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Sample records for stockholm heart epidemiology

  1. Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case-control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Moller, J.; Theorell, T.; de Faire, U.; Ahlbom, A.; Hallqvist, J.

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: Recent changes in labour market conditions and in the organisation of work in developed societies have increased exposure to work related stress. The question is whether this also implies an increased risk of myocardial infarction, either through the triggering effect of acute stress, or through accumulation of stress over several months. Design: A case-control and a case-crossover study design was applied. Setting: The Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP), in Stockholm County during 1992 to 1994. Participants: Patients with a first episode of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, a total of 1381 men and women, responded to questionnaires and participated in interviews and health examinations. Main results: The case-crossover analysis showed triggering effects of sudden, short term situations of increased work load or work competition. Having "had a high pressure deadline at work" entailed a sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction (OR = 6.0 95% CI (1.8 to 20.4)) during the next 24 hours. The importance of work related life events as risk factors for myocardial infarction was supported by the case-control analysis. However, no support was found for the hypothesis that an accumulation of stressful life events over a period of 12 months increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Specific work related stressful life events seem to be potential triggers of the onset of myocardial infarction. PMID:15598722

  2. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  3. Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

  4. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  5. INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY dynamical coupling in the middle atmosphere" in this biennial report. #12;INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM (IMI) AND DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY (MISU) BIENNIAL REPORT 1

  6. INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Corporation). #12;INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM (IMI) AND DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY of Meteorology Stockholm University S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden Telephone Int. +46-8-16 23 95 Nat. 08-16 23 95

  7. Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with increasing age, it has been extensively debated whether the observed associations could be entirely explained by a common association with age. Furthermore, the etiologies of the visible aging signs are rarely fully understood, and pathophysiological explanations for these associations remain controversial, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs to (i) review the etiology, (ii) to discuss the current epidemiological evidence for an association with risk of ischemic heart disease, and (iii) to present possible pathophysiological explanations for these associations. Finally this review discusses the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:26590331

  8. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  9. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Diseases: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  10. INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY/MISU in the Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) projekt. #12;INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM (IMI) AND DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY (MISU) BIENNIAL REPORT 1 JANUARY 2005 ­ 31 DECEMBER 2006

  11. INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY in support of the ASCOS field program in 2008. #12;INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM (IMI) AND DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY (MISU) BIENNIAL REPORT 1 JANUARY 2007 ­ 31 DECEMBER 2008

  12. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Triant, Virginia A

    2014-01-01

    As a growing number of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have access to antiretroviral therapy and achieve virologic suppression, the focus of clinical care is shifting from treating the infectious complications of advanced immunodeficiency to managing and preventing chronic disease. The aging of the HIV-positive population and increased rates of chronic disease complications in the setting of HIV infection have increased the impact of noncommunicable diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD). The effect of HIV on CHD is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and antiretroviral medications and is likely due in part to the chronic inflammation and immune activation underlying HIV infection. This article describes the current state of epidemiologic knowledge on CHD in HIV infection. It highlights key studies in the field and summarizes epidemiologic data with respect to traditional and novel CHD risk factors, specialized clinical subgroups, and broader cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:24987859

  13. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, it has evolved over the years with staggering expanded breadth and depth that have far greater implications in the study of the epidemiology of a wide spectrum of human diseases. The FHS welcomes research collaborations using existing or new collection of data. Detailed information regarding the procedures for research application submission and review are available at [http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/researchers/index.php]. PMID:26705418

  14. Impact of diabetes on epidemiology, treatment, and outcomes of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dei Cas, Alessandra; Khan, Sadiya S; Butler, Javed; Mentz, Robert J; Bonow, Robert O; Avogaro, Angelo; Tschoepe, Diethelm; Doehner, Wolfram; Greene, Stephen J; Senni, Michele; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of patients with concomitant heart failure (HF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to increase with the general aging of the population. In patients with chronic HF, prevalence of DM is 24% compared with 40% in those hospitalized with worsening HF. Patients with concomitant HF and DM have diverse pathophysiologic, metabolic, and neurohormonal abnormalities that potentially contribute to worse outcomes than those without comorbid DM. In addition, although stable HF outpatients with DM show responses that are similar to those of patients without DM undergoing evidence-based therapies, it is unclear whether hospitalized HF patients with DM will respond similarly to novel investigational therapies. These data support the need to re-evaluate the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of HF patients with concomitant DM. This paper discusses the role of DM in HF patients and underscores the potential need for the development of targeted therapies. PMID:25660838

  15. Epidemiology and Management of Depression Following Coronary Heart Disease Diagnosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Siqin; Denton, Ellen-ge; Wasson, Lauren T

    2012-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) and depression are both highly prevalent in women. Importantly, depression is associated with significantly elevated morbidity and mortality in women with CHD. There are intriguing speculations about biological mechanisms underlying this association, such as endothelial dysfunction, subclinical atherosclerosis, inflammation, and autonomic dysregulation. Social and behavioral mechanisms, such as lack of social support and physical inactivity, have also been shown to play important roles. Unfortunately, many randomized clinical trials of counseling and pharmacologic interventions for depression in patients with CHD have failed to improve cardiovascular outcomes, and in fact have raised the possibility that interventions might be harmful in women. Several recent trials of new treatment strategies, however, have been more effective in improving depressive symptoms and quality of life and deserve further investigation. In this review, we summarize recent findings with regards to the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of depression in women diagnosed with CHD. PMID:23125883

  16. Networks in Coronary Heart Disease Genetics As a Step towards Systems Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Drenos, Fotios; Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo; Humphries, Steve E.

    2015-01-01

    We present the use of innovative machine learning techniques in the understanding of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) through intermediate traits, as an example of the use of this class of methods as a first step towards a systems epidemiology approach of complex diseases genetics. Using a sample of 252 middle-aged men, of which 102 had a CHD event in 10 years follow-up, we applied machine learning algorithms for the selection of CHD intermediate phenotypes, established markers, risk factors, and their previously associated genetic polymorphisms, and constructed a map of relationships between the selected variables. Of the 52 variables considered, 42 were retained after selection of the most informative variables for CHD. The constructed map suggests that most selected variables were related to CHD in a context dependent manner while only a small number of variables were related to a specific outcome. We also observed that loss of complexity in the network was linked to a future CHD event. We propose that novel, non-linear, and integrative epidemiological approaches are required to combine all available information, in order to truly translate the new advances in medical sciences to gains in preventive measures and patients care. PMID:25951190

  17. Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

  18. STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Brandenburg, Axel

    STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology Posted at: Stockholm University 2013-04-02 Refnr: SU FV-4.2.3-xxxx-14 Administrator: Cecilia Törnqvist Stockholm University Department of MeteorologyD student position in XX at the Department of Meteorology Ref.nr SU FV-XXXX-14. Application deadline: 2014

  19. The Hearts of Heroes: the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew T; Boos, C J; Sharma, S

    2015-09-01

    When the general public look from the outside at the armed services, their impression is often one of earnest young men and women who are the pinnacle of physical fitness and health, and put their lives on the line for their country. There is usually sadness and respect for those killed on active operations, having put themselves in harm's way. Therefore, when the public discover that more than 1 in 10 deaths in the UK Armed Forces are due to cardiovascular disease, the air of sadness is invariably replaced with surprise and disbelief. These figures, while lower than those due to deaths in accidents, are approaching the numbers of those due to suicide in the armed services; yet deaths from cardiac disease are barely recognised by society, in spite of many of them being avoidable. This article reviews the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. It outlines current understanding and gaps in the knowledge regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease in the military population. The particular demographics of the Armed Forces and its influence on cardiac disease burden are discussed. The role of inherited and congenital diseases in younger servicemen and women is highlighted, as is the trend that with increasing age, the burden of disease shifts to ischaemic heart disease, which becomes the dominant cause of both death and disability. PMID:26243808

  20. Epidemiology of rheumatic heart disease in black shcoolchildren of Soweto, Johannesburg.

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, M J; Hawkins, D M; Koornhof, H J; Bloom, K R; Bramwell-Jones, D M; Cohen, E; Gale, G E; Kanarek, K; Lachman, A S; Lakier, J B; Pocock, W A; Barlow, J B

    1975-01-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (R.H.D.) in Black children was conducted in the creeches and primary schools of the South Western Townships of Johannesburg (Soweto). A total of 12 050 Black children were examined by 10 cardiologists in May to October 1972. The overal prevalence rate of R.H.D. was 6.9 per 1000, with a peak rate of 19.2 per 1000 in children of the seventh school grade. The maximal age incidence was 15-18 years and there was a female preponderance of 1 6:1. A rise in prevalence occurred with increasing family size. Most children (92%) were asymptomatic, and in 82.5% R.H.D. was diagnosed for the first time during the school survey. The commonest valve lesion was mitral regurgitation, which was present in 93% and occurred as an isolated lesion in 47.5%. Lancefield's group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus was isolated from the throats of 52 per 1000 Soweto children. The auscultatory features of a non-ejection systolic click and late systolic murmur were prevalent (13.9 per 1000) and had several epidemiological factors in common with R.H.D. A comprehensive preventative campaign is urgently needed in South Africa, directed at both primary and secondary prophylaxis of R.H.D. The socioeconomic status of the community must be improved if optimal prevention is to be achieved. PMID:1156827

  1. Progress in Stockholm talks

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-02-01

    Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

  2. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example René de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Székely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which reflects the position of psychoanalysis outside the mainstream of psychiatric health services and academic psychology. Despite the criticism of Freud's thinking from biologically and cognitively oriented theoretical standpoints, the interest in psychoanalysis endures. PMID:25917651

  3. High-density lipoproteins in the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. Part I. Epidemiological and family studies.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M

    1978-10-21

    It has recently been proposed that the concentration of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma bears a negative relationship to the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease. The biological and environmental factors affecting plasma HDL levels and the evidence pertaining to the proposed 'negative risk potential' of this lipoprotein are reviewed. HDL concentrations are low at birth, but rise rapidly in early infancy to adult or above-normal adult levels. This trend is influenced by biological factors such as sex and ethnicity and by a host of environmental variables. Despite methodological inadequacies in some studies, the epidemiological evidence consistently reflects an inverse relationship between the level of HDL in the plasma and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Investigations on families suffering from genetic dyslipoproteinaemias, characterized by reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) relative to HDL, suggest that the LDL:HDL ratio is itself an important determinant of atherosclerotic heart disease. The practical application of this information is limited by the lack of reliable reference ranges in various population groups and the absence of quantitative data regarding the 'negative risk potential' of any given concentration of plasma HDL in the presence of other positive and negative risk factors. PMID:217108

  4. Stockholm sidesteps population issue.

    PubMed

    1972-08-01

    Population policies were discussed during a U.N. Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972. Although it was acknowledged that people in developed countries have a much more detrimental impact on the environment due to their high levels of consumption, various positions were taken on the importance of family planning in developing countries. Both the Chinese delegate and Indira Ghandi of India remarked that one cannot blame overpopulation for ecological problems. Other speakers agreed that technology would solve ecological problems and that population growth rates would take care of themselves when development occurred. Other speakers, such as Dr. Paul Ehrlich believe that worldwide stabilization of population is necessary to maintain life-support systems of this planet. The majority of delegates to the Conference did not consider the reduction of population growth to be a priority, although it was recommended that national governments develop population policies, and that WHO give increased support to family planning activities. It was also recommended that adequate attention be given to the relationship between population and environment at the World Population Conference in 1974. PMID:12256547

  5. BIENNIAL REPORT 2003 2004 INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    BIENNIAL REPORT 2003 ­ 2004 INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY #12;FRONT COVER | Picture of Odin, courtesy of Swedish Space Corporation. #12;INTERNATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN STOCKHOLM (IMI) AND DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY, STOCKHOLM

  6. Clinical and Epidemiological Investigation of TCM Syndromes of Patients with Coronary Heart Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Zhang, Minzhou; Chen, Keji; You, Shijie; Li, Jianjun; Guo, Liheng; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    To compare the regional differences in TCM syndromes of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) between North and South China. A total of 624 patients with a diagnosis of CHD, confirmed by coronary angiography, were included in the comparative analysis to determine the occurrence pattern, characteristics of TCM syndrome distribution, and differences in syndrome combinations and major syndrome types (deficiency or excess) between North and South China. The incidence of CHD tended to be higher in North China (54.6%) compared with that in South China (45.4%). The proportions of patients with a qi-deficiency syndrome (83.7%), turbid phlegm syndrome (68.9%), or blood stasis syndrome (91.5%) were generally higher in the South group, while the proportion of patients with a cold congelation syndrome (7.9%) was identified to be obviously higher in the North group (P < 0.01). Moreover, compared with that in the South group, the overall frequency of syndrome combinations tended to be lower in the North group (P < 0.01); and the most common types of TCM syndrome were excess syndrome (193, 56.6%) and primary deficiency and secondary excess syndrome (244, 86.2%) in the North and South groups, respectively (P < 0.01). A regional difference does exist in the TCM syndromes of patients with CHD between North and South China, indicating that the prevention and treatment of CHD in South China should not only focus on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, but also include supplementing qi and eliminating phlegm. PMID:22536290

  7. Study at Stockholm University Handbook for

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Euler- Chelpin (1929) was awarded the prize for his research on sugar breakdown in the yeast process University College, which in 1960 became Stockholm University. Tomas Tran- strömer studied literature history and poetics, the history of religion, and psychology at Stockholm University. #12;Handbook for International

  8. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA. CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN JAPAN AND HAWAII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...

  10. Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

  11. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  12. ISMB/ECCB 2009 Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Sagot, Marie-France; McKay, B.J. Morrison; Myers, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org) presents the Seventeenth Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), organized jointly with the Eighth Annual European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB; http://bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/conferences/eccb/eccb.htm), in Stockholm, Sweden, 27 June to 2 July 2009. The organizers are putting the finishing touches on the year's premier computational biology conference, with an expected attendance of 1400 computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, biologists and scientists from other disciplines related to and reliant on this multi-disciplinary science. ISMB/ECCB 2009 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2009/) follows the framework introduced at the ISMB/ECCB 2007 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2007/) in Vienna, and further refined at the ISMB 2008 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2008/) in Toronto; a framework developed to specifically encourage increased participation from often under-represented disciplines at conferences on computational biology. During the main ISMB conference dates of 29 June to 2 July, keynote talks from highly regarded scientists, including ISCB Award winners, are the featured presentations that bring all attendees together twice a day. The remainder of each day offers a carefully balanced selection of parallel sessions to choose from: proceedings papers, special sessions on emerging topics, highlights of the past year's published research, special interest group meetings, technology demonstrations, workshops and several unique sessions of value to the broad audience of students, faculty and industry researchers. Several hundred posters displayed for the duration of the conference has become a standard of the ISMB and ECCB conference series, and an extensive commercial exhibition showcases the latest bioinformatics publications, software, hardware and services available on the market today. The main conference is preceded by 2 days of Special Interest Group (SIG) and Satellite meetings running in parallel to the fifth Student Council Symposium on 27 June, and in parallel to Tutorials on 28 June. All scientific sessions take place at the Stockholmsmässan/Stockholm International Fairs conference and exposition facility. Contact: bj@iscb.org PMID:19447790

  13. A Robust e-Epidemiology Tool in Phenotyping Heart Failure with Differentiation for Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carrell, David S; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Larson, Nicholas B; Liu, Hongfang; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wells, Quinn S; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pacheco, Jennifer Allen; Jackson, Kathryn L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gullerud, Rachel E; Decker, Paul A; Pereira, Naveen L; Ryu, Euijung; Dart, Richard A; Peissig, Peggy; Linneman, James G; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; Bock, Jonathan A; Tromp, Gerard C; de Andrade, Mariza; Roger, Véronique L

    2015-11-01

    Identifying populations of heart failure (HF) patients is paramount to research efforts aimed at developing strategies to effectively reduce the burden of this disease. The use of electronic medical record (EMR) data for this purpose is challenging given the syndromic nature of HF and the need to distinguish HF with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Using a gold standard cohort of manually abstracted cases, an EMR-driven phenotype algorithm based on structured and unstructured data was developed to identify all the cases. The resulting algorithm was executed in two cohorts from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network with a positive predictive value of >95 %. The algorithm was expanded to include three hierarchical definitions of HF (i.e., definite, probable, possible) based on the degree of confidence of the classification to capture HF cases in a whole population whereby increasing the algorithm utility for use in e-Epidemiologic research. PMID:26195183

  14. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P<0.01). The youngest m...

