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Sample records for stockholm heart epidemiology

  1. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration. PMID:26107454

  2. Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

  3. Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Annette . E-mail: peters@gsf.de

    2005-09-01

    The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

  4. The epidemiology of prosthetic heart valves in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, D; Kaczmarek, R G; Silverman, B G; Gross, T P; Hamilton, P M

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, conducted the Medical Device Implant Supplement to the 1988 National Health Interview Survey, generating the 1st available population-based estimates of the use of prosthetic heart valves in the United States. The 1988 National Health Interview Survey was a massive, nationally representative cross-sectional survey that encompassed 47,485 households and 122,310 individuals. Data from the Medical Device Implant Supplement indicate that an estimated 253,283 persons with 279,175 heart valves were present in the civilian, non-institutionalized US population (population prevalence of 1.1/1,000, 95% CI 0.8-1.3). Prevalence of valve prostheses ranged from 0.2 per 1,000 in those age 44 and under to 5.3 per 1,000 in those 75 years of age and older. Age-adjusted prevalence of valve prostheses did not differ significantly according to sex, race, region of residence, education, or income of recipients. Two thirds of aortic valve recipients identified by the survey were male, compared with only one third of mitral valve recipients. Approximately two thirds of both aortic and mitral valve implants were reported as mechanical. Reported use of anticoagulative agents was significantly more common in recipients of mechanical than of bioprosthetic valves. The single most common reported reason for prosthetic valve implantation was rheumatic heart disease. These data provide useful epidemiologic and public health planning information on prosthetic heart valve use. PMID:7787476

  5. Epidemiological basis for the prevention of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Marmot, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have laid the basis for a preventive approach to coronary heart disease (CHD). On balance, present evidence indicates that the following should form the basis of a preventive programme: low-fat diet, cessation of smoking, and control of blood pressure. Other factors likely to produce a beneficial effect on CHD occurrence include reduction of obesity and increased physical activity. Although psychosocial factors are most likely to be causally related to CHD, it is not possible at present to provide clear guidelines as to their role in a preventive programme. Trials are being conducted to investigate the possibility of preventing CHD by a variety of approaches: a doctor-centred approach or health education in certain sectors of a community or in whole communities. These trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a proportion of the participants. It is not yet clear to what extent these changes in levels of risk factors in middle-aged people will lead to a reduction in the incidence of CHD. It can be calculated, however, that the greatest benefit is likely to come from approaches to prevention that involve the whole community, rather than only high-risk groups. PMID:314348

  6. Honors in Stockholm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Toni

    1996-01-01

    Includes the full text of Toni Morrison's acceptance speech for the 1996 Nobel Prize, awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. In the context of a modern day fable, Morrison investigates interwoven themes of language, creativity, and responsibility. Includes several photographs of the ceremony. (MJP)

  7. Acute heart failure: Epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Farmakis, Dimitrios; Parissis, John; Lekakis, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-03-01

    Acute heart failure represents the first cause of hospitalization in elderly persons and is the main determinant of the huge healthcare expenditure related to heart failure. Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis of acute heart failure is poor, with in-hospital mortality ranging from 4% to 7%, 60- to 90-day mortality ranging from 7% to 11%, and 60- to 90-day rehospitalization from 25% to 30%. Several factors including cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions as well as patient-related and iatrogenic factors may precipitate the rapid development or deterioration of signs and symptoms of heart failure, thus leading to an acute heart failure episode that usually requires patient hospitalization. The primary prevention of acute heart failure mainly concerns the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and heart disease, including coronary artery disease, while the secondary prevention of a new episode of decompensation requires the optimization of heart failure therapy, patient education, and the development of an effective transition and follow-up plan. PMID:25659507

  8. Accord at Stockholm

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-12-01

    The first arms control agreement since SALT II was reached on September 22, 1986, at the 35-nation Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE). The conference, which had convened in Stockholm on January 17, 1984, produced agreement on a series of measures affecting major military activities to reduce the risks of military confrontation in Europe and to give effect and expression to the duty of states to refrain from the threat or use of force in their mutual relations as well as in their international relations in general. In effect, the Stockholm agreement prohibits any state from massing military forces for whatever purpose without being subject to prompt accountability and mandatory onsite inspection. This reduces the remote but still significant risks of surprise attack, confrontation arising out of miscalculation or misunderstanding, and the use of military activities for political coercion. Agreement on mandatory on-site inspection, moreover, sets precedents for the continuing Geneva negotiations on nuclear and chemical arms control, and for limiting nuclear weapons testing. As important as the agreement itself, in light of the troubled history of arms control, Stockholm has proved, Mikhail Gorbachev declared, that even in a complex situation it is possible to reach agreement on questions of security if there is the political will and desire. Principal provisions of the agreement, which were to go into effect Jan. 1, 1987, are listed and discussed briefly. 5 references.

  9. The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Syed S.; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary On October 11, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of its first participant in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The origin of the study is closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. The present article describes the events leading to the founding of the Framingham Heart Study, and provides a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

  10. Congenital heart disease in Saudi Arabia: current epidemiology and future projections.

    PubMed

    Alabdulgader, A A A

    2006-01-01

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of congenital heart disease, the results of epidemiological studies done in 4 regions of Saudi Arabia (August 1988-February 2000) and 2604 individuals with congenital heart disease were evaluated. Ventricular septal defect was the commonest lesion (33.9%) followed by atrial septal defect (18.1%). Overall, sex distribution was similar; for 3 conditions, more males than females were affected. Of 2269 (59%) presenting in the first year of life, 566 (24.9%) had neonatal congenital heart disease. Down syndrome was the commonest cause. Distribution of specific lesions and sex distribution was similar to findings from other parts of the world; however, the overall detection rate at 1 year of age was lower. PMID:17361687

  11. Ischemic heart disease among the general Mongolian population: a review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Enkh-Oyun, Tsogzolbaatar; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Swanson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is considered to be a pivotal health problem in Mongolia. To summarize the existing epidemiology of IHD in the general Mongolian population is crucial for primary prevention. The present review summarized population-based epidemiological data of IHD in Mongolia. When epidemiological studies were extracted from databases, very limited studies were available. The frequencies of IHD and IHD-attributable death rates appeared to be high and have an increased tendency in Mongolia. This could to be due to a gradually worsening state of potential IHD-related risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus. This might indicate an urgent need of strategies for IHD and related risk factors. Anti-IHD strategies, such as more epidemiological studies and campaigns to increase awareness of IHD, at nationwide public health levels would be required in Mongolia for more effective prevention. PMID:26647395

  12. Progress in Stockholm talks

    SciTech Connect

    Borawski, J.

    1986-02-01

    Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

  13. Visible aging signs as risk markers for ischemic heart disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mette; Tybjrg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Association of common aging signs (i.e., male pattern baldness, hair graying, and facial wrinkles) as well as other age-related appearance factors (i.e., arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, and earlobe crease) with increased risk of ischemic heart disease was initially described in anecdotal reports from clinicians observing trends in the physical appearance of patients with ischemic heart disease. Following these early observations numerous epidemiological studies have reported these associations. Since the prevalences of both visible aging signs and ischemic heart disease have a strong correlation with increasing age, it has been extensively debated whether the observed associations could be entirely explained by a common association with age. Furthermore, the etiologies of the visible aging signs are rarely fully understood, and pathophysiological explanations for these associations remain controversial, and are mostly speculative. As a consequence of inconsistent findings and lack of mechanistic explanations for the observed associations with ischemic heart disease, consensus on the clinical importance of these visible aging signs has been lacking. The aim of this review is for each of the visible aging signs to (i) review the etiology, (ii) to discuss the current epidemiological evidence for an association with risk of ischemic heart disease, and (iii) to present possible pathophysiological explanations for these associations. Finally this review discusses the potential clinical implications of these findings. PMID:26590331

  14. Letter from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example Ren de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Szkely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which reflects the position of psychoanalysis outside the mainstream of psychiatric health services and academic psychology. Despite the criticism of Freud's thinking from biologically and cognitively oriented theoretical standpoints, the interest in psychoanalysis endures. PMID:25917651

  15. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  16. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors of cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-08-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  18. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Diseases: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  19. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, it has evolved over the years with staggering expanded breadth and depth that have far greater implications in the study of the epidemiology of a wide spectrum of human diseases. The FHS welcomes research collaborations using existing or new collection of data. Detailed information regarding the procedures for research application submission and review are available at [http://www.framinghamheartstudy.org/researchers/index.php]. PMID:26705418

  20. Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

  1. Networks in Coronary Heart Disease Genetics As a Step towards Systems Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Drenos, Fotios; Grossi, Enzo; Buscema, Massimo; Humphries, Steve E.

    2015-01-01

    We present the use of innovative machine learning techniques in the understanding of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) through intermediate traits, as an example of the use of this class of methods as a first step towards a systems epidemiology approach of complex diseases genetics. Using a sample of 252 middle-aged men, of which 102 had a CHD event in 10 years follow-up, we applied machine learning algorithms for the selection of CHD intermediate phenotypes, established markers, risk factors, and their previously associated genetic polymorphisms, and constructed a map of relationships between the selected variables. Of the 52 variables considered, 42 were retained after selection of the most informative variables for CHD. The constructed map suggests that most selected variables were related to CHD in a context dependent manner while only a small number of variables were related to a specific outcome. We also observed that loss of complexity in the network was linked to a future CHD event. We propose that novel, non-linear, and integrative epidemiological approaches are required to combine all available information, in order to truly translate the new advances in medical sciences to gains in preventive measures and patients care. PMID:25951190

  2. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome

  3. Stress and your heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JP, Soliday E, Craft R. Multiple Roles and Stress Burden in Women: A Conceptual Model of Heart Disease Risk. Journal ... al. Psychosocial Stress and Atherosclerosis: Family and Work Stress ... The Stockholm Female Coronary Angiography Study. Journal of ...

  4. The Hearts of Heroes: the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Cox, Andrew T; Boos, C J; Sharma, S

    2015-09-01

    When the general public look from the outside at the armed services, their impression is often one of earnest young men and women who are the pinnacle of physical fitness and health, and put their lives on the line for their country. There is usually sadness and respect for those killed on active operations, having put themselves in harm's way. Therefore, when the public discover that more than 1 in 10 deaths in the UK Armed Forces are due to cardiovascular disease, the air of sadness is invariably replaced with surprise and disbelief. These figures, while lower than those due to deaths in accidents, are approaching the numbers of those due to suicide in the armed services; yet deaths from cardiac disease are barely recognised by society, in spite of many of them being avoidable. This article reviews the epidemiology of cardiac disease in the UK Armed Forces, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. It outlines current understanding and gaps in the knowledge regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease in the military population. The particular demographics of the Armed Forces and its influence on cardiac disease burden are discussed. The role of inherited and congenital diseases in younger servicemen and women is highlighted, as is the trend that with increasing age, the burden of disease shifts to ischaemic heart disease, which becomes the dominant cause of both death and disability. PMID:26243808

  5. District cooling in Stockholm using sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Fermbaeck, G.

    1995-12-31

    In May this year Stockholm Energi started supplying properties in central Stockholm with cooling for comfort and for various processes from its new district cooling system. The project is unique in that most of the cooling energy is produced using cold water from the Baltic Sea. The following article describes the system and provides a summary of the considerations that resulted in venturing to invest in sea-water cooling for such a large project. There is also a description of the hydrological conditions that made the system feasible in Stockholm and some speculations about the possibilities to use cooled sea water elsewhere in the world.

  6. ISMB/ECCB 2009 Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Sagot, Marie-France; McKay, B.J. Morrison; Myers, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org) presents the Seventeenth Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), organized jointly with the Eighth Annual European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB; http://bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/conferences/eccb/eccb.htm), in Stockholm, Sweden, 27 June to 2 July 2009. The organizers are putting the finishing touches on the year's premier computational biology conference, with an expected attendance of 1400 computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, biologists and scientists from other disciplines related to and reliant on this multi-disciplinary science. ISMB/ECCB 2009 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2009/) follows the framework introduced at the ISMB/ECCB 2007 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2007/) in Vienna, and further refined at the ISMB 2008 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2008/) in Toronto; a framework developed to specifically encourage increased participation from often under-represented disciplines at conferences on computational biology. During the main ISMB conference dates of 29 June to 2 July, keynote talks from highly regarded scientists, including ISCB Award winners, are the featured presentations that bring all attendees together twice a day. The remainder of each day offers a carefully balanced selection of parallel sessions to choose from: proceedings papers, special sessions on emerging topics, highlights of the past year's published research, special interest group meetings, technology demonstrations, workshops and several unique sessions of value to the broad audience of students, faculty and industry researchers. Several hundred posters displayed for the duration of the conference has become a standard of the ISMB and ECCB conference series, and an extensive commercial exhibition showcases the latest bioinformatics publications, software, hardware and services available on the market today. The main conference is preceded by 2 days of Special Interest Group (SIG) and Satellite meetings running in parallel to the fifth Student Council Symposium on 27 June, and in parallel to Tutorials on 28 June. All scientific sessions take place at the Stockholmsmssan/Stockholm International Fairs conference and exposition facility. Contact: bj@iscb.org PMID:19447790

  7. Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRIAn Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

  8. High-density lipoproteins in the prevention of atherosclerotic heart disease. Part I. Epidemiological and family studies.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M

    1978-10-21

    It has recently been proposed that the concentration of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in plasma bears a negative relationship to the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease. The biological and environmental factors affecting plasma HDL levels and the evidence pertaining to the proposed 'negative risk potential' of this lipoprotein are reviewed. HDL concentrations are low at birth, but rise rapidly in early infancy to adult or above-normal adult levels. This trend is influenced by biological factors such as sex and ethnicity and by a host of environmental variables. Despite methodological inadequacies in some studies, the epidemiological evidence consistently reflects an inverse relationship between the level of HDL in the plasma and the risk of ischaemic heart disease. Investigations on families suffering from genetic dyslipoproteinaemias, characterized by reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) relative to HDL, suggest that the LDL:HDL ratio is itself an important determinant of atherosclerotic heart disease. The practical application of this information is limited by the lack of reliable reference ranges in various population groups and the absence of quantitative data regarding the 'negative risk potential' of any given concentration of plasma HDL in the presence of other positive and negative risk factors. PMID:217108

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Stockholm Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment,

  10. The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R

    2011-01-01

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD. PMID:21386976

  11. Strategic Transformation of Population Studies: Recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Population Sciences From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Véronique L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granger, Christopher B.; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  12. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA. CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN JAPAN AND HAWAII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...

  14. The Aeronautical Laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmer, Ivar

    1935-01-01

    This report presents a detailed analysis and history of the construction and operation of the aeronautical laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute. Engines and balances are discussed and experimental results are also given.

  15. The Stockholm electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Engstrm, .; Bjrkhage, M.

    1993-03-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring - CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Institute, and for low energy atomic physics experiments. It will also provide highly charged ions for the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap scheduled for installation at MSI in early 1993. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe49+ using electron beam currents of typically Ie = 200-300 mA and current density je = 100-200 A/cm2. Continuous electron beams of energy E = 19 keV and current Ie = 600 mA have been propagated through the source with transmission greater than 99.9%. Test beams of He2+ and N7+ extracted from the source in 50-100 ?s pulses have been injected into CRYRING with the entire CRYSIS platform raised to 20 kV. Ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ extracted in extended 50-100 ms pulses have been used in coincidence-type atomic physics experiments. The status of CRYSIS as of March 15, 1992 is reported. Improvements, modes of operation, and results are discussed.

  16. A Robust e-Epidemiology Tool in Phenotyping Heart Failure with Differentiation for Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction: the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network.

    PubMed

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Carrell, David S; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Larson, Nicholas B; Liu, Hongfang; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wells, Quinn S; Denny, Joshua C; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pacheco, Jennifer Allen; Jackson, Kathryn L; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gullerud, Rachel E; Decker, Paul A; Pereira, Naveen L; Ryu, Euijung; Dart, Richard A; Peissig, Peggy; Linneman, James G; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; Bock, Jonathan A; Tromp, Gerard C; de Andrade, Mariza; Roger, Vronique L

    2015-11-01

    Identifying populations of heart failure (HF) patients is paramount to research efforts aimed at developing strategies to effectively reduce the burden of this disease. The use of electronic medical record (EMR) data for this purpose is challenging given the syndromic nature of HF and the need to distinguish HF with preserved or reduced ejection fraction. Using a gold standard cohort of manually abstracted cases, an EMR-driven phenotype algorithm based on structured and unstructured data was developed to identify all the cases. The resulting algorithm was executed in two cohorts from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network with a positive predictive value of >95%. The algorithm was expanded to include three hierarchical definitions of HF (i.e., definite, probable, possible) based on the degree of confidence of the classification to capture HF cases in a whole population whereby increasing the algorithm utility for use in e-Epidemiologic research. PMID:26195183

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P<0.01). The youngest m...

  18. Prediction of coronary heart disease mortality in Busselton, Western Australia: an evaluation of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and WHO ERICA risk scores.

    PubMed Central

    Knuiman, M W; Vu, H T

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of the Framingham, national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA risk scores in predicting death from coronary heart disease (CHD) in an Australian population. DESIGN: Cohort follow up study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The cohort consisted of 1923 men and 1968 women who participated in health surveys in the town of Busselton in Western Australia over the period 1966-81. Baseline assessment included cardiovascular risk factor measurement. Mortality follow up to 31 December 1994 was used. MAIN RESULTS: Risk scores for death from CHD within 10 years based on age, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, and BMI were derived from the Busselton study data using logistic regression analysis. Similar risk scores developed from the Framingham, the national health epidemiologic follow up study, and the WHO ERICA cohorts were found to perform just as well in Busselton as the Busselton-derived scores, both before and after controlling the effect of age. There was considerable overlap across the different risk scores in the identification of individuals in the highest quintile of risk. Those in the top 20% of scores included about 41% of deaths from CHD among men and about 63% of deaths from CHD among women. CONCLUSION: Although there is variation in risk score coefficients across the studies, the relative risk predictive performance of the scores is similar. The use of Framingham and other similar risk scores will not be misleading in white Australian populations. PMID:9425461

  19. Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block A Moroccan center-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p=0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p<0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p<0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p<0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p=0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block. PMID:25544816

  20. Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa

    The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a

  1. Stockholm Recommendation 96: Viable in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Roth, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has taken steps to develop and implement a comprehensive plan (called Plan Sierra) for national natural resources management. The plan (which includes an environmental education component) demonstrates a commitment to Stockholm Recommendation 96 in a way that could become a model for other Latin American nations. (JN)

  2. A foodborne outbreak of Cyclospora infection in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Insulander, Mona; Svenungsson, Bo; Lebbad, Marianne; Karlsson, Lillemor; de Jong, Birgitta

    2010-12-01

    During May and June 2009 an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection involving 12 laboratory-confirmed and 6 probable cases was detected in Stockholm County, Sweden. Imported sugar snap peas from Guatemala were the suspected vehicle, based on information obtained from patient questionnaires. This is the first reported outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Sweden and the second in Europe. PMID:20807111

  3. Sequencing of Two Subclinical Atherosclerosis Candidate Regions in 3,669 Individuals: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Bis, Joshua C.; White, Charles C.; Franceschini, Nora; Brody, Jennifer; Zhang, Xiaoling; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Gibbs, Richard; Liu, Xiaoming; Lin, Honghuang; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; ODonnell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis, the precursor to coronary heart disease and stroke, is characterized by accumulation of fatty cells in the arterial intimal-medial layers. Common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and plaque are subclinical atherosclerosis measures that predict cardiovascular disease events. Previously, genome-wide association studies demonstrated evidence for association with cIMT (SLC17A4) and plaque (PIK3CG). Methods and Results We sequenced 120kb around SLC17A4 (6p22.2) and 251kb around PIK3CG (7q22.3) among 3,669 European ancestry participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. Primary analyses focused on 438 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%), which were independently meta-analyzed. A 3 UTR CCDC71L variant (rs2286149), upstream from PIK3CG, was the most significant finding in cIMT analyses (p= 0.00033) and plaque (p=0.0004). A SLC17A4 intronic variant was also associated with cIMT (p=0.008). Both were in low LD with the GWAS SNPs. Gene-based tests including T1 count and SKAT for rare variants (MAF < 1%), did not yield statistically significant associations. However, we observed nominal associations for rare variants in the CCDC71L and SLC17A3 with cIMT and of the entire 7q22 region with plaque (p=0.05). Conclusions Common and rare variants in the PIK3CG and SLC17A4 regions demonstrated modest association with subclinical atherosclerosis traits. While not conclusive, these findings may help to understand the genetic architecture of regions previously implicated by GWAS and identify variants within these regions for further investigation in larger samples. PMID:24951662

  4. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large core databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  5. Associations of NINJ2 Sequence Variants with Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Bis, Joshua C.; DeStefano, Anita; Liu, Xiaoming; Brody, Jennifer A.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Debette, Stphanie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Shahar, Eyal; Butler, Kenneth R.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Gupta, Mayetri; Wolf, Philip A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Seshadri, Sudha; Fornage, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. Methods and Results We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). Conclusion Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24959832

  6. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs.

