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Increased risk and worse prognosis of myocardial infarction in patients with prior hospitalization for epilepsy--the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program.  


The association of epilepsy with risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains uncertain, and its association with myocardial infarction prognosis has not been evaluated. In this study, we performed a population-based case-control study that included 1799 cases with first AMI and 2339 controls, frequency matched by age, sex and hospital catchment area. A history of epilepsy was identified using the Swedish hospital discharge registry. Information on lifestyle and biomarkers was determined from questionnaires and standardized clinic examinations. The cohort of cases was followed for 8 years to evaluate the relationship between epilepsy and post AMI prognosis. A diagnosis of epilepsy was associated with higher risk of incident AMI, with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34-10.31] after adjustment for age, gender, hospital catchment area, and education. There was a graded positive relation between number of hospitalizations for epilepsy and risk of AMI. Adjustment for smoking and levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) complex, von Willebrand factor and homocysteine weakened, and adjustment for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and fibrinogen strengthened, the relationship between epilepsy and AMI. The OR for epilepsy was 4.83 (95% CI 1.62-14.43) when age, gender, hospital catchment area, education and established, clinically relevant AMI risk factors, i.e. diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, physical activity, obesity, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and alcohol consumption were simultaneously controlled for. Epilepsy was also associated with AMI prognosis. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for total and cardiac mortality and for a combined outcome of cardiac death and non-fatal reinfarction, heart failure and stroke during follow up, were 1.95 (0.70-5.43), 3.49 (1.05-11.65) and 2.39 (1.16-4.90), respectively. We conclude that epilepsy might be a risk and an adverse prognostic factor for AMI. Smoking and increase in the level of homocysteine, tPA/PAI-1 complex and von Willebrand factor are candidate mechanisms linking epilepsy to increased AMI risk. Physicians should be aware of the potential cardiovascular implications of epilepsy. PMID:19717532

Janszky, Imre; Hallqvist, Johan; Tomson, Torbjörn; Ahlbom, Anders; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ahnve, Staffan



Liver disease in ulcerative colitis: an epidemiological and follow up study in the county of Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an epidemiological study of the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the county of Stockholm between 1955 and 1979, 1274 patients with UC were discovered. Almost all these patients had regularly been investigated with liver function tests; 142 (11%) of them showed signs of hepatobiliary disease. A follow up study on all 142 patients with abnormal liver function and

U Broomé; H Glaumann; G Hellers; B Nilsson; J Sörstad; R Hultcrantz



[Epidemiology of heart failure].  


Of all persons aged over 40 years, approximately 1% have heart failure. The prevalence of heart failure doubles with each decade of life, and is around 10% in persons over 70 years of age. In Spain, heart failure causes nearly 80,000 hospital admissions every year. As in other developed countries, heart failure is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among persons 65 years of age and over, and is responsible for 5% of all hospitalizations. The incidence of heart failure increases with age, and reaches 1% per year in those over 65. Heart failure is a progressive, lethal disorder, even with adequate treatment. Five-year survival is around 50%, which is no better than that for many cancers. In Spain, heart failure is the third leading cause of cardiovascular mortality, after coronary disease and stroke. In 2000, heart failure caused 4% of all deaths and 10% of cardiovascular deaths in men; the corresponding figures for women were 8% and 18%. In recent decades the prevalence and number of hospitalizations due to heart failure have increased steadily in developed countries. Heart failure will probably continue to increase in coming years: although its incidence has not materially decreased, survival is increasing due to better treatment. The control of risk factors for hypertension and ischemic heart disease, the main causes of heart failure in Spain, is the only method to halt the foreseeable increase in heart failure in the near future. PMID:14967113

Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas Banegas, José R; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar



Epidemiology of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome occurring as the end result of many different forms of heart disease. There are\\u000a many different definitions and classifications of heart failure (Table 1.1) but a simple, practical definition of the syndrome\\u000a of heart failure is that it is characterized by typical symptoms such as shortness of breath, exercise limitation and fatigue\\u000a and

Robert Neil Doughty; Harvey D. White


Epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Stockholm, Sweden: a retrospective study from 2005-2009.  


Dermatophytic infections are common worldwide but the distribution of dermatophyte species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic profile of dermatophytosis in Stockholm, Sweden. Laboratory records comprising direct microscopy and culture results of 37,503 specimens from skin, hair and nail scrapings collected from January 2005 through December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed in the mycology laboratory at Karolinska University Hospital. Onychomycosis had, over time, the highest overall prevalence of 14.1%, followed by tinea pedis (4.4%). Trichophyton rubrum was the predominant pathogen isolated from these cases (83.2%), followed by T. mentagrophytes (7.4 %). In contrast, T. violaceum and T. soudanense accounted for 81.6% of the isolates from patients with tinea capitis. PMID:21128711

Drakensjö, Iara Trocoli; Chryssanthou, Erja



Heart Failure Epidemiology: European Perspective  

PubMed Central

Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).

Guha, K; McDonagh, T



Crohn's disease in Stockholm County during 1990-2001: An epidemiological update  

PubMed Central

AIM: To further assess of the incidence and localization of Crohn’s disease (CD) in a well-defined population during the 1990s and to evaluate the prevalence of CD on the 1st of January 2002. METHODS: In a retrospective population based study, all 16-90 years old citizens of Stockholm County diagnosed as having CD according to Lennard Jones’ criteria between 1990 and 2001 were included. Case identification was made by using computerized inpatient and outpatient registers. Moreover private gastroenterologists were asked for possible cases. The extent of the disease and the frequency of anorectal fistulae were determined as were the ages at diagnosis. Further, the prevalence of CD on the 1st of January 2002 was assessed. RESULTS: All the 1 389 patients, 689 men and 700 women, fulfilled the criteria for CD. The mean incidence rate for the whole period was 8.3 per 105 (95%CI 7.9 -8.8). There was no difference between the genders. The mean annual incidence of the whole study period for colorectal disease and ileocecal disease, was 4.4 (95%CI 4.0-4.7) and 2.4 (95%CI 2.1-2.6) per 105, respectively. Perianal disease occurred in 13.7% (95%CI 11.9-15.7 %) of the patients. The prevalence of CD was 213 per 100 000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: The incidence of CD has markedly increased during the last decade in Stockholm County and 0.2% of the population suffers from CD. The increase is attributed to a further increase of colorectal disease, while the incidence of ileocecal disease has remained stable.

Lapidus, Annika



Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the Years 2000 to 2003: Association of the GGIIb Genetic Cluster with Infection in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains were studied during three seasons (2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003) among patients of all ages, mainly from the Stockholm region in Sweden. A total of 3,252 fecal samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- PCR. The incidences of norovirus infection among adults were 23, 26, and 30% during the three

Annika Tiveljung Lindell; Lena Grillner; Lennart Svensson; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart



Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Heart failure is common and is associated with poor prognosis. Chronic kidney disease is common in heart failure, and shares many risk factors with heart failure such as age, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Over half of all heart failure patients may have moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. The presence of chronic kidney disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, yet it is also associated with underutilization of evidence-based heart failure therapy that may reduce morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology and outcomes of chronic kidney disease in heart failure is essential to ensure proper management of these patients.

Ahmed, Ali; Campbell, Ruth C.



Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management  

PubMed Central

Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications.

Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio



Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the Years 2000 to 2003: Association of the GGIIb Genetic Cluster with Infection in Children  

PubMed Central

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains were studied during three seasons (2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003) among patients of all ages, mainly from the Stockholm region in Sweden. A total of 3,252 fecal samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. The incidences of norovirus infection among adults were 23, 26, and 30% during the three seasons studied and 18, 11, and 15% among children 0 to 15 years of age. During the first season, all norovirus strains detected by PCR were typed either by reverse line blot hybridization or nucleotide sequence analysis. During the two successive seasons, a total of 60 norovirus-positive strains from the beginning, peak, and end of the seasons were selected for nucleotide sequence analysis. We identified two dominant norovirus variants over the seasons: a new norovirus variant, recently described as the GGIIb genetic cluster, dominated among children during the first season, and during the following two seasons, a GGII-4 variant dominated. Our data suggest that norovirus infections are common, not only among adults, but also among children, and that some strains may predominantly affect children.

Lindell, Annika Tiveljung; Grillner, Lena; Svensson, Lennart; Wirgart, Benita Zweygberg



Epidemiology of major congenital heart defects in Sweden, 1981-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to make an epidemiological study of major congenital heart defects and to make comparisons between groups of heart defects regarding different epidemiological variables. DESIGN--The cases with congenital heart defects were identified from two Swedish registries: the Registry of Congenital Malformations and the Child Cardiology Registry. A classification with nine groups of heart defects is proposed. SETTING--This

P Pradat



Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail:



Cohort profile: The Stockholm Public Health Cohort.  


The Stockholm Public Health Cohort was set up within the Stockholm County Council public health surveys to inform on determinants and consequences of significant contributors to the current burden of disease. Participants are 89 268 randomly selected individuals from the adult population of Stockholm County. Baseline surveys took place in 2002, 2006 and 2010 via self-administered questionnaires. So far, participants recruited in 2002 were re-surveyed twice, in 2007 and 2010, and those enrolled in 2006 were re-surveyed once, in 2010. Self-reported data are regularly supplemented by information from national and regional health data and administrative registers, for study participants and their relatives (including their offspring). Available data are extensive and include a wide array of health, lifestyle, perinatal, demographic, socio-economic and familial factors. The cohort is an international resource for epidemiological research, and the data available to the research community for specific studies obtained approval from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort Steering Committee and the Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board. PMID:23042793

Svensson, Anna C; Fredlund, Peeter; Laflamme, Lucie; Hallqvist, Johan; Alfredsson, Lars; Ekbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Forsberg, Birger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Vågerö, Denny; Magnusson, Cecilia



Stockholm Southwest field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stockholm Southwest (SW) field, discovered by Texas Oil and Gas Production Corporation in March 1979, is located in southwest Wallace and northwest Greeley Counties, Kansas, and eastern Cheyenne County, Colorado. It consists of 87 original oil wells which have produced 5.5 million bbl of oil. As of the middle of 1989, it was producing almost 1,200 bbl oil\\/day from

W. A. Miller; E. M. Hundley-Goff; S. L. Veal; L. G. Brown



Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Diseases: Similarities and Differences  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease.

Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado



Epidemiology and risk factors of cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases: similarities and differences.  


Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado



Incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury in Thessaloniki, Greece and Stockholm, Sweden: a prospective population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Prospective population-based open-ended study. This paper is part of the Stockholm–Thessaloniki Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Study.Objectives:To calculate incidence and evaluate the epidemiological profile of the incident population with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI).Settings:The greater Thessaloniki region in Greece and the greater Stockholm region in Sweden.Methods:TSCI individuals, older than 15 years of age, who had survived the first 7

A Divanoglou; R Levi



Cardiovascular epidemiology in a changing world--challenges to investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  


Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries. PMID:22415032

Sorlie, Paul D; Bild, Diane E; Lauer, Michael S



Cardiovascular Epidemiology in a Changing World--Challenges to Investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

PubMed Central

Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries.

Sorlie, Paul D.; Bild, Diane E.; Lauer, Michael S.



Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure in high risk patients: community based epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and of heart failure due to different causes, in patients with risk factors for these conditions. Design Epidemiological study, including detailed clinical assessment, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Setting 16 English general practices, representative for socioeconomic status and practice type. Participants 1062 patients (66% response rate) with previous myocardial infarction, angina, hypertension, or diabetes. Main outcome measures Prevalence of systolic dysfunction, both with and without symptoms, and of heart failure, in groups of patients with each of the risk factors. Results Definite systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction <40%) was found in 54/244 (22.1%, 95% confidence interval 17.1% to 27.9%) patients with previous myocardial infarction, 26/321 (8.1%, 5.4% to 11.6%) with angina, 7/388 (1.8%, 0.7% to 3.7%) with hypertension, and 12/208 (5.8%, 3.0% to 9.9%) with diabetes. In each group, approximately half of these patients had symptoms of dyspnoea, and therefore had heart failure. Overall rates of heart failure, defined as symptoms of dyspnoea plus objective evidence of cardiac dysfunction (systolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, or clinically significant valve disease) were 16.0% (11.6% to 21.2%) in patients with previous myocardial infarction, 8.4% (5.6% to 12.0%) in those with angina, 2.8% (1.4% to 5.0%) in those with hypertension, and 7.7% (4.5% to 12.2%) in those with diabetes. Conclusion Many people with ischaemic heart disease or diabetes have systolic dysfunction or heart failure. The data support the need for trials of targeted echocardiographic screening, in view of the major benefits of modern treatment. In contrast, patients with uncomplicated hypertension have similar rates to the general population. What is already known on this topicThe prognosis and symptoms of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure can be greatly improved by modern treatmentsMany patients with heart failure do not have an assessment of left ventricular function, resulting in undertreatment of the conditionWhat this study addsPatients with a history of ischaemic heart disease (especially those with previous myocardial infarction) or diabetes commonly have left ventricular systolic dysfunctionThese patients would be candidates for a targeted echocardiographic screening programmeIn contrast, the yield from screening patients with uncomplicated hypertension would be low

Davis, R C; Hobbs, F D R; Kenkre, J E; Roalfe, A K; Hare, R; Lancashire, R J; Davies, M K



The dynamic nature of group A streptococcal epidemiology in tropical communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease.  


Prospective surveillance was conducted in three remote Aboriginal communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease in order to investigate the epidemiology of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci (GAS). At each household visit, participants were asked about sore throat. Swabs were taken from all throats and any skin sores. GAS isolates were emm sequence and pattern-typed using standard laboratory methods. There were 531 household visits; 43 different emm types and subtypes (emmST) were recovered. Four epidemiological patterns were observed. Multiple emmST were present in the population at any one time and household acquisition rates were high. Household acquisition was most commonly via 5- to 9-year-olds. Following acquisition, there was a 1 in 5 chance of secondary detection in the household. Throat detection of emmST was brief, usually <2 months. The epidemiology of GAS in these remote Aboriginal communities is a highly dynamic process characterized by emmST diversity and turnover. PMID:17540052

McDonald, M I; Towers, R J; Andrews, R; Benger, N; Fagan, P; Currie, B J; Carapetis, J R



Epidemiology of heart failure in Spain over the last 20 years.  


Heart failure is a major health care problem in Spain, although its precise impact is unknown due to the lack of data from appropriately designed studies. In contrast with the 2% prevalence of heart failure elsewhere in Europe and in the United States, studies in Spain report figures of 5%, probably because of methodological limitations. Heart failure consumes enormous quantities of health care resources; it is the first cause of hospitalization in persons aged 65 years or older and represents 3% of all hospital admissions and 2.5% of health care costs. There are two patterns of heart failure: one with preserved systolic function, more often associated with high blood pressure, and another with depressed systolic function, more often associated with ischemic heart disease. In 2010, heart failure accounted for 3% of all deaths in men and for 10% of all deaths in women. In recent years, the mortality rate from heart failure has gradually fallen. The rise in hospital admissions for heart failure and the decrease in mortality from this cause could partly be explained by temporary changes in diagnostic coding, but there is evidence that the reduced mortality could also be due to adherence to clinical practice guidelines. Full English text available PMID:23830060

Sayago-Silva, Inés; García-López, Fernando; Segovia-Cubero, Javier



Epidemiology of heart failure in Spain over the last 20 years.  


Heart failure is a major health care problem in Spain, although its precise impact is unknown due to the lack of data from appropriately designed studies. In contrast with the 2% prevalence of heart failure elsewhere in Europe and in the United States, studies in Spain report figures of 5%, probably because of methodological limitations. Heart failure consumes enormous quantities of health care resources; it is the first cause of hospitalization in persons aged 65 years or older and represents 3% of all hospital admissions and 2.5% of health care costs. There are two patterns of heart failure: one with preserved systolic function, more often associated with high blood pressure, and another with depressed systolic function, more often associated with ischemic heart disease. In 2010, heart failure accounted for 3% of all deaths in men and for 10% of all deaths in women. In recent years, the mortality rate from heart failure has gradually fallen. The rise in hospital admissions for heart failure and the decrease in mortality from this cause could partly be explained by temporary changes in diagnostic coding, but there is evidence that the reduced mortality could also be due to adherence to clinical practice guidelines. PMID:24776334

Sayago-Silva, Inés; García-López, Fernando; Segovia-Cubero, Javier



Epidemiology of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of heart failure and\\/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction has long been regarded as an ominous complication,\\u000a significantly increasing the morbidity and short- and long-term mortality of survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Although\\u000a the incidence of heart failure after myocardial infarction has fallen over the last few decades, it remains common, complicating\\u000a up to 45% of infarcts. Moreover, up

Robin A. P. Weir; John J. V. McMurray



Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources



Similarities in the epidemiology of neural tube defects and coronary heart disease: is homocysteine the missing link?  