  15. Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block – A Moroccan center-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p < 0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block. PMID:25544816

  16. Stockholms universitet www.su.se Telefon: 08-16 20 00 106 91 STOCKHOLM

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Description -Work with PhD students as well as research staff to achieve the project goals. -Design: As soon as posible. Stockholm University strives to be a workplace free from discrimination and gives

  17. Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:27 E D O A R D O PA O N E OSSIE-Embedded and Software Communication Architecture OSSIE and SCA Waveform Development Edoardo Paone 15 February 2010 to worry about hardware details. This thesis project uses OSSIE, an open source SCA implementation

  18. Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:28 M U H A M M A D S A R W A R J of Information and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockhom, Sweden Supervisor by the escrow agent. After decryption we examined the ability of a bad cop to modify or forge data packets

  19. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  20. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  1. Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010

    E-print Network

    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

    Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:1 M D. S A K H A W AT H O S S E N of Technology (KTH) Stockhom,Sweden Supervisor and Examiner: Professor Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. #12;Abstract Voice(s)) can misuse the key(s) to forge content of a communication session -- as he or she possesses the same

  2. Sequence Analysis of Six Blood Pressure Candidate Regions in 4,178 Individuals: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehret, Georg B.; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes – ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3 – were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods and Results Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (?50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF?1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF?=?0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P?=?0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P?=?0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF?=?0.007, P?=?0.0006) and was not in LD (r2?=?0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF?=?0.27, P?=?0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r2?=?0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures. Conclusion Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample. PMID:25275628

  3. Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

  4. Handbook for International and Exchange Students Study at Stockholm University

    E-print Network

    Bender, Frida A-M.

    University! Stockholm University is one of Sweden's largest institutions of higher education with more than higher education institutions, offering education and research within the humanities, law, science, social sciences and teacher training. Education and research at Stockholm University make a difference

  5. Handbook for International and Exchange Students Study at Stockholm University

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    University! Stockholm University is one of Sweden's largest institutions of higher education with more than higher education institutions, offering education and research within the humanities, law, science, social sciences and teacher training. Since 1878, Stockholm University has been characterised by openness

  6. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  7. The Stockholm electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Engström, Å.; Björkhage, M.

    1993-03-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring - CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Institute, and for low energy atomic physics experiments. It will also provide highly charged ions for the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap scheduled for installation at MSI in early 1993. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe49+ using electron beam currents of typically Ie = 200-300 mA and current density je = 100-200 A/cm2. Continuous electron beams of energy E = 19 keV and current Ie = 600 mA have been propagated through the source with transmission greater than 99.9%. Test beams of He2+ and N7+ extracted from the source in 50-100 ?s pulses have been injected into CRYRING with the entire CRYSIS platform raised to 20 kV. Ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ extracted in extended 50-100 ms pulses have been used in coincidence-type atomic physics experiments. The status of CRYSIS as of March 15, 1992 is reported. Improvements, modes of operation, and results are discussed.

  8. Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  9. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  10. Heart Murmurs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Murmurs KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Heart & Lungs > Heart Murmurs ... close, your heart goes "dub." What Is a Heart Murmur? A heart murmur is a whooshing sound between ...

  11. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

  12. The International Meteorological Institute at Stockholm University is announcing the

    E-print Network

    Nilsson, Johan

    The International Meteorological Institute at Stockholm University is announcing the Rossby, or paloeclimatology. Based at the department of Meteorology, the research environment now also encompasses the Bolin departments across the campus. The International Meteorological Institute (IMI) was initiated by the renowned

  13. Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa

    The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

  14. Hardness of Approximation Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

    E-print Network

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    Hardness of Approximation Viggo Kann Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm Alessandro Panconesi Freie Universit¨at, Berlin Contents 1. Books and surveys 1.1. Books 1.2. Surveys and lecture notes 2, a notion that can be defined in a technology independent manner by means of Turing machines or other

  15. Division of Epidemiology,

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research Eunice Kennedy Shriver National................................................................................................... 17 EPIDEMIOLOGY BRANCH (EB................................................................................................................... 18 REPRODUCTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH

  16. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  17. Marginal Structural Models in Occupational Epidemiology: Application in a Study of Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence and PM2.5 in the US Aluminum Industry

    PubMed Central

    Neophytou, Andreas M.; Costello, Sadie; Brown, Daniel M.; Picciotto, Sally; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Cullen, Mark R.; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) and inverse probability weighting can be used to estimate risk in a cohort of active workers if there is a time-varying confounder (e.g., health status) affected by prior exposure—a feature of the healthy worker survivor effect. We applied Cox MSMs in a study of incident ischemic heart disease and exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 ?m or less (PM2.5) in a cohort of 12,949 actively employed aluminum workers in the United States. The cohort was stratified by work process into workers in smelting facilities, herein referred to as “smelters” and workers in fabrication facilities, herein referred to as “fabricators.” The outcome was assessed by using medical claims data from 1998 to 2012. A composite risk score based on insurance claims was treated as a time-varying measure of health status. Binary PM2.5 exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cutoff for each work process. Health status was associated with past exposure and predicted the outcome and subsequent exposure in smelters but not in fabricators. In smelters, the Cox MSM hazard ratio comparing those always exposed above the cutoff with those always exposed below the cutoff was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.32). In fabricators, the hazard ratio from a traditional Cox model was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.83). Results suggest that occupational PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of incident ischemic heart disease in workers in both aluminum smelting and fabrication facilities. PMID:25125691

  18. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Truth National Awareness Campaign for Women about Heart Disease National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) National Cholesterol Education Program National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  19. Sequence Variation in TMEM18 in Association with Body Mass Index: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Young, Kristin L.; Brody, Jennifer; Olden, Matthias; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Li, Guo; Morrison, Alanna C.; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Shao, Yaming; Zhou, Yanhua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Geraldo; Wagenknecht, Lynne; McKnight, Barbara; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) previously identified a locus near TMEM18. We conducted targeted sequencing of this region to investigate the role of common, low frequency, and rare variation influencing BMI. Methods and Results We sequenced TMEM18 and regions downstream of TMEM18 on chromosome 2 in 3976 individuals of European ancestry from three community-based cohorts (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study and Framingham Heart Study), including 200 adults selected for high BMI. We examined the association between BMI and variants identified in the region from nucleotide position 586,432 to 677,539 (hg18). Rare variants (MAF <1%) were analyzed using a burden test and the Sequence Kernel of Association Test (SKAT). Results from the three cohort studies were meta-analyzed. We estimate that mean BMI is 0.43 kg/m2 higher for each copy of the G allele of SNP rs7596758 (MAF=29%, p=3.46 × 10?4) using a Bonferroni threshold of p <4.6 × 10?4). Analyses conditional on previous GWAS SNPs associated with BMI in the region led to attenuation of this signal and uncovered another independent (r2<0.2), statistically significant association, rs186019316 (p=2.11 × 10?4). Both rs186019316 and rs7596758 or proxies are located in transcription factor binding regions. No significant association with rare variants was found in either the exons of TMEM18 or the 3’ GWAS region. Conclusions Targeted sequencing around TMEM18 identified two novel BMI variants with possible regulatory function. PMID:24951660

  20. Environmental Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

  2. Heart Murmur

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Murmur? A heart murmur is an extra or unusual sound heard during ... the heart. Doctors can hear these sounds and heart murmurs using a stethoscope. Overview The two types of ...

  3. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  4. Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 1 Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 2

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 1 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 2 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 3 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 4 #12;Proc 3rd

  5. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

  6. Reciprocity and communication of partner quality Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden (olof.leimar@zool.su.se)

    E-print Network

    Leimar, Olof

    strategy, referred to as `state-dependent reciprocity', entailing communication of partner qualityReciprocity and communication of partner quality O. LEIMAR Department of Zoology, Stockholm. Thus, regulation of a relationship through communication of partner quality would tend to follow

  7. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  8. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  9. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Attack What is a Heart Attack? Blood Flow to the Heart Is Blocked Click ... all blood supply to the heart, and a heart attack results. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, ...

  10. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  11. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the ... it may cause severe or long-lasting problems. Heart With Muscle Damage and a Blocked Artery Figure ...

  12. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePLUS

    Normally the heart beats 60 - 100 times per minute. The rate may drop below 60 beats per minute in people who exercise routinely or take medicines that slow the heart. If your heart rate is fast (over 100 beats per ...

  13. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Heart Failure Overview What is heart failure? Despite the way it sounds, the term "heart failure" simply means ... you were born with) Diabetes Thyroid problems Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor know if I have ...

  14. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  15. Inversion of Seabed Parameters in the Stockholm Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, L.; Andersson, B. L.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply acoustic inversion to a bay in the Stockholm archipelago with strong variations of the bottom both vertically and horizontally. The inversions were based on measurements undertaken in May 2001 of transmission loss over a 2.5 km long track. The bottom parameters were estimated by minimizing the difference between simulated and measured data. The parabolic wave equation was used as a wave propagation model and the inversions were carried out by a genetic algorithm. They resulted in a relatively good fit. The inverted bottom parameters were also evaluated by model predictions against a control data set of other frequencies than those of the inversion. The agreement between the estimated and measured parameters was good.

  16. Status report on the Stockholm cryogenic electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeby, L.; Engström, È.¦.

    1989-06-01

    The EBIS project in stockholm started as a collaboration between MSI and IPN in Orsay, France. Two almost identical cryogenic EBIS sources were constructed at IPN: CRYEBIS II for IPN and CRYSIS for MSI. The main difference between the two sources was that CRYEBIS II was equipped with a 50 keV electron gun as compared to 10 keV for CRYSIS. Both sources were planned to be dedicated to atomic physics experiments but during the construction plans to use CRYSIS as an injector for a storage ring evolved. Both source were completed in the beginning of 1984 and after initial tests, CRYSIS was moved to MSI in December 1984 and installed in a temporary laboratory.

  17. STRONG HEART STUDY DATA BOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. Examination on the prevalence of major risk factors of CVD in American Indian men and women ages 45-74 in the American Indian communities from the three centers that participate in the Strong Heart Study.

  18. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  19. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  20. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  1. Epidemiology chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics. PMID:20850689

  2. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  3. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  4. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  5. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  6. Heart transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are put into a deep sleep with general anesthesia , and a cut is made through the breastbone. Your blood flows through a heart-lung bypass machine while the surgeon works on your heart. This machine does the work ...

  7. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 ounce. Most pacemakers have 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...

  8. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  9. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a heart attack? A heart attack (also called myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome) is when part of ... USA, LLC SourceAssessment and Treatment of Depression Following Myocardial Infarction by TP Guck, PH.D., MG Kavan, PH. ...

  10. Urgent need to reorganize heart failure management: from paradoxes to heart failure clinics.

    PubMed

    De Keulenaer, Gilles W; Brutsaert, Dirk L

    2005-04-01

    Despite the decreasing incidence of ischaemic heart disease and despite major medical advances in heart failure, the prevalence and mortality of chronic heart failure in the population is rising and the prognosis remains grim. Chronic heart failure is a complex disease, which is characterized by its progressive nature. In this paper, we approach the complexity of heart failure from four paradoxes: epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and economical impact respectively. Taking these paradoxes into account, we formulate a number of essential components of alternative heart failure management programmes. Combating chronic heart failure requires the organization of centres for continuous care--as opposed to the traditional crisis intervention centres--preferably with a multidisciplinary structure to provide a "holistic approach" adapted to each patient's unique set of medical, psychosocial, physical and financial conditions. Patients taken care of in these novel multidisciplinary heart failure clinics have shown improved clinical status, decreased hospitalization rates, increased quality of life, longer life and lower costs. PMID:15887474

  11. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  12. During Menopause, 'Good' Cholesterol May Lose Protective Effect on Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trouble. "This was surprising," said lead researcher Samar El Khoudary, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the ... good cholesterol does help protect against heart disease, El Khoudary said. But during menopause, HDL cholesterol seems ...

  13. AlbaNova & NORDITA Colloquium, Stockholm , 14 April, 2011 Swedish Institute of Space Physics, IRF, Uppsala, Sweden

    E-print Network

    AlbaNova & NORDITA Colloquium, Stockholm , 14 April, 2011 Bo Thidé Swedish Institute of SpaceNova & NORDITA Colloquium, Stockholm, 14 April, 2011 Fork holograms are an example of such devices. If the hologram presents N bifurcations, then at the m-th diffraction order it imposes a OAM value equal to N m

  14. Political participation in Asia: Defining and deploying political space Stockholm University, Sweden, 22-24 November 2015

    E-print Network

    1 (3) Political participation in Asia: Defining and deploying political space Stockholm University.45-12.30 SESSION 1: Geography of protests and spaces of resistance Chair: Johan Lagerkvist, Stockholm University and Autonomy among Indigenous Peoples in Sagada, Philippines Elisabeth Olivius, Umeå University Political Space

  15. What Causes Heart Murmurs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Murmurs? Innocent Heart Murmurs Why some people have innocent heart murmurs ... that occur in pregnant women are innocent. Abnormal Heart Murmurs Congenital heart defects or acquired heart valve ...

  16. the heart truth What is heart Disease?

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    the heart truth® for Women What is heart Disease? Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of heart disease. Usually referred to simply as "heart disease," it is a disorder of the blood't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die. Another type of heart disease is coronary

  17. 1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Spatial Analysis of Phytophthora infestans Genotypes and Late in epidemiologically important features such as metalaxyl sensitivity and aggressiveness to tomato and potato had at the scale of an agricultural region. These technolo- gies, geographic information systems (GIS

  18. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  19. Heart River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  20. Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Heart Health Just like an engine makes a car go, ... or higher means you are at risk for heart disease, as well as diabetes and other health conditions. Following a healthy eating plan and being ...

  1. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  2. Obesity and heart failure.

    PubMed

    De Pergola, Giovanni; Nardecchia, Adele; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Triggiani, Vincenzo; Guastamacchia, Edoardo; Minischetti, Manuela Castiglione; Silvestris, Franco

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have recently shown that obesity, and abdominal obesity in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure (HF). Higher cardiac oxidative stress is the early stage of heart dysfunction due to obesity, and it is the result of insulin resistance, altered fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis. Extense myocyte hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis are early microscopic changes in patients with HF, whereas circumferential strain during the left ventricular (LV) systole, LV increase in both chamber size and wall thickness (LV hypertrophy), and LV dilatation are the early macroscopic and functional alterations in obese developing heart failure. LV hypertrophy leads to diastolic dysfunction and subendocardial ischemia in obesity, and pericardial fat has been shown to be significantly associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Evolving abnormalities of diastolic dysfunction may include progressive hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction, and various degrees of eccentric and/or concentric LV hypertrophy may be present with time. Once HF is established, overweight and obese have a better prognosis than do their lean counterparts with the same level of cardiovascular disease, and this phenomenon is called "obesity paradox". It is mainly due to lower muscle protein degradation, brain natriuretic peptide circulating levels and cardio-respiratory fitness than normal weight patients with HF. PMID:23369137

  3. Bullying in Context: An Analysis of Psychosomatic Complaints among Adolescents in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as…

  4. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school…

  5. Opportunities and Challenges for Building Alumni Networks in Sweden: A Case Study of Stockholm University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Karin; Axelsson, Leona; Harbor, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Because of the potential value of alumni involvement for student success, for connections to society and as a base for future philanthropy, there is growing interest in developing university alumni relations programmes in countries that do not have a long tradition in this area. This case study of Stockholm University describes the goals,…

  6. Heart failure and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer's disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  7. Heart failure with normal ejection fraction: a growing pandemic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Frenneaux, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Heart failure is a heterogeneous syndrome. Approximately 30-50% of patients with heart failure have normal or near normal left ventricle function. Several epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of heart failure with normal ejection fraction is increasing. Given the current trends, heart failure with normal ejection fraction will become the most common form of heart failure, for which we do not currently have an evidence-based successful treatment. This article summarizes the etiology, current recommended guidelines and management options for this clinical manifestation. PMID:22642630

  8. Heart failure - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

  9. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePLUS

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  10. Leech Heart

    E-print Network

    ... skin and other organs in that particular ganglion (these processes form the roots) .... The cycle period or time period (T) is calculated as the interval between the ... interneuron and the coordinating heart interneuron as well the improvements ...