  7. Maternal Folic Acid Supplementation and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Wang, Song; Chen, Runsen; Tong, Xing; Wu, Zeyu; Mo, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal folic acid supplementation and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles cataloged between their inceptions and October 10, 2014 and identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal folate supplementation and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled using random-effects or fixed-effects models. Out of the 1,606 articles found in our initial literature searches, a total of 1 randomized controlled trial, 1 cohort study, and 16 case-control studies were included in our final meta-analysis. The overall results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that maternal folate supplementation is associated with a significantly decreased risk of CHDs (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63–0.82). Statistically significant heterogeneity was detected (Q = 82.48, P < 0.001, I2 = 79.4%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among the studies, and a Galbraith plot was generated to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis provides a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal folate supplementation and a decreased risk of CHDs. PMID:25687545

  8. Epidemiology and genetic determinants of progressive deterioration of glycaemia in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, N.; Haack, K.; Gring, H. H. H.; Voruganti, V. S.; Laston, S.; Almasy, L.; Lee, E. T.; Best, L. G.; Fabsitz, R. R.; North, K. E.; MacCluer, J. W.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.; Cole, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes is a chronic, heterogeneous disease and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms leading to progression to type 2 diabetes are not fully understood and genetic tools may help to identify important pathways of glycaemic deterioration. Methods Using prospective data on American Indians from the Strong Heart Family Study, we identified 373 individuals defined as progressors (diabetes incident cases), 566 individuals with transitory impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 1,011 controls (normal fasting glycaemia at all visits). We estimated the heritability (h2) of the traits and the evidence for association with 16 known variants identified in type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies. Results We noted high h2 for diabetes progression (h2=0.650.16, p=2.710?6) but little contribution of genetic factors to transitory IFG (h2=0.090.10, p=0.19) for models adjusted for multiple risk factors. At least three variants (in WFS1, TSPAN8 and THADA) were nominally associated with diabetes progression in age- and sex-adjusted analyses with estimates showing the same direction of effects as reported in the discovery European ancestry studies. Conclusions/interpretation Our findings do not exclude these loci for diabetes susceptibility in American Indians and suggest phenotypic heterogeneity of the IFG trait, which may have implications for genetic studies when diagnosis is based on a single time-point measure. PMID:23851660

  9. Epidemiology, associated factors, and prognostic outcomes of renal artery stenosis in chronic heart failure assessed by magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Ramesh; Loh, Huan; Rigby, Alan S; Nikitin, Nikolay P; Witte, Klaus K A; Goode, Kevin; Bhandari, Sunil; Nicholson, Anthony; Clark, Andrew L; Cleland, John G F

    2007-07-15

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with the presence of significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), and to explore the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and diuretics in this population during a 3-year follow-up period. We identified 97 patients with significant renal dysfunction (RD, defined as a calculated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min) and 38 patients without RD, with ejection fractions of <40%. A stenosis of >50% using magnetic resonance angiography of the renal arteries was used to define significant RAS. Seventy-three (54%) patients had significant RAS of >or=1 artery. Mean follow-up time was 37.3 (+/- 7.9) months. Compared with patients with no significant RAS, these patients were on higher doses of diuretics, lower doses of ACE inhibitors, had prolonged hospital admissions, were admitted with exacerbation of HF, and had a higher mortality (p = 0.007 for mortality). In conclusion, RAS is common in patients with chronic HF, especially among patients with RD and is a predictor of a poor clinical outcome. Interventional trials on renal revascularization are underway that contain subsets of patients with HF that may provide evidence on how best to manage RAS in this setting. PMID:17631082

  10. Sequence Analysis of Six Blood Pressure Candidate Regions in 4,178 Individuals: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Ehret, Georg B.; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Levy, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3 were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods and Results Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (?50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF?1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF?=?0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P?=?0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P?=?0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF?=?0.007, P?=?0.0006) and was not in LD (r2?=?0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF?=?0.27, P?=?0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r2?=?0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures. Conclusion Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample. PMID:25275628

  11. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

  12. Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Amneklev, Jennie; Bergbck, Bo; Srme, Louise; Lagerkvist, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further. PMID:24473311

  13. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  14. Individual Exposure to NO2 in Relation to Spatial and Temporal Exposure Indices in Stockholm, Sweden: The INDEX Study

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, Janine; Lind, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiology studies of health effects from air pollution, as well as impact assessments, typically rely on ambient monitoring data or modelled residential levels. The relationship between these and personal exposure is not clear. To investigate personal exposure to NO2 and its relationship with other exposure metrics and time-activity patterns in a randomly selected sample of healthy working adults (20–59 years) living and working in Stockholm. Personal exposure to NO2 was measured with diffusive samplers in sample of 247 individuals. The 7-day average personal exposure was 14.3 µg/m3 and 12.5 µg/m3 for the study population and the inhabitants of Stockholm County, respectively. The personal exposure was significantly lower than the urban background level (20.3 µg/m3). In the univariate analyses the most influential determinants of individual exposure were long-term high-resolution dispersion-modelled levels of NO2 outdoors at home and work, and concurrent NO2 levels measured at a rural location, difference between those measured at an urban background and rural location and difference between those measured in busy street and at an urban background location, explaining 20, 16, 1, 2 and 4% (R2) of the 7-day personal NO2 variation, respectively. A regression model including these variables explained 38% of the variation in personal NO2 exposure. We found a small improvement by adding time-activity variables to the latter model (R2 = 0.44). The results adds credibility primarily to long-term epidemiology studies that utilise long-term indices of NO2 exposure at home or work, but also indicates that such studies may still suffer from exposure misclassification and dilution of any true effects. In contrast, urban background levels of NO2 are poorly related to individual exposure. PMID:22745780

  15. Comparison between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Stockholm 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Berggren, Ingela; Bruchfeld, Judith; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Groenheit, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze the difference between methods for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. We collected genotyping results from Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) in a geographically limited area (Stockholm) during a period of three years. The number and proportion of isolates belonging to clusters was reduced by 45 and 35% respectively when combining the two methods compared with using RFLP or MIRU-VNTR only. The mean size of the clusters was smaller when combining methods and smaller with RFLP compared to MIRU-VNTR. In clusters with confirmed epidemiological links RFLP coincided slightly better than MIRU-VNTR but where there was a difference, the variation in MIRU-VNTR pattern was only in a single locus. In isolates with few IS6110 bands in RFLP, MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates more, dividing the RFLP clusters. Since MIRU-VNTR is faster and less labour-intensive it is the method of choice for routine genotyping. In most cases it will be sufficient for epidemiological purposes but true clustering might still be considered if there are epidemiological links and the MIRU-VNTR results differ in only one of its 24 loci. PMID:24733167

  16. Comparison between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated in Stockholm 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Berggren, Ingela; Bruchfeld, Judith; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Groenheit, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze the difference between methods for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. We collected genotyping results from Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) in a geographically limited area (Stockholm) during a period of three years. The number and proportion of isolates belonging to clusters was reduced by 45 and 35% respectively when combining the two methods compared with using RFLP or MIRU-VNTR only. The mean size of the clusters was smaller when combining methods and smaller with RFLP compared to MIRU-VNTR. In clusters with confirmed epidemiological links RFLP coincided slightly better than MIRU-VNTR but where there was a difference, the variation in MIRU-VNTR pattern was only in a single locus. In isolates with few IS6110 bands in RFLP, MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates more, dividing the RFLP clusters. Since MIRU-VNTR is faster and less labour-intensive it is the method of choice for routine genotyping. In most cases it will be sufficient for epidemiological purposes but true clustering might still be considered if there are epidemiological links and the MIRU-VNTR results differ in only one of its 24 loci. PMID:24733167

  17. Inversion of Seabed Parameters in the Stockholm Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamsson, L.; Andersson, B. L.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply acoustic inversion to a bay in the Stockholm archipelago with strong variations of the bottom both vertically and horizontally. The inversions were based on measurements undertaken in May 2001 of transmission loss over a 2.5 km long track. The bottom parameters were estimated by minimizing the difference between simulated and measured data. The parabolic wave equation was used as a wave propagation model and the inversions were carried out by a genetic algorithm. They resulted in a relatively good fit. The inverted bottom parameters were also evaluated by model predictions against a control data set of other frequencies than those of the inversion. The agreement between the estimated and measured parameters was good.

  18. Design (and) principles of nuclear dynamics in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Shav-Tal, Yaron; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The structural organization of the nucleus and its content has drawn increasing interest in recent years, as it is has become evident that the spatial and temporal arrangement of the genome and associated structures plays a crucial role in transcriptional regulation and numerous other functions. Shining light on the dynamic nature of this organization, along with the processes controlling it, were the topics of the Wenner-Gren Foundations international symposium "Nuclear Dynamics: Design (and) Principles." The meeting, organized by Piorgiogio Percipalle, Maria Vartiainen, Neus Visa, and Ann-Kristin stlund-Farrants, brought over 60 participants, including 20 international speakers, to Stockholm, Sweden from August 19-22, 2015 to share the latest developments in the field. Given the unpublished nature of many of the talks, we have focused on covering the discussed topics and highlighting the latest trends in this exciting and rapidly evolving field. PMID:26730816

  19. Status report on the Stockholm cryogenic electron beam ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljeby, L.; Engstrm, ..

    1989-06-01

    The EBIS project in stockholm started as a collaboration between MSI and IPN in Orsay, France. Two almost identical cryogenic EBIS sources were constructed at IPN: CRYEBIS II for IPN and CRYSIS for MSI. The main difference between the two sources was that CRYEBIS II was equipped with a 50 keV electron gun as compared to 10 keV for CRYSIS. Both sources were planned to be dedicated to atomic physics experiments but during the construction plans to use CRYSIS as an injector for a storage ring evolved. Both source were completed in the beginning of 1984 and after initial tests, CRYSIS was moved to MSI in December 1984 and installed in a temporary laboratory.

  20. Five-year epidemiological survey of valvular heart disease: changes in morbidity, etiological spectrum and management in a cardiovascular center of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-Zhou; Xue, Yu-Mei; Liao, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xian-Zhang; Guo, Hui-Ming; Huang, Huan-Lei; Fang, Xian-Hong; Wei, Wei; Rao, Fang; Deng, Hai; Liu, Yang; Lin, Wei-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function and highlight the etiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) in a single cardiovascular center of Southern China in five years. Methods The retrospective study included 19,428 consecutive patients (9,441 men and 9,987 women with a mean age of 52.03±20.50 years) with abnormal valvular structure and function who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the in-patient department of Guangdong General Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential etiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. Results There were 13,549 (69.7%) patients with relatively definite etiology for VHD. VHD was rheumatic in 7,197 (37.0%) patients, congenital in 2,697 (13.9%), degenerative in 2,241 (11.5%), ischemic in 2,460 (12.7%). The prevalence decreased significantly in rheumatic VHD from 2009 to 2013 (from 42.8% to 32.8%, P<0.001), but increased markedly in congenital VHD (from 9.0% to 12.3%, P<0.001), ischemic VHD (from 9.2% to 11.3%, P=0.003) and degenerative VHD (from 8.8% to 14.5%, P<0.001). Meantime, the prevalence of ischemic VHD increased after the age of 45, similar to that of degenerative VHD. From 2009 to 2013, the proportion of patients with VHD undergoing open cardiac valvular surgery decreased (from 49.5% to 44.3%, P<0.001) and that of patients treated with general medication increased (from 49.2% to 54.1%, P<0.001). However, there was markedly increment in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from 2009 to 2013 (from 0.3% to 4.4%, P<0.001). Increasing tendencies were showed in aortic mechanical valve replacement (from 32.1% to 34.5%, P=0.001) and double mechanical valve replacement (from 20.9% to 22.3%, P=0.035), especially in mitral valvuloplasty (from 8.5% to 15.7%, P<0.001). However, the proportion of patients undergoing bioprosthetic valve replacement decreased from 2009 to 2013 (from 26.3% to 15.5%, P<0.001). Conclusions Despite a significant shift from rheumatic towards degenerative etiology from 2009 to 2013, rheumatic VHD remains the leading etiology in Southern China, with a significant increase in the prevalence of ischemic, congenital and degenerative VHD. General medication and cardiac valvular surgery remain the main treatment options. The proportion of VATS increased markedly from 2009 to 2013, and mechanical valve replacement and mitral valvuloplasty showed an increasing tendency. PMID:25589965

  1. Primary Prevention of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed. PMID:22957272

  2. Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  3. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to

  4. Sick Leave and Work Participation among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to…

  5. Psychiatric health, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors among suicides in Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Ferrada-Noli, M; Asberg, M

    1997-08-01

    The suicide statistics for two high-income areas and two low-income areas of Stockholm county, with, respectively, low and high proportions of immigrant residents, were compared on health and socioeconomic factors to ascertain whether differences in such indicators might explain the overrepresentation of immigrants previously found by us in cases of definite and undetermined suicide. The findings can be summarised as follows. (1) The suicide rate was higher in the low-income areas, irrespective of ethnicity, and highest in the immigrant population of the low-income areas which accounted for 82% of all immigrants in the areas studied. (2) The suicide rate was inversely correlated with the respective figures for mean municipality-income indices. (3) Over the 4-yr. study period, the annual suicide rate increased among immigrants and decreased among native Swedes. (4) Of all categories investigated, immigrants from the low-income areas were characterised by the highest suicide rate (39 per 100,000) and the lowest mean annual income among the suicide victims (77.7), and native Swedes from the high-income areas by the lowest suicide rate (16.2) and the highest mean income (254.1). (5) The low-income areas manifested also lower mean duration of hospitalisation in primary care and psychiatric facilities, although the frequency of psychiatric consultations, was higher in low- than in high-income areas. Interrelations among low income, immigrant status, and poor benefit of psychiatric care suggest that proneness to suicidal behaviour among immigrants may have a social psychiatric explanation. PMID:9293223

  6. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  7. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

  8. A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery

    2013-09-01

    Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets. PMID:22795396

  9. Marginal Structural Models in Occupational Epidemiology: Application in a Study of Ischemic Heart Disease Incidence and PM2.5 in the US Aluminum Industry

    PubMed Central

    Neophytou, Andreas M.; Costello, Sadie; Brown, Daniel M.; Picciotto, Sally; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Cullen, Mark R.; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) and inverse probability weighting can be used to estimate risk in a cohort of active workers if there is a time-varying confounder (e.g., health status) affected by prior exposure—a feature of the healthy worker survivor effect. We applied Cox MSMs in a study of incident ischemic heart disease and exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) in a cohort of 12,949 actively employed aluminum workers in the United States. The cohort was stratified by work process into workers in smelting facilities, herein referred to as “smelters” and workers in fabrication facilities, herein referred to as “fabricators.” The outcome was assessed by using medical claims data from 1998 to 2012. A composite risk score based on insurance claims was treated as a time-varying measure of health status. Binary PM2.5 exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cutoff for each work process. Health status was associated with past exposure and predicted the outcome and subsequent exposure in smelters but not in fabricators. In smelters, the Cox MSM hazard ratio comparing those always exposed above the cutoff with those always exposed below the cutoff was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.32). In fabricators, the hazard ratio from a traditional Cox model was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.83). Results suggest that occupational PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of incident ischemic heart disease in workers in both aluminum smelting and fabrication facilities. PMID:25125691

  10. Marginal structural models in occupational epidemiology: application in a study of ischemic heart disease incidence and PM2.5 in the US aluminum industry.

    PubMed

    Neophytou, Andreas M; Costello, Sadie; Brown, Daniel M; Picciotto, Sally; Noth, Elizabeth M; Hammond, S Katharine; Cullen, Mark R; Eisen, Ellen A

    2014-09-15

    Marginal structural models (MSMs) and inverse probability weighting can be used to estimate risk in a cohort of active workers if there is a time-varying confounder (e.g., health status) affected by prior exposure-a feature of the healthy worker survivor effect. We applied Cox MSMs in a study of incident ischemic heart disease and exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) in a cohort of 12,949 actively employed aluminum workers in the United States. The cohort was stratified by work process into workers in smelting facilities, herein referred to as "smelters" and workers in fabrication facilities, herein referred to as "fabricators." The outcome was assessed by using medical claims data from 1998 to 2012. A composite risk score based on insurance claims was treated as a time-varying measure of health status. Binary PM2.5 exposure was defined by the 10th-percentile cutoff for each work process. Health status was associated with past exposure and predicted the outcome and subsequent exposure in smelters but not in fabricators. In smelters, the Cox MSM hazard ratio comparing those always exposed above the cutoff with those always exposed below the cutoff was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.32). In fabricators, the hazard ratio from a traditional Cox model was 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.83). Results suggest that occupational PM2.5 exposure increases the risk of incident ischemic heart disease in workers in both aluminum smelting and fabrication facilities. PMID:25125691

  11. A Meta-analysis of Four Genome-Wide Association Studies of Survival to Age 90 Years or Older: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, Andr G.; Vaupel, James W.; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Murabito, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. Results. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 10?8. Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 10?7 for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Conclusion. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings. PMID:20304771

  12. Opportunities and Challenges for Building Alumni Networks in Sweden: A Case Study of Stockholm University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Karin; Axelsson, Leona; Harbor, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Because of the potential value of alumni involvement for student success, for connections to society and as a base for future philanthropy, there is growing interest in developing university alumni relations programmes in countries that do not have a long tradition in this area. This case study of Stockholm University describes the goals,…

  13. Bullying in Context: An Analysis of Psychosomatic Complaints among Adolescents in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Lftman, Sara Brolin; stberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as

  14. Bullying in Context: An Analysis of Psychosomatic Complaints among Adolescents in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as…

  15. Opportunities and Challenges for Building Alumni Networks in Sweden: A Case Study of Stockholm University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Karin; Axelsson, Leona; Harbor, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Because of the potential value of alumni involvement for student success, for connections to society and as a base for future philanthropy, there is growing interest in developing university alumni relations programmes in countries that do not have a long tradition in this area. This case study of Stockholm University describes the goals,

  16. School Performance, School Segregation, and Stress-Related Symptoms: Comparing Helsinki and Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Karvonen, Sakari; Rahkonen, Ossi; stberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school

  17. Heart Murmur

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Is... How the Heart Works Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia Congenital Heart Defects Heart Valve Disease Holes in the Heart How the Heart Works ...

  18. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  19. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Heart Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Heart Disease Print A ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  20. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  1. The Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project: protocol overview and regional representativeness

    PubMed Central

    Runesson, Bjrn; Gasparini, Alessandro; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Norin, Olof; Evans, Marie; Barany, Peter; Wettermark, Bjrn; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Carrero, Juan Jess

    2016-01-01

    Background We here describe the construction of the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurement (SCREAM) cohort and assess its coverage/representativeness of the Stockholm county in Sweden. SCREAM has the principal aims to estimate the burden and consequences of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to identify inappropriate drug use (prescription of nephrotoxic, contraindicated or ill-dosed drugs). Methods SCREAM is a repository of laboratory data of individuals, residing or accessing healthcare in the region of Stockholm, who underwent creatinine assessments between 200611. Laboratory tests were linked to administrative databases with complete information on socioeconomic status, demographic data, healthcare utilization, diagnoses, vital status and dispensed prescription medicines. Results SCREAM identified 1 118 507 adult Stockholm citizens with available creatinine tests between 200611. This corresponded to 66% of the complete population in the region. Geographical coverage was uniform, ranging between 62 and 72% throughout its 26 municipalities. Population coverage was higher across older age strata (50% coverage for age range 1844 years, >75% for 4564 years and >90% coverage for ?65 years). Of note, 97 and 98% of all individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease, respectively, were captured by SCREAM. Further, 89% of all deaths registered in the period occurred in individuals with a creatinine test undertaken. Conclusion SCREAM represents the largest cohort to estimate the burden and healthcare implications of CKD in Sweden. The coverage and representativeness of the region of Stockholm was high and in accordance to both the commonness of creatinine assessment, and the medical indications for creatinine testing. The inclusion of individuals who sought medical care and had a creatinine test undertaken resulted in a slight over-representation of elderly and comorbid patients. PMID:26798472

  2. Sequence Variation in TMEM18 in Association with Body Mass Index: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Young, Kristin L.; Brody, Jennifer; Olden, Matthias; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Li, Guo; Morrison, Alanna C.; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Shao, Yaming; Zhou, Yanhua; Boerwinkle, Eric; Heiss, Geraldo; Wagenknecht, Lynne; McKnight, Barbara; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) previously identified a locus near TMEM18. We conducted targeted sequencing of this region to investigate the role of common, low frequency, and rare variation influencing BMI. Methods and Results We sequenced TMEM18 and regions downstream of TMEM18 on chromosome 2 in 3976 individuals of European ancestry from three community-based cohorts (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study and Framingham Heart Study), including 200 adults selected for high BMI. We examined the association between BMI and variants identified in the region from nucleotide position 586,432 to 677,539 (hg18). Rare variants (MAF <1%) were analyzed using a burden test and the Sequence Kernel of Association Test (SKAT). Results from the three cohort studies were meta-analyzed. We estimate that mean BMI is 0.43 kg/m2 higher for each copy of the G allele of SNP rs7596758 (MAF=29%, p=3.46 × 10−4) using a Bonferroni threshold of p <4.6 × 10−4). Analyses conditional on previous GWAS SNPs associated with BMI in the region led to attenuation of this signal and uncovered another independent (r2<0.2), statistically significant association, rs186019316 (p=2.11 × 10−4). Both rs186019316 and rs7596758 or proxies are located in transcription factor binding regions. No significant association with rare variants was found in either the exons of TMEM18 or the 3’ GWAS region. Conclusions Targeted sequencing around TMEM18 identified two novel BMI variants with possible regulatory function. PMID:24951660

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

  4. Environmental Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

  5. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  6. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jrup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  7. Heart block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart (atria). This area is the heart's pacemaker. The electrical signals travel to the lower chambers ... third-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker to help your heart beat regularly. A pacemaker ...

  8. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Heart Disease KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems of Grown-Ups > ... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ...

  9. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...

  10. Fuel cell buses in the Stockholm CUTE projectFirst experiences from a climate perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraldsson, K.; Folkesson, A.; Alvfors, P.

    This paper aims to share the first experiences and results from the operation of fuel cell buses in Stockholm within the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) project. The project encompasses implementation and evaluation of both a hydrogen fuel infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles in nine participating European cities. In total, 27 fuel cell buses, 3 in each city, are in revenue service for a period of 2 years. The availability of the fuel cell buses has been better than expected, about 85% and initially high fuel consumption has been reduced to approximately 2.2 kg H 2/10 km corresponding to 7.5 l diesel equivalents/10 km. Although no major breakdowns have occurred so far, a few cold climate-related issues did arise during the winter months in Stockholm.