PubMed Central

It is hypothesised that a single aetiological pathway could explain both the strong ecological association between the birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the potential efficacy of dietary measures, especially increased folic acid intake, in their prevention. The epidemiological similarities between NTD and CHD are strong and consistent suggesting that the relation is real rather than artefactual. It is suggested that this epidemiological association reflects a shared aetiology arising from the role of disturbed homocysteine metabolism in the pathogenesis of both conditions. Current public health measures designed to increase the intake of periconceptional folic acid in women, reinforced by a broadening of this policy to target both sexes throughout life, will (if successful) result in a reduction in both the birth prevalence of NTD and the incidence of CHD, although not necessarily contemporaneously. If disordered homocysteine metabolism is the cause of both NTD and CHD, this has implications for future research and preventive strategies for these serious and often lethal diseases.  

Stone, D. H.; McCarron, P.; Smith, G. D.



The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD.

Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R



Patients' perceptions of their heart attack and recovery: the influence of epidemiological “evidence” and personal experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary prevention of heart disease is widely viewed as likely to be more successful and cost effective than primary prevention. However, people's willingness to adopt lifestyle change is a complex issue in which people's perceptions of disease causation and risk as well as a range of socio-economic factors are important. This paper reports on a qualitative study of people following

Rose Wiles



Human Violence in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the subsequent life and development of 182 teenagers sampled from the general population (the controls) and compared them with 345 teenagers of the same ages (the probands) who were taken care of by the Social Service Department, all of them from Greater Stockholm. There was more violence and aggressiveness in the behaviour of the probands than the controls

Sture Mützell



Intergenerational Learning in Stockholm County in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates a practical implementation of strategies for augmenting social capital, as they are being used within the Granddad Project, an intergenerational learning initiative conducted in schools in the Stockholm county area. Indicators for measuring social capital were constructed on the basis of questionnaire data. Responses from a total of 580 pupils, 19 granddads and 27 teachers in 17

Ann-Kristin Boström



A review of the epidemiological profile of patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure.  


Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are cardiovascular diseases that have a continuously increasing prevelance and both often coexist. The presence of AF in HF patients has been reported as being between 10 and 50% depending on the different study settings. AF patients have a different clinical profile: they are older, with more severe HF and comorbidities than those without AF. Despite this poor clinical profile, observational studies report a lower use of the recommended treatments such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and ?-blockers. Clinical trials using antiarrhythmic drugs for rhythm control have failed to demonstrate the clinical advantage of a rhythm control approach over one for rate control. The prognostic role of AF in HF remains controversial, while the impact of new AF has been shown to be associated with an adverse outcome. PMID:23098149

Fabbri, Gianna; Maggioni, Aldo P



An epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in different ethnic groups in Delhi urban population.  


A community based epidemiologival survey of coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out on a random urban sample of 13,560 adults of different ethnic groups in Delhi. CHD was diagnosed either on the basis of clinical history, supported by documentary evidence of treatment in hospital/home or on the ECG evidence in accordance with Minnesota Code. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis per 1000 adults was the highest in Sikhs (47.3), lowest in Muslims (22.8) and identical in Hindus (31.8) and Christians (31.2). The prevalence rate/1000 of silent CHD on the basis of ECG was high in Muslims (89.5) and Sikhs (87.3), low in Christians (25.0) and intermediate in Hindus (60.0). The Sikhs showed the highest prevalence rate of myocardial infarct (MI) (15.5) and angina (AP) (31.8) compared to other communities. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical basis was higher in males than females in all communities. The prevalence of silent CHD was higher in females in Hindus and Sikhs but in Muslims it was higher in men (94.8) than in women (85.2). The wide variations in prevalence rates of CHD in different ethnic groups cannot be explained satisfactorily on the basis of conventional risk factors and support the multifactorial etiological character of CHD. PMID:9282636

Gopinath, N; Chadha, S L; Jain, P; Shekhawat, S; Tandon, R



Epidemiology of cardioprotective pharmacological agent use in stable coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine use of class and type of cardioprotective pharmacological agents in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) we performed a prescription audit. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in major districts of Rajasthan in years 2008–09. We evaluated prescription for classes (anti-platelets, ?-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), calcium channel blockers (CCB) and statins) and specific pharmacological agents at clinics of physicians in tertiary (n = 18), secondary (n = 69) and primary care (n = 43). Descriptive statistics are reported. Results Prescriptions of 2290 stable CHD patients were audited. Anti-platelet use was in 2031 (88.7%), ?-blockers 1494 (65.2%), ACE inhibitors 1196 (52.2%), ARBs 712 (31.1%), ACE inhibitors – ARB combinations 19 (0.8%), either ACE inhibitors or ARBs 1908 (83.3%), CCBs 1023 (44.7%), statins 1457 (63.6%) and other lipid lowering agents in 170 (7.4%). Among anti-platelets aspirin–clopidogrel combination was used in 88.5%. Top three molecules in ?-blockers were atenolol (37.8%), metoprolol (26.4%) and carvedilol (11.9%); ACE inhibitors ramipril (42.1%), lisinopril (20.3%) and perindopril (10.9%); ARB's losartan (47.7%), valsartan (22.3%) and telmisartan (14.9%); CCBs amlodipine (46.7%), diltiazem (29.1%) and verapamil (9.5%) and statins were atorvastatin (49.8%), simvastatin (28.9%) and rosuvastatin (18.3%). Use of metoprolol, ramipril, valsartan, diltiazem and atorvastatin was more at tertiary care, and atenolol, lisinopril, losartan, amlodipine and simvasatin in primary care (p < 0.01). Conclusions There is low use of ?-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs and statins in stable CHD patients among physicians in Rajasthan. Significant differences in use of specific molecules at primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare are observed.

Sharma, Krishna Kumar; Mathur, Mukul; Gupta, Rakesh; Guptha, Soneil; Roy, Sanjeeb; Khedar, R.S.; Gupta, Nishant; Gupta, Rajeev



An epidemiologic review of dietary intake studies among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Implications for heart disease and cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Dietary factors play an important role in the occurrence of heart disease and cancer. While American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) have unique heart disease and cancer mortality profiles, little is known about the effect of diet on heart disease and cancer risk in these populations. This paper reviews existing nutritional intake data from adult AIANs, and considers the

Ronny A. Bell; Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis; Yvonne Jackson; Connie Dresser



The Aeronautical Laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a detailed analysis and history of the construction and operation of the aeronautical laboratory of the Stockholm Technical Institute. Engines and balances are discussed and experimental results are also given.

Malmer, Ivar



Risk Factors for Congestive Heart Failure in US Men and Women NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of congestive heart fail- ure (CHF) has been increasing steadily in the United States during the past 2 decades. We studied risk factors for CHF and their corresponding attributable risk in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epi- demiologic Follow-up Study. Participants and Methods: A total of 13643 men and women without a history of

Jiang He; Lorraine G. Ogden; Lydia A. Bazzano; Suma Vupputuri; Catherine Loria; Paul K. Whelton



Respiratory syncytial virus in patients with congenital heart disease: a contemporary look at epidemiology and success of preoperative screening.  


Awareness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as a serious pathogen in the child with congenital heart disease is increasing. We studied the impact of RSV lower respiratory tract disease on patients in a large academic pediatric cardiology practice. We found that RSV disease necessitating hospitalization occurs in congenital heart disease patients well into the second year of life. Although pulmonary hypertension remains a significant risk factor for morbidity in these patients, it does not appear to be as much of a factor as in the past. By implementing a nasopharyngeal RSV enzyme-linked immunoassay screening of young patients prior to cardiac surgery we found a reduction in community-acquired postoperative RSV disease. We postulate this will lead to a reduction in nosocomial disease in the postoperative care unit. PMID:10982701

Altman, C A; Englund, J A; Demmler, G; Drescher, K L; Alexander, M A; Watrin, C; Feltes, T F



Epidemiology of Noncomplex Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Malformations (Aortic Valve Stenosis, Coarctation of the Aorta, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome) in Texas, 1999 -2001  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) contribute significantly to infant mortality due to birth defects. Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program, enables study in a large, diverse population including Hispanics. METHODS Records of children up to 1 year old with AVS, CoA, and HLHS born in Texas from 1999 to 2001, were collected from the registry. Those including additional heart defects or a chromosomal anomaly were excluded. Multivariate analysis included: infant sex; United States–Mexico border county residence; and maternal age, race/ethnicity, birthplace, and education. RESULTS There were 910 cases among 1.08 million live births, of which 499 met inclusion criteria. Multivariate modeling of all LVOT malformations combined demonstrated lower prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for black males (0.26) and Hispanic males (0.70). Similar results were found for CoA but not AVS or HLHS. Higher PRRs were noted for increased maternal age for LVOT (1.3 for 24–34 years; 1.7 for >34 years), AVS, and HLHS, but not CoA, and higher PRRs across all diagnoses for males (LVOT PRR, 2.4) were noted. CoA PRRs were higher in border county vs. non–border county residents (PRR, 2.1). Maternal education and birthplace were not significant factors. CONCLUSIONS There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic etiologies, where the ethnic differences could be used to find susceptibility loci with mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium. Increased CoA rates along the U.S.–Mexico border suggest environmental causes that will require further monitoring.

McBride, Kim L.; Marengo, Lisa; Canfield, Mark; Langlois, Peter; Fixler, David; Belmont, John W.



Associations of NINJ2 Sequence Variants with Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. Methods and Results We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). Conclusion Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings.

Bis, Joshua C.; DeStefano, Anita; Liu, Xiaoming; Brody, Jennifer A.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Debette, Stephanie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Shahar, Eyal; Butler, Kenneth R.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Gupta, Mayetri; Wolf, Philip A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Seshadri, Sudha; Fornage, Myriam



[Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of ischemic heart disease in a group of physically handicapped individuals (blind and mute)].  


Our long clinical experience, with observations of some authors as well, indicate that the epidemic data of the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease (I.H.D.) is significantly reduced in some physically handicapped people (the blind and the deaf-mute) if we compare them with the similar ones who have not such anomalies. With no regard to patho-physiologic mechanism of such condition, 233 examinees of both sex, chosen by the method of accidental choice, were examined by clinical, ECG, and laboratory (non- invasive) methods and divided into three groups: the blind 81 (34.76%), the deaf-mute 76 (32.61%), and industrial workers 76 (32.61%) who were taken a as control group. The obtained results show that the incidence of I.H.D. (4,56%), and the control group 11 (8,36%), which, from the point of statistics, offer a significant piece of information. PMID:7862027

Stani?, R



Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa



Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance with sonar in the Stockholm Archipelago is indeed a difficult task. The Archipelago has a crystalline basement, transacted by fracture zones and lineaments. As a result, the underwater environment is characterized by rapidly varying bottom topography, with seamounts, outcrop and sediment filled valleys which may contain gas. This influences heavily the performance of surveillance sonar, and great care must

Jörgen Pihl; Sven Ivansson


Homicidal and suicidal sharp force fatalities in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of 174 homicidal and 105 suicidal sharp force deaths in the Stockholm area is presented in order to identify variables of importance in the differentiation between homicides and suicides. In homicides, a significantly (p<0.05) higher number of cut and stab wounds were seen in the head, upper and lower extremities and a significantly higher number of vertical

Thore Karlsson



A foodborne outbreak of Cyclospora infection in Stockholm, Sweden.  


During May and June 2009 an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection involving 12 laboratory-confirmed and 6 probable cases was detected in Stockholm County, Sweden. Imported sugar snap peas from Guatemala were the suspected vehicle, based on information obtained from patient questionnaires. This is the first reported outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Sweden and the second in Europe. PMID:20807111

Insulander, Mona; Svenungsson, Bo; Lebbad, Marianne; Karlsson, Lillemor; de Jong, Birgitta



Organochlorine contaminants in Swedish human milk from the Stockholm region.  


The levels of fat-soluble organochlorine contaminants in human milk in the Stockholm region are decreasing. For p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and dieldrin a reduction has taken place during the last decade, but the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) started declining only from about 1977. Generally, the pooled samples from the Mothers' Milk Centre in Stockholm in 1980 contained lower levels of organochlorine contaminants than the current Swedish maximum acceptable limits for milk. In 2% of the samples the total DDT levels slightly exceeded the limit of 0.05 mg DDT + DDD + DDE/kg. Milk from three mothers was analysed during the nursing of two or three consecutive infants. In each case, the levels of organochlorine contaminants declined. PMID:6404125

Norén, K



Urban Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40 -75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950 -1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primar- ily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (.85%) resulted in 1,042 cases

Fredrik Nyberg; Per Gustavsson; Lars Jarup; Tom Bellander; Niklas Berglind; Robert Jakobsson; Goran Pershagen


Substance Flow Analyses of Organic Pollutants in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes substance flow analyses for four organic substances in the City of Stockholm, Sweden: diethylhexyl phthalate\\u000a (DEHP), alkylphenolethoxylates (APEO), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) and chlorinated paraffins (CP). The results indicate\\u000a that the stocks of APEO, PBDE and CP all are approximately 200–250 tonnes, whereas the DEHP stock is two orders of magnitude\\u000a larger. Emissions can be linked to imported

A. Jonsson; U. Fridén; K. Thuresson; L. Sörme



Earth-current Observations in Stockholm during the Transit of Halley's Comet on May 19  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHEN Halley's comet was passing across the sun on May 19 we took, at the central telegraph station at Stockholm, some observations of earth-currents, which were measured on two lines, Stockholm-Göteborg and Sundsvall-Stockholm. The measurements were performed from minute to minute from oh. 40m. to 3h. 45m. a.m. (mid-European time). The geographical coordinates for the three places mentioned are the

D. Stenquist; E. Petri



Electromagnetic fields and health effects--epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease.  


This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant. Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide cohort of mobile phone subscribers comprising some 420 000 persons. No increased risk was observed for the cancers considered a priori to be possibly associated with the radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile phones, which were brain tumors, including acoustic neuroma, salivary gland tumors, and leukemia. The data were analyzed by duration of phone use, latency, system used (NMT, GSM or both) and age at first subscription. A study of the incidence of ocular malignant melanoma in comparison with the annual increase among the mobile phone subscribers showed a highly stable incidence rate for this rare cancer in Denmark over close to 50 years of registration. On the basis of these studies and the scientific literature, it is concluded that occupational exposure to 50-Hz EMF is not associated with an increased risk of cancer, but that these fields, electric shocks, or some other unknown factor related to alternating current electricity may be associated with the risk of ALS. There is no clear evidence that 50-Hz EMF is associated with other neurodegenerative or cardiovascular diseases. At present, there is little, if any, evidence that the use of mobile phones is associated with cancer in adults, including brain tumors, acoustic neuroma, cancer of the salivary glands, leukemia, or malignant melanoma of the eye. PMID:15255560

Johansen, Christoffer



Oral health of homeless adults in Stockholm, Sweden.  