  11. Hearts Wish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics and themes in 102 drawings by sexually abused children. Themes of the drawings included genitalia, the absence of specific body parts, phallic symbols, inappropriate smiles, distorted body images, kinetic activity, prominent hands and fingers, and hearts. (RJC)

  12. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip to Content $250 $100 $60 $40 American Heart Association Learn and Live Local Info Languages Careers Volunteer Donate Search Get Your Local Info Find out what is happening at your local American ...

  13. CHS Graduate Student Competencies &Requirements in Epidemiology Revised Epidemiology Competencies June 2015--Page 1 of 6

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    CHS Graduate Student Competencies &Requirements in Epidemiology Revised Epidemiology Competencies June 2015-- Page 1 of 6 Specialization Requirements MSc Epidemiology PhD Epidemiology MSc Healthcare Epidemiology MSc Clinical Epidemiology Description Epidemiology is the study of the distribution of diseases

  14. Prevalence, incidence, mortality and co-morbidities amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Stockholm County, Sweden - the Greater Stockholm HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Amadou; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to study the prevalence and incidence of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the general population in Stockholm, Sweden. We also aimed to study mortality among individuals with HIV and to explore co-morbidities. The study population included all living persons who resided in Stockholm County, Sweden, as of 31 December 2012 (N = 2,212,435). Information on all consultations between 2007 and 2012 was obtained from primary health care, specialist outpatient care and inpatient care. Analyses were done by age and gender. All patients with a recorded diagnosis of HIV were included. The prevalence of HIV was calculated using 2012 data. The prevalence of HIV in Stockholm area as per end of December 2012 was as low as 0.1% in females and 0.2% in males, and the annual incidence of HIV continued to decline over the years. In recent years, cancers, diabetes and hypertension were about as common in individuals with HIV as in the general population. Males with HIV had 3- to 4-fold higher age-adjusted odds of being diagnosed with depression and 3-fold higher odds of anxiety disorders and women had 1.6 to 2-fold higher age-adjusted odds of depression and anxiety disorders, than males and females in the general population, respectively. The relatively good somatic health observed in this study could be attributed to nearly optimal HIV therapy in Sweden. The mental health of HIV patients was significantly worse than that in the general population and needs further attention. PMID:25277328

  15. The Department of Epidemiology and

    E-print Network

    The Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics GRADUATE HANDBOOK #12;Fall 2014 (Aug. 22) Page1 I. MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EPIDEMIOLOGY DEGREE REQUIREMENTS 1. Course Requirements The Epidemiology MS. Required - Core Epidemiology (19 Credits) EPI 810 Introductory Epidemiology 3 EPI 812 Causal Inference 3

  16. Outbreak of salmonellosis in a restaurant in Stockholm, Sweden, September - October 2006.

    PubMed

    de Jong, B; Oberg, J; Svenungsson, B

    2007-11-01

    The largest outbreak of salmonellosis in 25 years in Stockholm County occurred during September - October 2006. A total of 115 persons who had a meal at a restaurant in Stockholm were notified as cases of salmonellosis through the Swedish surveillance system. The probable vehicle of the outbreak was mung beans, soaked in lukewarm water for 24 hours before being served at the restaurant. These mung beans had been included in all dishes served in the restaurant and the outbreak was terminated when they were excluded from the menu. Either Salmonella Bareilly or Salmonella Virchow were isolated from affected persons. No person was found to have an infection with both serotypes. The majority of affected persons were females with a median age of 34 years. This and similar outbreaks associated with consumption of vegetables and fruits highlight the increasing importance of fresh produce as vehicle for foodborne outbreaks in Europe. PMID:18005653

  17. A scale for identifying "Stockholm syndrome" reactions in young dating women: factor structure, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Graham, D L; Rawlings, E I; Ihms, K; Latimer, D; Foliano, J; Thompson, A; Suttman, K; Farrington, M; Hacker, R

    1995-01-01

    The factor structure, reliability, and validity of a 49-item scale designed to measure Stockholm Syndrome (also referred to as "traumatic bonding" and "terror bonding"), that is, bonding with an abusive partner, were assessed for college women in heterosexual dating relationships. Factor analysis identified three major factors: Core Stockholm Syndrome, characterized by cognitive distortions and other strategies for coping with abuse; Psychological Damage, marked by depression, low self-esteem, and loss of sense of self; and Love-Dependence, typified by the feeling that one cannot survive without one's partner's love. The scale and factors had excellent internal consistency and good test-retest reliabilities. They correlated negatively with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale and positively with Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez' (1979) Impact of Event Scale, Hyler and Rieder's (1987) Borderline Personality Disorder Scale, Hatfield and Sprecher's (1986) Passionate Love Scale, and Straus' (1979) Verbal Aggression and Violence scales of the Conflict Tactics Scales. PMID:8555117

  18. Bristol Heart Institute issue broken heart

    E-print Network

    Wiesner, Karoline

    Bristol Heart Institute issue Mending a broken heart The energy powerhouse Plaques, cracks and heart attacks re:search University of Bristol · June 2006 #12;BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE ISSUE · JUNE 2006 THE BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE 1 C ardiovascular disease is the UK's single biggest killer of both men and women

  19. Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts-A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai and Stockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated from support vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix features. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configuration and to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbanization is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified by ecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of cropland in both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover change was a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2 and 100 km2 in Stockholm. The developed methodology is considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions in urban and regional planning.

  20. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  1. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  2. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  3. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  4. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  5. Total Artificial Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

  6. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  7. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More About Heart Attacks Updated:Nov 12,2015 Every year, tens ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Questions and Answers What is a heart ...

  8. Heart Rhythm Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Policy & Payments EP Buyer's Guide Provider Resources Science & Research Heart Rhythm Journal Heart Rhythm Case Reports ClinicalTrials. ... Health Policy & Payments EP Buyer's Guide Provider Resources Science & Research less Heart Rhythm Journal Heart Rhythm Case Reports ...

  9. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

  10. Depression and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Heart Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Heart Disease Order a free hardcopy En Español Introduction ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of ...

  11. Heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clinical features. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsever Saunders; 2011:chap 54. Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation ...

  12. Heart MRI

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pictures of the heart. It does not use radiation (x-rays). Single MRI images are called slices. The images can be stored on a computer or printed on film. One exam produces dozens or sometimes hundreds of images. The test may be done as part of a chest MRI .

  13. Heart Failure in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care. PMID:26462091

  14. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  15. Understanding Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    1 Understanding Heart Disease Vietnamese Aspire For Healthy Hearts What Is Heart Disease? Heart disease is the leading cause of death for Vietnamese. It develops over many years. It happens when arteries. When arteries become clogged, it increases the risk of developing heart disease. When the heart

  16. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  17. Heart Failure Cardiovascular Features of Heart Failure

    E-print Network

    Morrell, Christopher H.

    Heart Failure Cardiovascular Features of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Versus of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) that differ from those in individuals failure. Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction often develops in HLVH patients

  18. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  19. Computational Epidemiology Research Laboratory (CERL)

    E-print Network

    Kavi, Krishna

    Computational Epidemiology Research Laboratory (CERL) CERL has been established in 2004 to conduct and promote research in computational epidemiology. As opposed to mathematical and statistical epidemiology, computational epidemiology is in its infancy. It does by no means replace but rather complement methodologies

  20. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  1. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  2. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  3. Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration

    Cancer.gov

    Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  5. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  6. Preventing Heart Failure in Inflammatory and Immune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serhal, Maya; Longenecker, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk for heart failure due to ischemic heart disease and other causes including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Using rheumatoid arthritis and treated HIV infection as two prototypical examples, we review the epidemiology and potential therapies to prevent heart failure in these populations. Particular focus is given to anti-inflammatory therapies including statins and biologic disease modifying drugs. There is also limited evidence for lifestyle changes and blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We conclude by proposing how a strategy for heart failure prevention, such as the model tested in the Screening To Prevent Heart Failure (STOP-HF) trial, may be adapted to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26316924

  7. Emerging flame retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in indoor and outdoor media in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Newton, Seth; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Dust, indoor air, outgoing air from ventilation systems, outdoor air, and soil were sampled in and around Stockholm, Sweden during the winter and spring 2012. The concentrations of several emerging flame retardants (EFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured. The most commonly found EFR was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), which was found in nearly all indoor, ventilation, and outdoor air samples, most dust samples, but not in soil samples. Other frequently detected EFRs included pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (EHTBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). PBDE concentrations were significantly lower in air and dust samples compared to a previous study in Stockholm. In outdoor air, DBE-DBCH, PBT, EHTBB, DBDPE, and PBDEs showed an "urban pulse" with concentrations increasing as samples were taken in more urban areas compared to rural areas. These EFRs show similar environmental behavior as PBDEs. Higher brominated BDEs showed this same urban pulse in soil but lower brominated BDEs did not. Air-soil fugacity fractions were calculated, and these indicated that most compounds are undergoing net deposition from atmosphere to soil, with the higher brominated PBDEs furthest from equilibrium. PMID:25668286

  8. Anthropogenic phosphorus flows under different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Franzén, Daniel; Malmström, Maria E

    2016-01-15

    Today, concerns prevail about the unsustainable use of phosphorus and worldwide eutrophication, thus requiring efficient management of phosphorus flows. With increasing population and associated urban growth, urban management of phosphorus flows in the perspectives of recycling, eutrophication and total budget becomes increasingly important. This study mapped phosphorus flows for a reference year (2013) and a future year (2030) using different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicated that the Swedish goal of recycling phosphorus from wastewater would cover the majority of the total phosphorus budget for Stockholm. However, in 2013, only 10% of phosphorus was recycled for agricultural use, around half of which was from sewage sludge and the other half from food waste. Almost 50% of total phosphorus was sent to landfill/mining waste capping with sewage sludge, for economic reasons and lack of market. Among the scenarios of upstream and downstream urban management options studied in combination with population growth, recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge had the greatest potential to increase the fraction recycled to agriculture. However, only upstream measures, e.g. changed diet, were able to reduce the total phosphorus budget. Urban management of phosphorus flows based on the different perspectives of recycling, eutrophication or total budget was shown to potentially result in different preferred management actions and both upstream and downstream measures need to be considered. Moreover, management needs to pay attention to small but environmentally sensitive flows, particularly when setting city goals on phosphorus recycling by percentage in a large budget. PMID:26442719

  9. Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors ... hormone. Why does hypothyroidism increase your risk for heart disease? Both thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) are ...

  10. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePLUS

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  11. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Congenital Heart Defects? Congenital (kon-JEN-ih-tal) heart defects ... imaging facility aims to improve treatment for congenital heart disease 07/31/2013 Members of the National ...

  12. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  13. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

  14. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  15. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 28,2015 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  16. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  17. Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  18. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

  19. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  20. Heart failure and Alzheimer?s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer?s disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer?s disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  1. Epidemiology / pidmiologie Epidemiology of sclerotinia rot of carrot caused by

    E-print Network

    Boland, Greg J.

    Epidemiology / Épidémiologie Epidemiology of sclerotinia rot of carrot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum C. Kora, M.R. McDonald, and G.J. Boland Abstract: The epidemiology of sclerotinia rot of carrot was investigated on carrot `Cellobunch' during 1999 and 2000 in Ontario. Apothecia were first detected in the crop

  2. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

  3. KTH Department of Energy Technology Seminar on Tuesday May 22, 2012 at 11:15 * Brinellvgen 68, Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden Dissecting The Second Law of Thermodynamics: It Could Be Challenged But Not Violated Milivoje M. Kostic.kostic.niu.edu * E-mail: kostic@niu.edu The Second Law of Thermodynamics is among the most fundamental principles

  4. A Multilevel Study on Ethnic and Socioeconomic School Stratification and Health-Related Behaviors among Students in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Gabriella; Fritzell, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the extent to which high alcohol consumption, drug use, and delinquency vary between schools with different socioeconomic characteristics, over and above the pupil's own sociodemographic background. Methods: Analyses are based on data on 5484 ninth-grade students distributed over 93 schools in Stockholm, from the…

  5. Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 A biomechanical model for the study of plant morphogenesis

    E-print Network

    Haseloff, Jim

    , a probable ancestor of land plant species has been used as a model species to study the mechanics of cell of interests of the plant structure (e.g Plant - Cell - wall). Live imaging and segmentation of growing5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 A biomechanical model

  6. Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Thick Should their Supports Be?

    E-print Network

    Neukirch, Sébastien

    5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson,USA. Abstract When twining plants grow they revolve around that twining plants cannot grow on supports that are too wide. Here, mechanical aspects of this problem

  7. F A T I G U E 2 0 0 2 THE EIGHT INTERNATIONAL FATIGUE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM,

    E-print Network

    Fatemi, Ali

    F A T I G U E 2 0 0 2 THE EIGHT INTERNATIONAL FATIGUE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, VOL. 3, PP-based micro-alloyed forging steel was studied under constant amplitude axial and torsion loads based on the results obtained. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The material used in this study is forged AISI 1141

  8. Waste management Stockholm University tries to maintain its environmental certification and we would be happy if you

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Waste management Stockholm University tries to maintain its environmental certification and we for new products All waste-paper-baskets in your rooms, the kitchen and the copying ­ metal scraps, hard plastic, batteries, wires, glass and so on. Most of these things have separate

  9. Appears in Proceedings of Space Operations 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2012. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    , Germany Nicola Policella7 European Space Operations Center, European Space Agency, 64293 Darmstadt Studies Section, European Space Agency - ESA/ESOC , Robert-Bosch-Strasse 5, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany EmailAppears in Proceedings of Space Operations 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2012. American Institute

  10. Congenital Heart Defects and CCHD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health conditions > Congenital heart defects and CCHD Congenital heart defects and CCHD E-mail to a friend ... babies and children with heart problems. How can heart defects affect your baby? Heart defects can affect ...

  11. Heart murmurs and other sounds

    MedlinePLUS

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  12. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Congenital Heart Defects With congenital heart defects, some part of ... how the heart develops. Examples of Simple Congenital Heart Defects Holes in the Heart (Septal Defects) The ...

  13. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  14. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  15. Cancer Epidemiology Consortia

    Cancer.gov

    Findings from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO) published in the March 17, 2015 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, suggests that the protective effect of taking aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDS differs according to variations in DNA. Learn more.

  16. Changing epidemiology of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

    1994-01-01

    It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America. PMID:8081121

  17. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  18. Causation in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Parascandola, M; Weed, D

    2001-01-01

    Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the application of scientific knowledge.???Keywords: causality; counterfactual; philosophy PMID:11707485

  19. Artificial Heart Valve Design

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    of the heart valve tissue · Years of high blood pressure and/or years of heavy alcohol drinking can cause direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction, but does not let any blood through in the opposite direction #12;Why does a heart valve start leaking

  20. Health promotion in schools: policies and practices in Stockholm county, 1990.

    PubMed

    Burström, B; Haglund, B J; Tillgren, P; Berg, L; Wallin, E; Ullén, H; Smith, C

    1995-03-01

    A survey was undertaken of the policies and practices concerning organisation and implementation of health education and health promotion in schools in 151 of the total 213 Local Educational Areas (LEAs) in Stockholm county in 1990. Health education was included in the workplan of 49% of the responding LEAs, while 39% of respondents had a local action programme or guidelines for health education. Topic areas taught to all pupils and considered most important included alcohol, drug abuse, smoking, sex education, bullying, nutrition and physical exercise. Most senior level schools (55-83%) had written policies concerning pupils using alcohol, drugs or smoking in school, and 68% of LEAs had restrictions on staff smoking in school. Continuing health education was desired by 87% of the respondents. A written programme/plan regarding health education was identified as an important indicator of interest and commitment in health education and health policy issues by the local school. PMID:7784852

  1. Reading Stockholm Riots 2013 in social media by text-mining

    E-print Network

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    The riots in Stockholm in May 2013 were an event that reverberated in the world media for its dimension of violence that had spread through the Swedish capital. In this study we have investigated the role of social media in creating media phenomena via text mining and natural language processing. We have focused on two channels of communication for our analysis: Twitter and Poloniainfo.se (Forum of Polish community in Sweden). Our preliminary results show some hot topics driving discussion related mostly to Swedish Police and Swedish Politics by counting word usage. Typical features for media intervention are presented. We have built networks of most popular phrases, clustered by categories (geography, media institution, etc.). Sentiment analysis shows negative connotation with Police. The aim of this preliminary exploratory quantitative study was to generate questions and hypotheses, which we could carefully follow by deeper more qualitative methods.