  11. Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts-A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai and Stockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated from support vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix features. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configuration and to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbanization is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified by ecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of cropland in both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover change was a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2 and 100 km2 in Stockholm. The developed methodology is considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions in urban and regional planning.

  12. [Hospital readmission after postpartum discharge of term newborns in two maternity wards in Stockholm and Marseille].

    PubMed

    Boubred, F; Herlenius, E; Andres, V; des Robert, C; Marchini, G

    2016-03-01

    The consequences of early postpartum discharge (EPPD, within 2days after birth) on newborn health remain debated. Early discharge has been associated with increased neonatal morbidity. However, neonatal re-hospitalization can be prevented by careful follow-up during the 1st week after birth. We compared the early neonatal hospitalization of term newborns over 2years in two hospitals: Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm (n=7300births), which allowed early discharge from 6h after birth with specific neonatal follow-up, and Marseille University Hospital (AP-HM) (n=4385) where postpartum discharge was more conventional after 72h. During the study period, the EPPD rate was 41% vs. 2% in Stockholm and Marseille, respectively (P<0.001). Hospital readmission was comparable (5.6 vs. 7, P=0.2). The leading cause associated with hospitalization was icterus in Stockholm (76% vs. 26%, P<0.001) and feeding difficulties in Marseille (17% vs. 48%, P<0.001). In conclusion, close neonatal follow-up during the 1st week of life associated with restricted maternal and neonatal eligibility criteria for EPPD are required to prevent early neonatal re-hospitalization. PMID:26899902

  13. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  14. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  15. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  16. Sick Leave and Work Participation Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to parents who did not have a child with ASD and these results remained after adjusting for familial socioeconomic factors and parental psychiatric care. Sick leave among parents was associated with having a child with ASD without intellectual disability (ID) but not ASD with ID. Although Sweden has policies helping families with children with ASD this study suggests that there exist unmet needs among these parents. PMID:25697737

  17. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  18. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Attack What is a Heart Attack? Blood Flow to the Heart Is Blocked Click ... all blood supply to the heart, and a heart attack results. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, ...

  19. Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Congenital Heart Defects Electrocardiogram How the Heart Works Sudden Cardiac Arrest Send ... block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test detects ...

  20. Heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  1. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The Heart Valves The ... See also on this site: The Heartbeat The Conduction System (illustration) Electrical impulses from your heart muscle ( ...

  2. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  3. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the ... it may cause severe or long-lasting problems. Heart With Muscle Damage and a Blocked Artery Figure ...

  4. Heart Murmurs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than normal. You also might get an electrocardiogram (EKG), which measures electrical activity of the heart. None ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC The Heart Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Mitral Valve Prolapse ...

  5. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2004, nearly 60 percent more women died of cardiovascular disease (both heart disease and stroke) than from all ... Program Director Heart Failure & Arrhythmias Branch Division of Cardiovascular Diseases National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Content last ...

  6. Heart Truth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... advice From the Heart . Follow us on Facebook , Twitter and Pinterest and share our advice and gifts ... on The Heart Truth Facebook page or on Twitter . Spread the word about women's heart health! Get ...

  7. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salath, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 017 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 20012007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.211.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.044.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.098.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.295.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

  9. Anthropogenic phosphorus flows under different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Franzén, Daniel; Malmström, Maria E

    2016-01-15

    Today, concerns prevail about the unsustainable use of phosphorus and worldwide eutrophication, thus requiring efficient management of phosphorus flows. With increasing population and associated urban growth, urban management of phosphorus flows in the perspectives of recycling, eutrophication and total budget becomes increasingly important. This study mapped phosphorus flows for a reference year (2013) and a future year (2030) using different scenarios for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The results indicated that the Swedish goal of recycling phosphorus from wastewater would cover the majority of the total phosphorus budget for Stockholm. However, in 2013, only 10% of phosphorus was recycled for agricultural use, around half of which was from sewage sludge and the other half from food waste. Almost 50% of total phosphorus was sent to landfill/mining waste capping with sewage sludge, for economic reasons and lack of market. Among the scenarios of upstream and downstream urban management options studied in combination with population growth, recovery of phosphorus from sewage sludge had the greatest potential to increase the fraction recycled to agriculture. However, only upstream measures, e.g. changed diet, were able to reduce the total phosphorus budget. Urban management of phosphorus flows based on the different perspectives of recycling, eutrophication or total budget was shown to potentially result in different preferred management actions and both upstream and downstream measures need to be considered. Moreover, management needs to pay attention to small but environmentally sensitive flows, particularly when setting city goals on phosphorus recycling by percentage in a large budget. PMID:26442719

  10. [The Ribe family during the 1700- and 1800 centuries. A distinguished family of doctors in Stockholm].

    PubMed

    Rehn, N O

    1995-01-01

    The Ribe family descended from Mecklenburg. The first member Mathias Bernhard Ribe, arriving in Stockholm 1660, became appointed barber-surgeon to the court of King Charles XI and elected as Director of the Surgical Society 1693. In the following three generations, seven members of the family, after basic university studies in Uppsala and lengthy stays at foreign universities and hospitals, returned to Sweden practising surgery or medicine in Stockholm and Gothenburg. A biography of each of the Ribe doctors is presented. Two members of the family are specially interesting from ophthalmological point of view, Evald and Carl-Fredric Ribe. They were both fellows of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. In the proceedings of the Academy they have published articles dealing with ophthalmological subjects. Evald Ribe gives a case report on treatment of a young man with a sudden loss of vision and partly paralized due to a traumatic accident. After repeated treatments with emetica, part of the vision returned, also the capability to move the paralysed right fingers, hand and arm. Carl-Fredric Ribe described the surgical technique on a case of cataracta lactea, and the surgical treatment of a young man with a probable conjunctivitis gonorroica. - When he is resigning from a period as president of the Academy, he gives a lecture reviewing the contemporary knowledge of the physiology and pathology of the eye, and advises about treatment of various eye diseases. PMID:11624767

  11. Emerging flame retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in indoor and outdoor media in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Newton, Seth; Sellstrm, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Dust, indoor air, outgoing air from ventilation systems, outdoor air, and soil were sampled in and around Stockholm, Sweden during the winter and spring 2012. The concentrations of several emerging flame retardants (EFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured. The most commonly found EFR was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), which was found in nearly all indoor, ventilation, and outdoor air samples, most dust samples, but not in soil samples. Other frequently detected EFRs included pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (EHTBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). PBDE concentrations were significantly lower in air and dust samples compared to a previous study in Stockholm. In outdoor air, DBE-DBCH, PBT, EHTBB, DBDPE, and PBDEs showed an "urban pulse" with concentrations increasing as samples were taken in more urban areas compared to rural areas. These EFRs show similar environmental behavior as PBDEs. Higher brominated BDEs showed this same urban pulse in soil but lower brominated BDEs did not. Air-soil fugacity fractions were calculated, and these indicated that most compounds are undergoing net deposition from atmosphere to soil, with the higher brominated PBDEs furthest from equilibrium. PMID:25668286

  12. STRONG HEART STUDY DATA BOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. Examination on the prevalence of major risk factors of CVD in American Indian men and women ages 45-74 in the American Indian communities from the three centers that participate in the Strong Heart Study.

  13. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  14. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  15. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  16. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  17. Heart Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Michael A.; Murry, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Heart failure plagues industrialized nations, killing more people than any other disease. Heart failure usually results from a deficiency of cardiomyocytes, and a robust therapy to regenerate lost myocardium could help millions of patients a year. Heart regeneration is well documented in lower vertebrates and in developing mammals. After we are born, however, human heart regeneration becomes limited. In this article, Laflamme and Murry review the innate barriers to heart regeneration, the evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans, and current experimental strategies to remuscularize the injured heart using adult and pluripotent stem cells, cellular reprogramming and tissue engineering. PMID:21593865

  18. A Multilevel Study on Ethnic and Socioeconomic School Stratification and Health-Related Behaviors among Students in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Gabriella; Fritzell, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examines the extent to which high alcohol consumption, drug use, and delinquency vary between schools with different socioeconomic characteristics, over and above the pupil's own sociodemographic background. Methods: Analyses are based on data on 5484 ninth-grade students distributed over 93 schools in Stockholm, from the

  19. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other

  20. DEVELOPMENTS AT NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH HELD AT STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN ON JUNE 12-16, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an interpretive analysis of formal and informal developments at the Ninth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Stockholm, Sweden, on June 12-14, 1978, and has been prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the U.S.A. National ...

  1. Use of the Cultural Formulation in Stockholm: a qualitative study of mental illness experience among migrants.

    PubMed

    Scarpinati Rosso, Marco; Bäärnhielm, Sofie

    2012-04-01

    This paper explores the contributions of the Cultural Formulation (CF) interview to an overall understanding of patients, and focuses on the narratives of 23 newly referred patients with migrant backgrounds seeking help at a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Stockholm. Through text content analysis methods we identified five themes: displacement in space and time; mental illness as a physical disability; life events as etiological factors; concealing as a coping strategy; and being lost in a fragmented health care system. Findings indicate the need to contextualize symptoms for an in-depth comprehension of patients' phenomenology. Both clinical and policy implications are discussed. The findings suggest that a section on migration and acculturation should be added to the cultural formulation in the next edition of DSM. PMID:22508638

  2. The epidemiology of Kawasaki disease: a global update.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Burgner, David

    2015-11-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a childhood vasculitis and the most frequent cause of paediatric acquired heart disease in North America, Europe and Japan. It is increasingly recognised in rapidly industrialising countries such as China and India where it may replace rheumatic heart disease as the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children. We review the current global epidemiology of KD and discuss some public health implications. PMID:26111818

  3. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart disease, such as high cholesterol, diabetes, or high blood pressure. You have new or different heart palpitations. Your pulse is more than 100 beats per minute (without exercise, anxiety, or fever).

  4. Heart MRI

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have: Brain aneurysm clips Certain types of artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator or pacemaker Inner ear (cochlear) implants Kidney disease or dialysis (you may not be able to ... artificial joints Certain types of vascular stents Worked with ...

  5. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... having another heart attack. These medicines include: aspirin, beta blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors and fish oil. Your doctor ... have had a stent placed in your heart. Beta blockers are a group of drugs that lower the ...

  6. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  7. Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Aneurysm Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Heart Transplant Pacemakers Ventricular Assist Device Send a ... common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery or vein ...

  8. Heart transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The heart-lung machine is then disconnected. Blood flows through the transplanted heart, which takes over supplying your body with blood and oxygen. Tubes are inserted to drain air, fluid, and ...

  9. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal blood circulation. If the transplant goes well, heart function and blood flow will be better than ever. ... echocardiogram and Holter monitoring to help monitor your heart rhythm and function, or an endomyocardial biopsy, which is a diagnostic ...

  10. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  11. What Causes Heart Murmurs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Murmurs? Innocent Heart Murmurs Why some people have innocent heart murmurs ... that occur in pregnant women are innocent. Abnormal Heart Murmurs Congenital heart defects or acquired heart valve ...

  12. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tests: Blood tests Urine tests Chest X-ray Electrocardiogram (also called EKG or ECG) Echocardiogram Radionuclide ventriculography An electrocardiogram records the electrical activity of your heart. It ...

  13. Changes in Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2001-2011: Findings from the Stockholm Youth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idring, Selma; Lundberg, Michael; Sturm, Harald; Dalman, Christina; Gumpert, Clara; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    In a record-linkage study in Stockholm, Sweden, the year 2011 prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was found to be 0.40, 1.74, 2.46, and 1.76% among 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, and 18-27year olds, respectively. The corresponding proportion of cases with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability was 17.4, 22.1, 26.1 and 29.4%.

  14. Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part III: the long temperature records from Uppsala and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moberg, Anders; Bergstrm, Hans

    1997-06-01

    The temperature records from Uppsala, beginning in 1722, and from Stockholm, beginning in 1756, are subjected to homogeneity tests against homogenized reference series for the period 1861-1994. Both records have been affected by urbanization during the test period. The data are corrected for urban bias and for a few other non-homogeneities. The homogenized temperature records are considered to be reliable indicators of the temperature variations in southern Sweden, although individual temperature values are less accurate before the 1860s, particularly before the 1750s. Annual mean temperatures as well as seasonal mean temperatures in the winters, summers and autumns during the recent 30-year period, 1966-1995, were not significantly different from those of the pre-industrial 100-year period 1761-1860. Springs have become significantly warmer compared with that period and have featured a steady warming trend since the 1880s. The annual temperature range during 1966-1995 was significantly smaller than that during 1761-1860; thus the temperature climate has become more maritime.

  15. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; stenson, Claes-Gran; Pershagen, Gran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20??g/m3 in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.831.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10??g/m3 corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.681.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  16. Effects of fish stocking on ecosystem services: an overview and case study using the Stockholm Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Cecilia M; Hammer, Monica

    2004-06-01

    In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social context of releasing fish. The results show that enhancements of four native species (Salmo S. trutta, Salmo salar, Stizostedion lucioperca, and Anguilla anguilla) have dominated over new introductions of one nonnative species. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The major objective has been to increase fish catches for local resource users. Involved stakeholders include three management agencies, one hydropower company, and several local sport fishing associations. Documented effects focus on recapture and production rates. However, our analysis suggests that additional positive or negative effects on biodiversity, food web dynamics, mobile links, or ecological information may also result, with possible consequences for the long-term provision of food, game, and aesthetic values. We conclude that a more adaptive and cooperative management approach could benefit from a deeper analysis of where, when, and what species is released, by whom, which stakeholders that use the fish and those ecosystem services the fish generate, and of the role of formal and informal institutions for monitoring and evaluating the success of releasing fish. PMID:15156349

  17. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

  18. Optimization of the Stockholm R-EBIT for production and extraction of highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobein, M.; Orban, I.; Bhm, S.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Fritioff, T.; Tashenov, S.; Schuch, R.

    2010-11-01

    We describe a refrigerated EBIT (R-EBIT) commissioned at the AlbaNova Research Center at Stockholm University. As an innovative solution, the superconducting magnet and the trapping drift tubes of the R-EBIT are cooled to a temperature of 4 K by a set of two cooling heads connected to helium compressors. This dry, i.e. liquid helium and liquid nitrogen free, system is easily operated and creates highly charged ions at a fraction of the cost of traditional liquid-cooled systems. A pulsed and continuous gas injection system was developed to feed neutral particles into the electron beam in the trap region. This improves significantly the highly charged ion production and R-EBIT performance. Fast extraction of ions from the R-EBIT yields very short ( < 100 ns), charge-separated ion bunches which can be either analysed using a straight time-of-flight section or sent to experimental beam lines following selection in a bending magnet. An emittance meter was used to measure the emittance of the ions extracted from the R-EBIT. The extracted ions were also re-trapped in a cylindrical Penning trap and properties of the re-trapped ions have been measured using the emittance meter. Results of these measurements are reported in this publication.

  19. Present status of the Stockholm electron beam ion source and its scientific program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstrm, Ingmar; Bjrkhage, Mikael; Danared, Hkan; Cederquist, Henrik; Fritioff, Tomas; Liljeby, Leif; Schuch, Reinhold

    2001-07-01

    The Stockholm electron beam ion source CRYSIS has since 1987 been used for the production of ions with charges in the region 1+ to 60+ for various experiments at low energies as well as for experiments in the storage ring CRYRING. A short summary of these experiments is given. The highly charged ions are produced by electron bombardment of species, either by directly introducing a monoisotopic or almost monoisotopic gas or singly charged isotope separated ions into CRYSIS. The singly charged ions are produced in a plasma ion source, CHORDIS, that can operate with gases, solid material evaporated in an oven or used in a sputtering mode. In this way highly charged ions of practically any element can be produced, even isotopes with a low abundance. The mass selection is done with a 0.5 meter radius doubly focusing magnet that ensures isotopically pure beams even for the heaviest elements. A summary is given of the elements and charge states so far delivered to users.

  20. Increased ion intensity and reliability of the Stockholm electron beam ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Pikin, A.; Bjrkhage, M.; Engstrm, .; Paal, A.

    1994-05-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ringCRYRING at MSL, as well as low energy atomic physics experiments and the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap recently installed at MSL. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe52+. Pulsed beams of Ar13+ ions 60 ?s in duration have been injected into CRYRING via an RFQ and ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ have been used in atomic physics experiments with pulse duration 10-250 ms. A vacuum separation of the cryostat and ionization volumes has been made. Temperature control and measurement of internal electrodes have increased the gas injection efficiency and reduced the memory effect associated with a cryogenic EBIS. External ion injection has been added as an alternative to neutral gas injection for introducing the species to be ionized to high charge states. Monitoring of the radio frequency noise signal with a spectrum analyzer has aided in the propagation of quiet, high current (450 mA) dc electron beams. These quiet electron beams have been used to produce extracted ion pulses of higher intensities than in previous operation.

  1. Increased ion intensity and reliability of the Stockholm electron beam ion source (abstract)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Pikin, A.; Bjrkhage, M.; Engstrm, .; Paal, A.

    1994-04-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ringCRYRING at MSL, as well as low energy atomic physics experiments and the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap recently installed at MSL. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar18+ and 136Xe52+. Pulsed beams of Ar13+ ions 60 ?s in duration have been injected into CRYRING via an RFQ and ions of charge up to 136Xe44+ have been used in atomic physics experiments with pulse duration 10-250 ms. A vacuum separation of the cryostat and ionization volumes has been made. Temperature control and measurement of internal electrodes have increased the gas injection efficiency and reduced the memory effect associated with a cryogenic EBIS. External ion injection has been added as an alternative to neutral gas injection for introducing the species to be ionized to high charge states. Monitoring of the radio frequency noise signal with a spectrum analyzer has aided in the propagation of quiet, high current (450 mA) dc electron beams. These quiet electron beams have been used to produce extracted ion pulses of higher intensities than in previous operation.

  2. Environmentally Reformed Travel Habits During the 2006 Congestion Charge Trial in StockholmA Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Greger; Hagman, Olle; Andrasson, Hkan

    2011-01-01

    Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour. PMID:21909301

  3. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; stenson, Claes-Gran; Pershagen, Gran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20??g/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10??g/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution. PMID:25827311

  4. Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

    2013-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

  5. Climate-induced variability of sea level in Stockholm: Influence of air temperature and atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Omstedt, Anders

    2005-09-01

    This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873 1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale temperature and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and temperature. While the wind is important in the period January May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic variables (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air temperature during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the variability.

  6. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  7. Heart River

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

  8. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  9. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart pump blood better. People with heart failure, a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to supply the body's needs, may also take them. Beta blockers slow the heart and make it beat with ...