The aim of the present study was to record and describe the oral condition of homeless adults in Stockholm, Sweden. There have been no clinical studies of the oral health of the homeless in Sweden since the 1970s. The study population comprised 147 homeless individuals (110 M, 37 F) in the age range 22-77 years. All underwent oral examination, including registration of periodontal status and caries data. The results show that homeless adults in Stockholm have fewer remaining teeth than the general population. Because conservative periodontal treatment is expensive and time-consuming, teeth with doubtful prognoses are usually extracted and only those with optimal periodontal health are retained. Another consequence of inadequate periodontal treatment, including insufficient oral hygiene instruction, is the high percentage of tooth surfaces with plaque accumulation. Heavy plaque accumulation will also have an effect on caries progression, expressed in this study as high DMFT values. Loss of teeth is likely to create dental and chewing problems, possibly resulting in increased dental and medical treatment needs. PMID:16095063

De Palma, Patricia; Frithiof, Lars; Persson, Lena; Klinge, Björn; Halldin, Jan; Beijer, Ulla



Chronic Chagas’ heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening\\u000a complications, and with a latency of 10–30 years, mostly Chagas’ heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients’ social and labor

Silvia Gilka Muñoz-Saravia; Annekathrin Haberland; Gerd Wallukat; Ingolf Schimke


Mortality from and incidence of stroke in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

To study trends in the incidence of and mortality from stroke in Stockholm during 1974-81 all cases (n = 56566) of stroke in patients aged over 40 were identified from the Swedish Cause of Death Register and the Inpatient Care Register. Information on the population at risk was obtained from the civil registration system. A multiplicative model was used to control for changes in the distribution of age during the study. Mortality from stroke decreased annually throughout the study by a mean of 2.3% for men and 3.5% for women. This favourable development was not accompanied by a similar decrease in the incidence of stroke. In men the total incidence (including recurrent strokes) and incidence of first stroke increased continuously. In women the total incidence showed virtually no change, whereas the incidence of first stroke decreased somewhat. These findings, in addition to an expected shift of age profile in the population towards more elderly people, should be considered in the planning of future health care resources.

Alfredsson, L; von Arbin, M; de Faire, U



Promoting dietary change in the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program.  


The Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program (SCPP) is a community-based program aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality by reducing risk factors related to life-style: dietary habits, tobacco use, and sunbathing. The program, which came about as a result of a political initiative and commitment, has as its dietary objectives to reduce fat intake to 30% of energy and to increase fiber intake to 30 g/day. SCPP strives to achieve these goals by simultaneously affecting food supply and food demand. To date, the program collaborates with 12 municipalities and several large occupational health services and restaurant chains. It has developed cook books for caterers and the general public and has organized food fairs targeting policymakers and those working with food, education, or health promotion. SCPP emphasizes collaboration across sectors of society and has initiated contests for students studying food service technology and for retailers with the aim of promoting dietary change. The intervention is based on the principles and strategies of community organization. PMID:1458510

Kanström, L; Holm, L E



Heart Failure in South America  

PubMed Central

Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries.

Bocchi, Edimar Alcides



A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.  


Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets. PMID:22795396

Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery



Unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants in Stockholm County 1998-09.  


The association between unemployment rates and population mental health has been studied with contradictory results. We examine the association between unemployment and antidepressants in Stockholm County. Age- and sex-specific monthly data on unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants from January 1998 to January 2008 in Stockholm County were used. The association was studied with bivariate cointegration analysis with stationarity check of the residuals. We found that dispensing of antidepressants was inversely associated with unemployment. One interpretation is that antidepressants have not followed decreasing unemployment rates. PMID:25063831

Lundin, Andreas; Hansson, Anders



[The Stockholm syndrome. On the psychological reaction of hostages and hostage-takers].  


The Stockholm Syndrome seems to be an automatic, probably unconscious emotional response to the traumatic experience of being a victim. It affects hostage and hostage-taker alike and serves to unite both, being victims of the siege environment, against outsiders. This positive emotional bond between victim and subject is a defense mechanism of the ego under stress. The priority in dealing with hostage situations is the survival of all participants. The Stockholm Syndrome may save the life of victim and subject alike, as it reduces the subjects tendency towards violence and thus the possible necessity for a seizure by the security forces. PMID:3662732

Harnischmacher, R; Müther, J



Environmental Epidemiology

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.


Descriptive Epidemiology

Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.


Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

Carol J. Boushey


The emergence of a post-industrial music economy? Music and ICT synergies in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the music industry has for a long time been almost exclusively dominated by a focus on the production of albums and songs. In recent years, however, cities such as Stockholm have seen the growth of a profitable and varied music services industry producing everything from remixes to music marketing strategies. Standing at the forefront of this growth industry

Dominic Power; Johan Jansson



Temporal trends of brominated flame retardants in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The objective of the present study was to assess the temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including decaBDE, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in mothers milk from the Stockholm area. The pooled samples were covering the time period 1980 to 2004, with emphasis on samples from the last ten years. The temporal trend of PBDEs must be expressed on a

Britta Fängström; Anna Strid; Åke Bergman


Markets work in war: World War II reflected in the Zurich and Stockholm bond markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how trading on two geographically separate financial markets reflected political events before and during World War II. Specifically, we compare sovereign debt prices on the Zurich and Stockholm stock exchanges and find considerable (but not complete) symmetry in the price responses across the two markets in relation to turning points in the war, which suggests that markets




Fuel cell buses in the Stockholm CUTE project—First experiences from a climate perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to share the first experiences and results from the operation of fuel cell buses in Stockholm within the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) project. The project encompasses implementation and evaluation of both a hydrogen fuel infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles in nine participating European cities. In total, 27 fuel cell buses, 3 in each city, are

K. Haraldsson; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors



Scandinavian Corrosion Congress NKM 10. Proceedings of Congress Held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 2, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The congress was arranged by the Swedish Corrosion Institute, 2-4 June 1986, in Stockholm. 48 lectures and 35 poster presentations were given. The number of attendees was approximately 270. 75 of the presentations have been published in proceedings in Eng...

E. Mattsson



Followup after 11 years – update of mortality results in the Stockholm mammographic screening trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from several randomised mammography screening trials haveshown that it is possible to reduce mortalityin breast cancer by mammographic screening at leastfor women above 50 years of age. Thepurpose of this article is to present dataon mortality in breast cancer in study andcontrol groups of the Stockholm trial after 11years of followup, to analyse which age groupbenefits most from screening.

Jan Frisell; Elisabet Lidbrink; Lars Hellström; Lars-Erik Rutqvist



Cognitive epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology.

Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David



Heart Transplant  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... return to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...


Heart transplant  


Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart ... the new heart on top of it (heterotopic transplant). ... A heart transplant may be done to treat: Severe angina that can no longer be treated with medications or other surgeries ...


Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro



Spartaxi: Ett Effektivt och Hallbart Trafiksystem. Analyser av en Pilotbana i Stockholm. Marknad och Ekonomi (Personal Rapid Transit (PRT). An Efficient and Long-Term Sustainable Traffic System. Analysis of a Demonstration Network in Stockholm).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On behalf of the Office of Regional Planning and Urban Transportation at the Stockholm County Council and with financial funding from KFB, Transek Consultants was commissioned to analyze conditions, market and economic viability of a Personal Rapid transi...

G. Tegner J. Henningsson V. Loncar-Lucassi G. Lind I. Andreasson



Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods.

Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jarup, L



Digital epidemiology.  


Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J; Brewer, Devon D; Brownstein, John S; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L; Vespignani, Alessandro



Gram-negative bacteria from patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe.  


Microbiological cultures from 229 patients seeking medical advice in Stockholm after the tsunami catastrophe of December 2004 were analysed at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Gram-negative bacilli were the most common findings from wound cultures. Common human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated. More rare species of Gram-negative bacilli, e.g. Myroides odoratus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Bergeyella zoohelcum were also isolated. Resistance towards ordinary antibiotics was more extensive compared to our Swedish reference material for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter spp., but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, probably reflecting that the resistant isolates were nosocomially acquired in Asia. PMID:16798691

Källman, Owe; Lundberg, Christina; Wretlind, Bengt; Ortqvist, Ake



Fuel cell buses in the Stockholm CUTE project—First experiences from a climate perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to share the first experiences and results from the operation of fuel cell buses in Stockholm within the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) project. The project encompasses implementation and evaluation of both a hydrogen fuel infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles in nine participating European cities. In total, 27 fuel cell buses, 3 in each city, are in revenue service for a period of 2 years. The availability of the fuel cell buses has been better than expected, about 85% and initially high fuel consumption has been reduced to approximately 2.2 kg H 2/10 km corresponding to 7.5 l diesel equivalents/10 km. Although no major breakdowns have occurred so far, a few cold climate-related issues did arise during the winter months in Stockholm.

Haraldsson, K.; Folkesson, A.; Alvfors, P.


Lack of Associations of Ten Candidate Coronary Heart Disease Risk Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Four U.S. Populations: the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study  

PubMed Central

Background A number of genetic variants have been discovered by recent genome-wide association studies for their associations with clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether these variants are also associated with the development of CHD as measured by subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes, ankle brachial index (ABI), carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque. Methods Ten CHD risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in individuals of European American (EA), African American (AA), American Indian (AI), and Mexican American (MA) ancestry in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. In each individual study, we performed linear or logistic regression to examine population-specific associations between SNPs and ABI, common and internal cIMT, and plaque. The results from individual studies were meta-analyzed using a fixed effect inverse variance weighted model. Results None of the ten SNPs was significantly associated with ABI and common or internal cIMT, after Bonferroni correction. In the sample of 13,337 EA, 3,809 AA, and 5,353 AI individuals with carotid plaque measurement, the GCKR SNP rs780094 was significantly associated with the presence of plaque in AI only (OR = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.49, P = 1.08 × 10?5), but not in the other populations (P = 0.90 in EA and P = 0.99 in AA). A 9p21 region SNP, rs1333049, was nominally associated with plaque in EA (OR = 1.07, P = 0.02) and in AI (OR = 1.10, P = 0.05). Conclusions We identified a significant association between rs780094 and plaque in AI populations, which needs to be replicated in future studies. There was little evidence that the index CHD risk variants identified through genome-wide association studies in EA influence the development of CHD through subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by cIMT and ABI across ancestries.

Zhang, Lili; Franceschini, Nora; Buzkova, Petra; Wassel, Christina L.; Roman, Mary J.; North, Kari E.; Crawford, Dana C.; Boston, Jonathan; Brown-Gentry, Kristin D.; Cole, Shelley A.; Deelman, Ewa; Goodloe, Robert; Heiss, Gerardo; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Matise, Tara C.; McClellan, Bob E.; Nato, Alejandro Q.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Wilson, Sarah; Kao, WH Linda



Advantages of breastfeeding according to Turkish mothers living in Istanbul and Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a cross-sectional study, carried out among Turkish mother-infant pairs, the mothers of 269 infants living in Istanbul and 30 living in Stockholm were asked about their opinions as to the advantages and\\/or disadvantages of breastfeeding. The answers were categorized according to the attributes mentioned, quantified and related to the socio-economic status of the area of residence, maternal

Tahire Koctürk



Time for a new budget allocation model for hospital care in Stockholm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Stockholm County Council (SLL), budgets for hospital care have been allocated to geographically responsible authorities\\u000a for a long time. This hospital care includes all publicly financed specialist care, also privately owned hospitals, except\\u000a private practitioner care. The old needs-index model, a 6D capitation matrix based on demography and socio-economy, was generated\\u000a on linked individual data for 1994–96. In this

Per-Åke Andersson; Daniel Bruce; Anders Walander; Inga Viberg



Biological and chemical characterization of harbour sediments from the Stockholm area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of pleasure boat activities on harbour sediment quality in\\u000a the Stockholm area. Sediment contamination is a growing ecological issue, and there is consequently a need to use sediment\\u000a bioassays in combination with chemical analysis to determine the impact on the ecosystem. To generate sediment toxicity data\\u000a relevant for

Britta Eklund; Maria Elfström; Irene Gallego; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson; Magnus Breitholtz



Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by

Urban Ösby; Nestor Correia; Lena Brandt; Anders Ekbom; Pär Sparén



Gender differences in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this literature review was to review and discuss the differences between men and women with heart failure with regard to epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostics, prognosis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, and the impact of heart failure on psychosocial factors and healthcare utilisation. Method: Two primary health care resources, medline and cinahl, were selected to review the current literature.

Anna Strömberg; Jan Mårtensson



Heart Failure  


... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ... Educational Materials For Patients For Professionals Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...


Heart Surgery  


... common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery ... body is connected, or grafted, to a blocked coronary (heart) artery. Doctors also use heart surgery to Repair or ...


Racial Differences in Incident Heart Failure among Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The antecedents and epidemiology of heart failure in young adults are poorly under- stood. Methods We prospectively assessed the incidence of heart failure over a 20-year period among 5115 blacks and whites of both sexes who were 18 to 30 years of age at baseline. Using Cox models, we examined predictors of hospitalization or death from heart failure. Results

Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo; Mark J. Pletcher; Feng Lin; Eric Vittinghoff; Julius M. Gardin; Alexander Arynchyn; Cora E. Lewis; O. Dale Williams; Stephen B. Hulley



Heart Failure in North America  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment.

Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J



Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further.

Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia



Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden).  


By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945

Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Åkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart



Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of stockholm and the open Northern Baltic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The

D. Broman; C. Naef; U. Rannug



Prosthetic epidemiology.  


The need for an epidemiological method which focuses upon the problems of missing teeth, tooth spaces and prosthetic treatment is emphasized. From the prosthetic viewpoint the distinction between missing teeth and tooth spaces must be made and examples are given to show that up to 20 per cent of missing teeth do not give rise to tooth space. The presentation of the prosthetic parameters per tooth is recommended using the six alternatives: tooth present; tooth missing (open space); tooth missing (closed space); tooth replaced by pontic in fixed bridge, by removable partial denture, or by complete denture. In the presentation of the mean number of existing teeth, fixed bridge pontics should be included as they serve as natural teeth both aesthetically and functionally. Data on removable dentures, or edentulism without denture wearing, should be presented in such a way that comparisons at jaw level as well as at person level can be made. A system for this is described. The method may be used in industrialized countries where there is much prosthetic treatment as well as in developing countries with few health services. Comparisons will still be meaningful. PMID:3468082

Owall, B



Heart Failure in South Asia  

PubMed Central

South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region

Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay



Personal exposure to carcinogenic and toxic air pollutants in Stockholm, Sweden: A comparison over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, benz(a)pyrene, NO x and NO 2 were measured by personal sampling, stationary indoor sampling, and at two reference sites (urban background/traffic site) in Stockholm, Sweden during September-December 2009. The aim was to investigate whether the air pollution levels had decreased since a previous study conducted six year earlier, and to compare personal exposure levels (one-week average) and indoor levels with levels at outdoor reference sites. Participants were 20-50 years of age, randomly selected among residents in the Stockholm municipality. The personal exposure levels to benzene and 1,3-butadiene were higher than the levels at the reference sites. Personal exposure to NO x and NO 2 were higher than urban background levels, but the NO 2 exposure level was lower than traffic site levels. Benz(a)pyrene showed lower concentrations indoors compared to outdoor levels, although a significant correlation was found between indoor and outdoor levels. All of the air pollutant levels had decreased since the previous study, both for personal exposure and reference site levels. The results from the present study indicate that urban background measurements for these compounds are suitable for monitoring decreasing or increasing trends in air pollution levels but since the personal exposure levels did not correlate well with weekly ambient levels, personal sampling seems essential for assessing population exposure.

Yazar, Mine; Bellander, Tom; Merritt, Anne-Sophie



Heart Disease  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Heart Anatomy  


... muscle. A coating of fluid separates the two layers of membrane, letting the heart move as it beats, yet still be attached to your body. Your heart has 4 chambers. The upper chambers are called the left and right atria, ...


Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Management 1. When performing the initial evaluation of a patient diagnosed with heart failure (HF), you should assess the following: a. The severity of the symptoms of impaired cardiac function (e.g., dyspnea on exertion, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, fatigue, and leg edema) b. Evidence for risk factors strongly associated with HF: ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, valvular heart disease

William Lewis; Jim Nuovo


Interaction Domains and Suicide: A Population-Based Panel Study of Suicides in Stockholm, 1991-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6…

Hedstrom, Peter; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Nordvik, Monica K.



Analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopes, and Metals in Sediments outside a Waste Plant in Stockholm Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples were taken in the water upstream, near and downstream of the outflow of a purification plant near Stockholm, Sweden. The waste plant receives, treats and deposits domestic and industry refuse and have earlier received latrine. An Otto Gravity Corer was used for sampling and the sediment was cut into centimetres slices, freeze-dried and analysed for the total content

H. S. Bohlin; C.-M. Mörth; N. G. Holm



Do Students Correctly Estimate Their Reading Ability? A Study of Stockholm Students in Grades 3 and 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a survey in Stockholm are used to look at differences between how students' self-concepts and self-efficacy relate to actual reading skills, differences between how boys and girls estimate their reading, and differences between how older and younger students estimate their reading. A quarter of the students made correct self-assessments…

Fredriksson, Ulf; Villalba, Ernesto; Taube, Karin



Global trends in infective endocarditis epidemiology.  


The global epidemiology of infective endocarditis is becoming better understood with the initiation of multi-center collaborative studies and with an increasing number of case series being reported from countries outside North America and Europe. However, there are still many knowledge gaps and a lack of population-based data. For endocarditis in developed countries, the role of rheumatic heart disease as a predisposing factor is diminishing; the population is increasingly elderly, staphylococci are becoming much more important pathogens, and proportionally more are healthcare-associated. In developing countries, the epidemiology of infective endocarditis remains similar to North America and Europe from the middle of the twentieth century, affecting a younger age group, is often associated with rheumatic heart disease, and is predominantly caused by streptococci. PMID:22592632

Yew, Haur Sen; Murdoch, David R



Cardiomyopathy, adult valve disease and heart failure in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific cardiovascular diseases in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited healthcare resources and introduction of strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of cardiovascular disease. The epidemiology of cardiomyopathies, adult valve disease and heart failure (HF) in South America

E A Bocchi; G Guimarães; F Tarasoutshi; G Spina; S Mangini; F Bacal



Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology  


... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...


Epidemiology and Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores the scientific feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health consequences of current and future air pollution. It assesses the limits of available epidemiologic techniques for studying air pollution problems and ...



Attributing mortality from extreme temperatures to climate change in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A changing climate is increasing the frequency, intensity, duration and spatial extent of heat waves. These changes are associated with increased human mortality during heat extremes. At the other end of the temperature scale, it has been widely speculated that cold-related mortality could decrease in a warmer world. We aim to answer a key question; the extent to which mortality due to temperature extremes in Stockholm, Sweden during 1980-2009 can be attributed to climate change that has occurred since our reference period (1900-1929). Mortality from heat extremes in 1980-2009 was double what would have occurred without climate change. Although temperature shifted towards warmer temperatures in the winter season, cold extremes occurred more frequently, contributing to a small increase of mortality during the winter months. No evidence was found for adaptation over 1980-2009.

Oudin Åström, Daniel; Forsberg, Bertil; Ebi, Kristie L.; Rocklöv, Joacim



Estimated Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background: Although serious health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m (PM10) and ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5; fine fraction) are documented in many studies, the effects of coarse PM (PM2.5–10) are still under debate. Objective: In this study, we estimated the effects of short-term exposure of PM2.5–10 on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: We collected data on daily mortality for the years 2000 through 2008. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured simultaneously in central Stockholm. We used additive Poisson regression models to examine the association between daily mortality and PM2.5–10 on the day of death and the day before. Effect estimates were adjusted for other pollutants (two-pollutant models) during different seasons. Results: We estimated a 1.68% increase [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20%, 3.15%] in daily mortality per 10-?g/m3 increase in PM2.5–10 (single-pollutant model). The association with PM2.5–10 was stronger for November through May, when road dust is most important (1.69% increase; 95% CI: 0.21%, 3.17%), compared with the rest of the year (1.31% increase; 95% CI: –2.08%, 4.70%), although the difference was not statistically significant. When adjusted for other pollutants, particularly PM2.5, the effect estimates per 10 ?g/m3 for PM2.5–10 decreased slightly but were still higher than corresponding effect estimates for PM2.5. Conclusions: Our analysis shows an increase in daily mortality associated with elevated urban background levels of PM2.5–10. Regulation of PM2.5–10 should be considered, along with actions to specifically reduce PM2.5–10 emissions, especially road dust suspension, in cities.

Johansson, Christer; Forsberg, Bertil



Injury panorama and medical consequences for 1158 persons assaulted in the central part of Stockholm, Sweden.  


This retrospective study describes assaults, type of trauma, injury panorama, the abbreviated injury scale score and medical consequences for 1158 assaulted persons. All patients were examined by surgeons at the Emergency Department, Sabbatsberg's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, which is open around the clock. The police were not notified. The study group included all assaulted patients who attended and were examined at the Emergency Department from 1 April 1992 to 31 March 1993: 84% men and 16% women. Their median age was 25 years (range 13-86 years). Sixty-eight percent arrived at the Emergency Department between 11 p.m. and 4 a.m. In 44% the hospital staff registered in the case notes that the victims were drunk. Blunt trauma of low-energy type predominated, 44% were hit by fists and 30% by kicks. Penetrating trauma occurred in 10% of the assaults (knife 8%), and a combination of blunt and/or cutting trauma (bottle/ glass) in 10%. Eighty-two percent of the victims suffered an injury to the head, resulting in concussion in 116 cases, 4 skull fractures, 1 intracerebral contusion, 74 fractures of nose bones, 17 fractures of other face bones, and 6 mandible fractures. Two persons died because of knifestab wounds. Eighty-two percent of the victims had minor injuries, and 16% had moderate injuries according to the score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The present study shows that assault in the central part of Stockholm, Sweden, is mainly a problem involving young men, especially late in the evening, and that many of the victims are drunk. Injuries to the head due to low-energy trauma are the most common (hit by fists and kicks), but severe injuries seldom occur. PMID:9266031

Boström, L



Nuts and Berries for Heart Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as\\u000a L-arginine, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely\\u000a to beneficially impact heart health. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary\\u000a heart disease in both genders and diabetes in women.

Emilio Ros; Linda C. Tapsell; Joan Sabaté



The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz



Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery



Heart failure with normal ejection fraction: a growing pandemic.  


Heart failure is a heterogeneous syndrome. Approximately 30-50% of patients with heart failure have normal or near normal left ventricle function. Several epidemiological studies confirm that the prevalence of heart failure with normal ejection fraction is increasing. Given the current trends, heart failure with normal ejection fraction will become the most common form of heart failure, for which we do not currently have an evidence-based successful treatment. This article summarizes the etiology, current recommended guidelines and management options for this clinical manifestation. PMID:22642630

Singh, Satnam; Frenneaux, Michael



The cognition of matters on health and sex in young people with intellectual handicaps: a study in Stockholm and Tokyo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young people with intellectual handicaps in Stockholm (35 boys and 33 girls) and Tokyo (66 boys and 43 girls) aged 15?16 years were interviewed during 1989?1990. The questions concerned the areas: health in general, hygiene, the human body, growing up, and sex\\/interpersonal relationships. Each of the 35 items had a matching picture. The main findings concerned the variations in the

Hiroshi Katoda



Associations of adiposity with prevalent coronary heart disease among elderly men: the Honolulu heart program  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of adiposity with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD) among elderly men. DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted between 1991 and 1993. SUBJECTS: 3741 Japanese–American men from the Honolulu Heart Program who were 71–93 y of age. MEASUREMENTS: CHD included documented myocardial infarction (electrocardiographic and enzyme criteria), acute coronary insufficiency, angina pectoris leading to surgical treatment identified

B Huang; BL Rodreiguez; CM Burchfield; Po-H Chyou; JD Curb; DS Sharp



Heart Attack  


... to prevent more heart problems. What is a cardiac rehabilitation program? Before you leave the hospital, your doctor ... probably talk to you about enrolling in a cardiac rehabilitation program. A cardiac rehabilitation program provides information that ...


Heart Attacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents Dr. Robert Levy explaining heart attacks: symptoms, causes, risk factors, treatment, and research. Discusses encouraging evidence showing that cardiovascular death rates have recently decreased due to people's willingness to change diet and life ...



Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... they can help you learn to reduce your risk of heart attack. In addition to your personal physician, your team may include: • specialized nurse care managers • pharmacists • clinical health educators • dietitians • social workers, and • specialists in behavioral ...


Heart Disease  


... heart disease and stroke. The NIH-supported Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network is exploring the use of bone ... cctrn/ ). Network researchers are investigating the types of cells suitable for therapy, optimal numbers of cells to use, and methods ...


Heart Murmurs  


... and the doctor's stethoscope. Many normal murmurs become harder to hear as children grow older, and some ... may prescribe medicine to help the heart squeeze harder, prevent blood clots (bits of thick blood that ...


Contemporary Definitions and Classification of the Cardiomyopathies An American Heart Association Scientific Statement From the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications of heart muscle diseases have proved to be exceedingly complex and in many respects contradictory. Indeed, the precise language used to describe these diseases is profoundly important. A new contemporary and rigorous classification of cardiomyopathies (with definitions) is proposed here. This reference document affords an important framework and measure of clarity to this heterogeneous group of diseases. Of particular

Barry J. Maron; Jeffrey A. Towbin; Gaetano Thiene; Charles Antzelevitch; Domenico Corrado; Donna Arnett; Arthur J. Moss; Christine E. Seidman; James B. Young



Cross sectional study of a workforce exposed to hand-arm vibration: with objective tests and the Stockholm workshop scales  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Medical surveillance of workforces exposed to vibration has been recommended with the Stockholm workshop scales. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate how the results of the objective tests individually and jointly associated with the final Stockholm workshop staging, (b) how this staging related to the history of exposure to vibration, and (c) how different trades were affected by the hazards from vibrating tools.?METHODS—All workers exposed to vibration in a heavy engineering company were examined with a questionnaire and a battery of tests. An assessment of staging by the Stockholm workshop scales was made. Estimates of the daily exposure and lifetime dosage of vibration of the various trades were reached.?RESULTS—The average years of tool use was 23.3 years (range 3-47 years) and the mean lifetime exposure was 11 022 (range 1012-46 125) hours. The individual neurological tests were all strongly associated with the Stockholm neurological staging but the cold provocation test was not associated with the Stockholm vascular staging. Neurological staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, and total hours of exposure to vibration, but not with trade or smoking. Vascular staging was significantly associated with age, years of tool use, total hours of exposure to vibration, and trade, but not with smoking. The mean neurological latent period was 19.7 (range 2-40) years and for the vascular component 19.1 (range 2-40) years. These means varied significantly by trade. The overall prevalence of neurological findings of 62% was greater than the overall prevalence of vascular findings, which was 33%.?CONCLUSIONS—(1) The neurological objective tests were found to be of use in neurological staging. The cold provocation test was not associated with the vascular staging and therefore was of little value. (2) Years of tool use was the exposure variable most significantly associated with evidence of damage to neurological component while years of tool use and trade were the variables most associated with vascular damage. (3) The prevalence of neurological symptoms (62%) was greater than the prevalence of vascular symptoms (33%). (4) Dressers and welders have shorter latent periods than platers and fitters.???Keywords: hand-arm vibration syndrome; neurological objective tests

McGeoch, K.; Gilmour, W



Nutrient management for coastal zones: a case study of the nitrogen load to the Stockholm Archipelago.  


This study investigates cost-effective solutions of decreasing the nutrient load to a coastal area, using a drainage basin approach. The study is applied to the Stockholm Archipelago, a coastal area of the Baltic Sea suffering from eutrophication caused by the load of nutrients entering the area. Nitrogen is the nutrient of concern in this study since it is the limiting nutrient of the Archipelago. The main sources of nitrogen are wastewater plants, agriculture, and atmospheric depositions. The final impact of a deposition depends on the buffering capabilities it is subject to on its trajectory from the source to the recipient. This is the reason for using a recipient oriented approach, in which the focus is to reduce the final impact of a deposition. The model integrates data over hydrology, land cover, land use, and economy in order to find the optimal allocation of measures. Results indicate that in order to achieve cost effectiveness, the major part of nitrogen load reduction to the Archipelago should be done at the wastewater plants and by constructing wetlands. The minimum annual cost of reaching a 50% reduction of the load to the Archipelago was estimated to around 191 million Swedish crowns (around $19 million). PMID:12079119

Scharin, H



Sedatives and hypnotics in Stockholm: social factors and kinds of use.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The aims of the study were (1) to estimate prevalence rates of current, regular, and long-term use of sedatives and hypnotics and the incidence of regular use in an urban population and (2) to study the association between such use of drugs and sociodemographic factors, symptoms of disease, and alcohol consumption. METHODS. Data on drug use in a random sample of 6217 adults in Stockholm County were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS. The prevalence rate for current use of sedatives or hypnotics was 12.8% among men and 18.6% among women; the rate for regular use was 3.7% among males and 4.7% among females. The odds ratio for current use increased with age and was higher among unemployed persons and disability pensioners, high consumers of alcohol, persons with an increased level of symptoms, and widows. More than 25% of the persons who had used sedatives or hypnotics during the previous 2 weeks were regular users 6 months later. For persons aged 25 through 64 years, the annual incidence rate was 1.8% among men and 2.7% among women. CONCLUSIONS. The comparatively low incidence and high prevalence of regular use implies that long-term use of sedatives and hypnotics is common.

Blennow, G; Romelsjo, A; Leifman, H; Leifman, A; Karlsson, G



Environmentally Reformed Travel Habits During the 2006 Congestion Charge Trial in Stockholm--A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour.

Henriksson, Greger; Hagman, Olle; Andreasson, Hakan



Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm.  


The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular. The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication. PMID:11679196

Castenfors, K; Svedin, L



Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.  


Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei



Climate-induced variability of sea level in Stockholm: Influence of air temperature and atmospheric circulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is focused on climate-induced variation of sea level in Stockholm during 1873 1995. After the effect of the land uplift is removed, the residual is characterized and related to large-scale temperature and atmospheric circulation. The residual shows an overall upward trend, although this result depends on the uplift rate used. However, the seasonal distribution of the trend is uneven. There are even two months (June and August) that show a negative trend. The significant trend in August may be linked to fresh water input that is controlled by precipitation. The influence of the atmospheric conditions on the sea level is mainly manifested through zonal winds, vorticity and temperature. While the wind is important in the period January May, the vorticity plays a main role during June and December. A successful linear multiple-regression model linking the climatic variables (zonal winds, vorticity and mean air temperature during the previous two months) and the sea level is established for each month. An independent verification of the model shows that it has considerable skill in simulating the variability.

Chen, Deliang; Omstedt, Anders



Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance.

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Bjorn



Optimization of the Stockholm R-EBIT for production and extraction of highly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a refrigerated EBIT (R-EBIT) commissioned at the AlbaNova Research Center at Stockholm University. As an innovative solution, the superconducting magnet and the trapping drift tubes of the R-EBIT are cooled to a temperature of 4 K by a set of two cooling heads connected to helium compressors. This dry, i.e. liquid helium and liquid nitrogen free, system is easily operated and creates highly charged ions at a fraction of the cost of traditional liquid-cooled systems. A pulsed and continuous gas injection system was developed to feed neutral particles into the electron beam in the trap region. This improves significantly the highly charged ion production and R-EBIT performance. Fast extraction of ions from the R-EBIT yields very short ( < 100 ns), charge-separated ion bunches which can be either analysed using a straight time-of-flight section or sent to experimental beam lines following selection in a bending magnet. An emittance meter was used to measure the emittance of the ions extracted from the R-EBIT. The extracted ions were also re-trapped in a cylindrical Penning trap and properties of the re-trapped ions have been measured using the emittance meter. Results of these measurements are reported in this publication.

Hobein, M.; Orban, I.; Böhm, S.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Fritioff, T.; Tashenov, S.; Schuch, R.



A food fair to promote dietary change in the Stockholm cancer prevention programme.  