  2. [Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Minodier, Ph; Laporte, R; Miramont, S

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections are frequent in developing countries but the epidemiology is incompletely known. In 2005, 90 % of symptomatic pharyngitis, 96 % of invasive diseases and 97 % of deaths due to GAS were observed in these countries. Clinical features of GAS invasive infections are identical to those reported in developed countries, but frequency and mortality are higher, as is the number of the different emm types involved. In the world, from 15.6 to 19.6 millions of persons are affected by rheumatic heart disease (282,000 new cases and 233,000-468,000 deaths per year). Incidence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis varies with time and location: in 2005, 472,000 new cases have been reported in the world (83 % in a developing country). World Heart Federation recently aimed at reducing the burden of rheumatic heart diseases by 25 % among < 25 years persons in 2025. PMID:25456683

  3. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  4. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Jarhyan, Prashant; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  5. Epidemiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in understanding the epidemiology of EoE over the past two decades. Initial research focused on case description and characterization of the burden of disease. Research is now shifting to risk factor ascertainment, resulting in new and intriguing etiologic hypotheses. This paper will review the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of EoE. Demographic features and natural history will be described, data summarizing the prevalence and incidence of EoE throughout the world will be highlighted, and risk factors for EoE will be discussed. EoE can occur at any age, there is a male predominance, it is more common in Whites, and there is a strong association with atopic diseases. EoE is chronic, relapses are frequent, and persistent inflammation increases the risk of fibrostenotic complications. The prevalence is currently estimated at 0.5–1 in 1000, and EoE is now the most common cause of food impaction. EoE can be seen in 2–7% of patients undergoing endoscopy for any reason, and 12–23% undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia. The incidence of EoE is approximately 1/10,000 new cases per year, and the rise in incidence is outpacing increases in recognition and endoscopy volume. The reasons for this evolving epidemiology are not yet fully delineated, but possibilities include changes in food allergens, increasing aeroallergens and other environmental factors, the decrease of H. pyloriand early life exposures. PMID:24813510

  6. The Epidemiology of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    The epidemiology of cancer has been described as the study of cancer's distribution by age, sex, economic status, etc. and of those factors which determine its prevalence. Twenty-five years ago the mortality rate in Canada for all sites of malignancy was approximately identical for both males and females, but since that time there has been a constant and significant increase in cancer among males; a slight, yet significant, decrease among females. In the past few years mortality from cancer of the respiratory system has shifted from a minor to a major component of cancer mortality. In addition, migration from one country to another changes the cancer risk; patterns of disease among migrants shift substantially to those found in the country to which they have migrated. Cigarette smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer than non-smokers. The study of occupational exposure to specific chemical and physical agents is potentially one of the most important ways in which analytical epidemiologic methods can contribute to the knowledge of cancer etiology. One of the basic requirements for successful epidemiology programs is the organization of population-based cancer registries which provide the necessary descriptive information on the population. Imagesp44-a PMID:20468457

  7. A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008.

    PubMed

    Insulander, M; de Jong, B; Svenungsson, B

    2008-12-18

    In September 2008, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among guests and staff at a wedding reception in a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden. The most probable source of the outbreak was bearnaise sauce containing chopped fresh parsley. PMID:19094915

  8. Antithrombotics in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mili?i?, Davor; Samardži?, Jure; Petri?evi?, Mate

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

  9. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367

  10. [Cardiovascular risk factors. Insights from Framingham Heart Study].

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Elosua, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiology involves the study of disease frequency and its determinants within the population. Cardiovascular epidemiology began in the 1930s as a result of changes observed in the causes of death. In the 1950s, several epidemiological studies were set in motion with the aim of clarifying the cause of cardiovascular disease. Four years after the Framingham Heart Study started, researchers had identified high cholesterol and high blood pressure levels as important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. In subsequent years, the Framingham study and other epidemiological studies have helped to identify other risk factors, which are now considered classical risk factors. By coining the expression "risk factor", the Framingham Heart Study helped to bring about a change in the way medicine is practiced. Today, a risk factor is defined as a measurable characteristic that is causally associated with increased disease frequency and that is a significant independent predictor of an increased risk of presenting with the disease. This wide-ranging overview describes some of the most important insights into the causes of cardiovascular disease to have come from the Framingham Heart Study. The emphasis is on the identification of risk factors, and the assessment of their predictive ability and their implications for disease prevention. PMID:18361904

  11. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  12. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  13. Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

  14. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  15. Getting a New Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes it. In both cases, as the heart grows weaker, it is less able to pump oxygen-rich blood through the body. As it tries harder to pump blood, it grows larger. We call this an enlarged heart. After ...

  16. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  17. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  18. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  19. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  20. Stress and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Stress and Heart Health Updated:Jun 13,2014 When ... Health and Heart Health Last reviewed 6/2014 Stress Management • Home • How Does Stress Affect You? Introduction ...

  1. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ...

  2. Patterns of heart attacks

    E-print Network

    Shenk, Kimberly N

    2010-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a derivative of heart disease that is a growing concern in the United States today. With heart disease becoming increasingly predominant, it is important to not only take steps toward preventing ...

  3. How the Heart Works

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your heart is at the center of your circulatory system. This system consists of a network of blood ... the walls contract, blood is pumped into your circulatory system. Inlet and outlet valves in your heart chambers ...

  4. Healthy Heart Quizzes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Healthy Heart Quizzes Updated:Feb 26,2015 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • ...

  5. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More The Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia Click a letter below to get a ... dozens of cardiovascular terms from our Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia and get links to in-depth information. ...

  6. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  7. [Molecuar epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Hyncicová, I

    1998-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious disease, killing many people every year. After decades of progressive decrease this disease, boosted by the appearance of HIV, reemerges showing a marked upward tendency and most afflicting populations in developing countries. At present, many researchers have been involved in molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis using DNA fingerprinting to determine restriction profiles of different strains. This method has also proved useful in detecting outbreaks of the disease in populations. That is very important for determining primary infection sources and their subsequent elimination from the environment to prevent recurrent infections. PMID:9611895

  8. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...

  9. Heart Murmurs and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Heart Murmurs and Your Child KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > ... to know how the heart works. How the Heart Works The normal heart has four chambers and ...

  10. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Heart & Blood Vessels > ... defects and related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ...

  11. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live active, ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry about ...

  12. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean (± standard deviation) MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36±0.50 at the rural site to 5.39±3.60 ?g m-3 at the street canyon site. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass concentrations (MLAC) were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean and standard deviation MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36 (rural) to 5.39 ?g m-3 (street canyon) and from 0.50 to 3.60 ?g m-3, respectively. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

  14. Methylphenidate: pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Several amphetamine-like appetite suppressants are known to have cardiovascular adverse effects, in particular pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac valve disease. Is this also the case with methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like psychostimulant used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (especially in children) and also in narcolepsy? Cases of pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease have been reported with methylphenidate, including in children. The risk appears to be low, but epidemiological studies are needed to estimate the incidence. This risk should be minimised by only using methylphenidate to treat serious disorders, at the lowest effective dose. Attention should be paid to warning signs such as dyspnoea. PMID:26436168

  15. Matters of the heart.

    PubMed

    Bausek, Nina; Zeidler, Martin P

    2012-07-01

    What does it take to make a heart? Even in the fruit fly, in which matters of the heart don't extend to either pop music or pulp fiction, making a heart requires big decisions and processes of surprising complexity. PMID:24058774

  16. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  17. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  18. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  19. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  20. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  1. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

  2. The spectrum of epidemiology underlying sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15%-20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who experience a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly because of inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. During the past 3 decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of coronary heart disease deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to coronary heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition before death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low-risk and known high-risk populations, will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  3. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  4. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention. PMID:26073423

  5. The nutritional epidemiology of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Krehl, W A

    1977-11-30

    A basic review of the extensive literature focusing on the major risk factors of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and stroke, i.e., elevation of blood lipids related to diet, blood pressure elevation, and genetic factors using the traditional epidemiological model of interaction between host, agent, and environment, has strongly supported the concept that diet and particularly saturated fat and/or cholesterol are significant contributors to the elevation of blood lipids, especially cholesterol, and contribute importantly to the premature development and mortality of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Certainly genetics exert an important impact on this process. To date it remains unclear whether or not major changes in the dietary pattern of huge population groups can be practically effected. The minor dietary modifications so far studied in the average atherosclerosis-prone population cannot be anticipated to make a major dent in the epidemic proportions of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. It is quite clear that prospective preventive medicine must be implemented at a very early age in the pediatric age group, in which atherosclerosis is now recognized by many as the number one pediatric problem. Tremendous biochemical advances have provided new insights in knowledge regarding the transport of blood lipids, particularly cholesterol, and the regulatory mechanisms at the cellular level for cholesterol under normal circumstances and in the genetic influenced hyperlipidemias (TABLE 4). A bright future lies ahead for the reduction of the epidemic of atherosclerosis which could be greatly enhanced by a greater personal responsibility for health care and a much more careful and prudent diet selection and exercise managment. PMID:211922

  6. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student Handbook Page 1 WELCOME Welcome to the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health

  7. 2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting

    Cancer.gov

    The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.

  8. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

  9. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20??g/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10??g/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  10. Present status of the Stockholm electron beam ion source and its scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Ingmar; Björkhage, Mikael; Danared, Hâkan; Cederquist, Henrik; Fritioff, Tomas; Liljeby, Leif; Schuch, Reinhold

    2001-07-01

    The Stockholm electron beam ion source CRYSIS has since 1987 been used for the production of ions with charges in the region 1+ to 60+ for various experiments at low energies as well as for experiments in the storage ring CRYRING. A short summary of these experiments is given. The highly charged ions are produced by electron bombardment of species, either by directly introducing a monoisotopic or almost monoisotopic gas or singly charged isotope separated ions into CRYSIS. The singly charged ions are produced in a plasma ion source, CHORDIS, that can operate with gases, solid material evaporated in an oven or used in a sputtering mode. In this way highly charged ions of practically any element can be produced, even isotopes with a low abundance. The mass selection is done with a 0.5 meter radius doubly focusing magnet that ensures isotopically pure beams even for the heaviest elements. A summary is given of the elements and charge states so far delivered to users.

  11. Increased ion intensity and reliability of the Stockholm electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Pikin, A.; Björkhage, M.; Engström, Å.; Paal, A.

    1994-05-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring—CRYRING at MSL, as well as low energy atomic physics experiments and the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap recently installed at MSL. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe52+. Pulsed beams of Ar13+ ions 60 ?s in duration have been injected into CRYRING via an RFQ and ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ have been used in atomic physics experiments with pulse duration 10-250 ms. A vacuum separation of the cryostat and ionization volumes has been made. Temperature control and measurement of internal electrodes have increased the gas injection efficiency and reduced the memory effect associated with a cryogenic EBIS. External ion injection has been added as an alternative to neutral gas injection for introducing the species to be ionized to high charge states. Monitoring of the radio frequency noise signal with a spectrum analyzer has aided in the propagation of quiet, high current (450 mA) dc electron beams. These quiet electron beams have been used to produce extracted ion pulses of higher intensities than in previous operation.

  12. Increased ion intensity and reliability of the Stockholm electron beam ion source (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Pikin, A.; Björkhage, M.; Engström, Å.; Paal, A.

    1994-04-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring—CRYRING at MSL, as well as low energy atomic physics experiments and the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap recently installed at MSL. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe52+. Pulsed beams of Ar13+ ions 60 ?s in duration have been injected into CRYRING via an RFQ and ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ have been used in atomic physics experiments with pulse duration 10-250 ms. A vacuum separation of the cryostat and ionization volumes has been made. Temperature control and measurement of internal electrodes have increased the gas injection efficiency and reduced the memory effect associated with a cryogenic EBIS. External ion injection has been added as an alternative to neutral gas injection for introducing the species to be ionized to high charge states. Monitoring of the radio frequency noise signal with a spectrum analyzer has aided in the propagation of quiet, high current (450 mA) dc electron beams. These quiet electron beams have been used to produce extracted ion pulses of higher intensities than in previous operation.

  13. Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2013-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

  14. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20??g/m3 in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83–1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10??g/m3 corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68–1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  15. Optimization of the Stockholm R-EBIT for production and extraction of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobein, M.; Orban, I.; Böhm, S.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Fritioff, T.; Tashenov, S.; Schuch, R.

    2010-11-01

    We describe a refrigerated EBIT (R-EBIT) commissioned at the AlbaNova Research Center at Stockholm University. As an innovative solution, the superconducting magnet and the trapping drift tubes of the R-EBIT are cooled to a temperature of 4 K by a set of two cooling heads connected to helium compressors. This dry, i.e. liquid helium and liquid nitrogen free, system is easily operated and creates highly charged ions at a fraction of the cost of traditional liquid-cooled systems. A pulsed and continuous gas injection system was developed to feed neutral particles into the electron beam in the trap region. This improves significantly the highly charged ion production and R-EBIT performance. Fast extraction of ions from the R-EBIT yields very short ( < 100 ns), charge-separated ion bunches which can be either analysed using a straight time-of-flight section or sent to experimental beam lines following selection in a bending magnet. An emittance meter was used to measure the emittance of the ions extracted from the R-EBIT. The extracted ions were also re-trapped in a cylindrical Penning trap and properties of the re-trapped ions have been measured using the emittance meter. Results of these measurements are reported in this publication.

  16. Heart Failure: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Auld, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure is a complex and multisystem clinical syndrome that results from impaired ventricular contractility and/or relaxation. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common antecedents to heart failure. The main pathogenic mechanisms involved in heart failure include sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, as well as inflammation. A detailed history and physical examination and additional diagnostic tests may be needed to diagnose heart failure. Most treatment strategies target neurohormonal systems. Nonpharmacologic interventions and effective engagement in self-care are also important in overall heart failure management. Therapeutic strategies are geared toward prolonging life and optimizing quality of life. PMID:26567488

  17. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  18. The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination Sylvain Gandon1,* and Troy Day2 1 Ge´ne´tique et 3N6, Canada Vaccination leads to dramatic perturbations of the environment of parasite populations for modelling the short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary consequences of vaccination

  19. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J.; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

  20. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management. PMID:24656111

  1. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation in women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and has become a serious public health problem. Moreover, epidemiological data demonstrate that incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing. Several differences in epidemiological patterns, clinical manifestations, and incidence of stroke have been reported between AF in women and in men, particularly in elderly women. Elderly women have higher blood pressure than men and a higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, both independent risk factors for stroke. On the basis of the evidence on the higher stroke risk among AF in women, recently, female sex has been accepted as a risk factor for stroke and adopted to stratify patients, especially if they are not at high risk for stroke. This review focuses on available evidence on sex differences in AF patients, and examines factors contributing to different stroke risk, diagnosis, and prognosis of arrhythmia in women, with the aim to provide an analysis of the available evidence. PMID:26089706

  2. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  3. The epidemiology of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Victoria L; Hunter, David J

    2014-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability and its incidence is rising due to increasing obesity and an ageing population. Risk factors can be divided into person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, genetics, race/ethnicity and diet, and joint-level factors including injury, malalignment and abnormal loading of the joints. The interaction of these risk factors is complex and provides a challenge to the managing physician. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how each of these factors interact together to instigate incident OA as well as to outline the need for ongoing epidemiologic studies for the future prevention of both incident and progressive OA. It is only by understanding the impact of this disease and the modifiable risk factors that we will be able to truly target public health prevention interventions appropriately. PMID:24792942

  4. Epidemiology of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Quinn T; Gittleman, Haley; Stetson, Lindsay; Virk, Selene M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary intracranial tumors. Some glioma subtypes cause significant mortality and morbidity that are disproportionate to their relatively rare incidence. A very small proportion of glioma cases can be attributed to inherited genetic disorders. Many potential risk factors for glioma have been studied to date, but few provide explanation for the number of brain tumors identified. The most significant of these factors includes increased risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation, and decreased risk with history of allergy or atopic disease. The potential effect of exposure to cellular phones has been studied extensively, but the results remain inconclusive. Recent genomic analyses, using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have identified several inherited risk variants that are associated with increased glioma risk. The following chapter provides an overview of the current state of research in the epidemiology of intracranial glioma. PMID:25468222

  5. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  6. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  7. Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating

    PubMed Central

    Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR?=?1.74) and mould odour (OR?=?1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR?=?1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR?=?1.48) and mould odour (OR?=?2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR?=?1.76) and mould odour (OR?=?2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR?=?1.47), humid air (OR?=?1.73) and mould odour (OR?=?2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR?=?0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR?=?0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR?=?1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

  8. 50-Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county

    SciTech Connect

    Tomenius, L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis. An equivalent number of controls was matched to the cases according to church district of birth, age, and sex. Outside each dwelling, the occurrence of visible electrical constructions (6-200-kV high-voltage wires, substations, transformers, electric railroads, and subways) within 150 m of the dwelling was noted. Also, the 50-Hz magnetic field was measured outside the main entrance of the dwelling. Visible 200-kv wires were noted at 45 of 2,098 dwellings and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The magnetic field measured at the dwelling varied between 0.0004 to 1.9 microT (mean value 0.069 microT). The magnetic field was higher (0.22 microT) at dwellings with visible 200-kV wires than at those without such wires. Magnetic fields of 0.3 microT or more were measured at 48 dwellings, and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The difference was most pronounced for dwellings of nervous system tumors and was less for leukemias.