  10. Heart failure and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer's disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  11. Traffic pollution at the home address and pregnancy outcomes in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, David; Mogren, Ingrid; Eneroth, Kristina; Forsberg, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Background For the past two decades, several studies have reported associations between elevated levels of ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although with varying conclusions. Objectives To examine possible associations between the traffic pollution situation at the home address, for women who did not change address during pregnancy, and three types of pregnancy outcomes: spontaneous preterm delivery, children born small for gestational age (SGA) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. Methods We used data for the Greater Stockholm Area from the Swedish Medical Birth Register to construct a cohort based on all pregnancies conceived between July 1997 and March 2006, n=100 190. The pregnancy average nitrogen oxide, NOx, levels and annual mean daily vehicles at the home address were used as exposure variables. Mixed-model logistic regression was performed to assess any associations between exposure and outcome. Results There was an association between elevated traffic pollution exposure during pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. A 10 µg/m3 increase in the pregnancy average NOx level at the home address resulted in an OR of 1.17 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). The 2nd to 4th quartiles of NOx were all associated with an increased risk of SGA, but there was no difference in the risk estimate among the higher quartiles. There was a tendency of a higher risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in relation to higher levels of NOx. There was no evidence of an association between vehicle flow, the cruder indicator of traffic pollution, and the studied outcomes in this study. Conclusions In this large cohort, there was a fairly strong association between vehicle exhaust levels at the home address and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, after adjustment for important risk factors. PMID:26275899

  12. Prevalence of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Antidepressants and Antipsychotics in Stockholm, Sweden: A Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Jonatan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is considered an underused tool in psychiatric care, the prevalence of TDM is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of TDM for antidepressants and antipsychotics during 20062013. Methods: The study population consisted of individuals ?5 years of age residing in Stockholm County. The prevalence of TDM for each study year was calculated with the number of individuals in whom TDM had been performed as nominator (extracted from the TDM database at Karolinska University Laboratory) and the number of treated individuals as denominator (extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register). All data were obtained at the third and the fifth level of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system (pharmacological subgroup and chemical substance, respectively). The prevalence of TDM was compared between substances according to the level of TDM recommendation by guidelines. Results: For antidepressants, the prevalence of TDM decreased from 0.48% (95% confidence interval, 0.45%0.52%) in 2006 to 0.36% (0.33%0.39%) in 2013 (among 133,275 and 162,998 treated individuals, respectively). For antipsychotics, the prevalence of TDM increased from 2.3% (2.2%2.5%) to 4.1% (3.9%4.3%) (31,463 and 32,534 treated individuals). For both drug groups, TDM was more common in men than in women. The most frequently analyzed drugs were clozapine, perphenazine, zuclopenthixol, nortriptyline, and flupentixol. Although not reaching statistical significance, the TDM prevalence was greater for substances strongly recommended for TDM than for substances with a lower level of recommendation, median (interquartile range): 5.6% (2.8%22%) versus 1.1% (0.2%2.2%), P = 0.063. Conclusions: The prevalence of TDM is generally low, more frequent, and increasing for antipsychotics, and more frequent for men and substances where TDM is strongly recommended. PMID:25533882

  13. Nutrient loadings from urban catchments under climate change scenarios: case studies in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiechen; Malmstrm, Maria E

    2015-06-15

    Anthropogenic nutrient emissions and associated eutrophication of urban lakes are a global problem. Future changes in temperature and precipitation may influence nutrient loadings in lake catchments. A coupling method, where the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions method was tested in combination with source quantification in a Substance Flow Analysis structure, was suggested to investigate diffuse nutrient sources and pathways and climate change effects on the loadings to streamflow in urban catchments. This method may, with an acceptable level of uncertainty, be applied to urban catchments for first-hand estimations of nutrient loadings in the projected future and to highlight the need for further study and monitoring. Five lake catchments in Stockholm, Sweden (Rcksta Trsk, Judarn, Trekanten, Lngsjn and Laduviken) were employed as case studies and potential climate change effects were explored by comparing loading scenarios in two periods (2000-2009 and 2021-2030). For the selected cases, the dominant diffuse sources of nutrients to urban streamflow were found to be background atmospheric concentration and vehicular traffic. The major pathways of the nitrogen loading were suggested to be from both developed areas and natural areas in the control period, while phosphorus was indicated to be largely transported through surface runoff from natural areas. Furthermore, for nitrogen, a modest redistribution of loadings from surface runoff and stormwater between seasons and an increase in the annual loading were suggested for the projected future climate scenarios as compared to the control period. The model was, due to poor monitoring data availability, only able to set an upper limit to nutrient transport by groundwater both in the control period and the future scenarios. However, for nitrogen, groundwater appeared to be the pathway most sensitive to climate change, with a considerable increase and seasonal redistribution of loadings. For phosphorus, loadings by different pathways were apparently less sensitive to climate change. PMID:25770952

  14. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePLUS

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  15. Hearts Wish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates characteristics and themes in 102 drawings by sexually abused children. Themes of the drawings included genitalia, the absence of specific body parts, phallic symbols, inappropriate smiles, distorted body images, kinetic activity, prominent hands and fingers, and hearts. (RJC)

  16. Heart failure with normal ejection fraction: a growing pandemic.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satnam; Frenneaux, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Heart failure is a heterogeneous syndrome. Approximately 30-50% of patients with heart failure have normal or near normal left ventricle function. Several epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of heart failure with normal ejection fraction is increasing. Given the current trends, heart failure with normal ejection fraction will become the most common form of heart failure, for which we do not currently have an evidence-based successful treatment. This article summarizes the etiology, current recommended guidelines and management options for this clinical manifestation. PMID:22642630

  17. Cardiac Disease Patterns in Northern Malawi: Epidemiologic Transition Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Juma, Hadge

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a strongly emerging problem in developing countries. The documentation and prediction of CVD patterns are important for policy makers if actions are to be taken to curb this problem. We aimed to document the current CVD patterns in Malawi, and associate these patterns to the theory of epidemiologic transition as a means of predicting future CVD patterns. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data recorded in the register of the cardiac clinic in Mzuzu Central Hospital-the only cardiac clinic run by a cardiologist in Malawi-from 2001 through 2005. The findings were interpreted in the context of the epidemiologic transition theory. Results Out of the 3908 new Malawian patients included in the 5-y period register, 34% had valvular heart disease (mainly rheumatic heart disease (RHD)); 24%, hypertensive heart disease; 19%, cardiomyopathies; and 14%, pericardial diseases. The other CVD patterns included congenital heart disease and arrhythmias, each representing 4% of the registered patients. Among the 1% comprising other CVD patterns, 3 cases were documented to have coronary heart disease, all of which happened in 2005. Conclusion Malawi is in the stage of receding pandemics, which is characterized by CVD patterns predominated by RHD, cardiomyopathies, and hypertensive heart disease. However, continuous observation is required to detect signs of emerging degenerative-related CVD patterns, which is another stage in the epidemiologic transition. PMID:18753734

  18. Masteŕ s Programme at Stockholm University: Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarsjö, J.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many environmental risks and societal concerns are directly related to the way we manage our land and water environments. The two-year master's programme "Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources" at Stockholm University, Sweden, is based on a system perspective and provides extended knowledge about water and soil-rock-sediment systems and how these interact with each other and with land use, socio-economic and water resource policy and management systems. This water system perspective includes the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems and associated risks for society. Questions related to water resources are also covered: the management of water resources and conflicts as well as collaborations caused by shared water resources on local, regional and global scales. A common learning objective for the courses in the programme is to be able to identify, extract and combine relevant information from databases and scientific publications, and use the resulting dataset in hydrological, hydrogeological and water resources analyses, on local, regional or global levels. Traditional classroom teaching is to large extent complemented by case study analyses, performed as project assignments. The importance of water resources for both the society and the environment is emphasized through applications to practical water resources management challenges in society. The courses in this program include the following topics: · Hydrological and hydrogeological processes, main components of the water cycle (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, discharge) and the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems. · Water resources and water quality, pollution spreading through surface, ground and coastal water systems, as well as vulnerability and resilience of water resources. · Regional analyses related to global water resource vulnerability and resilience. · Models and information systems as important tools for dealing with hydrologic and hydrogeologic problems, and as a basis for sustainable governance and management of water resources. · Mathematical equations that are used in models for describing water flow and contaminant transport and their physico-chemical basis. · Handling of hydrologic data including methods for time series analyses and management of spatial data using geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics. · Integrated natural and social science studies of natural and anthropogenic flows of water, nutrients, pollutants and other biogeochemical substances that are important for environmental risk assessment, ecosystem development, and management of environmental resources.

  19. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples. PMID:9504120

  20. Framingham Heart Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-02

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Hypertension; Heart Failure, Congestive; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Heart Failure

  1. Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating

    PubMed Central

    Norbck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR?=?1.74) and mould odour (OR?=?1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR?=?1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR?=?1.48) and mould odour (OR?=?2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR?=?1.76) and mould odour (OR?=?2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR?=?1.47), humid air (OR?=?1.73) and mould odour (OR?=?2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR?=?0.49; 95% CI 0.290.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR?=?0.67; 95% CI 0.510.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR?=?1.49; 95% CI 1.062.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

  2. Asthma, allergy and eczema among adults in multifamily houses in Stockholm (3-HE study)--associations with building characteristics, home environment and energy use for heating.

    PubMed

    Norbck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR = 1.74) and mould odour (OR = 1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR = 1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR = 1.48) and mould odour (OR = 2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR = 1.76) and mould odour (OR = 2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR = 0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR = 1.47), humid air (OR = 1.73) and mould odour (OR = 2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.51-0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.06-2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

  3. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrcio, Joo

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  4. 14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Krus, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, rjan

    2011-01-01

    Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

  5. In-hospital worsening heart failure.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Kelkar, Anita; Fonarow, Gregg C; Anker, Stefan; Greene, Stephen J; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Collins, Sean; Ruschitzka, Frank; Yancy, Clyde W; Teerlink, John R; Adams, Kirkwood; Cotter, Gadi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Felker, G Michael; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-11-01

    Acute worsening heart failure (WHF) is seen in a sizable portion of patients hospitalized for heart failure, and is increasingly being recognized as an entity that is associated with an adverse in-hospital course. WHF is generally defined as worsening heart failure symptoms and signs requiring an intensification of therapy, and is reported to be seen in anywhere from 5% to 42% of heart failure admissions. It is difficult to ascertain the exact epidemiology of WHF due to varying definitions used in the literature. Studies indicate that WHF cannot be precisely predicted on the basis of baseline variables assessed at the time of admission. Recent data suggest that some experimental therapies may reduce the risk of development of WHF among hospitalized heart failure patients, and this is associated with a reduction in risk of subsequent post-discharge cardiovascular mortality. In this respect, WHF holds promise as a endpoint for acute heart failure clinical trials to better elucidate the benefit of targeted novel therapies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology and a consensus on the definition of WHF will further improve our epidemiological and clinical understanding of this entity. PMID:26235192

  6. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  7. Impact of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diabetes Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk ... Heart Failure Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Warning Signs for Heart Failure Diagnosing Heart Failure Treatment ...

  8. Depression and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on Heart Disease Citations Reprints Depression and Heart Disease Order a free hardcopy En Espaol Introduction ... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of ...

  9. Left heart catheterization (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provide therapeutic interventions in certain types of heart conditions. The test can determine pressure and blood flow in the heart's chambers, collect blood samples from the heart, and examine the arteries of the heart by X-ray (fluoroscopy).

  10. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Block? Heart block has many causes. Some people are ... develop it during their lifetimes (acquired). Congenital Heart Block One form of congenital heart block occurs in ...

  11. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Congenital heart disease (CHD) can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. It is the most common type ...

  12. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  13. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  14. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pain and heart failure may develop. Noncancerous primary heart tumors In adults, about half of noncancerous primary ... are cancerous and some benign. Types of Noncancerous Heart Tumors Where Found in the Heart Examples Lining ...

  15. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... year's event, "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease," is in Orlando on October 7-8, ... and management of pregnancy for women with congenital heart disease. Learn More Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors ...

  16. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  17. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  18. About Heart Attacks

    MedlinePLUS

    ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

  19. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Heart Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at ... Block In first-degree heart block, the heart's electrical signals are slowed as they move from the ...

  20. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  1. Total Artificial Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a ... outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows the normal structure and ...

  2. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  3. Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

    2014-05-01

    The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mlaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mlaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

  4. Heart Failure in Rural Communities.

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Hugo E; Ferreccio, Catterina; Castro, Pablo F

    2015-10-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) living in rural areas face an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Even in countries with universal access to health care, rural areas are characteristically underserved, with reduced health care providers supply, greater distance to health care centers, decreased physician density with higher reliance on generalists, and high health care staff turnover. On the other hand, patient-related characteristics vary widely among published data. This review describes the epidemiology of CHF in rural or remote settings, organizational and patient-related factors involved in cardiovascular outcomes, and the role of interventions to improve rural health care. PMID:26462091

  5. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  6. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. PMID:26493266

  7. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  8. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  10. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  11. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  12. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  13. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  14. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  15. Epidemiology of varicocele.

    PubMed

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  16. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  17. Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. )

    1994-11-01

    The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  18. [Congestive heart failure in infancy and childhood].

    PubMed

    Schmaltz, A A

    1999-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is the inability of the heart to provide a sufficient output at a sufficient arterial pressure for the metabolic needs of the organism. Having presented the physiologic mechanisms of the contraction of the heart and its regulatory mechanisms the different aspects of classification of heart failure and its neurohormonal modulation are described. The epidemiology of heart failure in childhood is largely unknown, the causes vary considerably, symptoms are age-dependent. Main diagnostic tools for etiologic clarification are echocardiography and chest-x-ray. Focus of therapy is to eliminate the causes, but general recommendations may not be forgotten. Medical treatment of acute severe heart failure is use of catecholamines, ino- and vasodilators in the intensive care unit. Therapy of chronic heart failure is performed with diuretics, digitalis and ACE-inhibitors. Their pharmacologic effect, therapeutic trials in adults and children and peculiarities of pharmacology and side effects in childhood are reported. Low dose beta-blockers are a new therapeutic strategy still not established in children. PMID:10067211

  19. Types of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Heart Failure Updated:Mar 23,2016 Left-sided heart failure ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  20. Adult Congenital Heart Disease: Scope of the Problem.

    PubMed

    Mazor Dray, Efrat; Marelli, Ariane J

    2015-11-01

    This article reviews the changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease summarizing its impact on the demographics of the congenital heart disease population and the progress made in order to improve outcomes in this patient population. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease can be modified by many factors. As a result of decreasing mortality and increasing survival in all forms of congenital heart disease, the median age of patients has increased and adults now compose two-thirds of patients with congenital heart disease. Disease burden and resulting health services utilization increase significantly across the lifespan. Bridging the gap between policy and quality of care can be improved by referral to specialized adult congenital heart disease centers and planning delivery of specialized services that are commensurate with population needs, program accreditation criteria and certified training of designated workforce. PMID:26471815

  1. Preventing Heart Failure in Inflammatory and Immune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serhal, Maya; Longenecker, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk for heart failure due to ischemic heart disease and other causes including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Using rheumatoid arthritis and treated HIV infection as two prototypical examples, we review the epidemiology and potential therapies to prevent heart failure in these populations. Particular focus is given to anti-inflammatory therapies including statins and biologic disease modifying drugs. There is also limited evidence for lifestyle changes and blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We conclude by proposing how a strategy for heart failure prevention, such as the model tested in the Screening To Prevent Heart Failure (STOP-HF) trial, may be adapted to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26316924

  2. Assessment of air quality in Stockholm by personal monitoring of nonsmokers for respirable suspended particles and environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K; Bentley, M C; Howard, D A; Alvn, G

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to respirable suspended particles (RSP) from all sources and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was assessed for 190 nonsmokers in Stockholm during 1994. Each subject wore a personal monitor for 24-h, provided saliva samples for cotinine analysis, and completed a detailed questionnaire about air quality and life-style. The subjects consisted of housewives and househusbands in one main group and working men and women in the second. The housewives and househusbands wore a single monitor throughout the 24-h period and the working subjects wore one monitor at work and a separate monitor while not at work. The geodemographic distribution of the recruited subjects accurately reflected the population of Stockholm. For most of the subjects, exposure to ETS and nicotine was at or below the limits of quantification (LOQ). This finding was supported by the fact that about 80% of the recruited subjects claimed that their exposure to ETS was "none" or "low". The concentration of RSP was found to be highest (median 39 micrograms.m-3) in homes where smoking occurred and below the LOQ in the workplace irrespective of its smoking status. These levels are at the lowest end of typical indoor air levels for RSP. For the housewives and househusbands living in smoking homes (nonsmoking homes in parentheses), the median exposure levels were 39 micrograms.m-3 (18 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 17 micrograms . m-3 (0.12 micrograms . m-3) for ETS particles, and 1.1 micrograms.m-3 (0.05 micrograms.m-3) for nicotine. Both the pre- and postmonitoring continine saliva levels measured for these housewives and househusbands were 2.9 ng.ml-1 (pre-0.56 ng.ml-1, post-0.41 ng.ml-1). The highest exposure levels were recorded for the housewives and househusbands in the age range of 35-49 years. For the working subjects, the exposure measured in smoking workplaces (nonsmoking workplaces in parentheses) gave median levels of 16 micrograms.m-3 (16 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 1.1 micrograms.m-3) for ETS particles and 0.2 micrograms.m-3 (0.15 microgram.m-3) for nicotine. Similarly measured exposures at home (nonsmoking homes in parentheses), including all other locations outside the workplace, gave median levels of 24 micrograms.m-3 (19 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 1.4 micrograms. m-3 (0.2 microgram.m-3) for ETS particles, and 0.15 microgram.m-3 (0.07 microgram.m-3) for nicotine. Overall, the exposure levels of ETS due to living with smokers in Stockholm was found to be much lower than similar exposures measured previously in the United Kingdom and the United States. Over 70% of all the nicotine measurements and 60% of all the ETS measurements were below the LOQ. When the median values for nicotine and ETS particles are converted to cigarette equivalents, Stockholm housewives and househusbands living with smokers would receive 6-9 cigarette equivalents per year, working nonsmokers living with smokers would receive 0.6-0.7 cigarette equivalents at home, and nonsmokers working with smokers would be exposed to 0.1-0.2 cigarette equivalent at work. The exposures were therefore up to six times greater at home than in workplaces where smoking was occurring. Although all the subjects were recruited as nonsmokers on the basis of their self-reported nonsmoking status, saliva continine measurements were used for confirmation. Subjects with continine levels below 25 ng.ml-1 were considered to be nonsmokers although the selection of a threshold level within the range of 10-50 ng.ml-1 was not considered to be critical. With a threshold of 25 ng.ml-1, between 2.7% and 5.3% were later shown to be misclassified as nonsmokers, depending on the definition of misclassification used. During the study period the air quality in Stockholm could be described according a British nomenclature as "very good" for the majority of the time. The daily average at no time fell below "good," and the maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide level was 111 micrograms.m-3 (inner city at street level) on the coldest day PMID:8817762

  3. [Wine and heart].

    PubMed

    Rayo Llerena, I; Marn Huerta, E

    1998-06-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that moderate alcohol intake, from 10 to 30 g of ethanol a day, decreases cardiovascular mortality from atherosclerotic ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke as compared to non-drinkers. This beneficial effect outweighs the risks of alcohol consumption in subgroups of people with a higher risk of atherosclerosis: the elderly, people with coronary risk factors and patients with previous coronary events. It has not been demonstrated that alcohol intake, even in moderate amounts, is beneficial for the general population, in particular, men under the age of 40 and women under 50, because it raises mortality due to other causes, especially injury, cirrhosis of the liver and some types of cancer, thereby outweighing the benefits for coronary artery disease. Thus, alcohol consumption should not be recommended as a prophylaxis for the general population. Guidelines on alcohol drinking habits--whether to continue, to start, to modify or to stop--must be given on an individual basis, taking into account the relative risks and benefits for each patient. The benefits of moderate alcohol consumption on the cardiovascular system seem to be exerted fundamentally through its effects on plasma lipoproteins, principally by raising high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to a lesser degree, by decreasing low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. It appears to exert additional beneficial effects on the heart by decreasing platelet aggregability and by bringing about changes in the clotting-fibrinolysis system. Although there has been some debate about the relative superiority of different types of alcoholic beverages (wine, beer or hard liquor), and to a greater extent, about different types of wine, there is no current evidence of any kind of beneficial effect from other components of the beverage besides ethanol. Thus, it does not seem appropriate to recommend any particular type of alcoholic drink, except for sociocultural reasons. The added benefits from some components of different types of wine with a high antioxidant activity on plasma lipoproteins remain only an interesting hypothesis. Meanwhile, encouraging a healthy diet, flavonoid rich and with a predominance of natural ingredients (fruit, legumes, cereals and seeds), in the general population should stop the current tendency of Southern European countries from abandoning the Mediterranean diet. Because of the multifactorial nature of coronary heart disease, it is necessary to remember that atherosclerotic risk reduction is achieved by behavior modification of multiple risk factors present in individual patients and in the general population. Therefore, guidelines regarding alcohol intake should always be linked to pertinent recommendations about other atherosclerotic risk factors. PMID:9666695

  4. Cyanotic heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Cyanotic heart disease refers to a group of many different heart defects that are present at birth (congenital) that result ... Transposition of the great arteries Truncus arteriosus Cyanotic heart diseases may be caused by: Chemical exposure Genetic and ...

  5. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  6. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePLUS

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  7. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  8. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Congenital Heart Defects? Congenital (kon-JEN-ih-tal) heart defects ... imaging facility aims to improve treatment for congenital heart disease 07/31/2013 Members of the National ...

  9. Heart disease and women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cardiovascular disease in women. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: ... of coronary heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, et al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: ...

  10. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Cardiovascular Nursing; American Heart Association Council on Clinical ... Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, ...

  11. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 28,2015 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  12. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such ... heart is still beating. Related topics include: Aortic valve surgery -- minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery -- open Atrial ...

  13. Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletter Our digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your heart healthy. Sign ... 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 What are the ...

  14. Getting a New Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you need a new heart. 2. Decide if you are healthy enough to receive a new heart. 3. Prepare ... 4. Perform a heart transplant operation. 5. Help you stay healthy after your operation. Step 1. Decide if You ...

