for Physicians" at the top of the section of the homepage designated "For Medical Professionals". Information on Continuing Medical Education (CME) is available on the left hand side of the page, as well as the upcoming Texas Heart Institute "symposia" topics. Clicking on one of the topics will take the medical professional to an online registration form for the symposia, along with a synopsis of the topic that will be discussed.


Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Introduction to Epidemiology is to introduce you to epidemiologic methods so that you can understand. Optional Koepsell TD and Weiss NS. Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness. New York1 Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology 1.0 Credit Summer 2013 (June 24 ­ August 23

Contractor, Anis


Epidemiology of diabetes  

PubMed Central

The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. PMID:25568613

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.



National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- Information for Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), this website provides a plethora of helpful information and resources for researchers. The site provides abstracts for NHLBI supported research from 1972-present, which also links to the NIH CRISP Database. Online research resources include Programs for Genomic Applications, Available Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Data Sets, as well as links to the NIH Obesity Research Web Site. The site also provides links to other research resources including databases, biologic resources, and training opportunities. In addition, the site links to the NHLBI Population Studies Database, information on the Framingham Heart Study, a section on Workshop and Meeting Summaries, and much more.


Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 83: 193202 (July 2002) 2002The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 193  

E-print Network

Abstract Wirkner, C. S. and Pass, G. 2002.The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology of haemolymph flow. In Scutigera coleoptrata, the heart ultrastructure was studied. The circulatory system descriptions in this group have been only superficial. In all investigated species, the circulatory system

Pass, Günther



EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...


EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational


Epidemiology: Cornerstone for Health Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epidemiology has been used historically to reduce the incidence of communicable diseases and is used presently to study chronic conditions, environmental conditions, and social conditions. Its analytical method is necessary for health educators to evaluate tactics and recommend programs. (MT)

Markellis, Victoria C.



Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology  


... Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in the United States Q fever was first ... Q fever. Figure 1 - Number of U.S. Q Fever cases* reported to CDC, 1998 – 2010. *Numbers presented ...


Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) Epidemiologic Methods May/June 2011 Epidemiologic Methods  

E-print Network

Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 1 Epidemiologic) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 2 15.4516.15 Break 16.1517.00 L6: Measures of effect School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 3 Epidemiologic Methods Principal

Boehning, Dankmar


CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough  

E-print Network

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump disease (HTN, Diabetes, Cardiomyopathy, Heart Valve Disease, etc.) ultimately may lead to heart failure down and heart failure symptoms appear. Symptoms of CHF: Shortness of Breath; Dyspnea on Exertion


Epidemiology of childhood atopic dermatitis.  


Atopic dermatitis (AD) or eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder with significant morbidity and quality of life impairment. Elucidating the epidemiology of AD is important for understanding disease risk factors and facilitates development of interventions for disease prevention. This contribution aims to summarize recent developments in the epidemiology of AD, including the US prevalence, regional differences, and secular trends of disease prevalence, genetic and environmental determinants, distribution, and determinants of disease severity and health care use for AD. PMID:25889128

Garg, Nitin; Silverberg, Jonathan I



Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.


The epidemiology of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, and genetic epidemiology of mood disorders in adults and\\u000a children. The magnitude and impact of mood disorders in the community outweighs that of most other chronic diseases. Although\\u000a there is substantial knowledge regarding the sociodemographic risk factors for mood disorders, our understanding of the pathogenesis\\u000a and classification still is evolving.

Kathleen Ries Merikangas; Nancy C. P. Low



Epidemiology of binge eating disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become,the focus of epidemiologic,studies. This article provides a comprehen- sive review,of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined,and summarized,in the form of a narrative review. Results: Similar to the early studies of bulimia nervosa (BN), the first generation of epidemiologic,studies of BED is limited in

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko



Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.  


The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

Green, Adèle C



[Epidemiology of brain metastases].  


The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É



[Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].  


With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

Mahr, A; Maldini, C



Microtia: Epidemiology & Genetics  

PubMed Central

Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear that ranges in severity from mild structural abnormalities to complete absence of the ear, and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with hearing loss and patients typically require treatment for hearing impairment and surgical ear reconstruction. The reported prevalence varies among regions, from 0.83 to 17.4 per 10,000 births and the prevalence is considered to be higher in Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and Andeans. The etiology of microtia and the cause of this wide variability in prevalence are poorly understood. Strong evidence supports the role of environmental and genetic causes for microtia. Although some studies have identified candidate genetic variants for microtia, no causal genetic mutation has been confirmed. The application of novel strategies in developmental biology and genetics has facilitated elucidation of mechanisms controlling craniofacial development. In this paper we review current knowledge of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia, including potential candidate genes supported by evidence from human syndromes and animal models. We also discuss the possible etiopathogenesis in light of the hypotheses formulated to date: neural crest cells disturbance, vascular disruption and altitude. PMID:22106030

Luquetti, Daniela V.; Heike, Carrie L.; Hing, Anne V.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Cox, Timothy C.



Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.



The effects of UV disinfection on distribution pipe biofilm growth and pathogen incidence within the greater Stockholm area, Sweden.  


An assessment of the effects of the transition from conventional chlorination to UV disinfection on potable water biofilm growth and pathogen incidence was made. Two hydraulic systems were tested, one a 1.0 km polyethylene pilot-scale system within the Lovö waterworks, Stockholm, Sweden, as well as Hässelby and Nockeby municipal distribution systems within the greater Stockholm area. Biofilms were propagated on coupons and the amount of biomass analysed by standard culture and molecular methods. There was no measurable difference in biofilm biomass or pathogen incidence in the transition from conventional chlorination to UV-treatment in any system examined. With the exception of aeromonads, frank (salmonellae, enterobacteria) and opportunistic (legionellae) pathogens as well as indicator bacteria (E. coli, coliforms, enterococci) could not be detected within biofilms in either the pilot-scale or large-scale municipal system. Free-living protozoa were detected almost ubiquitously in biofilm samples in either experimental system though their exact significance and impact remains unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:17588636

Långmark, Jonas; Storey, Michael V; Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Stenström, Thor-Axel



Design of a centre for biologically optimised light ion therapy in Stockholm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy is today in a state of very rapid development with new intensity-modulated treatment techniques continuously being developed. This has made intensity modulated electron and photon beams almost as powerful as conventional uniform beam proton therapy. To be able to cure also the most advanced hypoxic and radiation resistant tumours of complex local spread, intensity modulated light ion beams are really the ultimate tool and only slightly more expensive than proton therapy. The aim of the new centre for ion therapy and tumour diagnostics in Stockholm is to develop radiobiologically optimised three-dimensional (3D)-pencil beam scanning techniques. Beside the `classical' approaches using low ionisation density hydrogen ions (protons, but also deuterons and tritium nuclei) and high ionisation density carbon ions, two new approaches will be developed. In the first one lithium or beryllium ions, that induce the least detrimental biological effect to normal tissues for a given biological effect in a small volume of the tumour, will be key particles. In the second approach, referred patients will be given a high-dose high-precision `boost' treatment with carbon or oxygen ions during one week preceding the final treatment with conventional radiations in the referring hospital. The rationale behind these approaches is to reduce the high ionisation density dose to the normal tissue stroma inside the tumour and to ensure a microscopically uniform dose delivery. The principal idea of the centre is to closely integrate ion therapy into the clinical routine and research of a large radiotherapy department. The light ion therapy centre will therefore be combined with advanced tumour diagnostics including MR and PET-CT imaging to facilitate efficient high-precision high-dose boost treatment of remitted patients. The possibility to do 3D tumour diagnostics and 3D dose delivery verification with the same PET camera will be the ultimate step in high quality adaptive radiation therapy where alterations in the delivered dose can be performed by subsequent treatments. The increased knowledge in tumour and molecular biology will hopefully further improve the efficiency of this very unique new treatment modality that will be planned and delivered by radiobiologically optimised 3D-pencil beam scanning techniques to maximise the complication-free tumour cure and minimise normal tissue side effects. Finally, the design, cost, time scale and treatment capacity of the centre are reviewed. After a few years of running, the centre will be capable of treating 1000 patients/year with light ions and almost 3000 patients/year with the high-precision boost techniques.