  9. Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk -- a global review.

    PubMed

    Fång, Johan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Winnberg, Ulrika; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke

    2015-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and "dioxins" are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden. PMID:25913228

  10. Traffic pollution at the home address and pregnancy outcomes in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, David; Mogren, Ingrid; Eneroth, Kristina; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past two decades, several studies have reported associations between elevated levels of ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although with varying conclusions. Objectives To examine possible associations between the traffic pollution situation at the home address, for women who did not change address during pregnancy, and three types of pregnancy outcomes: spontaneous preterm delivery, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. Methods We used data for the Greater Stockholm Area from the Swedish Medical Birth Register to construct a cohort based on all pregnancies conceived between July 1997 and March 2006, n=100?190. The pregnancy average nitrogen oxide, NOx, levels and annual mean daily vehicles at the home address were used as exposure variables. Mixed-model logistic regression was performed to assess any associations between exposure and outcome. Results There was an association between elevated traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. A 10?µg/m3 increase in the pregnancy average NOx level at the home address resulted in an OR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). The 2nd to 4th quartiles of NOx were all associated with an increased risk of SGA, but there was no difference in the risk estimate among the higher quartiles. There was a tendency of a higher risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in relation to higher levels of NOx. There was no evidence of an association between vehicle flow, the cruder indicator of traffic pollution, and the studied outcomes in this study. Conclusions In this large cohort, there was a fairly strong association between vehicle exhaust levels at the home address and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, after adjustment for important risk factors. PMID:26275899

  11. Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: case studies in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Malmström, Maria E

    2015-06-15

    Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Råcksta Träsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Långsjön and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus, loadings by different pathways were apparently less sensitive to climate change. PMID:25770952

  12. Prevalence of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antidepressants and Antipsychotics in Stockholm, Sweden: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is considered an underused tool in psychiatric care, the prevalence of TDM is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of TDM for antidepressants and antipsychotics during 2006–2013. Methods: The study population consisted of individuals ?5 years of age residing in Stockholm County. The prevalence of TDM for each study year was calculated with the number of individuals in whom TDM had been performed as nominator (extracted from the TDM database at Karolinska University Laboratory) and the number of treated individuals as denominator (extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register). All data were obtained at the third and the fifth level of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system (pharmacological subgroup and chemical substance, respectively). The prevalence of TDM was compared between substances according to the level of TDM recommendation by guidelines. Results: For antidepressants, the prevalence of TDM decreased from 0.48% (95% confidence interval, 0.45%–0.52%) in 2006 to 0.36% (0.33%–0.39%) in 2013 (among 133,275 and 162,998 treated individuals, respectively). For antipsychotics, the prevalence of TDM increased from 2.3% (2.2%–2.5%) to 4.1% (3.9%–4.3%) (31,463 and 32,534 treated individuals). For both drug groups, TDM was more common in men than in women. The most frequently analyzed drugs were clozapine, perphenazine, zuclopenthixol, nortriptyline, and flupentixol. Although not reaching statistical significance, the TDM prevalence was greater for substances strongly recommended for TDM than for substances with a lower level of recommendation, median (interquartile range): 5.6% (2.8%–22%) versus 1.1% (0.2%–2.2%), P = 0.063. Conclusions: The prevalence of TDM is generally low, more frequent, and increasing for antipsychotics, and more frequent for men and substances where TDM is strongly recommended. PMID:25533882

  13. Epidemiology of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. PMID:25568613

  14. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aortic stenosis Congenital heart valve disease Mitral regurgitation - acute Mitral regurgitation - chronic Mitral stenosis Mitral valve prolapse Pulmonary valve stenosis Tricuspid regurgitation Tricuspid valve stenosis

  15. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  16. Advanced Statistical Methods in Epidemiology Session Details

    E-print Network

    Boehning, Dankmar

    1 Advanced Statistical Methods in Epidemiology Session Details Day 1 - morning 9:30 Arrival and registration 10:00 Lecture 0: Introduction to Epidemiology and Study types: basic concepts of epidemiological 12.30 Lunch Day 1 - afternoon 14:00 Practical 1: Introduction to STATA for epidemiological

  17. Epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Daneshfard, Babak; Izadi, Sadegh; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Toudaji, Mohammad Amin; Beyzavi, Zahra; Niknam, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the main cause of physical disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Two-thirds of all strokes occur in the developing countries. Despite being preventable, stroke is increasingly becoming a major health issue in these countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran, one of the main referral centers in the southwestern part of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all stroke patients admitted to the Namazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, between August 2010 and January 2011. Patients’ demographic data, atherosclerosis risk factors, type of stroke, drug history, outcomes, and neurological signs were recorded. Chi-square test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 305 patients with stroke, aged 27-97 years (mean ± SD = 68.33 ± 12.99), 269 patients (88.2%) had ischemic stroke (IS) and 36 (11.8%) had hemorrhagic stroke (HS). 133 patients (43.6%) were men and 172 (56.4%) were women. 11.4% of the patients with IS and 40.6% with HS died during hospitalization, causing 12.1% death in all stroke patients [Odds ratio (Or) = 5.34, 95% Confidence intervals (CI) = 2.35-12.11]. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and recurrent stroke were the most common risk factors. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the epidemiology of stroke in the southwestern part of Iran may be similar to other places. However, it seems necessary and helpful to design a registration system for patients with stroke in Shiraz Namazee Hospital.

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

  19. COLLABORATION ON NHEERL EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will continue ORD's efforts to develop a biologically plausible, quantitative health risk model for particulate matter (PM) based on epidemiological, toxicological, and mechanistic studies using matched exposure assessments. The NERL, in collaboration with the NHEERL, ...

  20. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  1. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  2. EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  3. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  4. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  5. Interactive Whole-Heart Segmentation in Congenital Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Pace, Danielle Frances

    We present an interactive algorithm to segment the heart chambers and epicardial surfaces, including the great vessel walls, in pediatric cardiac MRI of congenital heart disease. Accurate whole-heart ...

  6. Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease

    E-print Network

    Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

    2005-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

  7. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  8. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  9. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  10. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

  11. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  12. Dementia in western Europe: epidemiological evidence and implications for policy making.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Fratiglioni, Laura; Matthews, Fiona E; Lobo, Antonio; Breteler, Monique M B; Skoog, Ingmar; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is receiving increasing attention from governments and politicians. Epidemiological research based on western European populations done 20 years ago provided key initial evidence for dementia policy making, but these estimates are now out of date because of changes in life expectancy, living conditions, and health profiles. To assess whether dementia occurrence has changed during the past 20-30 years, investigators of five different studies done in western Europe (Sweden [Stockholm and Gothenburg], the Netherlands [Rotterdam], the UK [England], and Spain [Zaragoza]) have compared dementia occurrence using consistent research methods between two timepoints in well-defined geographical areas. Findings from four of the five studies showed non-significant changes in overall dementia occurrence. The only significant reduction in overall prevalence was found in the study done in the UK, powered and designed explicitly from its outset to detect change across generations (decrease in prevalence of 22%; p=0·003). Findings from the study done in Zaragoza (Spain) showed a significant reduction in dementia prevalence in men (43%; p=0·0002). The studies estimating incidence done in Stockholm and Rotterdam reported non-significant reductions. Such reductions could be the outcomes from earlier population-level investments such as improved education and living conditions, and better prevention and treatment of vascular and chronic conditions. This evidence suggests that attention to optimum health early in life might benefit cognitive health late in life. Policy planning and future research should be balanced across primary (policies reducing risk and increasing cognitive reserve), secondary (early detection and screening), and tertiary (once dementia is present) prevention. Each has their place, but upstream primary prevention has the largest effect on reduction of later dementia occurrence and disability. PMID:26300044

  13. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Sep 29,2015 The ejection fraction ( ... below you agree to the Terms and Conditions Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  14. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More All About Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Aug 5,2015 ... are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 4 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 5 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  15. Heart-respiratory monitor - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

  16. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pacemaker is a small, battery-operated device that sends a signal to your heart. The signal makes ... a device that detects heart rhythms. It quickly sends an electrical shock to the heart to change ...

  17. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  18. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that trigger the heartbeat. Caffeine, Diet and Heart Arrhythmias Caffeine is the most common substance linked with abnormal heart rhythms ( arrhythmias ). Some people feel heart palpitations (fast heartbeats) when ...

  19. Preparing Children for Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  20. Survivorship Clinic Heart Health

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    . These include obesity, high blood pressure, h that is at the center of the body's circulatory system. The heart is responsible for pumping blood with oxygen together to pump blood. Valves direct the flow of blood through the heart chambers and into the blood

  1. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  2. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  3. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you’re ready to determine your target training heart rate. As you exercise, periodically: Take your pulse on the inside of ... safer than others. Learn more: Blood Pressure Vs. Heart Rate The AHA Recommendations ... Receive healthy living tips every month! First Name ( ...

  4. Target Heart Rate Calculator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... workout Enter your age to find a target heart rate during exercise. You'll get the most out of your activities by staying within this range of heartbeats/minute. What is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

  5. Sleep and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Sleep_Heart_091115.html Sleep and Heart Health HealthDay News Video - September 14, 2015 To use ... that can lead to healthy tomorrows. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Coronary Artery Disease Sleep Disorders About MedlinePlus ...

  6. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  7. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  8. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  9. Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Paul, H K; Zakaria, S M; Islam, M M; Shafiquzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 102 cases having clinical manifestation of psoriasis with a view to evaluate the epidemiological determinants of psoriasis. Psoriasis constituted 1.49% of the total dermatological disorder. Seventy patients (68.6%) were males and thirty two (31.4%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.18:1. The mean age was 30.76±13.17 years in male and 26.94±14.94 years in female. Sixteen (15.7%) patients had one or more family member having psoriasis with male and female in equal frequency. Regarding precipitating factors, psoriasis was developed after trauma in 4.9%, infection 3.9%, stressful life events 6.9% and drugs 2.9%; and was exacerbated after trauma in 5.9%, infection 5.9%, stressful life events 35.3% and drugs 12.7%. The disease showed improvement in summer (27.5%) and found deteriorated in winter (47.1%). Sunlight had beneficial effect in 33.3% of cases. During pregnancy improvement was observed in 50% but flare up in 22.2% of cases. Fifty percent of patients were smokers, 41.2% were non-smokers and 13.7% were ex-smokers. Forty percent had Body Mass Index (BMI) between 22 to 26 Kg/m², 40.2% had less than 22 Kg/m² and 15.7% had above 26 Kg/m². It was concluded that the prevalence of psoriasis among dermatological patients was similar to results reported in Turkey and in Northern India. The precipitating factors, such as smoking, stressful life events, infection, trauma, sunlight, pregnancy, drugs, and seasonal variations could influence the development of psoriasis and affect its clinical expression. PMID:21240156

  10. [Epidemiology of oral cancer].

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2007-04-01

    In Hungary, the mortality rate from oral cancer is dramatically increasing, causing great concern. Smoking, drinking and poor oral hygiene are the major risk factors, and their combined effect could only be prevented by primary preventive measures in a long time period and therefore the benefit from primary prevention can be detected much later. The possibilities of the secondary preventive measures are much better to identify the premalignant conditions and lesions for these cancers. Screening could be used to detect both precancerous lesions and early invasive cancers, however, no study as yet has demonstrated a reduced mortality from screening, therefore, sui generis regular, organised screening, based on personal call-and-recall system, is not recommended. In the same time, regular opportunistic screening by clinical examination, i.e. visual inspection, using dental mirror, and palpation of the region in asymptomatic persons at high risk offers prime opportunity for early detection and early treatment. Recently, the government has decided to take action by promoting the clinical examination. To this effect, a Working Group consisting of subject experts and headed by the Chief Medical Officer has been appointed and charged with elaboration of a workable plan of action. In terms of action, priority',should be given to men and women above 40 years of age who are heavy smokers and drinkers; socioeconomic differentials should be taken into account. In the first place, dentist-patient encounters provide opportunity for such an examination, but primary care physicians and those engaged in occupational medicine are also requested to take part in the endeavour. As a prerequisite, the screening method needs to be incorporated in the curriculum of dental/medical education. From all these, the oral cancer-related epidemiological situation is expected to improve in Hungary. PMID:17546894

  11. Angioplasty and stent placement - heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...

  12. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  13. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  14. [Epidemiology of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Blanche, S

    1988-01-01

    Maternal-fetal HIV transmission has become almost the only mode of infection for children in countries that screen their blood supplies. In many African countries with only partial screening of the blood supply, transfusions and the use of poorly sterilized syringes and other medical materials remain major sources of infection. The epidemiology of HIV infection among women and hence among children has progressively changed since the onset of the epidemic in Western countries. The rapid increase in the proportion of seropositive women corresponds to the massive infestation of intravenous drug addicts during 1984-85. Intravenous drug users now account for 18% of adult AIDS cases in Europe, with enormous disparities between countries from 1% in the United Kingdom to 62% in Italy. 60-70% of intravenous drug users in France are likely to be seropositive for HIV, including 30-40,000 women. In May 1988, a multicenter prospective study of infants of seropositive mothers demonstrated that intravenous drug use was the principal mode of transmission for women in France, accounting for 59% of cases. The true importance of heterosexual transmission in France is still difficult to assess. Until now, the vast majority of seropositive women have been infected by men in high-risk groups. The situation is very different in Africa, where HIV 1 seroprevalence reaches 7-8% in some urban areas. Transmission is almost exclusively heterosexual. In rural areas, seroprevalence rates are lower and apparently more stable over time. Data for large parts of Africa are still fragmentary. The rate of HIV transmission from mothers to their children is not well defined. It is estimated at 30-40% according to preliminary data from the multicenter French study. No significant differences have been noted according to the mode of contamination of the mother, but it is not clear that results can be extrapolated to Africa or other geographic zones. Contamination of 1 child by another has never been proven, and nothing should prevent seropositive children from leading as normal a family and social life as possible. PMID:3187865

  15. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  16. Heart Truth for Women: If You Have Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    THE FOR WO MEN TRUTH THE HEART TRUTH FoR WoMEN: iF You HAVE HEART DisEAsE If you have heart disease, or think you do, it’s vital to take action to protect your heart health. Fortunately, there’s a lot you can do. ...