  15. Vertigo: epidemiologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Hannelore K; Lempert, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Vertigo is a frequent symptom in the general population with a 12-month prevalence of 5% and an incidence of 1.4% in adults. Its prevalence rises with age and is about two to three times higher in women than in men. The epidemiology of vertigo and underlying specific vestibular disorders is still an underdeveloped field despite its usefulness for clinical decision making and its potential for improving patient care. In this article, the authors give an overview on the epidemiology of vertigo as a symptom and of four specific vestibular disorders: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular migraine, Ménière's disease, and vestibular neuritis. PMID:19834858

  16. Infection and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R W

    1997-07-01

    A large body of evidence exists that implicates a number of microbial agents in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). This, if proven, may have far-reaching implications for the prevention and treatment of CHD and other atherosclerotic disease. The histopathology of atherosclerosis and its natural history suggest infectious causation at many points along the progression of disease, particularly with regard to CHD, and a number of pathogens have been the focus of study. Viral agents implicated include Coxsackie B4 virus, for which tenuous sero-epidemiological associations exist, and the Herpesviridae. The animal herpesvirus causing Marek's disease in chickens causes atherosclerotic lesions in these animals. Herpes simplex virus I and II have been found in aortic smooth muscle and produce changes in vitro in smooth muscle that are similar to those seen at the beginning of atherosclerosis and which may also explain some of the features of atherosclerotic complications. Cytomegalovirus is implicated more strongly sero-epidemiologically by in-vivo detection in atherosclerotic lesions and by its links with post-cardiac transplant vasculopathya syndrome similar to atherosclerosis. Bacteria have also been shown to have links with CHD. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori have both been associated sero-epidemiologically with CHD, and these findings have been consolidated by recent work showing their presence in atherosclerotic lesions in adults. Bacterial infections in general lead to many changes in lipid, thrombic and other acute-phase protein metabolism, and some of these changes occur with both C. pneumoniae and H. pylori infections. The ubiquity and similar epidemiological features to CHD of all these microbial pathogens make the resolution of the causative issue impossible by retrospective means. All that can be shown at present are a variety of weak and strong links, the significance of which can only be determined by large and perhaps lifetime prospective studies. PMID:9236736

  17. Heart Transplant in Asia.

    PubMed

    Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Ariyachaipanich, Aekarach

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of heart failure has increased in Asia. A significant proportion of patients with heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction end up with advanced heart failure or end-stage heart disease. These patients may be placed on the waiting list for heart transplant. There are more than 10 countries in Asia that have an active heart transplant program. The number of heart transplants performed is limited despite an increase in the number of patients with end-stage heart failure mainly because of donor shortage, which may be related to religious belief and inefficient allocation policy. PMID:26462096

  18. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  19. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

  20. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-05-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  1. Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  2. Heart disease in infants of diabetic mothers

    PubMed Central

    Narchi, H; Kulaylat, N

    2000-01-01

    Congenital anomalies occur more commonly in infants born to diabetic mothers, and cardiac defects predominate. Although respiratory problems are also frequently found in those infants, they need to be differentiated from cardiovascular problems that such patients may also have, which include cardiovascular maladaptation to extra-uterine life, congenital heart defects and hypertrophic septal cardiomyopathy. A high index of suspicion is required as the specific management may vary and digoxin, or inotropic agents which may be used in heart failure associated with structural heart defects are contraindicated if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is present. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prognosis and available diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. The need for antenatal fetal echocardiography in pregnant diabetic mothers is also reviewed, as well as the controversial role of maternal glycemic control in the prevention of these anomalies. PMID:22368579

  3. Heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer′s disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  4. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur

  5. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  6. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  7. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Behr, C; Goltzene, M A; Kosmalski, G; Hirsch, E; Ryvlin, P

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a burden affecting no fewer than 50million patients worldwide. It is a heterogeneous group of disorders comprising both common and very rare forms, thus rendering its epidemiological investigations rather difficult. Moreover, making an epilepsy diagnosis per se can be challenging due to an evolving system of classification, and its dependency on local habits and culture. Any attempt at meta-analyses must consider such biases when pooling data from different centers and countries. Differentiating a contextual seizure from chronic epilepsy is every epileptologist's daily mission, yet it is also crucial for achieving a proper estimation of the epidemiology of epilepsy. Our present objective was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of both syndromic and non-syndromic epilepsy. Most epileptic syndromes tend to be rare and, thus, the feasibility of epidemiological quantification in populations is also addressed. Regarding its prevalence and cost, epilepsy deserves greater attention than it generally receives, as it appears to continue to be a condition under persistent taboos. PMID:26754036

  8. Proximal femural fractures: epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The Authors report briefly about epidemiology and prognosis of proximal femoral fractures in elderly people worldwide. Focusing particurarly on Italian population, the Authors report on the impact that this pathologic phenomenon has on the quality of life of patients and on general population, also from a social and economical point of view. A concise overview of the options treatment is also presented. PMID:22461159

  9. Systems epidemiology in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lund, Eiliv; Dumeaux, Vanessa

    2008-11-01

    Prospective studies in cancer epidemiology have conserved their study design over the last decades. In this context, current epidemiologic studies investigating gene-environment interactions are based on biobank for the analysis of genetic variation and biomarkers, using notified cancer as outcome. These studies result from the use of high-throughput technologies rather than from the development of novel design strategies. In this article, we propose the globolomic design to run integrated analyses of cancer risk covering the major -omics in blood and tumor tissue. We defined this design as an extension of the existing prospective design by collecting tissue and blood samples at time of diagnosis, including biological material suitable for transcriptome analysis. The globolomic design opens up for several new analytic strategies and, where gene expression profiles could be used to verify mechanistic information from experimental biology, adds a new dimension to causality in epidemiology. This could improve, for example, the interpretation of risk estimates related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in gene-environment studies by changing the criterion of biological plausibility from a subjective discussion of in vitro information to observational data of human in vivo gene expression. This ambitious design should consider the complexity of the multistage carcinogenic process, the latency time, and the changing lifestyle of the cohort members. This design could open the new research discipline of systems epidemiology, defined in this article as a counterpart to systems biology. Systems epidemiology with a focus on gene functions challenges the current concept of biobanking, which focuses mainly on DNA analyses. PMID:18990736

  10. Heart Murmurs and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Heart Murmurs and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Heart ... to know how the heart works. How the Heart Works The normal heart has four chambers and ...

  11. Heart murmurs and other sounds

    MedlinePLUS

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  12. Heart Murmurs and Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Heart Murmurs and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Heart ... to know how the heart works. How the Heart Works The normal heart has four chambers and ...

  13. Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Hjortenkrans, David S T; Bergbck, Bo G; Hggerud, Agneta V

    2007-08-01

    Road traffic has been highlighted as a major source of metal emissions in urban areas. Brake linings and tires are known emission sources of particulate matter to air; the aim of the current study was to follow the development of metal emissions from these sources over the period 1995/ 1998-2005, and to compare the emitted metal quantities to other metal emission sources. Stockholm, Sweden was chosen as a study site. The calculations were based on material metal concentrations, traffic volume, particle emission factors, and vehicle sales figures. The results for metal emissions from brake linings/tire tread rubber in 2005 were as follows: Cd 0.061/0.47 kg/year, Cu 3800/5.3 kg/year, Pb 35/3.7 kg/year, Sb 710/0.54 kg/year, and Zn 1000/4200 kg/ year. The calculated Cu and Zn emissions from brake linings were unchanged in 2005 compared to 1998, indicating that brake linings still remain one of the main emission sources for these metals. Further, brake linings are a source of antimony. In contrast, Pb and Cd emissions have decreased to one tenth compared to 1998. The results also showed that tires still are one of the main sources of Zn and Cd emissions in the city. PMID:17822083

  14. Modeling salt-dependent proton binding by organic soils with the NICA-Donnan and Stockholm humic models.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Kleja, Dan Berggren

    2005-07-15

    Models are available for simulations of proton dissociation and cation binding by natural organic matter; two examples are the NICA-Donnan and Stockholm Humic (SHM) models. To model proton and metal binding, it is necessary to properly account for the ionic strength dependence of proton dissociation. In previous applications of the models for soils itwas assumed that the electrostatic interactions for solid-phase humic substances were the same as in solution; this assumption was recently challenged. Therefore, we reanalyzed previously published acid-base titrations of acid-washed Sphagnum peat, and we produced additional data sets for two Sphagnum peats and two Spodosol Oe horizons. For the soil suspensions, the original NICA-Donnan and SHM models, which were developed for dissolved humic substances, underestimated the observed salt dependence considerably. When a fixed Donnan volume of 1 L kg(-1) for humic substances in the solid phase was used, the NICA-Donnan model fits were much improved. Also for SHM, slight changes produced improved model fits. The models also produced acceptable simulations of the dissolved Ca, Mg, and Cd concentrations, provided that cation selectivitywas introduced. In conclusion, the proposed extensions to the NICA-Donnan and SHM models were shown to predict the salt dependence of solid-phase humic substances more satisfactorily than earlier model versions. PMID:16082968

  15. To keep the catch - that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12-15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  16. To keep the catch that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2002-01-01

    The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 1215 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

  17. Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rdbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 20052008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas. PMID:22690162

  18. Differences between patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and with chronic fatigue at an infectious disease clinic in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Evengrd, Birgitta; Jonzon, Eva; Sandberg, Anneli; Theorell, Tres; Lindh, Gudrun

    2003-08-01

    Background data were collected from patients presenting with fatigue at the clinic of infectious diseases at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm. The main purpose was to look for differences as to demographic and functional status for patients fulfilling criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and chronic fatigue (CF). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed using a variety of instruments. A thorough medical investigation was performed. No difference was found as to social situation, occupation and illness attributions for patients in the two categories. Patients with CFS reported in general a higher degree of 'sickness' with more self-reported somatic symptoms, more self-reported functional impairment and more absence from work. A higher degree of psychiatric comorbidity was observed in CF than in CFS patients. A majority of CFS patients (80%) had an acute infectious onset compared to 43% in the CF group. Presently used criteria might, according to findings presented here, define two different patient categories in a population characterized by severe, prolonged fatigue. Because CFS patients (compared to patients with CF) have more somatic symptoms, more often report an infectious, sudden onset and have less psychiatric comorbidity, and CF patients seem to have more of an emotional, burn-out-like component one could speculate about the existence of different pathogenetic backgrounds behind the two diagnoses. PMID:12839515

  19. What Causes Heart Failure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugar) level is too high. The body normally breaks down food into glucose and then carries it to ... rigid. Congenital heart defects . Problems with the hearts structure ... or more of your heart valves doesnt work properly, which can be present at birth or ...

  20. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  1. Epidemiology and outcome of the cardio-renal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dinna N; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Palazzuoli, Alberto; Palazuolli, Alberto; Ronco, Claudio; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2011-11-01

    Cardiac and kidney disease are common, increasingly encountered and often co-exist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid the in the design of clinical studies. In the most recent European and American guidelines for heart failure management, acute kidney injury and dysfunction were considered an index of poor prognosis. Paradoxically, however, in many randomized trials of interventions for patients with heart failure, those with kidney injury or dysfunction are often excluded. This review will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardio-renal syndrome and its subtypes. PMID:21193957

  2. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change appears to be the most influential factor for maximum ozone concentration over the city of Paris, which may be particularly interesting in a health impact perspective.

  3. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change appears to be the most influential factor for maximum ozone concentration over the city of Paris, which may be particularly interesting from a health impact perspective.

  4. Causality in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The article presents short historical review of the concepts of causality. Then it deals with contemporary concepts of causal dependence with special reference to epidemiological studies. In particular Lewis counterfactuals theory and contemporary probabilistic theories were analyzed including applications of DAG's (directed acyclic graphs), which in the last decade are frequently applied for presentation of complicated study designs in epidemiology. Authors high appreciation explanatory role of graphic presentation of relationships between variables and the role of conditional probability of events respecting Markov conditions and Bayesian premises, does not change his opinion, that statistical methods are insufficient for final assessment of causal dependence and some subjective element of learned judgment of the scientist has to be always present. In Authors opinion causal approach to associations between are crucial as a base for therapeutic approach and for public health interventions. This is why he is against consequent indeterministic approach. PMID:20120956

  5. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

  6. Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

  7. Epidemiology of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  8. The epidemiology of influenza.

    PubMed

    Langmuir, A D; Schoenbaum, S C

    1976-10-01

    Although unpredictable, influenza outbreaks are known to occur in three patterns: pandemics every 30 to 40 years, with high excess mortality; epidemics much more frequently, with lower excess mortality; and usually mild sporadic outbreaks. The possibility of a swine-flu pandemic this winter, resembling that of 1918-20, is the result of a unique deviation in the epidemiology of this fascinating disease. PMID:67988

  9. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  10. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, A; Carcaillon, L; Kab, S; Moisan, F

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's. PD is considered a multifactorial disorder that results, in most cases, from the combined effects of multiple risk and protective factors, including genetic and environmental ones. This review discusses some of the methodological challenges involved in assessing the descriptive, prognostic and etiological epidemiological studies of PD, and summarizes their main findings. PMID:26718594

  11. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Jarhyan, Prashant; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  12. Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Spoonhower, Kimberly A; Davis, Pamela B

    2016-03-01

    Improved quality of care and rapidly emerging therapeutic strategies to restore chloride transport profoundly impact the epidemiology and pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the twenty-first century. CF now serves as a model for chronic illness management, continuous quality improvement via registry data, and a seamless link between basic science research, translational studies, clinical trials, and outcomes research to enable rapid expansion of treatment options. PMID:26857763

  13. Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B

    2014-12-01

    Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers. PMID:25124661

  14. Prognostic relevance of coronary collateral circulation: clinical and epidemiological implications.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Okan; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Yalta, Kenan; Tandogan, Izzet; Yilmaz, Ahmet

    2009-11-12

    Coronary collateral circulation provides an important response to ischemic heart disease and partially determines the severity of ischemic myocardial damage. Practical significance of coronary collateral circulation has long been a matter of uncertainty due to concerns about the means for gauging coronary collateral circulation and the modest populations to be representative for all patients with ischemic heart disease. It is possible that prognosis may be defined by the balance between the harm of atherosclerotic burden, and the benefit from coronary collateral circulation. Atherosclerosis acts as a potent trigger for the formation of coronary collateral circulation, but at the same time it has deleterious effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Coronary collateral circulation has a complex role in modifying the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in ischemic heart disease. A more comprehensive insight into the exact determinants of coronary collateral circulation would help establish its potential implications in clinical and epidemiological realm. PMID:18684526

  15. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  16. Significance, prognostic value and management of heart rate in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Courand, Pierre-Yves; Lantelme, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that resting heart rate is a risk marker but also a risk factor in patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure. In hypertensive subjects free from overt cardiac disease, the question has been less frequently addressed. A few cohort studies have shown that hypertensive patients with a high resting heart rate have an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death. However, intervention trials have not demonstrated that lowering the heart rate is beneficial in hypertensive subjects. Studies with an assessment of ambulatory heart rate tend to demonstrate a better association between cardiovascular outcomes and variables, including nighttime heart rate. Clinical trials comparing beta-blockers with non-slowing antihypertensive drugs have not demonstrated the superiority of the former. Finally, an elevated resting heart rate in hypertensive subjects free from overt cardiac disease seems to be more a risk marker than a risk factor. Although these patients are at high risk, no scientific data exist to support targeting heart rate. In this review, we describe the pathophysiological effects of heart rate, including vascular cell signalling, link with sympathetic activity and influence on central blood pressure, and the prognostic value and management of HR in hypertensive patients free from overt cardiac diseases. PMID:24439523

  17. Socio-economic analysis of the risk management of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in China in the context of the Stockholm Convention.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Hu, Jian-Xin; Yi, Shan

    2016-05-01

    Socio-economic analysis (SEA) plays an important role in decision-making on risk management actions for certain chemicals under Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in developing countries. This paper showed the first holistic and quantitative SEA case study on that by developing a country-specific SEA framwork and methodologies and applying the case of HBCD phase-out in China under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). The study indicates that, under the possible scenarios of 10 years and 5 years , the economic costs of HBCD phase-out in China would be between 9.032 and 19.021 billion RMB. Although the total economic costs seems to be significant, it would only have a marginal impact on the house building industry with a likely cost increase by about 0.07‰-0.14‰. Meanwhile, the HBCD phase-out may render significant environmental and health benefits, including about 23-29 tons of HBCD release prevented to the environment, 1.142-1.469 million tons of potentially HBCD contained hazardous wastes avoided, along with significant reduction from 58% up to almost 100% in local environmental concentrations of HBCD, and about 0.0996-0.128 million workers at risk avoided and at least 3.067-4.033 billion RMB of the health care savings. While the scenario of phasing out HBCD over 10 years would be less costly than the scenario of that over 5 years, the later scenario suggested much greater environmental and health benefits for China. PMID:26615892

  18. Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Rocklv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil; Ebi, Kristie; Bellander, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts should not assume susceptible groups are the same for warm and cold days and heat and cold waves, respectively. PMID:24647126

  19. Antithrombotics in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mili?i?, Davor; Samardi?, Jure; Petri?evi?, Mate

    2014-12-01

    Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

  20. Antithrombotics in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mili?i?, Davor; Samardi?, Jure; Petri?evi?, Mate

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

  1. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  2. Epidemiology of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Urethral stricture disease is relatively common and is associated with a significant financial cost and potentially debilitating outcomes. Understanding urethral stricture epidemiology is important to identify risk factors associated with the etiology or progression of the disease. This understanding may lead to better treatments and preventative measures that could ameliorate disease severity, produce better health outcomes, and reduce expenditures. We performed a comprehensive review of urethral stricture disease based on available published case series, identified gaps in knowledge of this disease, and recommend future directions for research.

  3. [Epidemiology of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Aleraj, Borislav; Tomić, Branimir

    2011-01-01

    The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

  4. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  5. Epidemiology of OA

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships. PMID:23312408

  6. Right-heart infective endocarditis: a propos of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Simon Antoine; Jobe, Modou; Bodian, Malick; Sy, Mbaye; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Bamba; Kane, Adama; Mbaye, Alassane; Diao, Maboury; Sarr, Moustapha; Ba, Serigne Abdou

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of right heart endocarditis in Africa are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with right-heart infective endocarditis. This was a 10-year retrospective study conducted in 2 cardiology departments in Dakar, Senegal. All patients who met the diagnosis of right heart infective endocarditis according to the Duke's criteria were included. We studied the epidemiological, clinical as well as their laboratory profiles. There were 10 cases of right-heart infective endocarditis representing 3.04% of cases of infective endocarditis. There was a valvulopathy in 3 patients, an atrial septal defect in 1 patient, parturiency in 2 patients and the presence of a pacemaker in one patient. Anaemia was present in 9 patients whilst leukocytosis in 6 patients. The port of entry was found to be oral in three cases, ENT in one case and urogenital in two cases. Apart from one patient with vegetations in the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, the rest had localized vegetation only at the tricuspid valve. However, blood culture was positive in only three patients. There was a favorable outcome after antibiotic treatment in 4 patients with others having complications; three cases of renal impairment, two cases of heart failure and one case of pulmonary embolism. There was one mortality. Right heart infective endocarditis is rare but associated with potentially fatal complications. PMID:26958143

  7. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree heart block and ... people who have second-degree heart block need pacemakers. These devices use electrical pulses to prompt the ...

  8. Women's Heart Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Noel Bairey Merz - discusses new heart diagnostics for women - TED TALK by Dr. Joel Furhman - discusses how to eat to prevent and reverse heart disease - Women get their own stroke guidelines - AHA - Speak Up! ...

  9. Overview of Heart Tumors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. Most heart tumors are metastatic cancer. Did You Know... Noncancerous tumors can be as deadly ... slow the tumor's growth. Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know... Table 2 ...

  10. Structure of the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  11. Classes of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 30,2015 Doctors usually classify patients' ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  12. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body and the symptoms that tell you your heart failure is getting worse will help you stay healthier ... Januzi JL, Mann DL. Clinical assessment of heart failure. In: ... of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  13. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  14. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  15. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  16. How the Heart Works

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your heart is at the center of your circulatory system. This system consists of a network of blood ... the walls contract, blood is pumped into your circulatory system. Inlet and outlet valves in your heart chambers ...

  17. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction: management. In Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ... myocardial infarction. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ...

  18. Aspirin and heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice ... angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ...

  19. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ... Surgery. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ...

  20. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ...

  1. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePLUS

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  2. Who Needs Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CT scan also can find problems with the heart's function and valves. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance ... blood vessels. Cardiac MRI shows the structure and function of your heart. This test can show the size and location ...

  3. Dementia in western Europe: epidemiological evidence and implications for policy making.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Fratiglioni, Laura; Matthews, Fiona E; Lobo, Antonio; Breteler, Monique M B; Skoog, Ingmar; Brayne, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Dementia is receiving increasing attention from governments and politicians. Epidemiological research based on western European populations done 20 years ago provided key initial evidence for dementia policy making, but these estimates are now out of date because of changes in life expectancy, living conditions, and health profiles. To assess whether dementia occurrence has changed during the past 20-30 years, investigators of five different studies done in western Europe (Sweden [Stockholm and Gothenburg], the Netherlands [Rotterdam], the UK [England], and Spain [Zaragoza]) have compared dementia occurrence using consistent research methods between two timepoints in well-defined geographical areas. Findings from four of the five studies showed non-significant changes in overall dementia occurrence. The only significant reduction in overall prevalence was found in the study done in the UK, powered and designed explicitly from its outset to detect change across generations (decrease in prevalence of 22%; p=0003). Findings from the study done in Zaragoza (Spain) showed a significant reduction in dementia prevalence in men (43%; p=00002). The studies estimating incidence done in Stockholm and Rotterdam reported non-significant reductions. Such reductions could be the outcomes from earlier population-level investments such as improved education and living conditions, and better prevention and treatment of vascular and chronic conditions. This evidence suggests that attention to optimum health early in life might benefit cognitive health late in life. Policy planning and future research should be balanced across primary (policies reducing risk and increasing cognitive reserve), secondary (early detection and screening), and tertiary (once dementia is present) prevention. Each has their place, but upstream primary prevention has the largest effect on reduction of later dementia occurrence and disability. PMID:26300044

  4. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGNThe structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995and 1996were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTSRussian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSIONEpidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  5. Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

  6. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367

  7. Neglected aspects of false positive findings of mammography in breast cancer screening: analysis of false positive cases from the Stockholm trial.

    PubMed Central

    Lidbrink, E.; Elfving, J.; Frisell, J.; Jonsson, E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the implications of false positive results of mammography in terms of the time lag from screening and complete mammography to the point when women with false positive results are declared free of cancer; the extra examinations, biopsies, and check ups required; and the cost of these extra procedures. DESIGN: Review of women with false positive results from the Stockholm mammography screening trial. SETTING: Department of Oncology, South Hospital, Stockholm. SUBJECTS: 352 and 150 women with false positive results of mammography from the first and second screening rounds of the Stockholm trial. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extra examinations and investigations required and the cost of these procedures. RESULTS: The 352 women from the first screening round made 1112 visits to the physician and had 397 fine needle aspiration biopsies, 187 mammograms, and 90 surgical biopsies before being declared free of cancer. After six months 64% of the women (219/342) were declared cancer free. The 150 women in the second round made 427 visits to the physician and had 145 fine needle aspiration biopsies, 70 mammograms, and 28 surgical biopsies, and after six months 73% (107/147) were declared cancer free. The follow up costs of the false positive screening results were Kr2.54m (250,000 pounds) in the first round and Kr0.85m (84,000 pounds) in the second round. Women under 50 accounted for about 41% of these costs. CONCLUSIONS: The examinations and investigation carried out after false positive mammography --especially in women under 50--and the cost of these procedures are a neglected but substantial problem. PMID:8611781

  8. [Cardiovascular risk factors. Insights from Framingham Heart Study].

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Christopher J; Elosua, Roberto

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiology involves the study of disease frequency and its determinants within the population. Cardiovascular epidemiology began in the 1930s as a result of changes observed in the causes of death. In the 1950s, several epidemiological studies were set in motion with the aim of clarifying the cause of cardiovascular disease. Four years after the Framingham Heart Study started, researchers had identified high cholesterol and high blood pressure levels as important factors in the development of cardiovascular disease. In subsequent years, the Framingham study and other epidemiological studies have helped to identify other risk factors, which are now considered classical risk factors. By coining the expression "risk factor", the Framingham Heart Study helped to bring about a change in the way medicine is practiced. Today, a risk factor is defined as a measurable characteristic that is causally associated with increased disease frequency and that is a significant independent predictor of an increased risk of presenting with the disease. This wide-ranging overview describes some of the most important insights into the causes of cardiovascular disease to have come from the Framingham Heart Study. The emphasis is on the identification of risk factors, and the assessment of their predictive ability and their implications for disease prevention. PMID:18361904

  9. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is ... used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta ...