Involving organizations is crucial when developing community intervention strategies aimed at dietary change. This case study describes the use of a food fair as a change agent. The aim of the food fair was to obtain commitment and build up a network in the community comprised of professionals in the fields of food production, food distribution and information. The fair was organized in 1989 and intended to disseminate knowledge and information about healthy foods and encourage food industries, test kitchens and also publishing companies to develop and present products in accordance with the dietary objectives of the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Programme (ie a simultaneous reduction of fat and an increase in fibre intake). The food fair consisted of exhibitions and conferences/seminars. Policy makers, journalists, people in the educational and health professions and those working with food were invited to participate. Nearly 60 companies and organizations made presentations at the exhibition and 1,000 professionals attended the conferences and seminars. In all, 6,400 people visited the fair. Seventy-eight trade journals and newspapers and three radio stations reported on the fair. The food fair was so well received that a second fair was arranged in 1991. PMID:1463987

Kanström, L; Haglund, B J; Holm, L E



Computers and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogies with biological disease with topological considerations added, which show that the spread of computer viruses can be contained, and the resulting epidemiological model are examined. The findings of computer virus epidemiology show that computer viruses are far less rife than many have claimed, that many fail to thrive, that even successful viruses spread at nowhere near the exponential rate

J. O. Kephart; S. R. White; D. M. Chess



Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.



Geofysiska och geokemiska undersoekningar i anslutning till tektoniska lineament i Stockholms skaergaard - undersoekningar vid Vettershaga och Stavsnaes, 1984-1988. (Geophysical and Geochemical Investigations in Connection with Tectonic Lineaments in the Stockholm Archipelago - Investigations at Vettershaga and Stavsnaes, 1984-1988).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of different natural phenomena in the Stockholm Archipelago have focused our attention to outflows of natural gas along tectonic lineaments. The observed phenomena include gas discharges at the surface along fairways and in bays as well as depres...

P. Soederberg T. Floden



Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective.

Pearce, N



Framingham Heart Study

Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Hypertension; Heart Failure, Congestive; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Heart Failure



Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.  


BACKGROUND- Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that affect cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. They are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis and are the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Levels of these fatty acids have been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS- Genome-wide association studies were conducted in 5 population-based cohorts comprising 8961 participants of European ancestry to investigate the association of common genetic variation with plasma levels of these 4 fatty acids. We identified polymorphisms in 7 novel loci associated with circulating levels of ?1 of these fatty acids. ALG14 (asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:0 (P=2.7×10(-11)) and lower 18:0 (P=2.2×10(-18)). FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7 (P=6.6×10(-13)) and 18:1n-9 (P=2.2×10(-32)) and lower 18:0 (P=1.3×10(-20)). LPGAT1 (lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase) polymorphisms were associated with lower 18:0 (P=2.8×10(-9)). GCKR (glucokinase regulator; P=9.8×10(-10)) and HIF1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1; P=5.7×10(-9)) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7, whereas PKD2L1 (polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1; P=5.7×10(-15)) and a locus on chromosome 2 (not near known genes) were associated with lower 16:1n-7 (P=4.1×10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS- Our findings provide novel evidence that common variations in genes with diverse functions, including protein-glycosylation, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, phospholipid modeling, and glucose- and oxygen-sensing pathways, are associated with circulating levels of 4 fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway. These results expand our knowledge of genetic factors relevant to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid biology. PMID:23362303

Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Tanaka, Toshiko; Foy, Millennia; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Djousse, Luc; Siscovick, David; Fretts, Amanda M; Johnson, Catherine; King, Irena B; Psaty, Bruce M; McKnight, Barbara; Rich, Stephen S; Chen, Yii-Der I; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Tang, Weihong; Bandinelli, Stefania; Jacobs, David R; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C; Gu, Xiangjun; Tsai, Michael Y; Steffen, Lyn M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush



Prevention of heart failure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Epidemiology and Prevention, Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing, and High Blood Pressure Research; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group; and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Group.  


The increase in heart failure (HF) rates throughout the developed and developing regions of the world poses enormous challenges for caregivers, researchers, and policymakers. Therefore, prevention of this global scourge deserves high priority. Identifying and preventing the well-recognized illnesses that lead to HF, including hypertension and coronary heart disease, should be paramount among the approaches to prevent HF. Aggressive implementation of evidence-based management of risk factors for coronary heart disease should be at the core of HF prevention strategies. Questions currently in need of attention include how to identify and treat patients with asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (Stage B HF) and how to prevent its development. The relationship of chronic kidney disease to HF and control of chronic kidney disease in prevention of HF need further investigation. Currently, we have limited understanding of the pathophysiological basis of HF in patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function and management techniques to prevent it. New developments in the field of biomarker identification have opened possibilities for the early detection of individuals at risk for developing HF (Stage A HF). Patient groups meriting special interest include the elderly, women, and ethnic/racial minorities. Future research ought to focus on obtaining a much better knowledge of genetics and HF, especially both genetic risk factors for development of HF and genetic markers as tools to guide prevention. Lastly, a national awareness campaign should be created and implemented to increase public awareness of HF and the importance of its prevention. Heightened public awareness will provide a platform for advocacy to create national research programs and healthcare policies dedicated to the prevention of HF. PMID:18391114

Schocken, Douglas D; Benjamin, Emelia J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krumholz, Harlan M; Levy, Daniel; Mensah, George A; Narula, Jagat; Shor, Eileen Stuart; Young, James B; Hong, Yuling



How Many Hearts?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students practice adding one or more heart(s) and recording drawings and equations on white boards. Students will also repeat this activity by subtracting a given number of hearts from a larger number hearts.

Mathis, Clara



Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation Updated:Apr 26,2013 What ... last reviewed on 02/18/13. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...


Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis  


... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:Mar 14,2014 About ... last reviewed on 02/18/13. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...


Nuclear Heart Scan  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...


About Heart Attacks  


... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...


Heart Health for Women  


... Patient Network--Cardiovascular Disease Free Publications For Women Heart Health for Women You may think heart disease ... signs of a heart attack. 1. Eat a heart healthy diet. The nutrition facts on the food ...


A report from the 29th Annual Congress of the European Association of Urology (April 11-15 - Stockholm, Sweden).  


The annual congress of the European Association of Urology in Stockholm was packed with mixed poster/oral sessions wherein innovative clinical and preclinical research aimed at improving the care of patients with urinary tract diseases was reported and open for discussion. Not everything that was reported during the meeting can be captured in a single report, but the following text will guide readers through the most significant new findings directly related with pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder, urinary tract cancer and other common medical conditions that endanger the quality of life and life expectancy of many patients worldwide. PMID:24918838

Rabasseda, X



Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:


International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Formed in 2001, the Consortium is a group of international investigators who have completed or have ongoing case-control studies and who discuss and undertake research projects that pool data across studies or otherwise undertake collaborative research.


[Heart failure: critical patients].  


Patients with heart failure in the "real world" are often elderly and with multiple comorbid diseases. These conditions create a dilemma for the physician responsible for the treatment of heart failure and are associated with a substantial underutilization of evidence-based treatments. Clarifying the prognostic impact of comorbidities in heart failure could provide more precise risk stratification and optimize the management of these patients. The negative prognostic impact of concomitant diseases has been shown in several studies: in the TEMISTOCLE study, carried out in Italy on patients hospitalized for heart failure in Internal Medicine and Cardiology wards, the presence of comorbidities was associated with higher in-hospital mortality and prolonged length of stay. In the IN-CHF registry, enrolling out patients with heart failure in a cardiological setting, the rate of coexisting diseases is not very high according to the epidemiological characteristics of this population. Renal impairment, particularly in patients >70 years old, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are frequent comorbid diseases in heart failure. Renal impairment has been recognized as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in heart failure while the role of COPD is controversial. Patients with renal dysfunction and COPD have largely been excluded from randomized controlled trials for safety reasons, so data are scarce. In the IN-CHF registry the prevalence of elderly patients with renal impairment (serum creatinine > or = 2 mg/dl and age > or = 70 years) is 5.1%; this subgroup of patients has an increased risk for both 1-year death (28.1 vs 11.2%) and hospital admission (34.9 vs 22.5%) compared with the remaining population. The prescription pattern has been evaluated in the last years (2003-2005) and shows that angiotensin system inhibitors (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers) as well as beta-blockers are less prescribed in these patients (78.9 vs 86.1% and 42.2 vs 55.9%, respectively). The prevalence of patients with COPD in the registry was 13.2%: considerable differences in COPD prevalence estimates exist in the general population depending on many factors such as method for diagnosis or lack of agreement on diagnostic criteria. COPD patients were older and with more severe symptoms; with respect to the pharmacological treatment, beta-blockers are significantly less prescribed in COPD patients while a similar proportion of patients are receiving angiotensin system antagonists. The adjusted analysis shows that COPD in not an independent predictor of 1-year mortality in this population while it is independently associated with 1-year all-cause hospitalization. Non-cardiovascular hospital admissions seem to be more influenced by the presence of this comorbidity than cardiovascular admissions. PMID:17972426

Fabbri, Gianna; Gorini, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo P; Oliva, Fabrizio



Simulation of NO x and ultrafine particles in a street canyon in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model has been used to assess the concentrations of NO x and particle number in a street canyon in Stockholm with a high traffic volume. Comparisons of a simulated 11-week long time series of NO x with measurements (both sides of the street, urban background excluded) show good agreement, especially if emissions are distributed to be three times higher along the side of the street where the traffic is uphill, as compared to the downhill side. The simulation of number concentrations of inert particles indicates a similar asymmetry in emissions. A month-long measurement of particle size distribution (7-450 nm) at street level indicates that the ratio of nucleation size mode particle (7-20 nm) to total particle number (7-450 nm) is decreasing for increased particle surface area. Given the strong dominance of the locally generated particles over the urban background, this is interpreted as a local change in the size distribution. The results of a monodisperse aerosol dynamic model, coupled to the CFD model that simulates also the turbulence generated by vehicle movements, show that coagulation and deposition may reduce total particle inside the canyon with approximately 30% during low wind speeds. Most of the removal occurs shortly after emission, before the particles reach the leeward curb-side. Losses between the leeward curb-side and other locations in the street, e.g. roof levels, is estimated to be smaller, less than 10%. Coagulation is the dominating removal process under low wind speed conditions and deposition for higher wind speeds, the summed removal being smaller for high wind velocities. Deposition is enhanced over the road surface due to the velocities generated by vehicle movements. Although coagulation and deposition removal is most effective on the smallest ultrafine particles, this effect is not sufficient to explain the observed change in size distribution. It is suggested that also the formation of particles in the exhaust plumes is influenced by a larger particle surface area in the ambient air.

Gidhagen, L.; Johansson, C.; Langner, J.; Olivares, G.


14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan



The epidemiology of male infertility.  


The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility. PMID:24286777

Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J



Resting Heart Rate and Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Currently Stand?  

PubMed Central

Background Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggest that the favorable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate–lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure may be, at least in part, due to their heart rate–lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score include admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. Aims This article critically reviews the key epidemiology concerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevated resting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacological reduction in resting heart rate. Conclusions Prospective randomised data from patients with significant coronary heart disease or heart failure suggest that intervention to reduce heart rate in those with a resting heart rate >70 bpm may reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the established observational data and randomised trial evidence, it now appears appropriate to include reduction of elevated resting heart rate by lifestyle +/? pharmacological therapy as part of a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Menown, Ian BA; Davies, Simon; Gupta, Sandeep; Kalra, Paul R; Lang, Chim C; Morley, Chris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh



Epidemiology of gout.  


Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiologic studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the past few decades. Although incidence data are scarce, data from the United States suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol, and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C seem to have a protective effect. PMID:24703341

Roddy, Edward; Choi, Hyon K



A GIS based analysis of data from Landsat TM, airborne geophysical measurements, and digital maps for geological remote sensing in the Stockholm region, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on GIS-based integration of traditional remote sensing data (Landsat TM), geophysical data from airborne measurements (gamma radiation, magnetic and VLF) and ancillary data for geological studies. The test area, Stockholm region, is complex with a fragmented distribution of different land-cover types. Methods for estimation and correction of the influence of this on the measured gamma radiation are

B. Lundén; G. Wang; K. Wester



Biofilms in an urban water distribution system: measurement of biofilm biomass, pathogens and pathogen persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden.  


Distribution pipe biofilms can provide sites for the concentration of a wide range of microbial pathogens, thereby acting as a potential source of continual microbial exposure and furthermore can affect the aesthetic quality of water. In a joint project between Stockholm Water, the MISTRA "Sustainable Urban Water" program, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and the Royal Technical University, Stockholm, the aim of the current study was to investigate biofilms formed in an urban water distribution system, and quantify the impact of such biofilms on potential pathogen accumulation and persistence within the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden. When used for primary disinfection, ultra-violet (UV) treatment had no measurable influence on biofilm formation within the distribution system when compared to conventional chlorination. Biofilms produced within a model pilot-plant were found to be representative to those that had formed within the larger municipal water distribution system, demonstrating the applicability of the novel pilot-plant for future studies. Polystyrene microspheres (1.0 microm) and Salmonella bacteriophages demonstrated their ability to accumulate and persist within the model pilot-plant system, where the means of primary disinfection (UV-treatment, chlorination) had no influence on such phenomena. With the exception of aeromonads, potential pathogens and faecal indicators could not be detected within biofilms from the Stockholm water distribution system. Results from this investigation may provide information for water treatment and distribution management strategies, and fill key data gaps that presently hinder the refinement of microbial risk models. PMID:16312966

Långmark, J; Storey, M V; Ashbolt, N J; Stenström, T A



Psycholinguistics and Foreign Language Learning. Papers from a Conference (Stockholm, Sweden and Abo, Finland, October 25-26, 1982). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut Nr.86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At irregular intervals, beginning in 1977, Swedish-Finnish conferences on contrastive and applied linguistics have been arranged in Stockholm and Turko/Abo. This volume presents most of the papers given at the 1982 conference. Papers include: "Free Recall of Mixed Language Lists. Error Patterns in Bilingual Memory" (Karin Aronsson, Anja Metsola,…

Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.


JPRS Report, Epidemiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: SubSaharan Africa, Drugs, Heart Diseases, Malaria, Death, Influenza Virus, Animal Diseases, Fevers, Cholera, Anthrax, Dengue, Public health, Hemorrhagic fever, Cancer, Meningitis, Death, Salmonella Case, Myxomatosis Vaccine, Virus, Swine...



Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  


... also known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of ... to Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care ...


Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust



Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  


The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B



Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))



Review of the Validity of National Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease are heavily dependent on national mortality rates. The diagnostic error for the coronary heart disease is substantial but unquantifiable and is conservatively at least ± 30%. When this error is superimposed on innumerable errors and omissions in the compilation of monocausal mortality rates, the reliability of such vital statistics currently precludes their use for

William E. Stehbens



Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.



Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.


Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann



Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm


Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry.

Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer



Epidemiology of OHSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a rare iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation occurring during the luteal phase or during early pregnancy. The prevalence of the severe form of OHSS is very low and precise analysis of this risk population is difficult. This work reviews the literature in order to identify patients at risk. Data pertaining to the epidemiology and the

Annick Delvigne



Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reviewed in this paper, meningococcal disease epidemiology varies substantially by geographic area and time. The disease can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Surveillance is crucial for understanding meningococcal disease epidemiology, as well as the need for and impact of vaccination.Despite limited data from some regions of the world and constant change, current meningococcal disease epidemiology can

Lee H. Harrison; Caroline L. Trotter; Mary E. Ramsay



Drug abuse epidemiology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of drug abuse epidemiology is a relatively new one and recognition of drug abuse as a phenomenon amenable to study within the field of epidemiology is still forthcoming. Reviews of programmes for meetings of epidemiologic research societies rarely highlight drug abuse, even in association with the transmission of, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis



The Impact of Population Growth on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally expected that in developing countries the epidemiological transition, with improved health and lower mortality\\u000a rates, will eventually lead to a demographic transition with lower fertility rates. The reductions in mortality characterising\\u000a the epidemiological transition are often associated with controlling the infectious diseases within populations, which leaves\\u000a the chronic diseases associated with old age, cancer and heart disease

Geoffrey P. Garnett; James J. C. Lewis


Heart disease - resources  


Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -


Congenital Heart Information Network  


... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...


Target Heart Rates  


... learn how to calculate and monitor your target training heart rate, you have to know your resting heart rate. ... Now you’re ready to determine your target training heart rate. As you exercise, periodically: Take your pulse on ...


Systems epidemiology in cancer.  