Brahme, A.; Lewensohn, R.; Ringborg, U.; Amaldi, U.; Gerardi, F.; Rossi, S.



[Shift work and risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases.  


Shift and night work are among the most frequent occupational exposures. Such work schedules involve exposure to light-at-night, which may reduce normal nocturnal melatonin production, create circadian rhythm disruption, sleep deprivation and unhealthy lifestyle. There is strong experimental evidence that light-at-night and circadian disruption may increase the risk of cancer and coronary heart diseases. There is emerging, but limited epidemiologic evidence that night shift work may increase breast cancer and certain cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24629681

Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch



Epidemiology of eosinophilic esophagitis.  


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-associated disease defined clinically by esophagus-related symptoms in combination with a dense esophageal eosinophilia, both of which are unresponsive to prolonged acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Over the last two decades EoE has increasingly been recognized in various geographical areas (mostly industrialized countries) with high socioeconomic development. The prevalence rate is increasing and reaches up to 50 patients per 100,000 inhabitants in some indicator regions. Whether this increased prevalence is due to a real increase in incidence, a result of increased awareness by health care providers or because of the nonfatal nature of EoE adding more and more cases to the patient pool is still a matter of controversy. Several studies have consistently demonstrated a male predominance in EoE, with a male-to-female risk ratio of 3:1. The average age at diagnosis ranges between 30 and 50 years and suggests that EoE is a disease of the middle-aged man. It can affect patients of every race, but the disease is more common among Caucasians. In both children and adults, EoE has been clearly associated with allergies to food and aeroallergens, and most EoE patients present with a personal allergic background (e.g. asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis or oral allergy syndrome). In conclusion, knowledge of epidemiologic parameters of EoE is crucial for identifying risk factors as well as pathogenic mechanisms, planning preventive measures and determining optimal treatment strategies. PMID:24603379

Hruz, Petr



Keep your heart healthy About the British Heart Foundation  

E-print Network

Keep your heart healthy #12;About the British Heart Foundation The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is the nation's heart charity, saving lives through pioneering research, patient care and vital information. You ..........................................................................4 What are coronary heart disease and stroke? ......................5 What increases my risk

Paxton, Anthony T.


Congenital heart disease in adults: management of advanced heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of adults living with congenital heart disease grows annually. The sequelae of congenital heart disease surgery may involve the electrical conduction system, cardiac valves, prosthetic materials, the myocardium, vascular beds, and the nervous system. These sequelae may lead to heart failure. Adults with congenital heart disease develop heart failure as a consequence of: (1) chronic cyanosis, volume overload,

Stacy F. Davis; Thomas P. Graham



Exercise for the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eighteenth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. The heart needs continual blood flow, and interruption of that blood flow is called ischemia. Eventually, ischemia can lead to hypertrophy and that can lead to heart attacks. But if the heart could be pre-conditioned, then maybe it could better survive hypertrophy. The work of Dr. Karyn Butler at the University of Cincinnati investigates this possibility.



Heart failure in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly high mortality from cardiovascular disease in women has sparked nationwide campaigns to raise awareness of this\\u000a significant threat to women’s health. Heart failure has the most lethal prognosis of the major cardiovascular diseases, yet\\u000a women demonstrate an apparent survival advantage compared with men. Sex-linked disparities in heart failure risk factors and\\u000a pathophysiology contribute to this divergent clinical outcome. Heart

Denise D. Barnard



Hearts and Worms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of potentially useful drugs have been banned from the market because of a mysterious and deadly heart reaction. A worm that has no heart may help scientists figure out why. This Science Update focuses on experiments involving the worm C. elegans and using its pharynx, an organ similar in function and histology to the human heart, to test the effects of certain therapeutic drugs.

Science Update



Heart of the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of valve operation and how engineers have adapted valves for use in mechanical heart valve design. Learners read about several different valves used at home and in industry, and three different mechanical heart valve designs. Learners then examine and operate both a ball valve and a gate valve. Finally, learners work as a team of "engineers" to develop and sketch enhancements to the mechanical heart valve.




Heart development before beating  

Microsoft Academic Search

During heart development at the pregastrula stage, prospective heart cells reside in the posterior lateral region of the epiblast\\u000a layer. Interaction of tissues between the posterior epiblast and hypoblast is necessary to generate the future heart mesoderm.\\u000a Signaling regulating the interaction involves fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-8, Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-antagonist,\\u000a and canonical Wnt and acts on the posterior epiblast

Yuji Nakajima; Masahide Sakabe; Hiroko Matsui; Hirokazu Sakata; Nariaki Yanagawa; Toshiyuki Yamagishi



Tri-decabrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in indoor air and dust from Stockholm microenvironments 2: Indoor sources and human exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations from Stockholm, Sweden, indoor microenvironments were combined with information from detailed questionnaires regarding the sampling location characteristics, including furnishing and equipment present. These were used to elucidate relationships between possible flame-retarded sources and the contaminant concentrations found in air and dust. Median concentration ranges of ?Penta-, ?Octa-, ?DecaBDE and HBCD

Cynthia A. de Wit; Justina Awasum Björklund; Kaj Thuresson


M. Appert, From state-led to private-led development Stockholm's CBD, 2010 halshs-00710644,version1-21Jun2012  

E-print Network

AW1 M. Appert, From state-led to private-led development ­ Stockholm's CBD, 2010 halshs-00710644)" #12;AW2 M. Appert, The last wave: FIRE industries and the rejuvenation of the modernist CBD ­ La Défense, Paris, 2009 halshs-00710644,version1-21Jun2012 #12;AW3 M. Appert, Servicing locally and globally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Trip report to Stockholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 2008 Background. Sweden has a rich tradition of military and technological (for instance, one  

E-print Network

Trip report to Stockholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 2008 Background. Sweden has a rich tradition and execution of peacekeeping and other non classified operations (indeed, Sweden has troops in Afghanistan and The Congo today; they lead the Baltic MDA effort). Sweden's relatively small size makes them forward leaning


Biofilms in an urban water distribution system: measurement of biofilm biomass, pathogens and pathogen persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden.  