  10. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  11. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  12. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

  13. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  14. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,

  15. Heart disease and depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease and depression often go hand-in-hand. You are are more likely to feel sad or depressed after a heart attack ... heart disease. The good news is that treating depression may help improve both your mental and physical ...

  16. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  17. Anatomy of the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contract, pumping blood to all parts of your body. The size of your heart can vary depending on your ... A normal, healthy, adult heart usually is the size of an average clenched adult fist. ... A shows the location of the heart in the body. Figure B shows the front surface of the ...

  18. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they

  19. Matters of the heart.

    PubMed

    Bausek, Nina; Zeidler, Martin P

    2012-07-01

    What does it take to make a heart? Even in the fruit fly, in which matters of the heart don't extend to either pop music or pulp fiction, making a heart requires big decisions and processes of surprising complexity. PMID:24058774

  20. Pericarditis - after heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may be a rubbing sound (called a pericardial friction rub, not to be confused with a heart murmur). Heart sounds in general may be weak or sound far away. A buildup of fluid in the covering of the heart or space ...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ibne Karim M; Clark, C Graham; Petri, William A

    2008-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to the development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  2. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barretts esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

  3. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  4. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention. PMID:26073423

  5. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth > For Parents > Congenital Heart Defects Print ... defects and related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ...

  6. Methylphenidate: pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Several amphetamine-like appetite suppressants are known to have cardiovascular adverse effects, in particular pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac valve disease. Is this also the case with methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like psychostimulant used in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (especially in children) and also in narcolepsy? Cases of pulmonary hypertension and heart valve disease have been reported with methylphenidate, including in children. The risk appears to be low, but epidemiological studies are needed to estimate the incidence. This risk should be minimised by only using methylphenidate to treat serious disorders, at the lowest effective dose. Attention should be paid to warning signs such as dyspnoea. PMID:26436168

  7. [Chronic heart failure in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    Chivite, David; Franco, Jhonatan; Formiga, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heart failure (HF) is increasing, especially in the elderly population, and is becoming a major geriatric problem. Elderly patients with HF usually show etiopathogenic, epidemiological, and even clinical characteristics significantly different from those present in younger patients. Their treatment, however, derives from clinical trials performed with only a few elderly subjects. Moreover, beyond the cardiovascular disease itself, it is essential to evaluate the patient as a whole, given the interrelationship between HF and the characteristic geriatric syndromes of the elderly patient. This review examines the peculiarities in the most prevalent "real world" HF patient. PMID:25962334

  8. Heart Failure: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Auld, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure is a complex and multisystem clinical syndrome that results from impaired ventricular contractility and/or relaxation. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common antecedents to heart failure. The main pathogenic mechanisms involved in heart failure include sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, as well as inflammation. A detailed history and physical examination and additional diagnostic tests may be needed to diagnose heart failure. Most treatment strategies target neurohormonal systems. Nonpharmacologic interventions and effective engagement in self-care are also important in overall heart failure management. Therapeutic strategies are geared toward prolonging life and optimizing quality of life. PMID:26567488

  9. Mending a Faltering Heart.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-22

    More people die every year from ischemic heart disease than any other disease. Because the human heart lacks sufficient ability to replenish the damaged cardiac muscles, extensive research has been devoted toward understanding the homeostatic and regenerative potential of the heart and to develop regenerative therapies for heart disease. Here, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms governing heart growth during homeostasis or injury, including those from observational studies in humans and experimental research in animal models of cardiac regeneration. We also discuss how progress in stem cell biology and cellular reprogramming has enabled exciting new strategies for cardiac regeneration. PMID:26838318

  10. Occupational coronary heart disease among bridge and tunnel officers.

    PubMed

    Herbert, R; Schechter, C; Smith, D A; Phillips, R; Diamond, J; Carroll, S; Weiner, J; Dahms, T E; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    Traffic-control officers employed in New York City tunnels prior to 1981 have been at increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. In this study, the authors assessed current coronary heart disease prevalence and evaluated associations between coronary heart disease and occupational factors among New York City bridge and tunnel officers. A clinical cardiovascular disease surveillance and cross-sectional occupational epidemiologic study was conducted. The authors used comprehensive evaluations to identify current and prior incidences of coronary heart disease. Occupational risk factors evaluated included job strain, current and historic exposure to carbon monoxide, and occupational physical inactivity. Current carbon monoxide exposure was assessed via workshift changes in carboxyhemoglobin. Coronary heart disease occurred in 29 (5.5%) of the 526 bridge and tunnel officers examined. Risk of coronary heart disease was associated positively with total years each bridge and tunnel officer work had worked in that capacity (odds ratio = 1.64 for each decade of employment, adjusted for nonoccupational coronary heart disease risk factors). Carboxyhemoglobin levels were low in the subjects, and job strain and physical inactivity were very prevalent. Occupational factors contributed to the risk of coronary heart disease in New York City bridge and tunnel officers. The authors were unable to identify the specific factors that led to the increase in risk described. PMID:10908098

  11. Analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopes, and Metals in Sediments outside a Waste Plant in Stockholm Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlin, H. S.; Mörth, C.-M.; Holm, N. G.

    2003-04-01

    Sediment samples were taken in the water upstream, near and downstream of the outflow of a purification plant near Stockholm, Sweden. The waste plant receives, treats and deposits domestic and industry refuse and have earlier received latrine. An Otto Gravity Corer was used for sampling and the sediment was cut into centimetres slices, freeze-dried and analysed for the total content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen using a CF-IRMS (Finnigan Delta plus). Freeze-dried sediment subsamples were digested in a microwave oven in the presence of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and analysed for metals with ICP-OES (Varian Vista AX). This study shows that the sediments from the outflow of the waste plant have d15N values indicating denitrification and reworking by bacteria (δ15N values ranging from +16 to +19 ppm). Upstream of the outflow and 600 metres downstream, the δ15N are in a more natural range (+2 to +3 ppm respective +7 to +9 ppm). The δ13C values show that the material is of terrigenous origin. δ13C values in the outflow samples (-25 to -21 ppm), differ from the samples collected upstream (-25 to -23 ppm) and downstream the outflow (-27 to -25 ppm). Plotting δ13C against total carbon indicate that the downstream samples do not have the same main source as the other samples, which also can be seen in the 1/CTOT vs. δ13C. There is a general interest to find out more about the metal releases to the environment from this point source. In this investigation the sediment have been analysed for metals, as for example Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Cd content is low <0.4 ppb. At a sediment depth of 5 cm the Cu concentrations were 19 μg/g upstream the outflow, 23 μg/g at the outflow and 60 μg/g downstream the outflow, Pb; 6 μg/g, 8 μg/g, respective 50 μg/g and Zn; 58 μg/g, 93 μg/g and 175 μg/g respectively.

  12. The rate of supernovae at redshift 0.1-1.0. The Stockholm VIMOS Supernova Survey III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melinder, J.; Dahlen, T.; Menca Trinchant, L.; stlin, G.; Mattila, S.; Sollerman, J.; Fransson, C.; Hayes, M.; Kankare, E.; Nasoudi-Shoar, S.

    2012-09-01

    We present supernova rate measurements at redshift 0.1-1.0 from the Stockholm VIMOS Supernova Survey (SVISS). The sample contains 16 supernovae in total. The discovered supernovae have been classified as core collapse or type Ia supernovae (9 and 7, respectively) based on their light curves, colour evolution and host galaxy photometric redshift. The rates we find for the core collapse supernovae are 3.29-1.78 -1.45+3.08 +1.98 10-4 yr-1 Mpc-3 h703 (with statistical and systematic errors respectively) at average redshift 0.39 and 6.40-3.12 -2.11+5.30 +3.65 10-4 yr-1 Mpc-3 h703 at average redshift 0.73. For the type Ia supernovae we find a rate of 1.29-0.57 -0.28+0.88 +0.27 10-4 yr-1 Mpc-3 h703 at ?z? = 0.62. All of these rate estimates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, using a method that includes supernovae missed in infrared bright galaxies at high redshift. We use Monte Carlo simulations to make a thorough study of the systematic effects from assumptions made when calculating the rates and find that the most important errors come from misclassification, the assumed mix of faint and bright supernova types and uncertainties in the extinction correction. We compare our rates to other observations and to the predicted rates for core collapse and type Ia supernovae based on the star formation history and different models of the delay time distribution. Overall, our measurements, when taking the effects of extinction into account, agree quite well with the predictions and earlier results. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the role of systematic effects, and dust extinction in particular, when trying to estimate the rates of supernovae at moderate to high redshift. Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under ESO programme ID 167.D-0492.

  13. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  14. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposis sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewings sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

  15. The spectrum of epidemiology underlying sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15%-20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who experience a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly because of inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. During the past 3 decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of coronary heart disease deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to coronary heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition before death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low-risk and known high-risk populations, will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  16. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  18. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015. PMID:25131367

  19. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  20. A global perspective on the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Thienemann, Friedrich; Sliwa, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is not fully determined worldwide but is believed to vary in different regions of the world, with differences determined by genetic, geographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, as well as sex-related practices and inequities in access to health care. This article reviews the global epidemiology of PH, with emphasis on the prevalence, causes, forms, and underlying factors in the developing world. Left ventricular heart disease is the most common cause worldwide, but the main contributors in developing countries are chronic infectious diseases, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and rheumatic heart disease. Despite data suggesting a high prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, the available literature is very limited. International registries like the Pan African Pulmonary Hypertension Cohort are essential to provide information about the causes, comorbidities, and diagnostic classification, therapeutic management, and the natural course of PH worldwide. Moreover, there is a need to track diagnostic and management practices and challenges to identify the gaps and gradients between different regions of the world. The information gained will pinpoint areas for improvement, aiming at bridging the current divide between low-income and high-income countries. PMID:25840090

  1. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  2. The history of Radiumhemmet in Stockholm in the period 1895-1950. The transformation of an outpatient clinic to an academic department,.

    PubMed

    Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Gustavson-Kadaka, Evi; Spiliopoulou, Ekaterini; Nilsson, Sten

    2010-12-01

    Radiation therapy has been in use as a cancer treatment for more than 100 years, with its earliest roots traced from the discovery of X rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Rontgen. The field of radiation therapy began to grow in the early 1900s, largely due to the groundbreaking work of Nobel Prize-winning scientist Marie Curie, who discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium.This began a new era in medical treatment and research. Radium was used in various forms until the mid-1900s, when cobalt and caesium units came into use. Medical cobalt units and linear accelerators have been used to as sources of radiation since the late 1940s. Swedish doctors showed a great interest in this medical specialty from the beginning, making major contributions in the fields of radiobiology, radiophysics and radiotherapy are contributed to doctors of Swedish origin, working mainly those early days in Stockholm. Immediately after the discovery of X rays, the first treatment of patients with these'mysterious rays' took place, with two patients with skin carcinomas being treated by Stenbeck and Sjogren in Stockholm. This article makes a detailed reference to historical data regarding the gradual transformation of a small private outpatient clinic into an academic department with a world-wide recognition. PMID:21560611

  3. Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Uremia-Related Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Marcello; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are at 5- to 10-fold higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than age-matched controls. Clinically, CVD in this population manifests as coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, stroke, or congestive heart failure. Beyond the traditional risk factors (eg, diabetes mellitus and hypertension), uremia-specific factors that arise from accumulating toxins also contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD. In this review, we summarize the literature on the epidemiology of both traditional and uremia-related CVD and focus on postulated mechanisms of the latter. In the context of current and emerging diagnostics and therapies for CVD, we highlight what we interpret as major gaps in the medical management of this growing population that need to be addressed with targeted epidemiological and translational research. Finally, we describe the global challenges associated with the recognition and management of uremia-related CVD in developed and developing nations. PMID:26831434

  4. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation in women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and has become a serious public health problem. Moreover, epidemiological data demonstrate that incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing. Several differences in epidemiological patterns, clinical manifestations, and incidence of stroke have been reported between AF in women and in men, particularly in elderly women. Elderly women have higher blood pressure than men and a higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, both independent risk factors for stroke. On the basis of the evidence on the higher stroke risk among AF in women, recently, female sex has been accepted as a risk factor for stroke and adopted to stratify patients, especially if they are not at high risk for stroke. This review focuses on available evidence on sex differences in AF patients, and examines factors contributing to different stroke risk, diagnosis, and prognosis of arrhythmia in women, with the aim to provide an analysis of the available evidence. PMID:26089706

  5. The role of coronary artery disease in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lala, Anuradha; Desai, Akshay S

    2014-04-01

    Enhanced survival following acute myocardial infarction and the declining prevalence of hypertension and valvular heart disease as contributors to incident heart failure (HF) have fueled the emergence of coronary artery disease (CAD) as the primary risk factor for HF development. Despite the acknowledged role of CAD in the development of HF, the role of coronary revascularization in reducing HF-associated morbidity and mortality remains controversial. The authors review key features of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CAD in patients with HF as well as the emerging data from recent clinical trials that inform the modern approach to management. PMID:24656111

  6. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J.; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

  7. Epidemiology of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition. PMID:25568613

  8. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  9. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... made materials, such as metal (stainless steel or titanium) or ceramic. These valves last the longest, but ...

  10. The molecular and cellular pathophysiology of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R; Bondmass, M; Schwertz, D W

    1998-01-01

    In the United States, it is estimated that heart failure develops in 465,000 people each year. Heart failure occurs in both men and women and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate in both sexes and in all races. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of heart failure has advanced beyond the cardiorenal-neurohumoral model and now includes changes in myocyte structure and function. Cellular changes in heart failure include myocyte hypertrophy, abnormalities in calcium homeostasis, excitation-contraction coupling, cross-bridge cycling, and changes in the cytoskeletal architecture. Data also indicate that some of these changes are found during the compensated stage of heart failure; whereas other changes are found during overt decompensation and are associated with changes in systolic and diastolic function. The transition from compensated to decompensated heart failure is more than likely related to the overexpression of neurohormones and peptides such as norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology and cellular pathophysiology of heart failure. PMID:9493878

  11. ?-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in aging heart and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Nicola; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; Pagano, Gennaro; Furgi, Giuseppe; Rengo, Carlo; Femminella, Grazia D.; Leosco, Dario; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Elderly healthy individuals have a reduced exercise tolerance and a decreased left ventricle inotropic reserve related to increased vascular afterload, arterial-ventricular load mismatching, physical deconditioning and impaired autonomic regulation (the so called ?-adrenergic desensitization). Adrenergic responsiveness is altered with aging and the age-related changes are limited to the ?-adrenergic receptor density reduction and to the ?-adrenoceptor-G-protein(s)-adenylyl cyclase system abnormalities, while the type and level of abnormalities change with species and tissues. Epidemiological studies have shown an high incidence and prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and a great body of evidence correlate the changes of ?-adrenergic system with heart failure pathogenesis. In particular it is well known that: (a) levels of cathecolamines are directly correlated with mortality and functional status in heart failure, (b) ?1-adrenergic receptor subtype is down-regulated in heart failure, (c) heart failure-dependent cardiac adrenergic responsiveness reduction is related to changes in G proteins activity. In this review we focus on the cardiovascular ?-adrenergic changes involvement in the aging process and on similarities and differences between aging heart and heart failure. PMID:24409150

  12. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Soong, S J

    1996-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology of melanoma indicates increases in both incidence and mortality over the past two to three decades. A moderation in both rates began to emerge in several regions after the 1980s, especially in younger age groups. Recent improvement in survival rates is more likely due to earlier diagnosis than to real improvement in treatment. This suggests the potential effectiveness of secondary prevention. Continued health education efforts to improve awareness about signs and symptoms of melanoma should lead to earlier diagnosis and may increase incidence for a certain period of time. However, reduction in mortality will eventually be achieved owing to thinner melanoma at time of diagnosis. Etiologic studies indicate that the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma is extensive exposure to the sun. Primary prevention efforts should target public education about the risk of sun exposure and the benefit of wearing hats and adequate clothing. Specific prevention and control programs should be implemented among high-risk groups, such as those with light complexions and those sensitive to sunburn. In view of the long latency of melanoma, as much as 10 years, past exposure to the risk factors continues to cause melanoma, and any benefits of preventive efforts do not appear for some time. Although a dramatic decline is not expected in melanoma rates immediately, continuous preventive efforts ultimately should lead to a reduction in incidence and mortality. PMID:8977547

  13. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun,

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  14. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  15. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  16. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  17. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the post-2015 era aimed at ending the global TB epidemic by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

  18. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  19. COLLABORATION ON NHEERL EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will continue ORD's efforts to develop a biologically plausible, quantitative health risk model for particulate matter (PM) based on epidemiological, toxicological, and mechanistic studies using matched exposure assessments. The NERL, in collaboration with the NHEERL, ...

  20. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  1. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  2. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  3. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law of independent assortment. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as proxiesforenvironmentalexposuresofinterest.AssociationsderivedfromMendelian randomization analysis are less likely to be affected by confounding and reverse causation. During the past 5 years, a body of studies examined the causal effects of diet/lifestyle factors and biomarkers on a variety of diseases. The Mendelian randomization approach also holds considerable promise in the study of intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes. However, the application of Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology has some limitations. PMID:19674341

  4. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

  6. Epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and management of childhood cardiorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olowu, Wasiu A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a new term recently introduced to describe the acute or chronic comorbid state of the heart and kidney that has been long known and frequently managed in very sick individuals. The tight and delicate coordination of physiological functions among organ systems in the human body makes dysfunction in one to lead to malfunction of one or more other organ systems. CRS is a universal very common morbidity in the critically ill, with a high mortality rate that has received very little research attention in children. Simultaneous management of heart and renal failures in CRS is quite challenging; the therapeutic choice made for one organ must not jeopardize the other. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and management of acute and chronic CRS in children. PMID:24175238

  7. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... result of taking a drug such as a beta blocker . A lower heart rate is also common for people who get ... Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • Heart Attack • Heart Failure (HF) • Heart Valve Problems and Disease • High Blood ...

  8. [Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems. PMID:24626623

  9. Epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Daneshfard, Babak; Izadi, Sadegh; Shariat, Abdolhamid; Toudaji, Mohammad Amin; Beyzavi, Zahra; Niknam, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the main cause of physical disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Two-thirds of all strokes occur in the developing countries. Despite being preventable, stroke is increasingly becoming a major health issue in these countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran, one of the main referral centers in the southwestern part of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all stroke patients admitted to the Namazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, between August 2010 and January 2011. Patients demographic data, atherosclerosis risk factors, type of stroke, drug history, outcomes, and neurological signs were recorded. Chi-square test, KolmogorovSmirnov test, t-test, and MannWhitney U-test were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 305 patients with stroke, aged 27-97 years (mean SD = 68.33 12.99), 269 patients (88.2%) had ischemic stroke (IS) and 36 (11.8%) had hemorrhagic stroke (HS). 133 patients (43.6%) were men and 172 (56.4%) were women. 11.4% of the patients with IS and 40.6% with HS died during hospitalization, causing 12.1% death in all stroke patients [Odds ratio (Or) = 5.34, 95% Confidence intervals (CI) = 2.35-12.11]. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and recurrent stroke were the most common risk factors. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the epidemiology of stroke in the southwestern part of Iran may be similar to other places. However, it seems necessary and helpful to design a registration system for patients with stroke in Shiraz Namazee Hospital. PMID:26622981

  10. Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

  11. Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Paul, H K; Zakaria, S M; Islam, M M; Shafiquzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 102 cases having clinical manifestation of psoriasis with a view to evaluate the epidemiological determinants of psoriasis. Psoriasis constituted 1.49% of the total dermatological disorder. Seventy patients (68.6%) were males and thirty two (31.4%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.18:1. The mean age was 30.7613.17 years in male and 26.9414.94 years in female. Sixteen (15.7%) patients had one or more family member having psoriasis with male and female in equal frequency. Regarding precipitating factors, psoriasis was developed after trauma in 4.9%, infection 3.9%, stressful life events 6.9% and drugs 2.9%; and was exacerbated after trauma in 5.9%, infection 5.9%, stressful life events 35.3% and drugs 12.7%. The disease showed improvement in summer (27.5%) and found deteriorated in winter (47.1%). Sunlight had beneficial effect in 33.3% of cases. During pregnancy improvement was observed in 50% but flare up in 22.2% of cases. Fifty percent of patients were smokers, 41.2% were non-smokers and 13.7% were ex-smokers. Forty percent had Body Mass Index (BMI) between 22 to 26 Kg/m, 40.2% had less than 22 Kg/m and 15.7% had above 26 Kg/m. It was concluded that the prevalence of psoriasis among dermatological patients was similar to results reported in Turkey and in Northern India. The precipitating factors, such as smoking, stressful life events, infection, trauma, sunlight, pregnancy, drugs, and seasonal variations could influence the development of psoriasis and affect its clinical expression. PMID:21240156

  12. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Alonso, M A; Moro Moro, M; Mgica Garca, M V

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the epidemiology of anaphylaxis is based on data from various sources: clinical practice, large secondary clinical and administrative databases of primary care or hospitalized patients, and recent surveys with representative samples of the general population. As several similar results are often reported in several publications and populations, such findings are highly like to be robust. One such finding is that the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis are higher than previously thought. Publications from the last 5 years reveal an incidence of between 50 and 112 episodes per 100 000 person-years; estimated prevalence is 0.3-5.1% depending on the rigour of the definitions used. Figures are higher in children, especially those aged 0-4 years. Publications from various geographical areas based on clinical and administrative data on hospitalized patients suggest that the frequency of admissions due to anaphylaxis has increased (5-7-fold in the last 10-15 years). Other publications point to a geographic gradient in the incidence of anaphylaxis, with higher frequencies recorded in areas with few hours of sunlight. However, these trends could be the result of factors other than a real change in the incidence of anaphylaxis, such as changes in disease coding and in the care provided. Based on data from the records of voluntary declarations of death by physicians and from large national databases, death from anaphylaxis remains very infrequent and stands at 0.35-1.06 deaths per million people per year, with no increases observed in the last 10-15 years. Although anaphylaxis can be fatal, recurrence of anaphylaxis--especially that associated with atopic diseases and hymenoptera stings--affects 26.5-54% of patients. PMID:25495512

  13. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Aug 13,2015 Understand the risks of inflammation. Although it is not proven that ... healthier lifestyle. This content was last reviewed July 2015. Learn more: ... What Are My Risks Of Getting Heart Disease Infographic Take the My ...