Prospective studies in cancer epidemiology have conserved their study design over the last decades. In this context, current epidemiologic studies investigating gene-environment interactions are based on biobank for the analysis of genetic variation and biomarkers, using notified cancer as outcome. These studies result from the use of high-throughput technologies rather than from the development of novel design strategies. In this article, we propose the globolomic design to run integrated analyses of cancer risk covering the major -omics in blood and tumor tissue. We defined this design as an extension of the existing prospective design by collecting tissue and blood samples at time of diagnosis, including biological material suitable for transcriptome analysis. The globolomic design opens up for several new analytic strategies and, where gene expression profiles could be used to verify mechanistic information from experimental biology, adds a new dimension to causality in epidemiology. This could improve, for example, the interpretation of risk estimates related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in gene-environment studies by changing the criterion of biological plausibility from a subjective discussion of in vitro information to observational data of human in vivo gene expression. This ambitious design should consider the complexity of the multistage carcinogenic process, the latency time, and the changing lifestyle of the cohort members. This design could open the new research discipline of systems epidemiology, defined in this article as a counterpart to systems biology. Systems epidemiology with a focus on gene functions challenges the current concept of biobanking, which focuses mainly on DNA analyses. PMID:18990736

Lund, Eiliv; Dumeaux, Vanessa



Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs.

Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J



Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.  


Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection. PMID:20805805

Månsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia



Tradeoffs between environmental goals and urban development: the case of nitrogen load from the Stockholm County to the Baltic Sea.  


Urban dwellers depend on the generation of ecosystem services for their welfare. The city of Stockholm is growing, and a 25% increase in population is projected by 2030. The effects of urban development were estimated through the quantification of nitrogen (N) leakage to the Baltic Sea under two urban development scenarios. We found that total net N load will increase by 6% or 8%, depending on which growth scenario is applied, and population increase by itself will contribute at least 15% of the point source N leakage. Technical improvements in sewage treatment could, according to our results, decrease total N load to the Baltic Sea by 4%. Based on our results, we conclude that proactive measures such as spatial urban planning can provide a constructive tool for sustainable urban development on regional as well as national and international scales, depending on geographical context as well as the ecosystem services' scale of operation. PMID:18240680

Jansson, Asa; Colding, Johan



Pediatric heart surgery - discharge  


Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...


Diabetic Heart Dysfunction: Is Cell Transplantation a Potential Therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of long-standing diabetes mellitus leads to the development of a number of typical end organ complications. These complications include coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. From an epidemiological and clinical standpoint, cardiovascular disease remains the most important complication of diabetes. Cardiovascular complications are the most common causes of

Joel Price; Subodh Verma; Ren-Ke Li



The molecular epidemiology of parasites.  


The explosion of new techniques, made available by the rapid advance in molecular biology, has provided a battery of novel approaches and technology which can be applied to more practical issues such as the epidemiology of parasites. In this review, we discuss the ways in which this new field of molecular epidemiology has contributed to and corroborated our existing knowledge of parasite epidemiology. Similar epidemiological questions can be asked about many different types of parasites and, using detailed examples such as the African trypanosomes and the Leishmania parasites, we discuss the techniques and the methodologies that have been or could be employed to solve many of these epidemiological problems. PMID:1672109

Hide, G; Tait, A



Chromosome 22q11 microdeletion and congenital heart disease – a survey in a paediatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is a common finding in patients with microdeletion of chromosome 22q11. To determine if the deletion\\u000a is an epidemiologically important cause of congenital heart disease, we studied a consecutive series of children attending\\u000a a paediatric cardiac clinic and of neonates diagnosed as having structural congenital heart disease. Venous blood samples\\u000a were tested by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation analysis

D. E. J. Yong; P. Booth; J. Baruni; D. Massie; G. Stephen; D. Couzin; J. C. S. Dean



International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.


Epidemiology of Asthma Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of asthma mortality has been controversial since Osler stated in the Principles and Practice of Medicine,published in 1901, that the “the asthmatic pants into old age” [1]. Certainly asthma deaths were rare in the first half of\\u000a this century, although since this time, the patterns of asthma mortality have become considerably more complex. There have\\u000a been epidemics of

C. Richard W. Beasley; Neil E. Pearce; Julian Crane


Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the current epidemiological literature on erectile dysfunction (ED) suggests that approximately 5–20% of men have moderate-to-severe ED. Different definitions of ED, age distributions and concomitant medical conditions, as well as methodological differences, may explain much of the variance in reported prevalence rates. Various chronic disorders are associated with elevated rates of ED including depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular

M Kubin; G Wagner; A R Fugl-Meyer



Informatics for Healthcare Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A major effort in healthcare epidemiology is the surveillance of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Increasingly, HAIs\\u000a are viewed as preventable and as a marker of healthcare quality. The automation of the surveillance of HAIs could have several\\u000a benefits: for institutions, it could allow infection control programs to focus on the prevention, not simply the measurement,\\u000a of infection. For policy makers,

Bala Hota


Veterinary cancer epidemiology.  


This paper reviews the impact of veterinary cancer epidemiology on veterinary oncology, human oncology, comparative oncology, and on the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer. The detection of clusters of diseased animals has led to the discovery of the infectious, viral-associated nature of malignant lymphoma of cats, poultry, and cattle. Although some viruses (FeLV, BLV) can, under experimental conditions, cross the species barrier, there is thus far no evidence for a zoonotic hazard for the human. The keeping of pet/birds or pigeons was found to be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in the bird keepers. Dogs appear to be useful 'sentinels' for environmental hazards (asbestos, dyes, passive smoking, insecticides). The complex pathogenesis of cancer was dissected in an epidemiologic-experimental study in cows, which had intestinal papillomas and carcinomas. Endogenous genetic factors may also play a role in pathogenesis, as is evidenced by species, breed (Boxer!), and family related aggregates of tumour diseases. Epidemiology may provide a means to prevent tumour diseases by, for example, withdrawal of hormones (mammary cancer) or isolation of tumour-virus positive animals (malignant lymphoma). PMID:8833612

Misdorp, W



Heart failure.  


Despite major improvements in the treatment of virtually all cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) is an exception, in that its prevalence is rising, and only small prolongations in survival are occurring. An increasing fraction, especially older women with diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation exhibit HF with preserved systolic function. Several pathogenetic mechanisms appear to be operative in HF. These include increased hemodynamic overload, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, excessive or inadequate proliferation of the extracellular matrix, accelerated apoptosis, and genetic mutations. Biomarkers released as a consequence of myocardial stretch, imbalance between formation and breakdown of extracellular matrix, inflammation, and renal failure are useful in the identification of the pathogenetic mechanism and, when used in combination, may become helpful in estimating prognosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Promising new therapies that are now undergoing intensive investigation include an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, a naturally-occurring vasodilator peptide, a myofilament sensitizer and several drugs that enhance Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cell therapy, using autologous bone marrow and cardiac progenitor cells, appears to be promising, as does gene therapy. Chronic left ventricular assistance with continuous flow pumps is being applied more frequently and successfully as destination therapy, as a bridge to transplantation, and even as a bridge to recovery and explantation. While many of these therapies will improve the care of patients with HF, significant reductions in prevalence will require vigorous, multifaceted, preventive approaches. PMID:24621794

Braunwald, Eugene



What Causes Heart Disease?  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story 02/06/2014 Red Dress Collection 2013 highlights 05/23/2013 The Heart Truth® 02/01/2012 Heart Attack Warning Symptoms ...


Living with Heart Disease  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story 02/06/2014 Red Dress Collection 2013 highlights 05/23/2013 The Heart Truth® 02/01/2012 Heart Attack Warning Symptoms ...


Biologics and heart failure in rheumatoid arthritis: are we any wiser?  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature concerning the role of TNF-a in heart failure, epidemiology of heart failure in rheumatoid arthritis and risk of heart failure associated with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. Recent findings TNF-a has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. It has direct deleterious effects on the myocardium in the setting of acute injury or chronic heart failure. In animal models, TNF-a is important in cardiac remodeling, leading to cardiac dysfunction following acute injury. Both incident and worsening heart failure have been reported in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are treated with anti-TNF-a therapy. Recent cohort studies, however, have shown no increased risk and, in some, a protective effect on the risk of heart failure. Certain traditional cardiovascular risk factors have a relatively lesser contribution to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting that disease-related perturbations of the cytokine network may contribute to the excess risk of heart failure in these patients. Summary Overall mortality in rheumatoid arthritis has remained stagnant despite advances in rheumatoid arthritis and heart failure management and improved cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Heart failure prevalence is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and leads to greater mortality. Despite current expert consensus contraindicating the use of anti-TNF-a agents in patients with moderate to severe heart failure, epidemiological studies in rheumatoid arthritis have not consistently substantiated this association.

Danila, Maria I.; Patkar, Nivedita M.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Saag, Kenneth G.; Teng, Gim Gee



[Religiosity and health in epidemiological studies].  


The relationship between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in epidemiological research. The aim of this paper is to review the data on relationship between health-related behaviors associated with religiosity and reduced mortality and morbidity. In this review beneficial effects of religiosity on specific physical and mental health diseases, focusing on coronary heart disease, cancer, depression, suicide, psychosis, and substance abuse are described. Religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning and they are associated with protective dietary habits and reduced risk of substance abuse. Religiosity can be also harmful as it is often entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders. The current published data suggests that religiosity has a favorable effect on survival, although the methodological controversies including presence of biases typical for observational research indicate that results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22779346

Zagozdzon, Pawe?



[Heart arrest].  


Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries and is mainly due to ischemic heart disease. According to ISTAT estimates, approximately 45,000 sudden deaths occur annually in Italy whereas according to the World Health Organization, its incidence is 1 per 1000 persons. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation due to an acute ischemic episode. During acute ischemia the onset of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia is sudden, unpredictable and often irreversible and lethal. Each minute that passes, the probability that the patient survives decreases by 10%. For this reason, the first 10 min are considered to be priceless for an efficacious first aid. The possibility of survival depends on the presence of witnesses, on the heart rhythm and on the resolution of the arrhythmia. In the majority of cases, the latter is possible by means of electrical defibrillation followed by the reestablishment of systolic function. An increase in equipment alone does not suffice for efficacious handling of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital premises. Above all, an adequate intervention strategy is required. Ambulance personnel must be well trained and capable of intervening rapidly, possibly within the first 5 min. The key to success lies in the diffusion and proper use of defibrillators. The availability of new generation instruments, the external automatic defibrillators, encourages their widespread use. On the territory, these emergencies are the responsibility of the 118 organization based, according to the characteristics specific to each country, on the regulated coordination between the operative command, the crews and the first-aid means. Strategies for the handling of these emergencies within hospitals have been proposed by the Conference of Bethesda and tend to guarantee an efficacious resuscitation with a maximum latency of 2 min between cardiac arrest and the first electric shock. The diffusion of external automatic defibrillators is a preventive measure. Such equipment has permitted early defibrillation by non-medical first-aid personnel. These instruments contain software capable of recognizing an arrhythmia which may be defibrillated and of instructing the operator whether and when to press the defibrillation button. The latest instruments deliver the shock by means of a biphasic wave necessitating a lesser amount of energy which can be provided by lighter condensers. Thus such equipment weighs just a couple of kilograms. As suggested by ILCOR, for reasons of priority, such instruments should not only be available within hospitals and in ambulances but also on the territory, in particular in more crowded places. The availability of external automatic defibrillators in such places should reduce the time latency before intervention and thus increase survival. The ILCOR guidelines have suggested the constitution of an itinerary team well equipped for defibrillation and composed of trained personnel of State Institutions such as the Municipal Police, Traffic Police and the Fire Brigades. With regard to the majority of arrhythmias amenable to defibrillation which occur at home or in less crowded places, other strategies, such as primary prevention and training programs for categories at increased risk, must be employed. Antiarrhythmic drugs have long been considered the best solution for the prevention and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, the approach to these pathologies has drastically changed during the last few years owing to accumulating evidence in favor of defibrillators which may be implanted for the primary and secondary prevention of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. For patients with previous cardiac arrest, randomized studies have proven the advantages of such an approach compared to medical therapy. On the basis of the above, the guidelines for the use of antiarrhythmic implants have been modified. In most western countries, the laws regarding this aspect of medicine have recently been renewed. In the United States, where there is

Chiarella, F; Giovannini, E; Bozzano, A; Caristo, G; Delise, P; Fedele, F; Fera, M S; Lavalle, C; Roghi, A; Valagussa, F



Characterisation of subjects with early abnormalities of glucose tolerance in the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme: the impact of sex and type 2 diabetes heredity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  We evaluated the impact of sex and type 2 diabetes heredity on the prevalence and pathogenesis of early abnormalities of glucose homeostasis in subjects participating in the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.Methods  A sample of 3,128 men and 4,821 women, of whom approximately half had a family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD) was categorised according to an OGTT: NGT, IFG, IGT,

J. Kuhl; A. Hilding; C. G. Östenson; V. Grill; S. Efendic; P. Båvenholm



Quality of reviews in epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the quality of recent reviews in epidemiology. METHODS: All 1995 issues of 7 widely read epidemiology journals were searched to identify reviews. RESULTS: Twenty-nine reviews were identified. Methodology was not specified or incomplete for literature searches in 79% of reviews; the same was true for inclusion criteria in 83% and for combining studies in 62%. More than 60% of the reviews were not methodologically systematic. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the quality of review papers in epidemiology. If systematic methodology were followed more frequently, epidemiologic science and its application could be improved.

Breslow, R A; Ross, S A; Weed, D L



Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard



Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.



Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.  


Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches. PMID:23801009

Queiroz, Luiz Paulo



Epidemiology of OA  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships.

Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing



Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

Jacobs, Phillip E.




Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring antioxidants like vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C can inhibit the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. This action could positively influence the atherosclerotic process and, as a consequence, the progression of coronary heart disease. A wealth of experimental studies provide a sound biological rationale for the mechanisms of action of antioxidants, whereas epidemiological studies strongly sustain the `antioxidant




Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) a novel cardiovascular risk factor - evidence from epidemiological and prospective clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing clinical evidence to support the hypothesis that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase is a new independent cardiovascular risk factor. ADMA mediates endothelial dysfunction in lipid disorders, coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The aim of this review was to summarize the latest evidence from epidemiological and prospective

Andrzej Szuba; Maciej Podgórski


Reverse Epidemiology, Obesity and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Modelling Mortality Expectations Using Energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Obesity is a predisposing factor for chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effect of obesity on mortality is reversed. Obese patients appear protected. Two ideas have been advanced to explain this ‘reverse epidemiology’. First, obesity may buffer patients from wasting. Second, fat may sequester uraemic toxins leading to

John R. Speakman; Klaas R. Westerterp



Heart Failure in East Asia  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. ?-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine.

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava



Heart failure in East Asia.  


Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. Betablocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banerjee, Amitava



Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)



Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)



Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes.

Zhang, Yuwei



Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.



Mortality, mental disorders and addiction: a 5-year follow-up of 82 homeless men in Stockholm.  


A 5-year follow-up study was performed on 82 homeless men, with mental problems, who had been contacted by an outreach team run by the Social welfare administration of Stockholm 1995/1996. Data have been collected from the Cause of Death Register, death certificates, forensic autopsy reports, hospital medical reports, Hospital Discharge Register, interviews with social workers and with those men who were able to participate. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 4.7 times higher than expected. The highest mortality was found in the group where drug addiction was dominant; 46% had died. In the group of men with severe psychiatric disorders, with diagnosis such as schizophrenia, none had died. Compared with the others, they had spent less time in homelessness. Among the survivors, 75% were still homeless at the follow-up in spite of considerable treatment interventions from the social services and health authorities. Residential institutions or treatment seemed to have some protective effect concerning misuse, diseases and injuries. Among the still homeless, the mental health problems combined with substance use problems had increased with 17%. The life and housing situation for the whole group seemed not to have improved, even if fewer of them were staying in hostels for homeless people. PMID:17990198

Beijer, U; Andréasson, A; Agren, G; Fugelstad, A



Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas  


... Dinner menu 1 3 ounces salmon Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 12: Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas continued Provided By Where ...


The epidemiology of acute encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of encephalitis and is based on a literature

Julia Granerod; Natasha S. Crowcroft



CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available



Congenital Heart Defects  


... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate  


... paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). How it happens Electrical signals in the heart's upper chambers fire abnormally, which interferes with electrical signals coming from the sinoatrial (SA) node --- the heart's ...