Distribution pipe biofilms can provide sites for the concentration of a wide range of microbial pathogens, thereby acting as a potential source of continual microbial exposure and furthermore can affect the aesthetic quality of water. In a joint project between Stockholm Water, the MISTRA "Sustainable Urban Water" program, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and the Royal Technical University, Stockholm, the aim of the current study was to investigate biofilms formed in an urban water distribution system, and quantify the impact of such biofilms on potential pathogen accumulation and persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden. When used for primary disinfection, ultra-violet (UV) treatment had no measurable influence on biofilm formation within the distribution system when compared to conventional chlorination. Biofilms produced within a model pilot-plant were found to be representative to those that had formed within the larger municipal water distribution system, demonstrating the applicability of the novel pilot-plant for future studies. Polystyrene microspheres (1.0 microm) and Salmonella bacteriophages demonstrated their ability to accumulate and persist within the model pilot-plant system, where the means of primary disinfection (UV-treatment, chlorination) had no influence on such phenomena. With the exception of aeromonads, potential pathogens and faecal indicators could not be detected within biofilms from the Stockholm water distribution system. Results from this investigation may provide information for water treatment and distribution management strategies, and fill key data gaps that presently hinder the refinement of microbial risk models. PMID:16312966

Långmark, J; Storey, M V; Ashbolt, N J; Stenström, T A



Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Around 1500 BC large areas of southern Britain are laid out as fields, through the  

E-print Network

Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Fields Around 1500 BC large areas Gosden is Professor of European Archaeology, University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and a Trustee of the Art Fund. He has carried out archaeological and ethnographic work in Britain, central


Appeared in: Frisk, E. et al. (eds.), 20th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis, Stockholm, 2009 Diagnosis of Bottling Plants First Success and Challenges  

E-print Network

, Stockholm, 2009 Diagnosis of Bottling Plants ­ First Success and Challenges Peter Struss, Benjamin Ertl Comp to the domain of bottle-filling plants. The task is to localize the causes for stops of the central aggregate, the filler, based on recorded operation data of a plant. A model-based solution is challenging in several

Cengarle, María Victoria


Heart Rate Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.



Aging Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this unit, students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. Following the steps of the Legacy Cycle, students brainstorm, research, design and present viable solutions to various heart conditions as presented through a unit challenge. Additionally, students study how heart valves work and investigate how faulty valves can be replaced with new ones through advancements in engineering and technology. This unit demonstrates to students how and why the heart is such a powerful organ in our bodies



Guidelines for heart transplantation  

PubMed Central

Based on the changes in the field of heart transplantation and the treatment and prognosis of patients with heart failure, these updated guidelines were composed by a committee under the supervision of both the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Association for Cardiothoracic surgery (NVVC and NVT). The indication for heart transplantation is defined as: ‘End-stage heart disease not remediable by more conservative measures’. Contraindications are: irreversible pulmonary hypertension/elevated pulmonary vascular resistance; active systemic infection; active malignancy or history of malignancy with probability of recurrence; inability to comply with complex medical regimen; severe peripheral or cerebrovascular disease and irreversible dysfunction of another organ, including diseases that may limit prognosis after heart transplantation. Considering the difficulties in defining end-stage heart failure, estimating prognosis in the individual patient and the continuing evolution of available therapies, the present criteria are broadly defined. The final acceptance is done by the transplant team which has extensive knowledge of the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure on the one hand and thorough experience with heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support on the other hand. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:79-87.) PMID:18345330

de Jonge, N.; Kirkels, J.H.; Klöpping, C.; Lahpor, J.R.; Caliskan, K.; Maat, A.P.W.M.; Brügemann, J.; Erasmus, M.E.; Klautz, R.J.M.; Verwey, H.F.; Oomen, A.; Peels, C.H.; Golüke, A.E.J.; Nicastia, D.; Koole, M.A.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.



Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate  


... are called paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT) or paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). How it happens Electrical signals in the heart's upper chambers fire abnormally, which interferes ...


Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today. PMID:11171517

Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N




EPA Science Inventory

The HHP is a prospective epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease conducted in Honolulu, HI. There were 8006 men who participated in repeated examinations and were followed for cardiovascular disease and cancer....


Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes  

E-print Network

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes 1 Did you know that type 2 diabetes is a serious problem

Bandettini, Peter A.


A Heart Health Alaska Natives  

E-print Network

Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart Health Educator's Manual for Alaska Natives U . S . D E Health Service Office of Prevention, Education, and Control #12;Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Indian Health Service NIH Publication No. 06-5218 Revised

Bandettini, Peter A.


Warning Signs of Heart Failure  


Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jan 12,2015 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...


Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.



Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)



Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.



Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  


Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott



Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))



Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust



HRV in isolated rabbit hearts and in vivo rabbit hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability of seven isolated and five in-vivo rabbit hearts was compared. Heart rate of isolated hearts is lower and RR-intervals longer than those of in-vivo hearts. Characteristic peaks in characteristic frequency bands are different and powers of these bands are almost twice higher in in-vivo hearts than in isolated ones. LF\\/HF ratio is more than five-times higher in

M. Ronzhina; P. Scheer; M. Nova?kova?; I. Provazni?k



Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website ( using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.



Model Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use provided materials to design and build prototype artificial heart valves. Their functioning is demonstrated using water to simulate the flow of blood through the heart. Upon completion, teams demonstrate their fully functional prototypes to the rest of the class, along with a pamphlet that describes the device and how it works.



The stressed heart  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: Regulation of gene expression in the normal and overloaded heart; Cell stress and the initiation of growth; Subcellular growth of cardiocytes during hypertrophy; Microcirculation is the stressed heart; and The biochemistry of myocardial failure.

Legato, M.J. (Columbia Univ., College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY (USA))



Heart imaging method  


A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)



Mapping the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

Hulse, Grace



Habits of the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a resource for students and teachers interested in learning about the cardiovascular and circulatory systems. Included are lesson plans, classroom activities, online interactive activities, videos, and links to sites about the heart. Students can also investigate X-rays and build a heart rate monitor.

Learning Technologies Center



Heart Transplant Procedure  


... heart be reimplanted? Well, clearly, David has already told you that we've got to make very sure ... a profusionist to run the heart-lung machine, you need the medical doctors to ... in the hospital after everything goes well about a week or two after ...


Heart Diseases--Prevention  


... you age. You have a greater risk of heart disease if you are a man over age 45 or a woman over age 55. You also are at greater risk if you have a close family member who had heart disease at an early age. Fortunately, there are ...


Target Heart Rate Calculator  


... workout Enter your age to find a target heart rate during exercise. You'll get the most out of your activities by staying within this range of heartbeats/minute. What is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...


Heart failure - medicines  


... lower your risk of a stroke or heart attack. Coumadin (Warfarin) is recommended for patients with heart failure who have a higher risk for blood clots. You will need to have extra blood tests to make sure your dose is correct. You ...


Anatomy of the Heart  


... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Anatomy of the Heart Your heart is located under your ribcage in the center of your chest between your right and left lungs. Its muscular walls beat, or contract, pumping blood to all parts ...


What Causes Heart Block?  


... and how to act fast to save a life. Click the links to download or order the NHLBI's new heart attack materials: “Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast” (also available in ...


Living with Heart Block  


... and how to act fast to save a life. Click the links to download or order the NHLBI's new heart attack materials: “Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast” (also available in ...


Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team  


Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Apr 14,2015 Patients with heart failure may work with multiple healthcare professionals. It's ... give support. Join now - it's free and easy. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...


How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose coronary heart ... the artery walls. Tests Used To Diagnose Broken Heart Syndrome If your doctor thinks you have broken ...


Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke  


... and Titles : Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke On this page: What is ... stroke. [Top] What is the connection between diabetes, heart disease, and stroke? If you have diabetes, you ...


Living with Coronary Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious ... any new symptoms or if your symptoms worsen. Heart Attack Warning Signs CHD raises your risk for ...


Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  


Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...


Living with Diabetic Heart Disease  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...


How Is Heart Failure Treated?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Heart Failure Treated? Early diagnosis and treatment can help people ... underway for Heart Failure, visit . Heart Failure in the News April 9, 2014 Drug does ...


Tradeoffs between environmental goals and urban development: the case of nitrogen load from the Stockholm County to the Baltic Sea.  


Urban dwellers depend on the generation of ecosystem services for their welfare. The city of Stockholm is growing, and a 25% increase in population is projected by 2030. The effects of urban development were estimated through the quantification of nitrogen (N) leakage to the Baltic Sea under two urban development scenarios. We found that total net N load will increase by 6% or 8%, depending on which growth scenario is applied, and population increase by itself will contribute at least 15% of the point source N leakage. Technical improvements in sewage treatment could, according to our results, decrease total N load to the Baltic Sea by 4%. Based on our results, we conclude that proactive measures such as spatial urban planning can provide a constructive tool for sustainable urban development on regional as well as national and international scales, depending on geographical context as well as the ecosystem services' scale of operation. PMID:18240680

Jansson, Asa; Colding, Johan



Hotline sessions and clinical trial updates presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Stockholm 2010.  


This article gives an overview on several novel clinical trials in the field of cardiovascular (CV) medicine which were presented during the hotline sessions and clinical trial updates at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 28th August to 1st September 2010. The data have been presented by leading experts in the accordant field with relevant positions in the trials. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data as the analysis may change in the final publications. The summaries presented in the manuscript were generated from the oral presentations and should provide the readers with the most comprehensive information on diagnostic and therapeutic development in CV medicine similar as previously reported Schirmer SH et al. PMID:20890707

Lenski, Matthias; Mahfoud, Felix; Werner, Christian; Bauer, Axel; Böhm, Michael




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Utah's Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library has worked to create everything from mobile applications to digitized slide collections for medical professionals. One of their most interesting applications is this interactive rendering of the human heart that can be used to understand blood flow and the operations of the heart. The site includes a set of controls that gives visitors the ability to look at the heart in motion, complete with a stop, play, rewind, and fast-forward button. The rendering is accompanied by an electrocardiogram and heart sounds chart to give interested parties a bit more detail about each motion of the heart. The site also includes seven "Tutorials" that provide detailed graphics and text that explain atrial systole, rapid ejection, rapid ventricular filling, and more.



What Is the Heart?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Figuring out how the heart functions in a metaphorical sense can be an unending and highly metaphysical process (just ask John Donne), so it's nice to find a place online where visitors can learn how the heart functions in a literal sense. This website was created by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, and begins by answering the basic question: "What is the Heart?" After reading this short and informative piece of writing, visitors can meander through sections titled "Anatomy", "Contraction", "Circulation", "Electrical System", and "Heart Disease". Each section provides a brief summary of each topic, complete with graphic illustrations and several digital animations. It's a well-constructed and user-friendly introduction to this important topic, and one that will be of use to those entering one of the health care professions, or those who are intrigued with various body systems.


Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations

In May 2014, NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) hosted Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., the founding Director of


NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing

The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), was held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.



EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....


Official Master's of Public Health Epidemiology Program of Study Form  

E-print Network


Hutcheon, James M.


Depressive Symptoms and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality in Elderly Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Several epidemiological studies have associated depressive symptoms with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether depressive symptoms constituted a risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and total mortality among an apparently healthy elderly cohort. Methods and Results—In a prospective cohort of 5888 elderly Americans ( $65 years) who were enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study, 4493 participants who were free of cardiovascular

Abraham A. Ariyo; Mary Haan; Catherine M. Tangen; John C. Rutledge; Mary Cushman; Adrian Dobs; Curt D. Furberg



Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Vitamin E (?-tocopherol) is thought to have a role in prevention of atherosclerosis, through inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between high dietary intake or high serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol and lower rates of ischaemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a high dose of ?-tocopherol would reduce subsequent

N. G Stephens; A Parsons; M. J Brown; P. M Schofield; F Kelly; K Cheeseman; Mj Mitchinson



Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Observations have been made linking the presence of infections in the vessel wall with atherosclerosis, and epidemiological data also implicate infection in remote sites in the aetiology of CHD. In this article we propose a key role for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)

John S Yudkin; Meena Kumari; Steve E Humphries; Vidya Mohamed-Ali



The Contribution of the Framingham Heart Study to the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Global Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Framingham Heart Study has been a trailblazer in the field of cardiovascular epidemiology. The wealth of novel scientific data that it has generated over 5 decades has made a significant contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in the United States and indirectly influenced global CVD prevention strategies. The Framingham Study has provided insights into the prevalence, incidence, prognosis, predisposing

Shanthi Mendis



Prevalence, Pharmacological Treatment, and Control of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Older People in Central Stockholm: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiometabolic risk factors and related cardiovascular diseases represent major threats to healthy aging. Objective We aimed to estimate distribution, pharmacological treatment, and control of main cardiometabolic risk factors among older people. Methods This population-based study included 3363 participants (age?60 years, 64.9% women) in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, in central Stockholm, Sweden (2001-2004). Data on demographics, cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol), and medication use were collected through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and the inpatient register. Cardiometabolic risk factors were defined following the most commonly used criteria. Prevalence was standardized using local census data. Results The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol, and hypertension was 9.5%, 12.8%, 49.7%, and 74.9%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age, whereas the prevalence of obesity and high cholesterol decreased with age. Forty-nine percent of older adults had two or more cardiometabolic risk factors; 9.8% had three or more. Overall, 55.5% of people with hypertension, 50.3% with diabetes, and 25.0% with high cholesterol received pharmacological treatment. Of those treated pharmacologically, 49.4%, 38.1%, and 85.5% reached therapeutic goals for hypertension (blood pressure<150/90 mmHg), diabetes (glycated haemoglobin<7%), and high cholesterol (total cholesterol<6.22 mmol/l), respectively. Conclusions Hypertension, high cholesterol, and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors were common among older people in Stockholm, but pharmacological treatment and control of these major factors can be improved. Appropriate management of cardiometabolic profiles among older people may help improve cardiovascular health and achieve healthy aging. PMID:25799502

Wang, Rui; Fratiglioni, Laura; Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Xu, Weili; Mangialasche, Francesca; Johnell, Kristina; Qiu, Chengxuan



Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.  


Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. CONCLUSIONS THE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT JOINT PHYSICAL CUSTODY IS ASSOCIATED WITH A HIGHER INCLINATION TO USE PARENTS AS A SOURCE OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT AND BETTER SUBJECTIVE HEALTH THAN OTHER POST-DIVORCE FAMILY TYPES: PMID:24662307

Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca



Epidemiology and Natural History of Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and natural history of nephrolithiasis comprise its incidence and prevalence; role of age, gender, and race;\\u000a risk factors, comorbidities, and course. As such, epidemiology verges into clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and\\u000a prognosis. Although it is well known that associations derived from epidemiological studies do not prove causal relationships,\\u000a lessons from epidemiology and natural history have been readily applied

Alan G. Wasserstein


Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders  


... the substances that can cause problems are: automobile emissions, cigarette smoke, pollution from industrial plants, paint thinners and propane gas. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart ...