  14. Heart imaging method

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Gribble, R. Parks; Busse, Lawrence J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

  15. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  16. Healthy Heart Quizzes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More Healthy Heart Quizzes Updated:Feb 3,2016 Cardiovascular Conditions • Conditions Home • Arrhythmia and Atrial Fibrillation • Cardiac Arrest • Cardiac Rehab • Cardiomyopathy • Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood • Cholesterol • Congenital Heart Defects • Diabetes • ...

  17. Human heart by art.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Abraham

    2012-11-01

    Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds. PMID:23172473

  18. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The

  19. The stressed heart

    SciTech Connect

    Legato, M.J. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 16 papers. Some of the titles are: Regulation of gene expression in the normal and overloaded heart; Cell stress and the initiation of growth; Subcellular growth of cardiocytes during hypertrophy; Microcirculation is the stressed heart; and The biochemistry of myocardial failure.

  20. Heart Truth for Latinas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... salt and other forms of sodium, getting regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and, if you drink alcoholic beverages, doing ... to help me quit smoking? 8. How much physical activity do I need to help protect my heart? 9. What’s a heart healthy eating plan for me? 10. How can I ...

  1. The total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  2. The total artificial heart

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason A.; Shah, Keyur B.; Quader, Mohammed A.; Cooke, Richard H.; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K.; Smallfield, Melissa C.; Tchoukina, Inna

    2015-01-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient’s native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review. PMID:26793338

  3. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart ... web site. If you share this video on Twitter, please use #NationalWearRedDay. The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome ...

  4. Malignancies After Heart Transplant.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Noman; Abdul Basit, Kalid; Abbasi, Nadeem; Kazmi, Syed Murtaza Hasan; Ansari, Abdul Basit; Shah, Mudassir

    2016-02-01

    Along with graft vasculopathy, malignancies comprise a major complication after heart transplant, with a rate of occurrence of 39.1% in 10 years. Skin cancers and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder are more common in adults, whereas lymphoma is more often shown in children. A major cause of malignancies after heart transplant is the use of increased doses of prophylactics needed during immunosuppressive therapy. Data, however, are scarce regarding the association between a particular immunosuppressive drug and a posttransplant malignancy. Compared with the general population, recipients have a higher incidence of malignancies after heart transplant, with an early onset and more aggressive disease. Solid tumors known to occur in heart transplant recipients include lung cancer, bladder and prostate carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the oral cavity, stomach cancer, and bowel cancer, although the incidence is rare. The risk factors for development of a malignancy after heart transplant are the same as for the nontransplant population. PMID:26643469

  5. Living with Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a heart attack , sudden cardiac arrest , or sudden death Slowing the progress of atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries) Protecting your heart from heart muscle damage Lifestyle changes and ongoing care can help you manage DHD. ...

  6. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Press Releases Awards CEO Update Corporate Members Quick Heart Failure Facts Link Exchanges Use of Our Name Social ... App Education Modules What You Should Know About Heart Failure Living With Heart Failure Quick Tips and Topics ...

  7. Preparing Children for Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • Tools & Resources Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  8. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are: automobile emissions, cigarette smoke, pollution from industrial plants, paint thinners and propane gas. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment ...

  9. About the Operation: Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Heart Transplant In the four decades since the first human ... Pediatric Living Donation Legal Site Map Contact Espanol © 2016 Transplant Living. A service of the United Network ...

  10. Give your heart a workout

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in your body and gets your heart beating faster. To benefit your heart, experts recommend getting at ... cart) Downhill skiing Tennis (doubles) Softball Swimming Gardening Light yard work For even more heart benefits, consider ...

  11. Substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic from EEE/WEEE in Nigeria in the frame of Stockholm Convention as a basis for policy advice.

    PubMed

    Babayemi, Joshua; Sindiku, Omotayo; Osibanjo, Oladele; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the material/substance flow of polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed in the Stockholm Convention (SC) as persistent organic pollutant (POP-PBDEs) in the most relevant plastic fractions in Nigeria. Considering the prohibition of production and the use of POP-PBDEs and knowing that these pollutants are still contained in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and associated wastes (WEEE), it is necessary to determine their flows, especially in developing countries with limited end-of-life management. Following the inventory approach of the SC Guidance and utilizing the existing national e-waste inventory together with monitoring data, a material/substance flow analysis was conducted using the STAN tool. Within the period of 2000 to 2010, the total import for EEE/WEEE in Category 3 and 4 was approximately 8 million tonnes (Mt) containing approximately 2.4 Mt of polymers. For the inventory year 2010, it was estimated that from these polymers, about 0.8 Mt was still in stock and 1.6 Mt has reached the end-of-life. It was also estimated that approximately 1.1 Mt has ended in dumpsites, 0.3 Mt was burned in the open, and 0.2 Mt was recycled. In the plastic fractions, 1,270 t of POP-PBDEs was contained with about 370 t still in use/stock and approximately 900 t has entered the end-of-life phase. All three major end-of-life treatments result in environmental pollution with associated exposure risk. The implementation of the Stockholm Convention represents an important opportunity to improve this management situation in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:24984918

  12. Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish: a study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Alexandra; Andersson, Carin; Jnsson, Maria E; Fogelberg, Oscar; Orberg, Jan; Brunstrm, Bjrn; Brandt, Ingvar

    2007-11-15

    The gill filament 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was evaluated as a monitoring tool for waterborne cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) inducers using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in urban area waters in Sweden. To compare the CYP1A induction response in different tissues, EROD activity was also analyzed in liver and kidney microsomes. Immunohistochemistry was used to localize CYP1A protein in gill and kidney. In two separate experiments fish were caged at sites with fairly high expected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. In the first experiment, gill EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-21 days in a river running through Uppsala. The reference site was upstream of Uppsala. In the second, gill, liver and kidney EROD activities were analyzed in fish exposed for 1-5 days in fresh or brackish waters of Stockholm and in a reference lake 60km north of Stockholm. Fish exposed for 5 days followed by 2 days of recovery in tap water in the laboratory were also examined. The gill consistently showed a higher EROD induction compared with the liver and the kidney. After 1 day of caging, gill EROD activity was markedly induced (6-17-fold) at all sites examined. Induction in gill was pronounced (5-7-fold) also in fish caged at the reference sites. In the 21-day exposure study gill EROD activity remained highly induced throughout the experiment (26-fold at most) and the induced CYP1A protein was exclusively confined to the gill secondary lamellae. In the 5-day exposure experiment, EROD activity peaked after 1 day and then declined in both gill and liver, while CYP1A immunostaining in the gill remained intense over the 5-day period. In the kidney, CYP1A staining was weak or absent. We conclude that gill EROD activity is a more sensitive biomarker of exposure to waterborne CYP1A inducers than EROD activity in liver and kidney. PMID:17826851

  13. Heart failure in adult congenital heart disease: Emerging concepts with a focus on tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Wald, Rachel M; Valente, Anne Marie; Marelli, Ariane

    2015-07-01

    Emerging heart failure (HF) concepts in the growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are reviewed in the following article with a focus on individuals with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the largest group of adults with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). In the first section, the changing epidemiology of CHD and HF in ACHD patients is described. We demonstrate the challenges health care providers face when caring for this unique population. Emphasis is placed on the importance and difficulty of identifying patients at risk for HF, of which TOF patients comprise a substantial subset, underscoring the benefits of specialized cardiac care. In the second portion of the article, we review underlying mechanisms of HF in adults with TOF. We elaborate on the wide-ranging etiologies of HF that reflect a confluence of factors related to native anatomic substrate, history of surgical intervention(s), and superimposed hemodynamic and/or ischemic burden to the right and left heart. We describe state-of-the-art imaging concepts as they apply to qualifying and quantifying acquired myocardial and valvular dysfunction in adults with repaired TOF. In the final part of the article, we review the current literature pertaining to the management of adults with repaired TOF. Specifically, we explore medical and surgical issues related to pulmonary valve replacement, arrhythmia management, and transplantation. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps and propose future directions of much-needed research that will improve the quality of care for this growing population. PMID:25630927

  14. Angioplasty and stent placement - heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...

  15. Epidemiology of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, I M; Rajasoorya, C

    1999-06-01

    Acromegaly is a consequence of chronic growth hormone (GH) excess, due in the majority of cases to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and occurring with a population prevalence of 60 per million and an incidence of 3-4 per million per year. Males and females appear to be equally affected with an average age of presentation of 44 years. Younger patients may have more aggressive tumours and higher GH concentrations. There is co-existent hyperprolactinaemia in about one third of cases, and a variable proportion of [figure: see text] tumours appear to have activating mutations of the gsp gene or other genetic abnormalities. Acute complications such as carpal tunnel syndrome, sweating and obstructive sleep apnoea are usually readily reversible with treatment of the condition, but chronic complications such as hypertension, diabetes and heart disease are less readily corrected and post-treatment GH levels of < 2.5 ug/L (5 mU/L) are needed to achieve the prevalence found in the general community. Such 'curative' levels of GH are achieved in only about 50% of patients with current therapies, and as a result there is an ongoing excess of patients with chronic complications of acromegaly leading to increased morbidity and mortality from the disorder, with observed-to-expected mortality ratios ranging from 1.6-3.3 and only approaching unity in those with growth hormone levels < 2.5 ug/L following treatment. Prognostic factors include in some studies the presence of diabetes and [table: see text] hypertension prior to diagnosis as well as measures of exposure to excessive growth hormone derived from the product of preoperative serum GH and the time from first symptoms to treatment. Overall, however, the most important prognostic variable appears to be the serum GH concentration achieved by treatment, with an increasing consensus that this needs to be < 2.5 ug/L (5 mU/L) to achieve cure of the condition. PMID:11081170

  16. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  17. Heart disease in workers exposed to dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.J.; Andjelkovich, D.A.; Kersteter, S.L.; Arp, E.W. Jr.; Balogh, S.A.; Blunden, P.B.; Stanley, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    To determine whether the carcinogenicity of dinitrotoluene (DNT) in rodent bioassays was predictive for humans, we examined the mortality experience of exposed workers at two ammunition plants. Cohorts of 156 and 301 men who had worked a month or more during the 1940s and 1950s at jobs with opportunity for substantial DNT exposure were followed through the end of 1980. Numbers of expected deaths and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed, using mortality rates of US white males as the standard. No evidence of a carcinogenic effect was found, but unsuspected excesses of mortality from ischemic heart disease were noted at both plants (SMRs) 131 and 143; 95% confidence limits 65 to 234 and 107 to 187, respectively). Deaths from ischemic heart disease remained high even when compared with expected numbers derived using mortality rates of the counties in which the plants were located. Additional analyses revealed evidence of a 15-year latent period and suggested a relationship with duration and intensity of exposure. Epidemiologic investigations of other heavily exposed populations are needed to confirm the etiologic significance of the association between DNT and heart disease described here.

  18. Epidemiology of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Silverman, D T; Hartge, P; Morrison, A S; Devesa, S S

    1992-02-01

    Approximately 49,000 persons in the United States develop bladder cancer each year, and about 9700 die of it. White men face a lifetime risk of almost 3%; white women and black men face a risk of about 1%, and black women, about 0.5%. Cigarette smoking is accepted widely as a cause of bladder cancer. Smoking accounts for about half of bladder cancer diagnosed among men and about one third of that among women. Moderate to heavy smokers typically show a two to five fold risk of bladder cancer, compared with persons who never smoked. When cigarette smokers quit smoking, their bladder cancer risk falls measurably within 2 to 4 years, but probably does not continue to decline with increasing years since quitting and does not appear to return to the baseline level of nonsmokers. Occupational exposure to certain aromatic amines causes human bladder cancer. Clear evidence of bladder cancer risk also is apparent for a small number of occupational groups: dye workers, rubber workers, leather workers, painters, truck drivers, and aluminum workers. Many other occupational groups have been reported to have increased bladder cancer risk, but evidence for these is not as strong. Coffee drinking has been studied extensively as a potential risk factor, but the inconsistency of the observed associations suggests that the relationship is either quite weak, noncausal, or dependent in a complex way on unmeasured factors. Artificial sweeteners confer little or no excess bladder cancer risk. Alcohol consumption apparently does not affect risk either. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and foods high in vitamin A have been suggested as possible protective factors; consumption of high-fat foods, pork, and beef have been suggested as possible risk factors. Further epidemiologic research is needed to elucidate the role of diet in human bladder carcinogenesis. Less common risk factors for bladder cancer include ionizing radiation, cyclophosphamide use, and abuse of phenacetin-containing analgesics. Schistosomiasis infection may contribute substantially to the bladder cancer burden in Egypt and elsewhere, though not in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1556044

  19. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Bonjour, J P; Burckhardt, P; Dambacher, M; Kraenzlin, M E; Wimpfheimer, C

    1997-04-19

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of the skeleton characterized by decreased bone mass and a disturbed microarchitecture of the bone. Its consequences is an increase in fracture risk. In women, the risk of experiencing an osteoporotic fracture once in life is twice as high (30-40%) as in men. In a model using population-based data, it is estimated that 54% of 50-year-old women present an osteoporotic fracture once in their remaining life. Typical osteoporotic fractures involve vertebral bodies, the proximal femur and the forearm. The number of fractures caused by osteoporosis is steadily increasing, due to greater life expectancy in particular. In addition, there is a secular increase in the incidence of fractures. In Switzerland, the number of fractures of the hip per year increased from 5,500 in 1980 to 9,800 in 1990 (VESKA data). The consequences of these fractures for the patients and their life quality and the direct and indirect effects on society are generally underestimated. Mortality and morbidity are both increased in comparison with unfractured persons of the same age. One of the most serious consequences of hip fractures is the loss of functional independence in the elderly; 10% of patients lose their functional independence after such fractures, and about 10% need to be placed in homes. Fractures of the waist lead to hospitalization in about 70% of patients aged over 85, and in many patients with forearm fractures algodystrophy occurs. Hip fractures are responsible for about 175,000 days in hospital per year for all Switzerland. Applied to all fractures caused by osteoporosis, this number may be much higher. Lack of epidemiological data, insufficient methods of investigation and the symptomless and silent development of osteoporosis in its beginnings have in many respects led to severe underestimation of this disease in the past. The extension of this growing worldwide health problem has only recently become apparent in Switzerland, essentially because of increasing life expectancy. The frequency of hip fractures is well documented in Switzerland and comparable with that in the US. It justifies in itself the development of a strategy for prevention and treatment. But because osteoporosis is a systemic disease of the skeleton, additional Swiss data on fractures other than that of the hip, such as vertebral and forearm fractures, would be of great interest, especially in the sector of ambulatory medicine. PMID:9198892

  20. Heart rate turbulence.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. PMID:24215748

  1. Epidemiological studies for regulatory agencies.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, V R

    1981-01-01

    In regulation of exposures to hazardous environmental agents, epidemiologic evidence is especially important in defining human risk estimates. The process of developing appropriate regulations is complex, however, and depends on many considerations beyond those established to a high degree of scientific certainty. Thus the needs of regulatory agencies are involved in the way epidemiologic data are developed and presented. To coordinate and review common problems associated with preventive and regulatory activities among the federal agencies concerned with regulation, an Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) was established in 1977. Because of difficulties encountered by these agencies or Congressional committees in evaluating epidemiologic evidence, a subcommittee of the IRLG has developed in draft form guidelines for human population studies to be used in public health decision-making. Although these guidelines have attracted much controversy, their aim is to present criteria for design and documentation of epidemiologic studies, without interfering with the initiative of investigators. Some aspects of the IRLG guidelines are discussed. The need for epidemiologic research in providing evidence for regulatory purposes is increasing, but such studies must be well done if they are to be useful. PMID:7333261

  2. Congenital Malformations and Consequential Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    A call for a shift in the discipline of epidemiology, away from those aimed at identifying risk factors and toward those aimed at more directly improving health – so called consequential epidemiology. This call for epidemiologists to engage in solving the biggest public health problems has been heralded for decades by Cates and more recently by Galea [Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178; 1185–94]. In consideration of the consequential epidemiology perspective, the impacts of epidemiologic research of birth defects over the recent decades are evaluated and directions for the field are proposed. While many causal factors have been identified, the causes of the majority of birth defects remain unknown. Folic acid intake notwithstanding, primary prevention of birth defects is elusive. Meanwhile, research that identifies what improves the lives of individuals born with a birth defect and how to ensure those factors are available to all affected would have great impact. In summary, a consequentialist approach to birth defects epidemiology requires a shift in research agendas and teams, but the opportunities are wide open. PMID:25685656

  3. An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martcheva, M.

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

  4. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  5. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and

  6. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was

  7. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  8. Heart Truth for Women: If You Have Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    THE FOR WO MEN TRUTH THE HEART TRUTH FoR WoMEN: iF You HAVE HEART DisEAsE If you have heart disease, or think you do, it’s vital to take action to protect your heart health. Fortunately, there’s a lot you can do. ...

  9. [Epidemiology of dizziness and vertigo].

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, H K

    2009-08-01

    Dizziness and vertigo rank among the most common symptoms in medical practice and belong to the 10 most common reasons for a neurological examination. Epidemiological data on dizziness, vertigo and underlying specific disorders of vestibular origin are useful for clinical decision making, may contribute to a better understanding of disease mechanisms and help evaluate the state of patient care. This article gives an overview on the epidemiology of dizziness/vertigo and of four specific vestibular disorders: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, vestibular neuritis and Menière's disease. PMID:19626307

  10. How Is a Heart Murmur Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Is... How the Heart Works Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Anemia Congenital Heart Defects Heart Valve Disease Holes in the Heart How the Heart Works ...

  11. Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About 1.8 million smokers tried quitting ? and ... Star Jones credits cardiac rehab with getti... By AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION NEWS When television personality Star Jones prepared... Nurse-in-training?s use of CPR ...

  12. HIV and Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More HIV and Your Heart Banner 1 - HIV and Your ... and find a downloadable HIV wellness checklist, too. HIV Wellness Checklist People living with HIV have even ...

  13. Heart Rhythm Society

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment Patient Information Sheets Find a Specialist Glossary of Terms Share: About HRS Awards History Jobs with HRS Donate Now Governance Corporate Relations & Support Membership Join HRS Benefits My ...

  14. Caffeine and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  15. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  16. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... January 28, 2016 - Reto Asmis, PhD UT Health Science Center, San Antonio Macrophages Immunometabolic Interface Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library and Learning Resource Center Resources ...

  17. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  18. Heart and vascular services

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or defibrillators Open and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery Repair or replacement of heart valves Surgical ... a blockage or rupture. Such procedures include: Arterial bypass grafts Endarterectomies Repair of aneurysms (dilated/enlarged portions) ...

  19. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  20. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), most ...

  1. Heart Health for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Heart Health for Women Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... use the nutrition facts label . 2. Manage your health conditions. Common health problems like high blood pressure, ...

  2. Heart Failure Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you may not need to take anymore, improper dosages of medicines, and mistakes that you may be making in taking them. Call your doctor ... • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  3. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angina or acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2010;(5):CD004587. PMID: 20464732. www.ncbi.nlm. ... grafting for ischaemic heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2012;3:CD007224. PMID: 22419321 www.ncbi.nlm. ...

  4. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... parts of the left side of the heart (mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta) do not ... entire body Entrance and exit of the ventricle Mitral and aortic valves This causes the left ventricle and aorta to ...

  5. Types of Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart surgery that is becoming more common is robotic-assisted surgery. For this surgery, a surgeon uses a computer to control surgical tools on thin robotic arms. The tools are inserted through small incisions ...

  6. Protein and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  7. Alcohol and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. Stress and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  9. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  10. Heart failure - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about what you should do if your weight goes up or you develop more symptoms. Limit how ... prevented by living a healthy lifestyle and taking steps aimed at reducing your risk for heart disease . .

  11. American Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gut bacteria and other microbes are influencing heart health in previously unseen ways. Read more about gut bacteria A genetic condition that causes high cholesterol impacts racial and ethnic groups differently, a recent study ...

  12. Heart and Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athletes heart. Athletes heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athletes heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death. PMID:23074560

  13. Menopause and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... need, the American Heart Association recommends eating a dietary pattern that emphasizes: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts, while limiting red meat and sugary foods and beverages. Women should aim for a 150 ...

  14. Heart disease and diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... source of information on diet and heart disease. Balance the number of calories you eat with the number you use each day to maintain a healthy body weight. You can ask your doctor or dietitian to ...

  15. Target Heart Rates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 60 - 100 beats per minute for well-trained athletes is 40 - 60 beats per minute. Hittin the Target Now youre ready to determine your target training heart rate. As you exercise, periodically: Take your pulse ...

  16. Heart Surgery Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... procedure to prevent infection of an abnormal or artificial heart valve called prophylactic antibiotics. Specific recommendations for ... recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation or an artificial valve. An example of a weak or mild ...