  17. How Is Heart Valve Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Mitral Valve Prolapse Send ... Diagnosed? Your primary care doctor may detect a heart murmur or other signs of heart valve disease. However, ...

  18. Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for those with congenital heart defects Recommendations for heart health If you are a parent caring for a ... you and supports you in your pursuit of heart health. Congenital Heart Defects • Home • About Congenital Heart Defects • ...

  19. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    E-print Network

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  20. In J. Sundberg & B. Brunson (Eds.) Proceedings of Music and Music Science, Stockholm, October 28-A fuzzy analyzer of emotional expression in music

    E-print Network

    Boye, Johan

    of the musical evolution. With the introduction of electronic sound manipulation these controllers1 In J. Sundberg & B. Brunson (Eds.) Proceedings of Music and Music Science, Stockholm, October 28- 30, 2004 A fuzzy analyzer of emotional expression in music performance and body motion Anders

  1. 16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustic Conference and Exhibit, 7-9 June 2010, Stockholm Intermittent sound generation in a free-shear flow

    E-print Network

    Wei, Mingjun

    sound, and it is thus difficult to propose technical solutions which might reduce the sound power16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustic Conference and Exhibit, 7-9 June 2010, Stockholm Intermittent sound generation in a free-shear flow Andr´e V. G. Cavalieri , Peter Jordan and Yves Gervais§ Institut Pprime, CNRS

  2. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  3. Summary of presentation at CWE2013 in Stockholm February 5-7, 2013: Bats and wind power investigations required for risk assessment in Denmark and Sweden

    E-print Network

    1 Summary of presentation at CWE2013 in Stockholm February 5-7, 2013: Bats and wind power-mail: hjbaagoe@snm.ku.dk. Background Field investigations of the bat fauna were initiated with the use of ultrasound technique in 1978. Today we have an almost complete overview of bat distribution and species

  4. Telomeres in molecular epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Bodelon, Clara; Savage, Sharon A; Gadalla, Shahinaz M

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are long nucleotide repeats and protein complexes at the ends of chromosomes that are essential for maintaining chromosomal stability. They shorten with each cell division, and therefore, telomere length is a marker for cellular aging and senescence. Epidemiological research of telomeres investigates the role that these genetic structures have in disease risk and mortality in human populations. This chapter provides an overview of the current telomere epidemiology research and discusses approaches taken in these investigations. We also highlight important methodological considerations that may affect data interpretation. PMID:24993700

  5. Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    for Latino families? It affects men, women, and children. Nearly 1 in 10 adult Latinos has diabetes. OneProtect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes

  6. Purple Heart Scholarship Eligibility Form

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Purple Heart Scholarship Eligibility Form School: The Purple Heart Scholarship Program stemmed from is intended to increase access and affordability for Montana- Resident, Purple Heart Recipients-Time GPA OF 2.0 OR GREATER IN A PREVIOUS YEAR: YES NO DD 214 IN FILE WITH PURPLE HEART: YES NO THIS SECTION

  7. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... great vein will be used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is ... and to the affected coronary artery past the blocked site. The internal mammary artery from the chest ...

  8. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  9. Depression After Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Behavioral Sciences, Professor of Medicine, Professor of Psychology, and Director, Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Box 3926, ... to use in patients with coronary heart disease. Cognitive behavior therapy is a form of psychological treatment ...

  10. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart muscle caused by poor blood flow. Coronary Angiography Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test ... of CT scan is called a coronary CT angiography, or CTA. A cardiac CT scan can show ...

  11. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... metal stents for angina or acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010:5:CD004587. DOI: ... coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2012:3:CD007224. DOI: ...

  12. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction: management. In Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald'sHeart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Saunders; 2011:chap 55. Cannon CP and Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST ...

  13. American Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health test. Donate Millions of Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Featured Videos Recovery and caregiving ...

  14. HIV and Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More HIV and Your Heart Banner 1 - HIV and Your ... Commercial support for this program was provided by HIV Wellness Checklist People living with HIV have even ...

  15. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  16. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which can lead to dehydration. Caffeine is in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate and some nuts. Whether ... see if there's a direct link between caffeine, coffee drinking and coronary heart disease. The results are ...

  17. Meditation and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness Basics American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity in Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, ...

  18. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  19. Heart Health for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Heart Health for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... use the nutrition facts label . 2. Manage your health conditions. Common health problems like high blood pressure, ...

  20. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Life Check Assessment Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • ...

  1. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    Dressler syndrome; Post-MI pericarditis; Post-cardiac injury syndrome; Postcardiotomy pericarditis ... Two types of pericarditis can occur after a heart attack . Early pericarditis: This form most occurs within 1 ...

  2. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Conferences Community ACHA Events Local Heart Happenings Discussion Forum Member Stories ACHA Blog CHD Over 60 ... ACHA in Orlando in 2016 09.17.2015 Discussion Forum A place for registered ACHA members to ...

  3. Pregnancy and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Problems in Pregnancy Heart Disease in Women Pregnancy ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  4. Heart Transplant Procedure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... audience might have not picked up on. Unlike kidney transplants, where you can use a cadaveric -- meaning someone who has died -- you can remove their kidney, when you're dealing with heart transplants you' ...

  5. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  6. Heart and Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death. PMID:23074560

  7. Types of Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart surgery that is becoming more common is robotic-assisted surgery. For this surgery, a surgeon uses a computer to control surgical tools on thin robotic arms. The tools are inserted through small incisions ...

  8. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  9. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  10. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

  11. Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations

    Cancer.gov

    In May 2014, NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) hosted Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., the founding Director of

  12. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  13. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  14. NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), was held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.

  15. Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. )

    1994-11-01

    The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  16. 307Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Department of

    E-print Network

    307Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Department of Epidemiology and Population H. Research Associate: Tohme, Rania A. The Department of Epidemiology and Population Health offers courses in epidemiology, biostatistics, and population health to graduate students in the Faculty

  17. 383Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Graduate Catalogue 201415

    E-print Network

    383Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Graduate Catalogue 2014­15 Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Chairperson: Chaaya, Monique Professors: Chaaya, Monique; DeJong, Jocelyn The Department of Epidemiology and Population Health offers courses in epidemiology, biostatistics

  18. Internet Outbreaks:Internet Outbreaks: Epidemiology and DefensesEpidemiology and Defenses

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    Internet Outbreaks:Internet Outbreaks: Epidemiology and DefensesEpidemiology and Defenses Stefan SavageStefan Savage Collaborative Center for Internet Epidemiology and DefensesCollaborative Center for Internet Epidemiology and Defenses Department of Computer Science & EngineeringDepartment of Computer

  19. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

  1. Epidemiological studies in human radiobiology*

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    A meeting on the contribution of epidemiological studies to the better understanding of the effects of radiation on human health was held in Washington, D.C., from 13 to 17 December 1965. This meeting was organized and sponsored by the World Health Organization, with the co-operation of the Division of Radiological Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The main emphasis of the meeting was on obtaining representative views on the epidemiological studies now in progress and on the possibilities for further studies, but past work was also briefly reviewed under such headings as leukaemia, lung and other tumours, congenital malformations and cytogenetic effects. In addition, information was presented on current concepts of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and life-shortening derived from experimental and theoretical work. Against this background an attempt was made to identify the most essential needs for epidemiological data at present and to consider how such data might be obtained. The text presented below was prepared by Professor L. F. Lamerton of the Department of Biophysics, Institute of Cancer Research (Surrey Branch), Sutton, Surrey, England, and Professor B. MacMahon of the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. It is a précis of some of the views expressed and of the information and the suggestions made. PMID:20604319

  2. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  6. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  7. 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

    Cancer.gov

    Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

  8. Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello Graham Cormode DIMACS and Ask.com Research E@dimacs.rutgers.edu #12;2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 92D30 Epidemiology, Secondary 68R01 Discrete, and Ilya Muchnik 1 Descriptive Epidemiology: A Brief Introduction Dona Schneider 41 Biostatistical

  9. Epidemiology 766 Discussion Guide: Readings 1

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Daowen

    Epidemiology 766 Discussion Guide: Readings 1 Article 1 Taylor JMG, Fahey JL, Detels R, et al. CD4 questions being asked by the investigators? Why is this question of clinical/epidemiologic interest? What #12;Epidemiology 766 Discussion Guide: Readings 2 Article 1 Harlow SD, Campbell B, Lin X and Raz J

  10. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

  11. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  12. Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Hector, Susanne . E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof.

    2007-01-01

    The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

  13. Dissecting heart failure.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sameer; Gupta, Sameer; Guglin, Maya

    2014-06-01

    Dissection of ascending aorta is a medical emergency typically presenting with acute chest or back pain and hemodynamic instability. We are reporting a very unusual case of dissection of a large ascending aortic aneurysm presenting as a new onset heart failure. A 46-year-old man presented with gradually increasing dyspnea and orthopnea. His physical examination and laboratory findings were consistent with heart failure. The only unusual feature was a diastolic murmur, which prompted echocardiographic evaluation. Besides left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, and severe global hypokinesis, which were expected, we also found severely dilated aortic root with aortic regurgitation and a 8.6×9.7 cm ascending aortic aneurysm with dissection. The patient had a brother who died several years earlier from aortic dissection. Surgical treatment was successful. Type A aortic dissection may rarely present as heart failure. Aortic dissection at young age should prompt screening of first-degree relatives because genetic nature of the disease is very likely. PMID:24418447

  14. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  15. Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael C; Winters, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Patients with acute decompensated heart failure are usually critically ill and require immediate treatment. However, most are not volume overloaded. Emergency department (ED) management is based on rapid initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and aggressive titration of nitrates. Afterload reduction with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor can be considered. A diuretic should not be administered before optimal preload and afterload reduction has been achieved. Short-term inotropic therapy can be considered in select patients with cardiogenic shock and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who fail to respond to standard therapy. PMID:26226866

  16. Acute ischaemic heart block in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Dale A; Wilson, Neil; Mitchell, Max B; Younoszai, Adel K

    2016-01-01

    In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, thrombosis of the native ascending aorta is rare and often fatal; there are no previously reported cases presenting with acute heart block. We review a case of native ascending aorta thrombosis in a 2-year-old boy with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, presenting with acute heart block. This case highlights the benefit of multi-modality imaging in complex cases. PMID:25531744

  17. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  18. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  19. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  20. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  1. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  2. Mendelian randomization: can genetic epidemiology help redress the failures of observational epidemiology?

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shah; Davey Smith, George

    2008-02-01

    Establishing causal relationships between environmental exposures and common diseases is beset with problems of unresolved confounding, reverse causation and selection bias that may result in spurious inferences. Mendelian randomization, in which a functional genetic variant acts as a proxy for an environmental exposure, provides a means of overcoming these problems as the inheritance of genetic variants is independent of-that is randomized with respect to-the inheritance of other traits, according to Mendel's law of independent assortment. Examples drawn from exposures and outcomes as diverse as milk and osteoporosis, alcohol and coronary heart disease, sheep dip and farm workers' compensation neurosis, folate and neural tube defects are used to illustrate the applications of Mendelian randomization approaches in assessing potential environmental causes of disease. As with all genetic epidemiology studies there are problems associated with the need for large sample sizes, the non-replication of findings, and the lack of relevant functional genetic variants. In addition to these problems, Mendelian randomization findings may be confounded by other genetic variants in linkage disequilibrium with the variant under study, or by population stratification. Furthermore, pleiotropy of effect of a genetic variant may result in null associations, as may canalisation of genetic effects. If correctly conducted and carefully interpreted, Mendelian randomization studies can provide useful evidence to support or reject causal hypotheses linking environmental exposures to common diseases. PMID:18038153

  3. Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rina; Shemer, Avner; Hochberg, Malca; Keness, Yoram; Shvarzman, Rima; Mandelblat, Marina; Frenkel, Michael; Segal, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by Dermatophytes, Candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. The objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in Israel. Data of a cohort of 27,093 patients were collected from six centres during a 2- and 10-year period. The diagnosis was based on microscopy of KOH/calcofluor mounts of nail scrapings and culture isolation. A positive result indicates isolation of a fungus in culture. Data were analysed for each centre and expressed as range for the whole cohort, using the spss v18 software. Analysis included three epidemiologic parameters: fungal aetiology in toe- and fingernails; association with gender; association with age group. Dermatophytes were the major causative agents and Trichophyton rubrum the most frequent isolate. Candida species were more frequent in women fingernails; frequency increased with age and C. parapsilosis the most frequent species. NDMs were isolated at low rate and Aspergillus terreus was the most frequent isolate. This is a first large cohort of onychomycosis patients from Israel analysed by defined epidemiological parameters. PMID:25590832

  4. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  5. Epidemiology of peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Criqui, Michael H; Aboyans, Victor

    2015-04-24

    New data on the epidemiology of peripheral artery disease (PAD) are available, and they should be integrated with previous data. We provide an updated, integrated overview of the epidemiology of PAD, a focused literature review was conducted on the epidemiology of PAD. The PAD results were grouped into symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, and incidence both in the United States and globally, risk factors, progression, coprevalence with other atherosclerotic disease, and association with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The most common symptom of PAD is intermittent claudication, but noninvasive measures, such as the ankle-brachial index, show that asymptomatic PAD is several times more common in the population than intermittent claudication. PAD prevalence and incidence are both sharply age-related, rising >10% among patients in their 60s and 70s. With aging of the global population, it seems likely that PAD will be increasingly common in the future. Prevalence seems to be higher among men than women for more severe or symptomatic disease. The major risk factors for PAD are similar to those for coronary and cerebrovascular disease, with some differences in the relative importance of factors. Smoking is a particularly strong risk factor for PAD, as is diabetes mellitus, and several newer risk markers have shown independent associations with PAD. PAD is strongly associated with concomitant coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. After adjustment for known cardiovascular disease risk factors, PAD is associated with an increased risk of incident coronary and cerebrovascular disease morbidity and mortality. PMID:25908725

  6. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  7. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Sep 29,2015 Patients with heart failure ... good relationships with all the members of this team. Learn to talk to them openly and honestly ...

  8. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  9. Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155248.html Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently Treatments may need to ... News) -- The heart ages differently for women and men. And this suggests a possible need for gender- ...

  10. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  11. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you think you might be pregnant. learn more Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart uses strong magnets to detect energy signals from your heart muscle. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a variation of this ...

  12. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  13. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... puff of nicotine from tobacco smoke temporarily increases heart rate and blood pressure , even as less oxygen-rich ... puff of nicotine from tobacco smoke temporarily increases heart rate and blood pressure , even as less oxygen-rich ...

  14. Strengthening causal inference in cardiovascular epidemiology through Mendelian randomization.

    PubMed

    Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nic; Ebrahim, Shah

    2008-01-01

    Observational studies have contributed in a major way to understanding modifiable determinants of cardiovascular disease risk, but several examples exist of factors that were identified in observational studies as potentially protecting against coronary heart disease, that in randomized controlled trials had no such effect. The likely reason for misleading findings from observational epidemiological studies is that associations are influenced by confounding, bias, and reverse causation--where disease influences a risk factor, rather than vice versa. Mendelian randomization utilizes genetic variants that serve as proxy measures for modifiable risk factors to allow estimation of the causal influence of the modifiable risk factor in question. We present examples of the use of the Mendelian randomization approach and discuss both the limitations and potentials of this strategy. PMID:18608114

  15. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and your ... top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease Fact ...

  16. Understand Your Risk for Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Sep 29,2015 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  17. How Is a Heart Murmur Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Murmur Treated? A heart murmur isn't a disease. ... may recommend treatment for that condition. Innocent (Harmless) Heart Murmurs Healthy children who have innocent (harmless) heart murmurs ...

  18. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated? Treatments for coronary heart disease include ... plaque Relieving symptoms Widening or bypassing clogged arteries Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Your doctor may recommend heart- ...

  19. How Is a Heart Attack Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Treated? Early treatment for a heart attack ... or years after the procedure. Other Treatments for Heart Attack Other treatments for heart attack include: Medicines ...

  20. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Article Body If your child needs surgery ... heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical doctors ...

  1. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  2. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Attack Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose a heart attack ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  3. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  4. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

  5. Menopause and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that emphasizes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts, while limiting red meat and sugary foods and beverages. Women should aim for a 150 minutes of physical activity each week to help prevent heart disease , and an hour daily for a weight loss ...