Angioplasty and stent placement - heart  


... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...


Heart rate variability in ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major untoward events, such as life-threatening arrhythmias and acute coronary events, have been suggested to be triggered by the activation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with coronary artery disease. Analysis of heart rate variability by conventional time and frequency domain methods, as well as by newer methods derived from nonlinear system theory, has offered a novel approach for

Heikki V. Huikuri; Timo H. Mäkikallio



Heart 2: Changing Lifestyles and Heart Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students examine and evaluate changes in diet and lifestyle from prehistoric to modern times and how these differences have spurred the development (and better treatment) of heart disease. They then use their knowledge in a debate between students representing hunter-gatherers and modern students. Students also critically examine their own diets.

Science Netlinks



The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis at a Children’s Hospital Over Seven Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine whether improvements in the care of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have changed\\u000a the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE). A retrospective study of patients 18 years of age and younger treated for\\u000a IE from 1992 to 2004 (era 3) was conducted at the authors’ children’s hospital in New York City. This study was compared with

Lauren B. Rosenthal; Kristina N. Feja; Stéphanie M. Levasseur; Luis R. Alba; Welton Gersony; Lisa Saiman



Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, initiated in June 1987, describes the epidemiology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a recently described novel neurological disease of domestic cattle first identified in Great Britain in November 1986. Records suggested that the earliest suspected cases occurred in April 1985. There was variability in the presenting signs and the disease course, but the majority of cases developed behavioural

JW Wilesmith; GA Wells; MP Cranwell; JB Ryan



Epidemiology of Binge Eating Disorder  

E-print Network

Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become the focus of epidemiologic studies. This article provides a comprehensive review of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined and summarized in the form of a narrative review

Ruth H. Striegel-moore; Debra L. Franko



Veterinary epidemiology in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary epidemiology began in different Latin American countries during the 1960s and the 1970s in different universities and state-run institutes of animal health. The discipline evolved as a continuation of the activities veterinarians carried out in the areas of public health, infectious diseases, biostatistics, and the planning and administration of animal health programs. From the outset, the concepts were oriented

Santiago P. Urcelay



Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till



Huanglongbing Epidemiology: An international perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior to the discovery of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The main issue is the perennial nature of the dise...


Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators and their organizations agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) post excerpts of their grant applications online. The applications in the table below are excellent examples of grantsmanship.


Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.


Unsolved Problems in Genetic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic epidemiology faces six critical issues: its scope, genetic mapping, complex inheritance, population structure, nonmendelian genetics, and the internationalization of genetics. To solve these problems the scope must be broadened to include normal variation, although much of descriptive genetics will be lost to related sciences. Genetic mapping continues to play an essential role for positional cloning and chromosome architecture, which

Newton E. Morton



[Mathematical models and epidemiological analysis].  


The limited use of mathematical simulation in epidemiology is due not only to the difficulty of monitoring the epidemic process and identifying its parameters but also to the application of oversimplified models. It is shown that realistic reproduction of actual morbidity dynamics requires taking into account heterogeneity and finiteness of the population and seasonal character of pathogen transmission mechanism. PMID:21395059

Gerasimov, A N



Epidemiological aspects in food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of international trade in food products has resulted in increased hazards from transboundary foodborne infections and intoxication. Therefore, the development of multinational surveillance and registration of foodborne diseases or food contamination, of both biological and chemical origin, is of utmost importance for their prevention and control. Recognizing the importance of accurate and adequate epidemiological data for decision

Dinko Kello



Infective endocarditis epidemiology and consequences of prophylaxis guidelines modifications: the dialectical evolution.  


Historically, infective endocarditis (IE) affected patients with predisposing cardiac conditions and community-acquired bacteremia. Over the past 30 years, significant changes have occurred, regarding microorganisms, underlying valvular heart diseases, portals of entry, and patients' comorbidities. Given these epidemiological changes and unproven prophylaxis efficacy, experts in most countries currently limit antibiotic indications to patients with high-risk cardiac conditions having oral procedures and, in the UK, recommend discontinuing their use altogether. To date, no epidemiological impact on streptococcal IE incidence has been observed. Policy must now address these epidemiological modifications, focus on community-acquired and health care-associated staphylococcal bacteremia prevention, and prompt the adoption of broader and nonexclusively antibiotic-based strategies. PMID:25233804

Chirouze, C; Hoen, B; Duval, X



[Prospective studies based on biological specimen banks: a new epidemiological generation].  


A new generation of studies is emerging from the recent technical development in the epidemiology of chronic diseases. Prospective investigations on large number of individuals using a biological specimen bank as a support have been designed recently in the major European and North-American research center in epidemiology. The efficiency of this design may guarantee sound information on a number of etiological questions regarding modifiable environmental factors (such as nutrition) and tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Studies on women appear the most efficient use of this design in cardiovascular epidemiology, especially for coronary heart disease. The design, the objectives and the rationale of a study on the etiology of cardiovascular disease in Italian women are described in the present paper. The Progetto ATENA and the women-dedicated section of the Progetto Controllo Comunitario Integrato nel Distretto Sanitario di Sezze are the two components of the investigation. PMID:1492734

Panico, S



About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).


Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello  

E-print Network

Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello Graham Cormode DIMACS and Research #12;2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 92D30 Epidemiology, Secondary 68R01 Discrete, and Ilya Muchnik 1 Descriptive Epidemiology: A Brief Introduction Dona Schneider 41 Biostatistical

Cormode, Graham


EPI Epidemiology College of Public Health  

E-print Network

,retrospectivecohort,nestedcasecontrol,case-cohortandcase-crossoverdesigns.Thecoursewillfocusconsiderableattention on measurement methods and measurement error, borrowing examples from the subfields of epidemiology including occupational, cardiovascular, and social epidemiology. Given current interest on multilevel methods of analysis. Prereq: CPH 605 or consent of instructor. EPI 715 RESEARCH METHODS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND BIOSTATISTICS. (3

MacAdam, Keith



E-print Network

epidemiologic theory and methods. Specifically, this course provides students with the following: (1) advanced understanding of epidemiologic and clinical study designs; (2) knowledge of classical methods of statistical epidemiologic studies (i.e., confounding). In addition, the course will address the use of statistical methods

Contractor, Anis


2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.


Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals  


... and food information, visit Plan heart-healthy meals and snacks Choose heart-healthy protein foods. J Eat fish 2 or ... J Stir-fry vegetables with tofu. Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals American Diabetes ...


Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah



Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart  


... in remission. Previous Section Next Section What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure or cardiomyopathy occurs when the heart ... Section Next Section How to Manage and Treat Heart Failure? Heart failure is a disease that can increase ...


How Is a Heart Murmur Diagnosed?  


... Is a Heart Murmur Diagnosed? Doctors use a stethoscope to listen to heart sounds and hear heart ... your heart or your child's heart with a stethoscope to find out whether a murmur is innocent ...


How Are Holes in the Heart Treated?  


... Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Failure Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Send a ... ventricular septal defects (VSDs) but no symptoms of heart failure . This means regular checkups and tests to see ...


How Is Diabetic Heart Disease Diagnosed?  


... Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiomyopathy Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Heart Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... DHD, which may involve coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure , and/or diabetic cardiomyopathy . Initially, your doctor may ...


Critical appraisal of costly therapy modalities for heart failure in a developing country.  


Contemporaneous challenges in heart failure management include strategies to rationally use health economic resources and relative donor shortage to adequately offer electric devices (cardiac resynchronization therapy [CRT] and implantable cardioverter defibrillators [ICD]), ventricular assist devices (VADs) and heart transplant, respectively. These issues are particularly important in countries with middle-income rates and limited structured heart transplant centers, such as Brazil. Use of CRT and ICDs need to follow strict guidelines, further customized to public financial health conditions. Experience with VADs in is the early days in Brazil and will require extreme caution to allocate health public resources to develop VAD programs in highly selected centers. Chagas' disease is epidemiologically important in Brazil; outcomes of patients with Chagas' on electric devices are unclear while these patients fare better post-transplant than non-Chagas' patients. Thus, heart transplant remains an attractive option regarding both favorable outcomes and resource allocation for advanced heart failure patients in Brazil. PMID:24072512

Chemello, Diego; Goldraich, Livia; Alvarez, Juglans; Beck-da-Silva, Luis; Clausell, Nadine



08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology ( EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology The PhD minor in Epidemiology is designed for individuals from other University of Arizona doctoral degree programs who wish

Arizona, University of


Hepatitis C infection among injection drug users in Stockholm Sweden: prevalence and gender.  


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widespread among injection drug users. Young women seem to be at higher risk of acquiring HCV. To optimize future intervention and prevention measures, we studied the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV), and HCV infection among men and women. Inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional multicentre study were: history of ever injecting drugs, age > 18 y, and no previous HIV diagnosis. In 310 participants, plasma/serum samples were analysed for HBV, HIV and HCV (anti-HCV, HCV-RNA, and HCV genotype). HCV antibodies were noted in 268 (86.5%) participants, of whom 207 (77.0%) also had detectable HCV-RNA. Genotypes 1 and 3 dominated, at 35.9% and 33.0%, respectively. Women acquired HCV (but not HBV) to a significantly higher degree (RR 2.97, 95% confidence interval 1.11-7.93) during the first y of injecting drugs. They also recovered spontaneously from HCV infection more frequently (RR 2.49, 95% CI 1.28-4.53). The HCV prevalence of about 50% within 2 y after initiation of injection drug use underlines the need for early intervention efforts. Possible causes for higher HCV prevalence and the implications of favourable spontaneous recovery rates among women should be considered when designing intervention and prevention measures. PMID:19521924

Lidman, Christer; Norden, Lillebil; Kåberg, Martin; Käll, Kerstin; Franck, Johan; Aleman, Soo; Birk, Markus



HeartTalk-L: Heart Patients Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HeartTalk-L is a discussion list for people with heart disease and their family and friends. HeartTalk-L is an unmoderated mailing list for discussions of all aspects of life affected by heart disease. Any topic concerning heart disease is welcome on this list. Note that this list is meant as a support group and not as a replacement for proper medical attention.


Types of Heart Block  


... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...


Heart Attack Recovery FAQs  


... Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletter Our digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...


Open heart surgery  


... and a camera to perform the surgery. During robot-assisted valve surgery, the surgeon makes two to ... results than traditional surgery methods. You will not need to be on a heart-lung machine for ...


Caffeine and Heart Disease  


... Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness Basics American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, ...


Meditation and Heart Health  


... Heart Health Updated:May 27,2014 Lower stress, cardiovascular disease risk by meditating. Taking a few minutes ... day could help you lower your risks of cardiovascular disease . Meditation is a practice — often using deep ...


Overview of Heart Tumors  


... the heart's muscle cells. Rhabdomyomas commonly develop during infancy or childhood, often as part of a rare ... all are rare. Some are cancerous and some benign. Tumors that originate in some other part of the ...


Heart Diseases and Disorders  


... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...


Heart Health for Women  


... lower your cholesterol . 3. Get the facts about aspirin. Daily use of aspirin to prevent heart attacks or a stroke is ... Ask your healthcare provider if you should use aspirin. If aspirin is right for you, find out: ...


Heart, front view (image)  


... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...


Artificial Heart Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.



Sounds of the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will investigate the sounds of the heart. Learners construct two stethoscopes, one out of paper and another made from vinyl tubing and a plastic bottle, and investigate the workings of valves.



Keeping Hearts Pumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.



Heart bypass surgery  


... Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 60. Morrow DA, Boden WE. Stable ischemic heart disease. In: Bonow ... pub2. Moller CH, Penninga L, Wettersley J, Steinbruchel DA, Gluud C. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary ...


HIV and Your Heart  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More HIV and Your Heart Banner 1 - HIV and Your ... Commercial support for this program was provided by HIV Wellness Checklist People living with HIV have even ...


Apoptosis in heart transplantation.  


Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a mechanism of cell death that plays a major role during development, homeostasis, and in many disease states. The interaction of the cell membrance protein, Fas, with its ligand, Fas ligand, induces apoptosis in Fas-bearing cells. Several factors induce apoptosis in mammalian cardiomyocytes, including reperfusion injury, hypoxia, mechanical stretch, myocardial infarction, rapid ventricular pacing, and hypertensive heart failure. Although studies in the transplanted hearts of rodents and humans have shown the presence of Fas, Fas ligand, and apoptosis in the myocardium, there is controversy regarding which cells in the myocardium are actually undergoing apoptosis after heart transplantation. It is even less clear what type of relationship, if any, apoptosis has to allograft rejection or post-transplant graft coronary vasculopathy. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding apoptosis in the transplanted heart and discusses some of the controversies surrounding this new and rapidly expanding area of investigation. PMID:9457443

Shaddy, R E



Measuring heart beats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple instrument has been constructed to measure heart beats via an earlobe sensor. The pulse rate is determined from a Picoscope trace and pupils may wish to see how this rate changes after modest exertion.

Thompson, Frank



Heart disease - risk factors  


... et al. 2013 AHA/ACC Guidelines on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol . ...


Signs of a Heart Attack  


... It's better to be safe than sorry. Cardiac arrest A heart attack is not the same as cardiac arrest. In a heart attack, the heart does not usually stop beating. During cardiac arrest, the heart totally stops beating. With cardiac arrest, ...


Pumping heart of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The heart is located within our chests and is central to the function of the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The heart also pumps blood to the organs of the body. The rate that the heart beats depends on the needs of the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )



Types of Congenital Heart Defects  


... defects are more complex. They include combinations of simple defects, problems with the location of blood vessels leading to and from the heart, and more serious problems with how the heart develops. Examples of Simple Congenital Heart Defects Holes in the Heart (Septal ...



E-print Network


Müller, Jens-Dominik


Living with Heart Valve Disease  


... Explore Heart Valve Disease What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Mitral Valve Prolapse Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ...


Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

CLIMB: Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering


Processing of the Explanted Heart  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the explanted hearts from heart transplant recipients provides valuable clinical samples, which can be used to study the anatomy and pathology of the heart. PubMed database was employed as the article source of this review. This article summarized the processing methods of the explanted heart, including dissection, histopathologic examination, cryopreservation, and genetic testing. A standard processing of explanted hearts ensures the quality and reliability of samples. Analysis of explanted hearts facilitates the diagnostic assessment and therapy strategy of heart diseases. PMID:25599048

Song, Jiangping; Xing, Yong; Chen, Xiao; Song, Zhizhao; Teng, Xiao; Wang, Mangyuan; Zheng, Zhe; Hu, Shengshou



Troponins in heart failure.  