  17. Prevalence of heart disease demonstrated in 60 years of the Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia.

    PubMed

    Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Nather, Julio Cesar; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

    2014-01-01

    Considering the historical and academic relevance of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology (ABC), as its MEDLINE indexing began in 1950, it was assumed as a hypothesis that the analysis of the publications over the last 60 years could reflect the changing trends of heart disease in Brazil. The study data were collected using a program developed for this purpose, allowing the automatic extraction of information from the MEDLINE database. The study information were collected by searching "Brazilian Archives of Cardiology AND selected parameter in English". Four observational groups were determined: (1) major groups of heart diseases (coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies); (2) relevant diseases in clinical practice (cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); (3) cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis); and (4) group determined due to the growing trend of publications on congestive heart failure seen in previous groups (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease and Chagasic heart disease) All publications within the established groups were described, highlighting the increasing importance of heart failure and diabetes as risk factors. A relatively easy search was carried out, using the computer program developed for literature search covering six decades. Emphasizing the limitations of the study, we suggest the existence of an epidemiological link between cardiac diseases that are prevalent in Brazil and the publications of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology. PMID:24652088

  18. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  19. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  20. Women and Heart Health Awareness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. Although heart disease is ... Public Health American Heart Association, Go Red for Women Family Health History Healthy ... Activity Preventable Deaths from Heart Disease & Stroke [2.6 MB] Quit ...

  1. Devices in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Shahzeb M.; Bogaev, Roberta C.; Sobash, Ed; Shankar, K. J.; Gondi, Sreedevi; Stupin, Igor V.; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, M. Alan; Casscells, S. Ward; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Ahmed, Amany

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure has long been one of the most serious medical conditions in the United States; in fact, in the United States alone, heart failure accounts for 6.5 million days of hospitalization each year. One important goal of heart-failure therapy is to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure through pharmacologic and device-based therapies. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop device-based therapies aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing pump function to meet metabolic requirements. The course of congestive heart failure is often worsened by other conditions, including new-onset arrhythmias, ischemia and infarction, valvulopathy, decompensation, end-organ damage, and therapeutic refractoriness, that have an impact on outcomes. The onset of such conditions is sometimes heralded by subtle pathophysiologic changes, and the timely identification of these changes may promote the use of preventive measures. Consequently, device-based methods could in the future have an important role in the timely identification of the subtle pathophysiologic changes associated with congestive heart failure. PMID:18612451

  2. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Tanai, Edit; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is considered an epidemic disease in the modern world affecting approximately 1% to 2% of adult population. It presents a multifactorial, systemic disease, in which--after cardiac injury--structural, neurohumoral, cellular, and molecular mechanisms are activated and act as a network to maintain physiological functioning. These coordinated, complex processes lead to excessive volume overload, increased sympathetic activity, circulation redistribution, and result in different, parallel developing clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms sum up to an unspecific clinical picture; thus invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools are used to get an accurate diagnosis and to specify the underlying cause. The most important, outcome determining factor in heart failure is its constant progression. Constant optimizing of pharmatherapeutical regimes, novel targets, and fine regulation of these processes try to keep these compensatory mechanisms in a physiological range. Beside pharmacological therapy, interventional and surgical therapy options give new chances in the management of heart failure. For the optimization and establishment of these and novel therapeutical approaches, complete and comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms is essentially needed. Besides diagnosis and treatment, efforts should be made for better prevention in heart failure by treatment of risk factors, or identifying and following risk groups. This summary of the pathophysiology of heart failure tries to give a compact overview of basic mechanisms and of the novel unfolding, progressive theory of heart failure to contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge of the disease. 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:187-214, 2016. PMID:26756631

  3. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  4. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  5. Community Engagement in Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Sapienza, Jessica N.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Keim, Sarah; Fleischman, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Engaging communities has become a critical aspect of planning and implementing health research. The role community engagement should play in epidemiological and observational research remains unclear since much of this research is not directly generated by community concerns and is not interventional in nature. The National Children's Study (NCS), an observational longitudinal study of 100,000 children and their families, provides a model to help guide the development of community engagement strategies in epidemiologic research. Methodology This manuscript describes community engagement activities of the NCS during the planning phases of the study. Results There are many challenges of community engagement in epidemiologic research particularly before the actual research sites are determined. After communities of interest are designated many further issues must be resolved, including: defining the specific community, determining which residents or institutions represent the identified community, and developing trust and rapport through respectful engagement. Conclusions Community engagement is critical to the long-term success of any longitudinal epidemiologic study. A partnership with the community should be formed to ensure mutual respect and the establishment of an enduring relationship. Genuine community engagement offers the hope of enhancing recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction. PMID:17512886

  6. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  7. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

  9. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Brnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (20072011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.450.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  10. [The epidemiological transition of chronic and degenerative diseases in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Wolpert, E; Robles Daz, G; Reyes Lpez, P

    1993-01-01

    Mexico during the last decades has achieve an important development, therefore the frequency of most of the transmissible diseases dropped and an increase in frequency has been noticed in regard the chronic non-transmissible diseases of multifactorial etiology. Diagnosis and management in those cases require a great effort in fields such as internal medicine and surgery, as well as a substantial portion of resources assigned to biomedical research. Chronic and degenerative diseases have a sound impact on health economy, need medical decisions with population impact and justify an epidemiological approach in the national health service. Life expectancy reached 69 years by 1990, there is a proportional increase in adults and older person in our population, increasing urbanization and a epidemiological transition which results in a different picture of mortality in Mexico, now heart diseases, malignant neoplasia and diabetes mellitus are 3 of the 5 leading causes of death. Morbidity is not as easy to define because lack of consistent data, however, there is no doubt in regard the important role played by chronic and degenerative diseases in it. General education and health promotion as well as a changing behaviour at issues such as nutrition, physical exercise and avoiding unhealthy habits should be encouraged because its obvious value as preventive measures. After long years of heavy work we are facing a changing mexico in terms of demography and epidemiology, which requires the concern of all health professionals in order to achieve a different epidemiological picture through health education, promotion and behaviour in the whole population, it is necessary not only to live longer, we must have a superior quality of life. PMID:7926406

  11. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  12. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  14. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  15. Heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, Charles B; Richey, Samuel R

    2014-08-01

    Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination and planning as well as adhering to some fundamental principles. One of the major pitfalls encountered is bleeding related to the explant procedure. Another is graft failure related to harvest and/or the implant procedure. The third is injury to either the phrenic nerve(s) or the left recurrent laryngeal nerve related to the explant procedure. Heart-lung transplantation is a major investment in resources of all sorts including financial, personnel, as well as the organs themselves. It is absolutely imperative that this procedure be performed only by experienced surgeons in centers with established expertise. PMID:25132983

  16. Heart-lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination and planning as well as adhering to some fundamental principles. One of the major pitfalls encountered is bleeding related to the explant procedure. Another is graft failure related to harvest and/or the implant procedure. The third is injury to either the phrenic nerve(s) or the left recurrent laryngeal nerve related to the explant procedure. Heart-lung transplantation is a major investment in resources of all sorts including financial, personnel, as well as the organs themselves. It is absolutely imperative that this procedure be performed only by experienced surgeons in centers with established expertise. PMID:25132983

  17. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. 2014 AACR. PMID:25192704

  18. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  19. Dissecting heart failure.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sameer; Gupta, Sameer; Guglin, Maya

    2014-06-01

    Dissection of ascending aorta is a medical emergency typically presenting with acute chest or back pain and hemodynamic instability. We are reporting a very unusual case of dissection of a large ascending aortic aneurysm presenting as a new onset heart failure. A 46-year-old man presented with gradually increasing dyspnea and orthopnea. His physical examination and laboratory findings were consistent with heart failure. The only unusual feature was a diastolic murmur, which prompted echocardiographic evaluation. Besides left ventricular dilatation, hypertrophy, and severe global hypokinesis, which were expected, we also found severely dilated aortic root with aortic regurgitation and a 8.69.7 cm ascending aortic aneurysm with dissection. The patient had a brother who died several years earlier from aortic dissection. Surgical treatment was successful. Type A aortic dissection may rarely present as heart failure. Aortic dissection at young age should prompt screening of first-degree relatives because genetic nature of the disease is very likely. PMID:24418447

  20. [Drug-induced heart failure].

    PubMed

    Negrusz-Kawecka, M

    2001-09-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome caused mainly by cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension and valvular disease, but several categories of drugs may potentially induce heart failure in patients without previous heart disease or precipitate revealing of heart failure symptoms in patients with preexisting left ventricle impairment. Pathophysiologically drugs that increase preload, afterload or have negative inotropic properties may be able to cause this adverse reaction. In the article the potential role in the occurrence of heart failure of cytostatics, immunomodulating drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, antiarrhythmics, anesthetics and antidepressants is reviewed. PMID:11761828

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  2. Theory of heart sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, M.; Gitterman, M.

    1987-09-01

    A phenomenological theory of heart sounds is proposed. The left ventricular wall is modelled as an incompressible spherical shell and the heart valves as two-dimensional membranes. The solutions of the appropriate elasticity equations are matched with those of the hydrodynamical equations describing the propagation of the radiated sound through the soft body tissue. The predicted time plots and frequency spectra show significant resemblance with recorded ones, like equidistant peaks, directional dependence, relationship of sound amplitude and rate of pressure change inside the left ventricle, etc. Sets of parameters are singled out which influence the measured sound. The latter is the integral part of a diagnostic procedure.

  3. Heart Attack - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arabic (???????) Heart Attack (Arabic) ?????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Attack Sr?ani udar - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Heart ...

  4. Heart Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arabic (???????) Heart Failure (Arabic) ???? ????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Failure Zatajenje srca - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (????) Heart ...

  5. Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Audio CME Program Point of Care Searching and Learning Other Opportunities Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals - English Patient education library Open in new window Download ...

  6. The heart metabolism: pathophysiological aspects in ischaemia and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Abozguia, K; Shivu, G Nallur; Ahmed, I; Phan, T T; Frenneaux, M P

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease and of heart failure remain unacceptably high despite major advances in their management. The main focus of treatment has been revascularisation for ischaemic heart disease and neuro-humoral modification for heart failure. There is an urgent need for new modalities of treatment to improve mortality and morbidity. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the role of disturbances in cardiac energetics and myocardial metabolism in the pathophysiology of both ischaemic heart disease and heart failure and of therapeutic potential of metabolic modulation. The myocardium is a metabolic omnivore, but mainly uses fatty acids and glucose for generation of Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). This review focuses on the key changes that occur to the metabolism of the heart in ischaemia and in heart failure and its effects on cardiac energetics. PMID:19275646

  7. Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas

    MedlinePLUS

    Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas - English Patient education library Open in new window Download PDF Follow us on Twitter , Facebook , and YouTube Twitter Facebook YouTube My Favorites For Media ...

  8. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  9. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  10. Modern epidemiology and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Ortega, Francisco; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this article is to present a snapshot of an ongoing debate within epidemiology, pitching opposing sides in the struggle to define the path it should follow in the years to come. The debate among epidemiologists in the mid-90s pitted those who defended the idea that epidemiology should necessarily deal with a wide context against those who believed that science and public health are better served by focusing on the individual level. Ian Hacking's concept of styles of reasoning was used as a theoretical tool. The literature was reviewed using a core set of articles as an entry point, seeking articles that cited them, and then back-tracking the citations of the resulting set in the Scopus database. The main arguments are presented according to levels (ontological, epistemological, axiological and pragmatic), in order to show an even deeper disagreement, in the very conception of science and its relation to social issues and public policy. PMID:24626504

  11. Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research. PMID:20581220

  12. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  13. Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region

    SciTech Connect

    Gontier, Mikael . E-mail: gontier@kth.se

    2007-07-15

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

  14. Acute ischaemic heart block in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Dale A; Wilson, Neil; Mitchell, Max B; Younoszai, Adel K

    2016-01-01

    In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, thrombosis of the native ascending aorta is rare and often fatal; there are no previously reported cases presenting with acute heart block. We review a case of native ascending aorta thrombosis in a 2-year-old boy with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, presenting with acute heart block. This case highlights the benefit of multi-modality imaging in complex cases. PMID:25531744

  15. The kidney in heart failure: an update.

    PubMed

    Damman, Kevin; Testani, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-14

    Heart and kidney are closely related in the clinical syndrome of heart failure (HF). It is now sufficiently clear that renal dysfunction occurs frequently in all phenotypes of HF, and when present, it is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. While the pathophysiology is multifactorial, the most important factors are a reduced renal perfusion and venous congestion. Recent interest has focused on worsening renal function (WRF), a situation strongly related to mortality, but seemingly only when HF status deteriorates. Unfortunately, to date clinicians are unable to identify specifically those patients with a grim prognosis following WRF. Although much has been learned on cardiorenal interaction in HF, still more questions have been left unanswered. The coming decade should provide us with more dedicated epidemiologic, mechanistic, and controlled trials in HF patients with reduced renal function. An updated classification of the cardiorenal syndrome that incorporates recent evidence and points towards areas of interest and uncertainties, and areas where progress is needed could facilitate this process. Ultimately, this should lead to preventive and treatment strategies that can preserve renal function and associated outcome in patients with HF. PMID:25838436

  16. Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rina; Shemer, Avner; Hochberg, Malca; Keness, Yoram; Shvarzman, Rima; Mandelblat, Marina; Frenkel, Michael; Segal, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by Dermatophytes, Candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. The objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in Israel. Data of a cohort of 27,093 patients were collected from six centres during a 2- and 10-year period. The diagnosis was based on microscopy of KOH/calcofluor mounts of nail scrapings and culture isolation. A positive result indicates isolation of a fungus in culture. Data were analysed for each centre and expressed as range for the whole cohort, using the spss v18 software. Analysis included three epidemiologic parameters: fungal aetiology in toe- and fingernails; association with gender; association with age group. Dermatophytes were the major causative agents and Trichophyton rubrum the most frequent isolate. Candida species were more frequent in women fingernails; frequency increased with age and C. parapsilosis the most frequent species. NDMs were isolated at low rate and Aspergillus terreus was the most frequent isolate. This is a first large cohort of onychomycosis patients from Israel analysed by defined epidemiological parameters. PMID:25590832

  17. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  18. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  19. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  20. Gout and the heart.

    PubMed

    Bhole, Vidula; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-02-01

    The association between gout and cardiovascular diseases has been noted for centuries but was not subjected to rigorous epidemiologic studies until recently. The published literature is almost unanimous in the strength and consistency of this association. However, the impact of gout over and above that conferred by hyperuricemia and other risk factors of cardiovascular disease has not been well studied. Future studies are expected to shed light on the pathophysiologic basis of this association. PMID:24268013

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Hector, Susanne . E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof.

    2007-01-01

    The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

  2. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTINGEl Salvador.?RESULTSThe Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONSEven descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  3. Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... left ventricle into the aorta. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood to the body. As the ventricles relax, the pulmonary and aortic valves shut tightly. This prevents blood from flowing back into the ventricles. For more information about how the heart pumps blood and detailed ...

  4. Heart Ed 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college

  5. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

  6. FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke.

  7. Be Still My Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  8. Educating the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Japan's elementary and junior high schools have a formal, nationally mandated moral curriculum called Kokoro-no-kyoiku--education of the heart. Japanese educators include moral growth as an integral part of one's intellectual growth and believe that democratic societies must promote virtuous decision making. Moral education in Japan nurtures the

  9. Teaching from the Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apps, Jerold W.

    This book is designed to illustrate learning for the whole person, including attending to spiritual, biological, intellectual, and emotional dimensions. It is expected that learners will discover the meaning of learning from the heart and teachers will learn how to develop their own such learning and then to explore ways that they can teach from…

  10. Heart Ed 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne E.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college…

  11. Diabetes and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exercise is very important for people who have diabetes. Diet and exercise work together to help your body ... American Heart Association is a good source for diets that are low in fat and cholesterol. ... Attenuating Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes by Alan J. Garber, M.D., PH.D ( ...

  12. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  13. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  14. Rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Marijon, Eloi; Mirabel, Mariana; Celermajer, David S; Jouven, Xavier

    2012-03-10

    Rheumatic heart disease, often neglected by media and policy makers, is a major burden in developing countries where it causes most of the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in young people, leading to about 250,000 deaths per year worldwide. The disease results from an abnormal autoimmune response to a group A streptococcal infection in a genetically susceptible host. Acute rheumatic fever--the precursor to rheumatic heart disease--can affect different organs and lead to irreversible valve damage and heart failure. Although penicillin is effective in the prevention of the disease, treatment of advanced stages uses up a vast amount of resources, which makes disease management especially challenging in emerging nations. Guidelines have therefore emphasised antibiotic prophylaxis against recurrent episodes of acute rheumatic fever, which seems feasible and cost effective. Early detection and targeted treatment might be possible if populations at risk for rheumatic heart disease in endemic areas are screened. In this setting, active surveillance with echocardiography-based screening might become very important. PMID:22405798

  15. Left heart ventricular angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your heart. When the tube is in place, dye is injected through it. The dye flows through the blood vessels, making them easier to see. X-rays are taken as the dye moves through the blood vessels. These x-ray ...

  16. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a

  17. Heart disease and intimacy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have sex again Have different feelings about having sex or being intimate with your partner Almost everyone with heart problems has these questions and concerns. The most helpful thing you can do is talk to your doctor, nurse, spouse, partner, or friends.

  18. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... classes or programs, or things like meditation or yoga. Limiting how much alcohol you drink to 1 drink a day for women and 2 a day for men. Good nutrition is important to your heart health and will help control some of your ...

  19. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  20. How Is Heart Block Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...

  1. Hispanics and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can eat right and exercise and reduce your risk.” This content was last reviewed July 2015. Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke What are My Risks For Getting Heart Disease Infographic Make the Effort ...

  2. Panic Attack or Heart Attack?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with echocardiography. It is a good first-line test for a woman with symptoms and risk factors for heart disease. Echocardiography uses sound waves technology to give detailed information about the heart muscle, ...

  3. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

  4. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Mar 25,2016 Patients with heart failure may work with multiple healthcare professionals. It's important to develop good relationships with ...

  5. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Doctors use open-heart surgery to repair VSDs. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a fairly common heart ... some babies, however, the ductus arteriosus remains open (patent). The opening allows oxygen-rich blood from the ...

  6. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... level of this hormone rises during heart failure. Echocardiography Echocardiography (echo) uses sound waves to create a ... your heart pumps blood when it beats. Doppler Ultrasound A Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to measure ...

  7. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  8. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Mar 25,2016 By themselves, any one ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  9. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t even on Jennifer's radar. And when this television news reporter suffered a heart attack at age ... high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Attack Warning Symptoms 10/20/ ...

  10. What Causes a Heart Attack?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t even on Jennifer's radar. And when this television news reporter suffered a heart attack at age ... high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Attack Warning Symptoms 10/20/ ...

  11. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Sep 4,2014 Blood pressure ... Pressure Resistant Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome BP vs. Heart Rate BP Quizzes Myths About High Blood ...

  12. Heart-respiratory monitor - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

  13. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ...

  14. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cardiac arrest, the only way to restart the heart is with a defibrillator (dee-FIB-ruh-lay-tur), a machine that sends an electrical shock to the heart to restore normal rhythm. This treatment must be ...

  15. Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155248.html Men's, Women's Hearts Age Differently Treatments may need to ... News) -- The heart ages differently for women and men. And this suggests a possible need for gender- ...

  16. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  17. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use. Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABP) help maintain heart function in people who are waiting for transplants. They ... who have a sudden and severe decline in heart function. The IABP is a thin, implanted balloon. Most ...

  18. The role of metabolic syndrome in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Paolillo, Stefania; Costanzo, Pierluigi; Savarese, Gianluigi; Trimarco, Bruno; Bonow, Robert O

    2015-10-14

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a highly prevalent condition in patients affected by heart failure (HF); however, it is still unclear whether, in the setting of cardiac dysfunction, it represents an adverse risk factor for the occurrence of cardiac events. The epidemiologic implications of MS in HF have been studied intensely, as many of its components contribute to the incidence and severity of HF. In particular, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities represent the main components that negatively influence disease progression and evolution. Yet, other components of the MS, i.e. overweight/obesity and high blood pressure, are favourably associated with outcome in HF patients. The aim of this review was to report epidemiology and prognostic role of MS in HF and to investigate current clinical implications and future research needs. PMID:26242711

  19. [Alcoholic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Takehana, H; Izumi, T

    2000-01-01

    Alcoholic heart disease is caused by a lifestyle in which alcoholics are continue to consume an excessive amount of alcohol over a long period of time. Total abstinence is a very effective way to treat them to prevent the development of the final stage of this disease. In contrast, repetitive drinking of massive amount of alcohol is very harmful and causes exacerbation of this disease. From our clinical studies, six candidates were nominated as symptoms of alcoholic heart disease, namely(1) tachyarrhythmias (incidence: 33%), (2) left ventricular hypokinesis(17%), (3) QT interval prolongation(17%), (4) hyperthickened LV wall(13%), (5) LV dilatation with pump failure: alcoholic cardiomyopathy(0.1%), and (6) sudden cardiac death (unknown %). In the beginning of alcoholic heart disease, the patient usually complains of no symptoms, and physical signs are quite poor. Ordinarily, either transient atrial fibrillation and/or left ventricular hypertrophy which is initially documented by electrocardiography or echocardiography is one of the first signals in the diagnosis. Without such early signals, an early diagnosis is impossible. To make a definite diagnosis of alcoholic heart disease, a clinical follow-up is by all means necessary. Improvement of cardiac function after total abstinence, it's worsening after drinking again, and again improvement after abstinence a second time is a diagnostic clue. In this follow-up study, electrocardiography and echocardiography were employed as important ways to gather date. In treatment, total abstinence is essential. To achieve this therapeutic goal, education of the patient is necessary, because approximately 70 per cent of patients with alcoholic heart disease fail to continue abstinence within two years even if they have good training. PMID:10885304

  20. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individuals cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164