  6. Teaching from the Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Jerold W.

    This book is designed to illustrate learning for the whole person, including attending to spiritual, biological, intellectual, and emotional dimensions. It is expected that learners will discover the meaning of learning from the heart and teachers will learn how to develop their own such learning and then to explore ways that they can teach from…

  7. Heart Disease After Cancer

    E-print Network

    Brent, Roger

    deaths #12;Behaviors Linked to Heart (and Cancer) Risk · Obesity ­ Affects ~1 of 3 Americans, still examples will be on transplant survivors & also childhood cancers, but lessons learned are applicable metrics, WA is pretty average adjusted prevalence ratio of "ideal" cardiovascular health, including CHD

  8. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  9. FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke.

  10. Heart Ed 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college…

  11. Stress and the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Eliot, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The world's literature concerning the role of lifestyle, behavior, and stress in the heart disease has expanded in the last five years. For a long time, theory and practice sent far beyond knowledge and technology. Advances in pathophysiology however have provided new insights and now modern biotechnology permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the metabolic, endocrine and immunologic impact of stress.

  12. Heart failure - palliative care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be hard to think and talk about the type of care you want at the end of your life. However, discussing these subjects with your doctors and loved ones may help bring you peace of mind. You may have already discussed heart transplantation and ...

  13. Be Still My Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  14. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, et al. 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American ...

  15. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, et al. 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American ...

  16. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, et al. 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American ...

  17. Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Danesh, J; Collins, R; Peto, R

    1997-08-01

    A large number of studies have reported on associations of human coronary heart disease (CHD) and certain persistent bacterial and viral infections. We review the epidemiological and clinical evidence on CHD and Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), as well as possible mechanisms. The association between CHD and H pylori may be accounted for by residual confounding from risk factors. Although the association between C pneumoniae and CHD is stronger, the sequence of infection and disease is uncertain. As regards CMV, a limited number of patients with classic atherosclerotic coronary artery disease have been studied. Further studies are needed to resolve these uncertainties. PMID:9259669

  18. Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

  19. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 30,2015 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... below you agree to the Terms and Conditions Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  20. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePLUS

    When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ... the amount of fluids you drink: When your heart failure is not very bad, you may not have ...

  1. Give your heart a workout

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should be 50 to 70% of your maximum heart rate. For vigorous exercise , your target heart rate should be 70 to 85% of your maximum ... Some blood pressure medicines can lower your target heart rate. If ... blood pressure, ask your doctor what range is healthy for you.

  2. Facts about Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into the heart, where a doctor can take measurements and pictures, do tests, or repair the problem. Sometimes the heart defect can’t be fully repaired, but these procedures can improve blood flow and the way the heart works. Causes The ...

  3. What Causes Heart Valve Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Valve Disease? Heart conditions and other disorders, age-related changes, ... strep bacteria that progress to rheumatic fever can cause heart valve disease. When the body tries to fight the strep ...

  4. HEART OF MYTH – HEART OF SCIENCE Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history and meanings of the heart and its diseases as aspects of the histories of science and emotion. Analyzing the twofold meanings of the heart as both bodily object and cultural symbol, it explores the reasons for the apparent conflict in meanings of the heart of science and the heart of emotion in Western medical culture since the 19th century. In Part I, a case study of the writer, economist, and philosopher Harriet Martineau is used to demonstrate and trace that conflict, while Part II highlights the manifold meanings of the heart both in the past and in the present. PMID:26167117

  5. Non-Heart-Beating Donor Heart Transplantation: Breaking the Taboo

    PubMed Central

    Fatullayev, Javid; Samak, Mostafa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N.; García-Sáez, Diana; Patil, Nikhil P.; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, André R.; Zeriouh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 60% of hearts offered for transplantation are rejected because of organ dysfunction. Moreover, hearts from circulatory-dead patients have long been thought to be non-amenable for transplantation, unlike other organs. However, tentative surgical attempts inspired by the knowledge obtained from preclinical research to recover those hearts have been performed, finally culminating in clinically successful transplants. In this review we sought to address the major concerns in non-heart-beating donor heart transplantation and highlight recently introduced developments to overcome them. PMID:26174972

  6. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  7. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  8. Update on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L.; Kitzman, Dalane W.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Morbidity and long-term mortality in HFPEF are substantial and can be similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), yet HFPEF therapy remains empirical and treatment guidelines are based primarily on expert consensus. Neurohormonal blockade has revolutionized the management of HFREF, but trials in HFPEF based on this strategy have been disappointing to date. However, many recent studies have increased knowledge about HFPEF. The concept of HFPEF has evolved from a ‘cardio-centric’ model to a syndrome that may involve multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mechanisms. Emerging data highlight the importance of non-pharmacological management strategies and assessment of non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Animal models, epidemiological cohorts, and small human studies suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to HFPEF, potentially leading to development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:24860638

  9. The fascial system and exercise intolerance in patients with chronic heart failure: hypothesis of osteopathic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, F

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heart failure is a progressive, debilitating disease, resulting in a decline in the quality of life of the patient and incurring very high social economic costs. Chronic heart failure is defined as the inability of the heart to meet the demands of oxygen from the peripheral area. It is a multi-aspect complex disease which impacts negatively on all of the body systems. Presently, there are no texts in the modern literature that associate the symptoms of exercise intolerance of the patient with a dysfunction of the fascial system. In the first part of this article, we will discuss the significance of the disease, its causes, and epidemiology. The second part will explain the pathological adaptations of the myofascial system. The last section will outline a possible osteopathic treatment for patients with heart failure in order to encourage research and improve the general curative approach for the patient. PMID:26586951

  10. Epidemiology’s 350th Anniversary: 1662–2012

    PubMed Central

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Between 1600 and 1700, sudden, profound, and multifarious changes occurred in philosophy, science, medicine, politics, and society. In an extremely convulsed century, these profound and convergent upheavals produced the equivalent of a cultural big bang, which opened a new domain of knowledge acquisition based on population thinking and group comparisons. In 1662, when John Graunt applied—for the first time—the new approach to the analysis of causes of death in London, he gave epidemiology a singular date of birth. This was exactly 350 years ago. PMID:23377087

  11. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  12. Reverse epidemiology: a spurious hypothesis or a hardcore reality?

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Kuwae, Noriko; Wu, Dennis Y

    2005-01-01

    In maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, associations between demographic, clinical and laboratory values and mortality, including cardiovascular death, are significantly different and, in some cases, in the opposite direction of those derived from the general population. This phenomenon, termed 'reverse epidemiology', is not limited to MHD patients but is also observed in populations that encompass an estimated 20 million Americans including those with an advanced age, heart failure, malignancies, and AIDS. A significant portion of this reversal may be due to the overwhelming effect of the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS). Since two thirds of MHD patients die within 5 years of initiation of dialysis treatment, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension cannot exert a long-term deleterious impact, and instead, their short-term beneficial effects on MICS provides a survival advantage. In order to improve survival and quality of life in MHD patients, extrapolated ideal norms derived from the general population should be substituted with novel norms obtained from outcome-oriented epidemiologic analyses while accounting for the differential effect of MICS in different case-mix subgroups. PMID:15627738

  13. Molecular pathological epidemiology gives clues to paradoxical findings.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Reiko; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Shibuya, Kenji; Mittleman, Murray A; Wang, Molin; Field, Alison E; Giovannucci, Edward; Lochhead, Paul; Ogino, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have described what appear to be paradoxical associations, where an incongruous relationship is observed between a certain well-established risk factor for disease incidence and favorable clinical outcome among patients with that disease. For example, the "obesity paradox" represents the association between obesity and better survival among patients with a certain disease such as coronary heart disease. Paradoxical observations cause vexing clinical and public health problems as they raise questions on causal relationships and hinder the development of effective interventions. Compelling evidence indicates that pathogenic processes encompass molecular alterations within cells and the microenvironment, influenced by various exogenous and endogenous exposures, and that interpersonal heterogeneity in molecular pathology and pathophysiology exists among patients with any given disease. In this article, we introduce methods of the emerging integrative interdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE), which is founded on the unique disease principle and disease continuum theory. We analyze and decipher apparent paradoxical findings, utilizing the MPE approach and available literature data on tumor somatic genetic and epigenetic characteristics. Through our analyses in colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and glioblastoma (malignant brain tumor), we can readily explain paradoxical associations between disease risk factors and better prognosis among disease patients. The MPE paradigm and approach can be applied to not only neoplasms but also various non-neoplastic diseases where there exists indisputable ubiquitous heterogeneity of pathogenesis and molecular pathology. The MPE paradigm including consideration of disease heterogeneity plays an essential role in advancements of precision medicine and public health. PMID:26445996

  14. Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285

  15. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

  16. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  17. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

  18. Epidemiological aspects of gonococcal infections*

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R. R.

    1961-01-01

    The advent of penicillin therapy raised high hopes, after the Second World War, that gonorrhoea would quickly become relegated to the rank of those diseases which can be kept permanently under control. This early promise has not been fulfilled and now, fifteen years later, reports from various parts of the world show that gonorrhoea has held its own—and in some countries has even increased substantially. This article discusses some epidemiological features of gonococcal infections, and analyses the reasons why gonorrhoea, unlike syphilis, still presents so many problems of diagnosis, cure and control. PMID:13785338

  19. The Epidemiology of Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogdie, Alexis; Weiss, Pamela

    2015-11-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint and entheseal inflammation with a prevalence of 0.05% to 0.25% of the population and 6% to 41% of patients with psoriasis. PsA is a highly heterogeneous inflammatory arthritis. In this review, current knowledge is discussed regarding the epidemiology of PsA, including disease manifestations, classification criteria for adult and juvenile PsA, methods for recognizing early PsA, including use of screening tools and knowledge of risk factors for PsA, and medical comorbidities associated with PsA. PMID:26476218

  20. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  1. Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on developmental aspects in the epidemiology of anxiety disorders including prevalence, onset, natural course, longitudinal outcome, and correlates and risk factors, with focus on childhood through young adulthood. Anxiety disorders are frequent and early-emerging conditions. They may remit spontaneously; however, the same or other mental disorders often recur. Although risk factors have been identified, more work is needed to identify the most powerful predictors for onset and the progression to more complex forms of psychopathology and to understand the underlying mechanisms and interactions. This identification is crucial to facilitate research prevention, early interventions, and treatment programs. PMID:22800989

  2. Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the incidence of Listeria species in environments, food product and facility, animals and human population; and examines the mechanisms of survival and control measures for listerial bacteria....

  3. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  4. The Heart of Matter

    E-print Network

    Rohini M. Godbole

    2010-06-30

    In this article I trace the development of the human understanding of the "Heart of Matter" from early concepts of "elements" (or alternatively "Panchmahabhootas") to the current status of "quarks" and "leptons" as the fundamental constituents of matter, interacting together via exchange of the various force carrier particles called "gauge bosons" such as the photon, W/Z-boson etc. I would like to show how our understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter has gone hand in hand with our understanding of the fundamental forces in nature. I will also outline how the knowledge of particle physics at the "micro" scale of less than a Fermi(one millionth of a nanometer), enables us to offer explanations of Cosmological observations at the "macro" scale. Consequently these observations, may in turn, help us address some very fundamental questions of the Physics at the "Heart of the Matter".

  5. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change appears to be the most influential factor for maximum ozone concentration over the city of Paris, which may be particularly interesting in a health impact perspective.

  6. Straight from the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonell, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Every adult who reads to a child has seen what happens when a book speaks. For a time, the book becomes the child's beloved friend. It is asked for repeatedly and learned by heart. But books do more than speak to a child. Children use books to speak to adults. If one wants to understand a child's deepest emotions, take a look at the books they…

  7. Acute Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Unique Patient Characteristics and Targets for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bishu, Kalkidan

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are 1.0 million annual hospital discharges for acute heart failure (AHF). The total cost of heart failure (HF) care in the United States is projected to increase to $53 billion in 2030, with the majority of costs (80 %) related to AHF hospitalizations. Approximately 50 % of AHF episodes occur in patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines for the management of AHF in HFpEF patients. Here, we briefly review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of AHF patients with HFpEF. PMID:23868335

  8. To keep the catch - that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12-15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  9. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rådbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas. PMID:22690162

  10. Differences between patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and with chronic fatigue at an infectious disease clinic in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Evengård, Birgitta; Jonzon, Eva; Sandberg, Anneli; Theorell, Töres; Lindh, Gudrun

    2003-08-01

    Background data were collected from patients presenting with fatigue at the clinic of infectious diseases at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm. The main purpose was to look for differences as to demographic and functional status for patients fulfilling criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed using a variety of instruments. A thorough medical investigation was performed. No difference was found as to social situation, occupation and illness attributions for patients in the two categories. Patients with CFS reported in general a higher degree of 'sickness' with more self-reported somatic symptoms, more self-reported functional impairment and more absence from work. A higher degree of psychiatric comorbidity was observed in CF than in CFS patients. A majority of CFS patients (80%) had an acute infectious onset compared to 43% in the CF group. Presently used criteria might, according to findings presented here, define two different patient categories in a population characterized by severe, prolonged fatigue. Because CFS patients (compared to patients with CF) have more somatic symptoms, more often report an infectious, sudden onset and have less psychiatric comorbidity, and CF patients seem to have more of an emotional, burn-out-like component one could speculate about the existence of different pathogenetic backgrounds behind the two diagnoses. PMID:12839515

  11. Broken Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Therkleson, Tessa; Stronach, Shona

    2015-01-01

    This case describes a combination external treatment for “Broken Heart Syndrome” that includes a lavender footbath, massage using moor extract, and oxalis ointment to the abdomen applied by an Anthroposophic nurse for a specific personality type. Lavender footbaths have been used since ancient times for relaxation and calming, while moor extract has been used medicinally in Europe since the middle ages for warmth and environmental protection. Rhythmical massage using moor extract and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen are part of the tradition of Anthroposophic nursing when managing stress induced by emotional and physical trauma. An elderly lady with specific characteristics diagnosed as Broken Heart Syndrome received one treatment a week for 4 weeks given by an Anthroposophic nurse at an integrative medical center. Between treatments, education was given to enable self-treatment in the home. The nursing treatments, each using lavender footbaths, moor extract massage, and oxalis ointment poultice to the abdomen, proved very effect, and no negative effects were reported. External applications need to be considered by nurses caring for specific personality types with Broken Heart Syndrome. PMID:25673580

  12. The cancer epidemiology of radiation.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2004-08-23

    Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan in 1945, but substantial evidence is derived from groups exposed for medical reasons, occupationally or environmentally. Notable among these other groups are underground hard rock miners who inhaled radioactive radon gas and its decay products, large numbers of patients irradiated therapeutically and workers who received high doses in the nuclear weapons programme of the former USSR. The degree of carcinogenic risk arising from low levels of exposure is more contentious, but the available evidence points to an increased risk that is approximately proportional to the dose received. Epidemiological investigations of nonionizing radiation have established ultraviolet radiation as a cause of skin cancer. However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely. PMID:15322514

  13. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  14. Epidemiology of yaws: an update

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

  15. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  16. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology http://journals.cambridge.org/ICE

    E-print Network

    Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology http://journals.cambridge.org/ICE Additional services for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology: Email alerts: Click here Subscriptions: Click here Commercial and Philip M. Polgreen Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology / Volume 35 / Issue 10 / October 2014, pp

  17. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology http://journals.cambridge.org/ICE

    E-print Network

    Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology http://journals.cambridge.org/ICE Additional services for Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology: Email alerts: Click here Subscriptions: Click here Commercial, Alberto M. Segre and Philip M. Polgreen Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology / Volume 35 / Issue 10

  18. Official Master's of Public Health Epidemiology Program of Study Form

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Official Master's of Public Health ­ Epidemiology Program of Study Form Student Name PUBH 6541 BIOSTATISTICS 4 PUBH 6532 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 3 PUBH 6533 EPIDEMIOLOGY 3 REQUIRED PROGRAM CONCENTRATION COURSES ­ 18 credits EPID 7131 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC DISEASE 3 EPID

  19. Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

  20. Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2)

    Cancer.gov

    October 18, 2012 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker TBD Topic Genetic Epidemiology Branch Research Presentations (Part 2 of 2) Location EPN C - F Print This Page Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2) News & Events

  1. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems. PMID:6758368

  2. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  3. [Heart failure in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Pfister, Otmar; Buser, Peter; Brunner-La Rocca, Hanspeter

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of heart failure substantially increases with advancing age. Nevertheless, heart failure in the elderly is commonly under-diagnosed, because dyspnoea and fatigue are often attributed to the natural process of aging. Age-related alterations of the cardiovascular system and the presence of multiple comorbidities not only change the clinical features of heart failure, but also have an impact on heart failure treatment in this population. Cautious uptitration of the individual drugs and vigorous clinical and laboratory monitoring is mandatory to avoid undesired side effects. Although guideline-recommended heart failure therapy is derived from trials that included mainly middle-aged patients with few comorbidities, it has proven beneficial even in the very elderly. Today, guideline-recommended heart failure therapy is still too often withheld from elderly patients out of fear of potential side effects. PMID:21271542

  4. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times/wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.