The signs and symptoms of heart failure are frequently unspecific and correlate poorly with objective indices of cardiac function. Objective assessment of cardiac function by echocardiography or other imaging modalities also correlate poorly with symptomatic status and functional capacity. Accordingly, there is a need for circulating biomarkers that can provide incremental diagnostic and prognostic information to the existing armamentarium of tests. The introduction of more sensitive assays that allow determination of very low circulating concentrations of the myofibrillar proteins cardiac troponin I and T has not only resulted in improved diagnostic accuracy in the setting of acute coronary syndromes. The high sensitivity assays have also shown that cardiac troponins are frequently found chronically circulating in a variety of acute and chronic, cardiac and non-cardiac disease conditions, including acute heart failure and chronic symptomatic and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Cardiac troponin I and T provide may provide clinically useful prognostic information both concerning the future risk of developing heart failure in asymptomatic subjects and the risk of fatal events and hospital admissions in those with already established heart failure This review summarizes current literature on the clinical performance and utility of cardiac troponin measurements as diagnostic and prognostic tools in patients with symptomatic heart failure, as well as in those with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, and clinical phenotypes at high risk for developing heart failure, including stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular hypertrophy, and aortic stenosis. PMID:25151947

Omland, T; Røsjø, H; Giannitsis, E; Agewall, S



Devices in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Congestive heart failure has long been one of the most serious medical conditions in the United States; in fact, in the United States alone, heart failure accounts for 6.5 million days of hospitalization each year. One important goal of heart-failure therapy is to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure through pharmacologic and device-based therapies. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop device-based therapies aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing pump function to meet metabolic requirements. The course of congestive heart failure is often worsened by other conditions, including new-onset arrhythmias, ischemia and infarction, valvulopathy, decompensation, end-organ damage, and therapeutic refractoriness, that have an impact on outcomes. The onset of such conditions is sometimes heralded by subtle pathophysiologic changes, and the timely identification of these changes may promote the use of preventive measures. Consequently, device-based methods could in the future have an important role in the timely identification of the subtle pathophysiologic changes associated with congestive heart failure. PMID:18612451

Munir, Shahzeb M.; Bogaev, Roberta C.; Sobash, Ed; Shankar, K. J.; Gondi, Sreedevi; Stupin, Igor V.; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, M. Alan; Casscells, S. Ward; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Ahmed, Amany



Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L



Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury.  


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death, and in a recent analysis it was found that nearly one-third of all injury-related deaths in the US have at least one diagnosis of TBI (CDC-Quickstats, 2010). This chapter presents the burden of TBI as regards age group, gender, costs, race, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. Injury trends over a 15 year period are examined. Rehabilitation estimates and disability estimates are also available. Through good epidemiology we can better understand the causes of TBI and design more effective intervention programs to reduce injury. Important sources of evidence for this chapter include mostly studies from the US because of their leading work in the epidemiology of this important injury. PMID:25702206

Faul, Mark; Coronado, Victor



[The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].  


We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka



Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R



Ethical Aspects of Epidemiological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two quotes are about values and expectations, about perceived responsibilities, about community benefits and individual\\u000a rights in medical care and research, and reflect thereby compellingly the tensions, the paradoxes, the different views and\\u000a ethical aspects concerning biomedical research (Coughlin 2000). Epidemiology is part of the arena of biomedical research and\\u000a is particularly focussed on determinants of disease occurrences in

Hubert G. Leufkens; Johannes J. M. Delden


Current epidemiology of genitourinary trauma.  


This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. The authors briefly explain databases that have been recently used to study this patient population and then discuss each genitourinary organ individually, utilizing the most relevant and up-to-date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B; Breyer, Benjamin N



Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health  

PubMed Central

In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research. PMID:20581220

Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.



Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.



Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.



Meta-Analysis in Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of meta-analyses in order to synthesise the evidence from epidemiological studies has become more and more popular\\u000a recently. It has been estimated by Egger et al. (1998) that from articles retrieved by MEDLINE with the medical subject heading\\u000a (MeSH) term “meta-analysis” some 33% reported results of a meta-analysis from randomised clinical trials and nearly the same\\u000a proportion (27%)

Maria Blettner; Peter Schlattmann


Contemporary trends in the epidemiology and management of cardiomyopathy and pericarditis in sub?Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Heart failure in sub?Saharan Africans is mainly due to non?ischaemic causes, such as hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The two endemic diseases that are major contributors to the clinical syndrome of heart failure in Africa are cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The major forms of endemic cardiomyopathy are idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, peripartum cardiomyopathy and endomyocardial fibrosis. Endomyocardial fibrosis, which affects children, has the worst prognosis. Other cardiomyopathies have similar epidemiological characteristics to those of other populations in the world. HIV infection is associated with occurrence of HIV?associated cardiomyopathy in patients with advanced immunosuppression, and the rise in the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis. HIV?associated tuberculous pericarditis is characterised by larger pericardial effusion, a greater frequency of myopericarditis, and a higher mortality than in people without AIDS. Population?based studies on the epidemiology of heart failure, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis in Africans, and studies of new interventions to reduce mortality, particularly in endomyocardial fibrosis and tuberculous pericarditis, are needed. PMID:17890693

Mayosi, Bongani M



Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?  

SciTech Connect

The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

Schultz-Hector, Susanne [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail:; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof. [Gray Cancer Institute, Northwood (United Kingdom)



Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease.  


New data on the epidemiology of peripheral artery disease (PAD) are available, and they should be integrated with previous data. We provide an updated, integrated overview of the epidemiology of PAD, a focused literature review was conducted on the epidemiology of PAD. The PAD results were grouped into symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, and incidence both in the United States and globally, risk factors, progression, coprevalence with other atherosclerotic disease, and association with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The most common symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication, but noninvasive measures, such as the ankle-brachial index, show that asymptomatic PAD is several times more common in the population than intermittent claudication. PAD prevalence and incidence are both sharply age-related, rising >10% among patients in their 60s and 70s. With aging of the global population, it seems likely that PAD will be increasingly common in the future. Prevalence seems to be higher among men than women for more severe or symptomatic disease. The major risk factors for PAD are similar to those for coronary and cerebrovascular disease, with some differences in the relative importance of factors. Smoking is a particularly strong risk factor for PAD, as is diabetes mellitus, and several newer risk markers have shown independent associations with PAD. PAD is strongly associated with concomitant coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. After adjustment for known cardiovascular disease risk factors, PAD is associated with an increased risk of incident coronary and cerebrovascular disease morbidity and mortality. PMID:25908725