Amazing Heart Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the NOVA Cut to the Heart Web site highlights facts about the heart -- including its size and placement -- and will help you to understand the importance of this wondrous organ in our bodies.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



Heart Disease Risk Factors  


... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...


Artificial Heart Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The need for artificial heart devices; Basic objective of the artificial heart program; Temporary left ventricular assistance: (a) emergency devices to stabilize the circulation; (b) implantable assist pump; Total implantability: A prerequisite ...



Who Needs Heart Surgery?  


... CT scan also can find problems with the heart's function and valves. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance ... blood vessels. Cardiac MRI shows the structure and function of your heart. This test can show the size and location ...


Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease  


... SITE › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...


Heart attack - discharge  


... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ( ... Infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: ...


Sex and Heart Disease  


Sex and Heart Disease Updated:Mar 2,2012 Is sex safe for heart disease patients? Readjusting to everyday ... disease, also called cardiovascular disease, will affect your sex life — or if it’s safe to have sex ...


Heart Attack Risk Assessment  


... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ...


Heart Disease: Know Your Risk  


... This information in Spanish ( en español ) Heart disease: Know your risk Are you at risk for having ... a heart attack . More information on heart disease: Know your risk Heart disease is the leading cause ...


How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?  


... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...


Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.  


Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967. PMID:320723

Ellis, F P



Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  


Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H



Open-Heart Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart disease is a debilitating illness accounting for almost half of the deaths in the United States and its pathophysiology has been intensively investigated (Kerson & Kerson, 1985). Consequences of heart disease for the family system, particularly for spouses, are less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess stressors and needs of spouses of patients undergoing open-heart

D. J. Monahan; L. Kohman; M. Coleman



Women and Heart Disease  


Women & Heart Disease Things you need to know Talk to your doctor about heart disease It’s important to ask your doctor about your ... you can do to lower your risk for heart disease Keep a healthy... 1. Blood pressure 2. Cholesterol ...


Choosing Heart Healthy Habits  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... player. Choosing Heart Healthy Habits HealthDay July 8, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Coronary Artery Disease Heart Diseases--Prevention Transcript Young adults who improve their lifestyle can enter middle age with a healthier heart new research suggests. In fact those who eat better, slim ...


Depression and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... player. Depression and Heart Disease HealthDay June 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Depression Heart Disease in Women Women's Health Transcript Young women struggling with depression face a higher risk of suffering a heart attack new research reveals. Young women also face more than twice ...


Coronary Heart Disease  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 05/16/2012 Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 Coronary Heart Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies ...


Getting a New Heart  


... About Heart Transplants American Society of Transplantation 15000 Commerce Parkway Suite C Mount Laurel, NJ 08054 Phone: ... treating heart failure. Your doctors will first try medical therapy. In some cases, medicines alone ... Pacemakers. These devices are used to treat a heart that beats ...


Genetics of heart development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes that drive heart-cell differentiation in vertebrates and Drosophila are similar, even though the Drosophila ‘heart’ is a simple tube and the vertebrate heart is a multichambered physiologically complex organ. Mutational analysis in mice and, as particular focus of this review, in zebrafish, reveals the additional genes brought into play to fashion these evolutionarily ‘new’ organotypic components.

Jau-Nian Chen; Mark C Fishman



Primitive Heart Turnabout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation displays both sides of the two chambered heart. It begins with a ventral view, labeling the chambers and aortic arches. The heart then turns around to a dorsal view, labeling the major vessels. A button allows one to see the inside of the heart and the openings of the major vessels.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)



Therapy of heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapy of heart failure. The incidence and prevalence of heart failure is on the rise. It has become the single most expensive health care item in the United States and the number one discharge diagnosis in the elderly. The goals of therapy include both prevention and treatment of heart failure. In recent years research studies and randomized clinical trials have

Robert W Schrier; Joseph G Abdallah; Howard H D Weinberger; William T Abraham



OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.; Sullivan, Kevin



Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.  

PubMed Central

In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment.

Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.



Heart transplantation for congenital heart disease in the first year of life.  


Successful infant heart transplantation has now been performed for over 25 years. Assessment of long term outcomes is now possible. We report clinical outcomes for322 patients who received their heart transplant during infancy. Actuarial graft survival for newborn recipients is 59% at 25 years. Survival has improved in the most recent era. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the most important late cause of death with an actuarial incidence at 25 years of 35%. Post-transplant lymphoma is estimated to occur in 20% of infant recipients by25 years. Chronic kidney disease grade 3 or worse is present in 31% of survivors. The epidemiology of infant heart transplantation has changed through the years as the results for staged repair improved and donor resources remained stagnant. Most centers now employ staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and similar extreme forms of congenital heart disease. Techniques for staged repair, including the hybrid procedure, are described. The lack of donors is described with particular note regarding decreased donors due to newer programs for appropriate infant sleep positioning and infant car seats. ABO incompatible donors are a newer resource for maximizing donor resources, as is donation after circulatory determination of death and techniques to properly utilize more donors by expanding the criteria for what is an acceptable donor. An immunological advantage for the youngest recipients has long been postulated, and evaluation of this phenomenon may provide clues to the development of accommodation and/or tolerance. PMID:22548030

Chinnock, Richard E; Bailey, Leonard L



National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- Information for Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), this website provides a plethora of helpful information and resources for researchers. The site provides abstracts for NHLBI supported research from 1972-present, which also links to the NIH CRISP Database. Online research resources include Programs for Genomic Applications, Available Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Data Sets, as well as links to the NIH Obesity Research Web Site. The site also provides links to other research resources including databases, biologic resources, and training opportunities. In addition, the site links to the NHLBI Population Studies Database, information on the Framingham Heart Study, a section on Workshop and Meeting Summaries, and much more.


Cardiac target organ damage in hypertension: insights from epidemiology.  


Hypertension is an important risk factor implicated in the development of multiple common cardiac conditions, including coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Epidemiologic studies have provided insights into the shared pathogenesis of hypertension and subclinical as well as clinically evident cardiac diseases. The mechanistic common ground between chronic blood pressure elevation and cardiac disease likely begins early in life. Understanding these connections will aid ongoing efforts to identify individuals at risk, develop targeted therapeutics, and improve overall outcomes for individuals with elevated blood pressure in the population at large. PMID:24801135

Lawler, Patrick R; Hiremath, Pranoti; Cheng, Susan



Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts should not assume susceptible groups are the same for warm and cold days and heat and cold waves, respectively.

Rocklov, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil; Ebi, Kristie; Bellander, Tom



Large dead-ice depressions in flat-topped eskers: evidence of a Preboreal jökulhlaup in the Stockholm area, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentological investigations in Pålamalm, one of the few elongated, flat-topped, raised glaciofluvial deposits of the Stockholm area, show that the deposit was formed in a subglacial tunnel environment during the early Preboreal. The study provides evidence for dynamic links between the morphology of a subglacial conduit, the regional subglacial discharge, and the regional ice-sheet dynamics. The general morphology of the deposit and the lateral esker displacement are parts of a regional pattern. The development and interrelations of the eight distinguished lithofacies at Pålamalm provides evidence for the triggering mechanism responsible for the deposition of this 3-km-long glaciofluvial deposit. Strongly deformed gravels occur close to large dead-ice structures. The occurrence of another elongated and flat-topped glaciofluvial deposit, Jordbromalm, further to the east suggests a sudden regional subglacial outburst (jökulhlaup) in the area. The sudden, intensive enhancement of water discharge in Pålamalm is probably due to the same outburst. This is assumed to have caused the ice roof of the conduit to collapse. The high meltwater-pressure gradient caused the diameter of the conduit to increase rapidly. In addition, the subglacial tunnel took a new route because the original course became blocked by large ice blocks that had fallen from the roof. The steep flanks of the deposit, the presence of large dead-ice depressions along the central part of the deposit and the appearance of two different tunnel-core facies in the main cross-section of the Pålamalm deposit support the hypothesis of a course change after the jökulhlaup. A probable late-glacial crustal rebound in response to the rapid deglaciation in the area may have been the triggering mechanism for the abrupt discharge of the subglacial lake.

Mokhtari Fard, Amir



Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.  


Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats



John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The key tactics of epidemiology—surveillance and response—were first used by Dr. John Snow during a cholera outbreak in 1850s London, as dramatized in this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival.

Foundation, Wgbh E.



The People's Library of Epidemiology.  


The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website ( with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

Last, John M



Epidemiology of Type B Hepatitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Employing the techniques of radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination, the population of West Seneca Developmental Center was followed in serial epidemiological surveys for the incidence and prevalence of type B hepatitis. The initial survey carried o...

P. L. Ogra M. L. Tiku R. I. Ramirez K. R. Beutner M. Makhdoomi




EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...


[Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].  


With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

Mahr, A; Maldini, C



Epidemiology of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socio-economic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socio-economic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

Crew, Katherine D; Neugut, Alfred I



Epidemiology of Nursemaid's Elbow  

PubMed Central

Introduction To provide an epidemiological description of radial head subluxation, also known as nursemaid’s elbow, from a database of emergency department visits. Methods We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients 6 years of age and younger, who presented to the ED between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and were diagnosed with nursemaid’s elbow. Inclusion criteria consisted of chart information, including date, unique account number, medical record number, weight, age, sex, and arm affected. Exclusion criteria included any charts with missing or incomplete data. Results There were 1,228 charts that met inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were female (60%). The mean age was 28.6 months (±12.6). The left arm was affected 60% of the time. Most of the included patients were over the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile in each gender. Conclusion The average age of children presenting with nursemaid’s elbow was 28.6 months. Females were affected more than males, and the left arm was predominately affected. Most patients were above the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile for weight.

Vitello, Sarah; Dvorkin, Ronald; Sattler, Steven; Levy, David; Ung, Lyncean



[Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].  


The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems. PMID:24626623

Hersch-Martínez, Paul



The epidemiology of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, and genetic epidemiology of mood disorders in adults and\\u000a children. The magnitude and impact of mood disorders in the community outweighs that of most other chronic diseases. Although\\u000a there is substantial knowledge regarding the sociodemographic risk factors for mood disorders, our understanding of the pathogenesis\\u000a and classification still is evolving.

Kathleen Ries Merikangas; Nancy C. P. Low



Blood Donations and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In experimental animals, iron overload appears to promote atherosclerosis and ischemic myocardial damage, but the results of epidemiological studies that relate iron stores to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent. Methods and Results—We prospectively studied blood donations, which effectively reduce body iron stores, in relation to the risk of CHD among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up

Alberto Ascherio; Eric B. Rimm; Edward Giovannucci; Walter C. Willett; Meir J. Stampfer



Dioxin exposure is an environmental risk factor for ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have linked dioxin exposure to increased mortality caused by ischemic heart disease. To test the hypothesis\\u000a that dioxin exposure may constitute an environmental risk factor for atherosclerosis, we exposed C57BL\\/6J mice to 5 ?g\\/kg\\u000a of dioxin daily for 3 d, and measured various molecular and physiological markers of heart disease. Dioxin treatment led to\\u000a an increase in the

Timothy P. Dalton; J. Kevin Kerzee; Bin Wang; Marian Miller; Mathew Z. Dieter; John N. Lorenz; Howard G. Shertzer; Daniel W. Nebert; Alvaro Puga



Alloantibodies in heart transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of complement fixing anti–human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in the circulation of organ transplant recipients may result in heart allograft rejection. Here, we assessed the clinical impact of pre- and post-transplantation allosensitization on long-term survival of heart allografts. Sequential samples of sera from heart allograft recipients were screened pretransplantation for panel reactive antibodies using the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test.

Eric K. Ho; George Vlad; Adriana I. Colovai; E. Rodica Vasilescu; Joseph Schwartz; Hugo Sondermeijer; Elizabeth Burke; Charles C. Marboe; Silviu Itescu; Nicole Suciu-Foca; Donna Mancini



Hearts and Worms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of potentially useful drugs have been banned from the market because of a mysterious and deadly heart reaction. A worm that has no heart may help scientists figure out why. This Science Update focuses on experiments involving the worm C. elegans and using its pharynx, an organ similar in function and histology to the human heart, to test the effects of certain therapeutic drugs.

Science Update;



Heart Rate Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.



Heart failure and depression.  


Depression frequently accompanies heart failure and has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with heart failure who have depression have more somatic symptoms, hospitalizations, increased financial burden, and poorer quality of life. Furthermore, depression has been shown to be an independent predictor of future cardiac events in patients with heart failure, regardless of disease severity, making it worthwhile to consider among other cardiac risk factors, such as diabetes and smoking. This article summarizes the trials assessing the treatment of depression in heart failure and provides an algorithm for approaching these patients. PMID:24656106

Newhouse, Amy; Jiang, Wei



Depression After Heart Attack  


... Association Prevention Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; endorsed by the American Psychiatric Association . Circulation . ...


An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

Martcheva, M.



Dimensional Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in Heart Transplant Recipients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. The authors then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record. (ERA citation 1...

J. P. Zbilut G. Mayer-Kress K. Geist



Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.



Analysis of Nitrogen and Carbon Isotopes, and Metals in Sediments outside a Waste Plant in Stockholm Archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment samples were taken in the water upstream, near and downstream of the outflow of a purification plant near Stockholm, Sweden. The waste plant receives, treats and deposits domestic and industry refuse and have earlier received latrine. An Otto Gravity Corer was used for sampling and the sediment was cut into centimetres slices, freeze-dried and analysed for the total content and isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen using a CF-IRMS (Finnigan Delta plus). Freeze-dried sediment subsamples were digested in a microwave oven in the presence of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and analysed for metals with ICP-OES (Varian Vista AX). This study shows that the sediments from the outflow of the waste plant have d15N values indicating denitrification and reworking by bacteria (?15N values ranging from +16 to +19 ppm). Upstream of the outflow and 600 metres downstream, the ?15N are in a more natural range (+2 to +3 ppm respective +7 to +9 ppm). The ?13C values show that the material is of terrigenous origin. ?13C values in the outflow samples (-25 to -21 ppm), differ from the samples collected upstream (-25 to -23 ppm) and downstream the outflow (-27 to -25 ppm). Plotting ?13C against total carbon indicate that the downstream samples do not have the same main source as the other samples, which also can be seen in the 1/CTOT vs. ?13C. There is a general interest to find out more about the metal releases to the environment from this point source. In this investigation the sediment have been analysed for metals, as for example Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The Cd content is low <0.4 ppb. At a sediment depth of 5 cm the Cu concentrations were 19 ?g/g upstream the outflow, 23 ?g/g at the outflow and 60 ?g/g downstream the outflow, Pb; 6 ?g/g, 8 ?g/g, respective 50 ?g/g and Zn; 58 ?g/g, 93 ?g/g and 175 ?g/g respectively.

Bohlin, H. S.; Mörth, C.-M.; Holm, N. G.



Association Between Extent of Periodontal Attachment Loss and Self-reported History of Heart Attack: An Analysis of NHANES III Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary heart disease is responsible for one of every five deaths in the United States. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to verify this association using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data for 5564 people 40 years of

S. J. Arbes; G. D. Slade; J. D. Beck



Pathophysiology and epidemiology of peripartum cardiomyopathy.  


Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of complications in pregnancy worldwide, and the number of patients who develop cardiac problems during pregnancy is increasing. Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening heart disease that emerges towards the end of pregnancy or in the first months postpartum, in previously healthy women. Symptoms and signs of PPCM are similar to those in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The incidence varies geographically, most likely because of socioeconomic and genetic factors. The syndrome is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, and diagnosis is often delayed. Various mechanisms have been investigated, including the hypothesis that unbalanced peripartum or postpartum oxidative stress triggers the proteolytic cleavage of the nursing hormone prolactin into a potent antiangiogenic, proapoptotic, and proinflammatory 16 kDa fragment. This theory provides the basis for the discovery of disease-specific biomarkers and promising novel therapeutic targets. In this Review, we describe the latest understanding of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and novel treatment strategies for patients with PPCM. PMID:24686946

Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Sliwa, Karen



Heart imaging method  


A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)



Target Heart Rate Calculator  


... workout Enter your age to find a target heart rate during exercise. You'll get the most out of your activities by staying within this range of heartbeats/minute. What is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...