  5. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  6. Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González S., A.; Acosta P., J. L.; Sandoval M., M.

    2004-09-01

    We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray-scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age, sex and electrolytic changes.

  7. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections

    PubMed Central

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y.; Roberts, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers. PMID:26694983

  8. Epidemiological basis of malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, G.

    1956-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria is discussed with special reference to the pattern observed in equatorial Africa, where the disease is very stable and where certain features, such as severe epidemic tendencies and ready amenability to control, commonly found in other malarious regions, are lacking. The particular conditions giving rise to stability are described in detail, and the ways in which they can be modified to bring about control of the disease in its stable form are outlined. The importance of measuring certain rates—for example, the basic reproduction rate, the index of stability, and the actual reproduction rate—when making any major malaria survey is emphasized, and formulae by means of which such rates can be readily calculated are included in an annex. PMID:13404439

  9. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression. PMID:23227360

  10. Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Seneff, Stephanie

    Cholesterol, Sulfate, and Heart Disease Stephanie Seneff Wise Tradi0ons Workshop, London." -- Orville Wright #12;Outline · Introduc0on · Cholesterol sulfate · Blood clots #12;· Cholesterol sulfate supplies

  11. Income and heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Design Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Setting Saskatchewan. Participants A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Main outcome measures Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. Results The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Conclusion Household income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Income inequality is a neglected risk factor worthy of appropriate public debate and policy intervention.

  12. Sleep and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly A; Trupp, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs for many reasons but, when chronic in nature, has many consequences for optimal health and performance. Despite its high prevalence, sleep-disordered breathing is underrecognized and undertreated. This is especially true in the setting of heart failure, where sleep-disordered breathing affects more than 50% of patients. Although the optimal strategy to best identify patients is currently unknown, concerted and consistent efforts to support early recognition, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment should be encouraged. Optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy and concurrent treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are necessary to improve outcomes in this complex high-risk population. PMID:26567495

  13. Sleep and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kathy P; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2002-10-01

    Sleep problems and symptoms of sleep disturbance are very prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF). Numerous contributing factors include sleep-related breathing disorders, increasing age, medications, anxiety and depression, and comorbidities. Thus, the cardiovascular nurse has an important role in the recognition and management of sleep-related problems in persons with HF. This article provides an overview of sleep disturbances in patients with HF, suggests evidence-based strategies for managing the sleep problems, and identifies pertinent areas for future nursing inquiry. PMID:12358091

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Heart Age - Is Your Heart Older Than You?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Heart Age Is Your Heart Older Than You? Language: ... that increase heart age. Problem US adults have hearts 7 years older than they should be. Though ...

  15. Schizophrenia: from Epidemiology to Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Bhat, Krishna M; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerability-stress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments. PMID:22962559

  16. Enjoy Living Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Enjoy Living Smoke Free Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets in the Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes series: Are You at Risk for Heart Disease? Do You Need To Lose Weight? Do You Know Your Free Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes NIH Publication No. 08

  17. A randomized controlled trial of rehabilitation at home after stroke in Southwest Stockholm: outcome at six months.

    PubMed

    von Koch, L; Widén Holmqvist, L; Kostulas, V; Almazán, J; de Pedro-Cuesta, J

    2000-06-01

    A 6-month follow-up of a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial in Southwest Stockholm was performed in order to evaluate the effect of early supported discharge and continued rehabilitation at home after stroke. Eighty-three stroke patients with moderate neurological impairments, continent, independent in feeding, and mental function within normal limits one week after onset were included in the study. The patients were allocated 1:1 to early supported discharge and continued rehabilitation at home by a specialized team, versus routine rehabilitation. Patient outcomes measured were motor capacity, dysphasia, activities of daily living, social activities, perceived dysfunction, mortality and reported falls. Data on length of stay in hospital; initial and recurrent during 6 months were compared. The 6-month follow-up of 78 patients showed no statistically significant differences in patient outcome. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis suggest a positive effect of home rehabilitation on activities of daily living. At 3-6 months the frequency of significant improvements was higher in the intervention group. Death or dependency in activities of daily living was 24% in the intervention group compared with 44% in the control group. The mean initial hospitalization was 29 days in routine rehabilitation group versus 14 days in the home rehabilitation group. We conclude that for moderately disabled stroke patients with mental function within normal limits, early supported discharge and continued rehabilitation at home had no less a beneficial effect on patient outcome than routine rehabilitation, reduced initial hospitalization significantly and had no adverse effects on mortality and number of falls. PMID:10853722

  18. The heart beads program.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Kate Alexa; Scarfe, Gabbie; Redshaw, Sarah; Wilson, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    From July 2008 through June 2009, 760 infants and children with cardiac conditions were admitted to a pediatric hospital in Australia with approximately 360 cardiac surgical procedures performed.This was the first experience in hospital for many of these children, with diagnoses signaling the beginning of a long and arduous journey. These children undergo multiple treatments and procedures,as well as multiple admissions for further surgeries. Procedures in any regard can cause stress and anxiety, especially in children who often have limited understanding and so little control over what happens to them (Lau, 2002).A heart center for children exists at the hospital with the aim of providing a consistent experience for children with cardiac conditions as they move through the different hospital environments, from preadmission clinic to operating theaters to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and then on to the cardiac ward. The Heart Beads Program was developed within a context of person-centered care to enrich the experience of children with cardiac conditions by providing them with distinctive beads specific to each procedure, treatment, or event in recognition of their experiences and endurance (McCormack et al., 2008). This column focuses on the process of starting the program and on preliminary responses from staff, children, and families. PMID:21294839

  19. Frequency of policy recommendations in epidemiologic publications.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L W; Lee, N L; Samet, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics. PMID:10432907

  20. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  1. Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood Pressure (HBP) • HIV and Your Heart • Metabolic Syndrome • Pericarditis • Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) • Stroke • Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) • Consumer Healthcare • Tools For Your Heart ...

  2. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Oct 1, ... Pressure Tracker (PDF) Find additional helpful resources here Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  3. Heart failure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ... often, fluid collects in your lungs and legs. Heart failure most often occurs because your heart muscle is ...

  4. Common Tests for Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart - Fetal Echocardiogram Test - Detection of a Heart Defect - Fetal Circulation • Care & Treatment • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ...

  5. How Is a Heart Murmur Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is a Heart Murmur Diagnosed? Doctors use a stethoscope to listen to ... especially with physical exertion), dizziness, or fainting. Evaluating Heart Murmurs When evaluating a heart murmur, your doctor will ...

  6. When a Heart Murmur Signals Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More When A Heart Murmur Signals Valve Disease Updated:Aug 26,2015 What ... to valve problems should receive follow-up care. Heart Murmurs and Valve Problems Learn how a heart murmur ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Progressive familial heart block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Progressive familial heart block On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed April 2015 What is progressive familial heart block? Progressive familial heart block is a genetic ...

  8. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:Aug 26,2015 ... Loved One? Support Network: You're Not Alone Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...

  9. What to Expect during Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During Heart Surgery Heart surgery is done in a hospital, ... surgery, takes about 3–6 hours. Traditional Open-Heart Surgery For this type of surgery, you'll ...

  10. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Critical congenital heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Critical congenital heart disease On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed May 2013 What is critical congenital heart disease? Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a ...

  12. On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1998-01-01

    Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  13. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary ...

  14. Cocaine, Other Drugs and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vessels and heart valves. Many drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and various forms of amphetamine, affect the ... heart attacks, seizures, and respiratory arrest More about Cocaine - the "perfect heart-attack drug" The powdered form ...

  15. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can a Heart Attack Be Prevented? Lowering your risk factors for coronary ... This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is a heart attack? 05/22/2014 Describes how a heart attack ...

  16. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Updated:Dec 2,2015 Understanding the terms of ... website This content was last reviewed July 2015. Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks • Warning Signs of a ...

  17. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well the heart’s chambers and valves are working. Health Insurance and Employment Adults who have congenital heart defects ... carefully consider how changing jobs will affect their health insurance coverage. Some health plans have waiting periods or ...

  18. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Aorta Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Heart and Circulatory System Anesthesia Basics Tetralogy of Fallot Arrhythmias When Your ... Heart Disease Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System What Happens in the Operating Room? Atrial Septal ...

  19. Biomarkers in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Aditi; Januzzi, James L

    2015-06-01

    The care of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure is being reshaped by the availability and understanding of several novel and emerging heart failure biomarkers. The gold standard biomarkers in heart failure are B-type natriuretic peptide and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. Novel biomarkers that are increasingly involved in the processes of myocardial injury, neurohormonal activation, and ventricular remodeling are showing promise in improving diagnosis and prognosis among patients with acute decompensated heart failure. These include midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide, soluble ST2, galectin-3, highly-sensitive troponin, and midregional proadrenomedullin. There has also been an emergence of biomarkers for evaluation of acute decompensated heart failure that assist in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, such as procalcitonin (for identification of acute pneumonia), as well as markers that predict complications of acute decompensated heart failure, such as renal injury markers. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology and usefulness of established and emerging biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and management of acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:25911167

  20. Congestive heart failure. New frontiers.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, W. W.; Chatterjee, K.; Francis, G. S.; Firth, B. G.; Kloner, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a common syndrome with high mortality in its advanced stages. Current therapy includes the use of vasodilator drugs, which have been shown to prolong life. Despite current therapy, mortality remains high in patients with severe heart failure. Potent new inotropic vasodilators have improved ventricular performance but have not prolonged life in patients with end-stage heart failure. Serious arrhythmias are implicated in the sudden deaths of 30% to 40% of patients with severe heart failure, but the benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy have not been established. Upcoming trials will address this question. Ventricular remodeling and progressive dilatation after myocardial infarction commonly lead to congestive heart failure; early unloading of the ventricle with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may attenuate these events. These findings support the concept that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be useful in managing heart failure of all degrees of severity, including left ventricular dysfunction and end-stage heart failure. Part of the damage that may occur with acute myocardial infarction, particularly in this era of thrombolysis therapy, is reperfusion injury, which may be mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. Better knowledge of the mechanisms and treatment of myocardial infarction, the leading cause of congestive heart failure, may help prevent or attenuate the development of this syndrome. PMID:1678903

  1. Sweetened Drinks and Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of sweetened beverages per day are at increased risk of heart failure. Researchers tracked the health of around 42,000 men for more than ... of sweetened drinks had a 23 percent higher risk of developing heart failure compared to ... to you. Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  2. Dental Health and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eating Fast Food Dining Out Tips by Cuisine Physical Activity Fitness Basics American Heart Association Recommendations for Physical Activity ... extractions, Bolger said. “Unfortunately, we didn’t cure heart disease by removing teeth.” ... Activity • Healthier Kids • Weight Management • Stress Management • Quit ...

  3. New medical therapies for heart failure.

    PubMed

    von Lueder, Thomas G; Krum, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) can rightfully be called the epidemic of the 21(st) century. Historically, the only available medical treatment options for HF have been diuretics and digoxin, but the capacity of these agents to alter outcomes has been brought into question by the scrutiny of modern clinical trials. In the past 4 decades, neurohormonal blockers have been introduced into clinical practice, leading to marked reductions in morbidity and mortality in chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Despite these major advances in pharmacotherapy, our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms of HF from epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological, molecular, and genetic standpoints remains incomplete. This knowledge gap is particularly evident with respect to acute decompensated HF and HF with normal (preserved) LVEF. For these clinical phenotypes, no drug has been shown to reduce long-term clinical event rates substantially. Ongoing developments in the pharmacotherapy of HF are likely to challenge our current best-practice algorithms. Novel agents for HF therapy include dual-acting neurohormonal modulators, contractility-enhancing agents, vasoactive and anti-inflammatory peptides, and myocardial protectants. These novel compounds have the potential to enhance our armamentarium of HF therapeutics. PMID:26416006

  4. Vitamin therapy after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh

    2015-10-01

    The need for routine nutritional supplementation with vitamins in most healthy individuals remains a matter of debate and current guidelines recommend that the need for these essential nutrients be met primarily through consuming an adequate diet. However, after heart transplantation, multiple factors, including the effects of prolonged debilitation prior to surgery and immunosuppression, may lead to physiological stress, which may justify consideration for vitamin supplementation. In general, clinical trials have not focused on vitamin supplementation after heart transplantation. There appears to be some limited clinical data to support the use of certain vitamins after heart transplantation. In particular, the putative antioxidant properties of vitamins C and E after heart transplantation may be beneficial as prophylaxis against cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and vitamin D, in conjunction with calcium, may help prevent post-transplant bone loss. Current guidelines only address the use of vitamin D after heart transplantation. PMID:26365630

  5. Gene Therapy for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tilemann, Lisa; Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Weber, Thomas; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    Congestive heart failure accounts for half a million deaths per year in the US. Despite its place among the leading causes of morbidity, pharmcalogical and mechanic remedies have been able to slow the progression of the disease, today’s science has yet to provide a cure and there are few therapeutic modalities available for patients with advanced heart failure. There is a critical need to explore new therapeutic approaches in heart failure and gene therapy has emerged as a viable alternative. Recent advances in understanding of the molecular basis of myocardial dysfunction, together with the evolution of increasingly efficient gene transfer technology, has placed heart failure within reach of gene-based therapy. The recent successful and safe completion of a phase 2 trial targeting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump (SERCA2a) along with the start of more recent phase 1 trials opens a new era for gene therapy for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:22383712

  6. 16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive Director for Epidemiology,...

  7. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Heart Attack English (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Multimedia ... Sr?ani udar - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Heart Attack ????? - ???? (Chinese - ...

  8. Heart Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arabic) ???? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Failure Zatajenje srca - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Heart Failure ???? - ???? (Chinese - ...

  9. The Decline and Rise of Coronary Heart Disease: Understanding Public Health Catastrophism

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Jeremy A.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of coronary heart disease mortality in the United States and Western Europe is one of the great accomplishments of modern public health and medicine. Cardiologists and cardiovascular epidemiologists have devoted significant effort to disease surveillance and epidemiological modeling to understand its causes. One unanticipated outcome of these efforts has been the detection of early warnings that the decline had slowed, plateaued, or even reversed. These subtle signs have been interpreted as evidence of an impending public health catastrophe. This article traces the history of research on coronary heart disease decline and resurgence and situates it in broader narratives of public health catastrophism. Juxtaposing the coronary heart disease literature alongside the narratives of emerging and reemerging infectious disease helps to identify patterns in how public health researchers create data and craft them into powerful narratives of progress or pessimism. These narratives, in turn, shape public health policy. PMID:23678895

  10. HEART Aerothermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations.

  11. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups

    Cancer.gov

    Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.

  12. DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

  13. Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  14. EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT FOR AIR POLLUTION EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes the evolution of air pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studie...

  15. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Board of Directors

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  17. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  18. Epidemiology and Health Sciences Behavioral Health Sciences

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Forensic Medicine and Medical Law Public Health Science Patient Safety & Risk Management EnvironmentalEpidemiology and Health Sciences Behavioral Health Sciences Mental Health Department of Health and Social Behavior Health Education and Health Sociology Health Promotion Science Biomedical Ethics Human

  19. Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives. PMID:23091702

  20. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.