Criqui, Michael H; Aboyans, Victor



Practical limitations of epidemiologic methods.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic methods can be categorized into demographic studies of mortality and morbidity and observational studies that are either retrospective or prospective. Some of the limitations of demographic studies are illustrated by a review of one specific mortality study showing possible relationship of nuclear fallout to leukemia. Problems of accuracy of diagnosis or causes of death on death certificates, estimates of population, migration from areas of study, and the issue of "ecological fallacy" are discussed. Retrospective studies have such problems as recall of previous environmental exposure, selection bias and survivor bias. In environmental epidemiology, prospective studies have been used. The problems associated with these studies are illustrated by reviewing some of the details of the study of effects of microwave radiation on embassy employees in Moscow. The study population had to be reconstructed, individuals had to be located and information on exposure status had to be obtained by questionnaire. The relatively small size of the exposed group permitted the detection of only fairly large relative risks. Despite these limitations, epidemiologic studies have been remarkably productive in elucidating etiological factors. They are necessary since "the proper study of man is man." PMID:6653534

Lilienfeld, A M



Biological markers in epidemiologic research  

SciTech Connect

This paper identifies some of the issues relevant to the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research. Foremost among these are clarity of definitions and marker classification. Illustrations of markers in the categories of internal dose, biological effective dose, biological response, disease, and susceptibility are presented with a theoretical model for the interrelationship among these. Issues faced by epidemiologists in selecting markers for specific studies concern exposure complexity, marker specificity, marker persistence, time to appearance, and the use of target vs. surrogate biological media. Feasibility issues concern sample collection, transport, storage, and characteristics of the laboratory assay. The rationale for biological markers in epidemiologic research is strong in that markers have the potential for (1.) improving the accuracy of our exposure variables, (2.) permitting the identification of preclinical disease and providing opportunities for prevention, (3.) allowing for more homogeneous and etiologically relevant classifications of disease, and (4.) enhancing our understanding of the biological processes leading to disease occurrence, thereby strengthening the interpretation of epidemiologic data and the theoretical framework from which we formulate research questions.

Hulka, B.S.; Wilcosky, T.



Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit



Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects.  


Onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by Dermatophytes, Candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. The objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in Israel. Data of a cohort of 27 093 patients were collected from six centres during a 2- and 10-year period. The diagnosis was based on microscopy of KOH/calcofluor mounts of nail scrapings and culture isolation. A positive result indicates isolation of a fungus in culture. Data were analysed for each centre and expressed as range for the whole cohort, using the spss v18 software. Analysis included three epidemiologic parameters: fungal aetiology in toe- and fingernails; association with gender; association with age group. Dermatophytes were the major causative agents and Trichophyton rubrum the most frequent isolate. Candida species were more frequent in women fingernails; frequency increased with age and C. parapsilosis the most frequent species. NDMs were isolated at low rate and Aspergillus terreus was the most frequent isolate. This is a first large cohort of onychomycosis patients from Israel analysed by defined epidemiological parameters. PMID:25590832

Segal, Rina; Shemer, Avner; Hochberg, Malca; Keness, Yoram; Shvarzman, Rima; Mandelblat, Marina; Frenkel, Michael; Segal, Esther



Complications in IDDM are caused by elevated blood glucose level: The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) at 10-year follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Blood glucose values close to normal reduce the microvascular complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Stockholm\\u000a study of this effect continued after the initial 7.5-year period in order to see what happened when intensively treated patients\\u000a were left to control their own treatment while treatment was intensified in the control group. Forty-three patients with insulin-dependent\\u000a diabetes randomised to intensified

P. Reichard; M. Pihl; U. Rosenqvist; J. Sule



The Most Important Photograph in the History of Women's Olympic Participation: Jennie Fletcher and the British 4×100 Freestyle relay team at the Stockholm 1912 Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

When Charlotte Cooper, a tennis player, won Britain's first women's gold medal at the Olympic Games in Paris in 1900, she was part of a middle-class amateur tradition. Jennie Fletcher (1890–1968) was a very different sporting hero. She won a bronze medal in the 100m freestyle event (Britain's first individual Olympic female swimming medal) at the Stockholm Games in 1912.

Jean Williams



Validation of Patient Recall of Doctor-diagno sed Heart Attack and Stroke: A Postal Questionnaire and Record Review Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have assessed the accuracy of patient recall of doctor-diagnosed heart attack and stroke on postal questionnaire, yet such data are widely used in epidemiologic studies. In the national prospective British Regional Heart Study of 7,735 men aged 40-59 years, based in general practice and followed up for a mean 13.8 years, a mailed questionnaire was sent to all

Mary K. Walker; Peter H. Whincup; A. Gerald Shaper; Lucy T. Lennon; Andrew G. Thomson


Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.  


In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions. PMID:24406106

McNamara, Donald J



Late Onset of Heart Block After Open Heart Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late onset of complete heart block is a potentially dangerous complication after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease.\\u000a The characteristics of patients with late-onset heart block have not been well described. A retrospective review of a pacemaker\\u000a database was done to identify patients who presented with new onset heart block between 1988 and 2006, after they had been\\u000a discharged

Leonardo Liberman; Robert H. Pass; Allan J. Hordof; Henry M. Spotnitz



Epidemiology’s 350th Anniversary: 1662–2012  

PubMed Central

Between 1600 and 1700, sudden, profound, and multifarious changes occurred in philosophy, science, medicine, politics, and society. In an extremely convulsed century, these profound and convergent upheavals produced the equivalent of a cultural big bang, which opened a new domain of knowledge acquisition based on population thinking and group comparisons. In 1662, when John Graunt applied—for the first time—the new approach to the analysis of causes of death in London, he gave epidemiology a singular date of birth. This was exactly 350 years ago. PMID:23377087

Morabia, Alfredo



[Heart failure and anemia].  


Chronic heart failure has an age-dependent prevalence of 2% and is therefore one of the most frequent diseases in western societies. A reduced hemoglobin concentration according to the definition of the World Health Organization is a common comorbidity affecting more than half of all heart failure patients. Elderly patients, patients suffering from renal impairment and women are more likely to develop anemia but a definitive etiology of anemia is only identified in the minority of cases. Anemia is associated with a poor clinical status and a greater risk of hospitalization and is a predictive factor for increased mortality. The incidence of anemia appears to increase with a poorer functional class. Intravenous iron therapy improves the exercise capacity in patients with systolic heart failure and iron deficiency and is currently being recommended for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal medical and device therapy. However, erythropoietin-stimulating agents as a treatment for anemia in chronic heart failure have failed to improve clinical outcome in a large randomized trial. In patients with heart failure but with maintained ejection fraction, anemia is also associated with a poor prognosis. Specific therapeutic recommendations for these patients are still not available. PMID:23900390

Reda, S; Motloch, L J; Hoppe, U C



[Cilia and heart morphogenesis].  


After the seminal discovery in 2000 that primary cilia are functional organelles which are essential for embryonic development, several mouse models of ciliopathies have been generated. The heart is frequently affected, with a large spectrum of malformations. The cilia of the node are required early in development in the determination of the left/right laterality of the embryo, which has secondary consequences on the formation of the heart. Thus, abnormal looping of the heart is a recurrent phenotype in models of ciliopathies. However, the function of primary cilia in cardiac cells remains poorly understood. Receptors such as polycystins or hedgehog receptors are usually localized in the primary cilium, raising the possibility that these signalling pathways, which are important for the septation and the growth of the heart, are transduced in primary cilia of cardiac cells. Knowledge of the roles of primary cilia at different steps of heart development and in different cardiac cell types will be essential to better understand the origin of human cardiopathies associated with ciliopathies. PMID:25388582

Diguet, Nicolas; Meilhac, Sigolène M