Rheumatic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Heart lesions of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) patients contain T-cell clones that recognize heart proteins and streptococcal M peptides. To functionally characterize heart-infiltrating T lymphocytes, we evaluated their cytokine profile, both directly in situ and in T-cell lines derived from the heart (HIL). Interferon (IFN)-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 expressions were characterized in 20 heart tissue infiltrates from 14 RHD patients by immunohistochemistry. IFN-?-, TNF-?-, and IL-10-positive cells were consistently predominant, whereas IL-4 was scarce in the valves. In agreement with these data, the in vitro experiments, in which 13 HILs derived from heart samples of eight patients were stimulated with M5 protein and the immunodominant M5 (81-96) peptide, IL-4 was detected in HIL derived from the atrium (three of six) but not from the valve (zero of seven). IFN-? and IL-10 production were detected in culture supernatants in 11 of 13 and 6 of 12 HILs, respectively. The predominant IFN-? and TNF-? expression in the heart suggests that Th1-type cytokines could mediate RHD. Unlike in reversible myocardium inflammation, the significantly lower IL-4 expression in the valvular tissue (P = 0.02) may contribute to the progression of the RHD leading to permanent valvular damage (relative risk, 4.3; odds ratio, 15.8). The lack of IL-4 in vitro production by valve-derived HIL also emphasizes the more severe tissue destruction in valves observed in RHD.

Guilherme, Luiza; Cury, Patricia; Demarchi, Lea M.F.; Coelho, Veronica; Abel, Lucia; Lopez, Ana P.; Oshiro, Sandra Emiko; Aliotti, Selma; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Pomerantzeff, Pablo M.A.; Tanaka, Ana C.; Kalil, Jorge



Types of Heart Surgery  


... plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can cause ... coronary artery. This creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. Surgeons can bypass multiple ...


Model Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use provided materials to design and build prototype artificial heart valves. Their functioning is demonstrated using water to simulate the flow of blood through the heart. Upon completion, teams demonstrate their fully functional prototypes to the rest of the class, along with a pamphlet that describes the device and how it works.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program


Preparing Children for Heart Surgery  


... by congenital heart defects provide inspiration and hope. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...


Dietary Fiber and Heart Attack  


... Dietary Fiber and Heart Attack HealthDay April 30, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dietary Fiber Heart Attack Transcript Heart attack survivors take heed: new research suggests that embarking on a high fiber diet ...


Development of Hdl Artificial Heart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An implantable flueric-amplifier-controlled artificial heart has been developed. Clinical evaluations of the various models of this heart have been made. An early version of the implantable heart demonstrated its ability to substitute successfully for a c...

C. E. Lanham J. M. Calkins J. W. Joyce



Theory of heart  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

Glass, L. (ed.) (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. (ed.) (Auckland Univ., Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. (ed.) (California Univ., San Diego (United States))




NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Utah's Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library has worked to create everything from mobile applications to digitized slide collections for medical professionals. One of their most interesting applications is this interactive rendering of the human heart that can be used to understand blood flow and the operations of the heart. The site includes a set of controls that gives visitors the ability to look at the heart in motion, complete with a stop, play, rewind, and fast-forward button. The rendering is accompanied by an electrocardiogram and heart sounds chart to give interested parties a bit more detail about each motion of the heart. The site also includes seven "Tutorials" that provide detailed graphics and text that explain atrial systole, rapid ejection, rapid ventricular filling, and more.



Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging.

Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R



Heart 2: Changing Lifestyles and Heart Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students examine and evaluate changes in diet and lifestyle from prehistoric to modern times and how these differences have spurred the development (and better treatment) of heart disease. They then use their knowledge in a debate between students representing hunter-gatherers and modern students. Students also critically examine their own diets.

Science Netlinks;



Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto



Cardiogenic Effects of Trichloroethylene and Trichloroacetic Acid Following Exposure during Heart Specification of Avian Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are common drinking water contaminants in the United States. Both chemicals have been implicated in causing congenital heart defects (CHD) in human epidemiological and animal model studies. However, the latter studies have primarily focused on assessment of cardiac morphology at late embryonic stages. Here, we tested whether treating avian embryos with TCE

Victoria J. Drake; Stacy L. Koprowski; Norman Hu; Susan M. Smith; John Lough




EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....


Dengue Occurrence in the Population (Epidemiology)  


... the United States Dengue Surveillance in the U.S. Epidemiology Dengue fever (DF) is caused by any of ... Notices Prevention If You Think You Have Dengue Epidemiology Continental U.S. Entomology/Ecology Mosquito Life-Cycle Mosquito ...


Prevalence of Heart Disease Demonstrated in 60 Years of the Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  

PubMed Central

Considering the historical and academic relevance of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology (ABC), as its MEDLINE indexing began in 1950, it was assumed as a hypothesis that the analysis of the publications over the last 60 years could reflect the changing trends of heart disease in Brazil. The study data were collected using a program developed for this purpose, allowing the automatic extraction of information from the MEDLINE database. The study information were collected by searching "Brazilian Archives of Cardiology AND selected parameter in English". Four observational groups were determined: (1) major groups of heart diseases (coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies); (2) relevant diseases in clinical practice (cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); (3) cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis); and (4) group determined due to the growing trend of publications on congestive heart failure seen in previous groups (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease and Chagasic heart disease) All publications within the established groups were described, highlighting the increasing importance of heart failure and diabetes as risk factors. A relatively easy search was carried out, using the computer program developed for literature search covering six decades. Emphasizing the limitations of the study, we suggest the existence of an epidemiological link between cardiac diseases that are prevalent in Brazil and the publications of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology.

Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Nather, Julio Cesar; Rodrigues, Alfredo Jose



A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors



Lungs in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Lung function abnormalities both at rest and during exercise are frequently observed in patients with chronic heart failure, also in the absence of respiratory disease. Alterations of respiratory mechanics and of gas exchange capacity are strictly related to heart failure. Severe heart failure patients often show a restrictive respiratory pattern, secondary to heart enlargement and increased lung fluids, and impairment of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, mainly due to an increased resistance to molecular diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane. Reduced gas diffusion contributes to exercise intolerance and to a worse prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the “gold standard” when studying the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adaptations to exercise in cardiac patients. During exercise, hyperventilation and consequent reduction of ventilation efficiency are often observed in heart failure patients, resulting in an increased slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) relationship. Ventilatory efficiency is as strong prognostic and an important stratification marker. This paper describes the pulmonary abnormalities at rest and during exercise in the patients with heart failure, highlighting the principal diagnostic tools for evaluation of lungs function, the possible pharmacological interventions, and the parameters that could be useful in prognostic assessment of heart failure patients.

Apostolo, Anna; Giusti, Giuliano; Gargiulo, Paola; Bussotti, Maurizio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe



Epidemiology and Natural History of Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and natural history of nephrolithiasis comprise its incidence and prevalence; role of age, gender, and race;\\u000a risk factors, comorbidities, and course. As such, epidemiology verges into clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and\\u000a prognosis. Although it is well known that associations derived from epidemiological studies do not prove causal relationships,\\u000a lessons from epidemiology and natural history have been readily applied

Alan G. Wasserstein


Antioxidant vitamins and prevention of cardiovascular disease: Epidemiological and clinical trial data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring antioxidants such as vitamin E, ?-carotene, and vitamin C can inhibit the oxidative modification of low\\u000a density lipoproteins. This action could positively influence the atherosclerotic process and, as a consequence, the progression\\u000a of coronary heart disease. A wealth of experimental studies provide a sound biological rationale for the mechanisms of action\\u000a of antioxidants, whereas epidemiologic studies strongly sustain

Roberto Marchioli; Carlo Schweiger; Giacomo Levantesi; Luigi Tavazzi; Franco Valagussa



The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis at a Children’s Hospital Over Seven Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine whether improvements in the care of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have changed\\u000a the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE). A retrospective study of patients 18 years of age and younger treated for\\u000a IE from 1992 to 2004 (era 3) was conducted at the authors’ children’s hospital in New York City. This study was compared with

Lauren B. Rosenthal; Kristina N. Feja; Stéphanie M. Levasseur; Luis R. Alba; Welton Gersony; Lisa Saiman



Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.


Unsolved Problems in Genetic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic epidemiology faces six critical issues: its scope, genetic mapping, complex inheritance, population structure, nonmendelian genetics, and the internationalization of genetics. To solve these problems the scope must be broadened to include normal variation, although much of descriptive genetics will be lost to related sciences. Genetic mapping continues to play an essential role for positional cloning and chromosome architecture, which

Newton E. Morton



Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found

Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez




EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...


The epidemiology of gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of gastric carcinoma, especially its “epidemic” or “intestinal” type is reviewed. The prevailing etiologic hypothesis, based on the selective targeting of etiologic agents in different points of the chain of causation, is described. Support for the hypothesis is updated, based on descriptive and analytical epidemiologic studies as well as on recently obtained laboratory and experimental evidence. Primary and

Pelayo Correa




PubMed Central

The techniques and principles of epidemiology, so successfully utilized in the study and control of communicable diseases, should be applied to other mass phenomena in the community. The local health officer should apply them in his “diagnosis” of the sicknesses of his organized community. Epidemiological methods have been used to study mental diseases as well as chronic diseases, and an experiment in using epidemiological methods on the county level to study psychosocial disorders has been carried out. The impact of psychosocial episodes on somatic diseases is now generally accepted and well documented. Individual practitioners of medicine are becoming more interested in the significance of social tensions on the health of their patients. Public health physicians, specialists in preventive medicine, are the best equipped by training and experience to take the leadership in the application of epidemiological methods to sociomedical problems and are in a unique position to assist their colleagues in the private practice of medicine in providing modern helpful and meaningful health protection to their patients. Organized medicine might well become more cognizant of the sociological changes taking place in the nation as they relate to health and assume the responsibility for aggressive leadership in the anticipation of and the solution of these problems.

Chope, H. D.



Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models  

SciTech Connect

Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida



Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell A. Green G. Chenevix-Trench A. DeFazio D. Gertig



Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell



[Injuries of the heart].  


The authors had 53 patients with heart injuries under observation; 52 patients were operated on for vital indications. The heart wound was sutured, the concomitant injuries to other organs were removed, and the pericardial and pleural cavities were drained. Air-tightness of the injured heart muscle was attained in all cases. Seven of the patients who were operated on died. One patient who did not undergo operation died suddenly in complete well-being from acute cardiac tamponade 2 days after injury to the chest inflicted with a pin-like object. The authors emphasize the importance of organizational measures promoting earliest performance of the operation. PMID:1770711

Kolkin, Ia G; Gredzhev, A F; Vecherko, V N; Kravets, V M; Paniotov, A P; Giul'mamedov, S I; Kolesnik, V V



Tell Tale Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will read Poe's famous short story The Tell-Tale Heart, take notes, and complete one response assignment pertaining to the story. Be prepared to share your notes and response with the class. Have fun! 1. To begin, please click on the following link.Begin My Tell-Tale Heart 2. Follow along with Mrs. Branscomb as we read together about this activity. When you are ready to begin, select "Begin My Tell-Tale Heart." 3. Experiment with the icons on the right hand side of the page. You ...

Branscomb, Mrs.



Toxoplasmosis in heart and heart and lung transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the first 250 heart and 35 heart and lung transplant recipients at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, who survived for more than one month after transplantation, 217 heart and 33 heart and lung patients were investigated serologically for evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Six patients acquired primary T gondii infection, most probably from the donor organ. Five patients experienced T gondii

T G Wreghitt; M Hakim; J J Gray; A H Balfour; P G Stovin; S Stewart; J Scott; T A English; J Wallwork



Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A



Complete heart block complicating retrograde left heart catheterization.  


Three cases of complete heart block complicating retrograde left heart catheterization are presented. In two of the three cases, electrophysiologic study documented block below the AV (atrial ventricular) node. In the third recurrent complete heart block was fatal. It appears that complete heart block complicating retrograde left sided cardiac catheterization is not simply a pericatheterization event; rather, it appears that there is high risk of recurrent complete heart block and that electrophysiologic study is mandatory. PMID:2354514

Feit, A; Kipperman, R; Ursell, S; Reddy, C V



Heart failure - tests  


... taking medicines called ACE inhibitors or ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) Your doctor makes changes to the doses of your medicines You have more severe heart failure Sodium and potassium levels in your blood will need ...


Heart valve surgery  


... Methods include: Endoscopy Percutaneous surgery (through the skin) Robot-assisted surgery The surgeon may be able to ... to your doctor before having any type of medical procedure. The clicking of mechanical heart valves may ...


Men and Heart Disease  


... Poor diet Physical inactivity Excessive alcohol use CDC's Public Health Efforts CDC's Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Program ... Evaluation Plan Healthy People 2020 Partners Programs State Public Health Actions Program Funding Map Funding to State, Local, ...


Heart and Vascular Diseases  


... Calculator: Public Online Version HTML Cholesterol Education Month Publications / Fact Sheets: Detailed Information View Online At-A- ... TLC) PDF Back to Top Congenital Heart Defects Publications / Fact Sheets: Detailed Information View Online Holes in ...


What Causes Heart Failure?  


... by the National Institutes of Health. View all Heart Failure Press Releases March 27, 2014 The NHLBI updates Health Topics articles on a biennial cycle based on a thorough review of research findings and new literature. The articles also are ...


Living with Heart Failure  


... by the National Institutes of Health. View all Heart Failure Press Releases March 27, 2014 The NHLBI updates Health Topics articles on a biennial cycle based on a thorough review of research findings and new literature. The articles also are ...


Heart and vascular services  


... Coronary angiography CT angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) Echocardiogram PET scan of the heart Stress tests (many different types exist) Vascular ultrasound, such as carotid ultrasound Venous ultrasound of the arms and legs ...


Holes in the Heart  


... upper chambers is called an atrial septal defect (ASD). A hole in the septum between the heart's ... chambers is called a ventricular septal defect (VSD). ASDs and VSDs allow blood to pass from the ...


Arthritis and Heart Disease  


... they meet – breaks down, causing pain and stiffness. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) : a condition affecting 1.5 million Americans ... of adults with heart disease. For people with rheumatoid arthritis, their RA is now known to be a ...


Heart-Healthy Exercise  


... Institution: NIH Library User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , ... Section Footnotes The information contained in this Circulation Cardiology Patient Page is not a substitute for medical ...


Heart disease. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 62 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiological and Angiographic Examination of the Heart; Newer Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Digital Subtraction Angiography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nuclear Cardiology; and Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease.

Braunwald, E.



Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement.

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K



Metabolic Mechanisms in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure 3 altered metabolism 3

Houman Ashrafian; Michael P. Frenneaux; Lionel H. Opie


How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed?  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story 02/06/2014 Red Dress Collection 2013 highlights 05/23/2013 The Heart Truth® 02/01/2012 Heart Attack Warning Symptoms ...


How Is Heart Disease Treated?  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 All of Our Stories Are Red: Jennifer's Story 02/06/2014 Red Dress Collection 2013 highlights 05/23/2013 The Heart Truth® 02/01/2012 Heart Attack Warning Symptoms ...


Variable Effects of Physical Training of Heart Rate Variability, Heart Rate Recovery, and Heart Rate Turbulence in Chronic Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate turbulence (HRT), and heart rate recovery (HRR), indices that reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, are outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). It is not clear, however, whether they reflect the same components of ANS activity. No study has examined the effects of physical training (PT) training on HRV, HRT,




Signs of a Heart Attack  


... attack. It's better to be safe than sorry. Cardiac arrest A heart attack is not the same as cardiac arrest. In a heart attack, the heart does not usually stop beating. During cardiac arrest, the heart totally stops beating. With cardiac arrest, ...


Anaemia and heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaemia is one of the most frequent co-morbidities in patients with heart failure. Its prevalence increases from 4% to7% in\\u000a subjects with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction to >30% in patients with severe heart failure. Renal insufficiency,\\u000a activation of inflammatory mediators and treatment with renin-angiotensin antagonists seem to be its main determinants. The\\u000a results of many studies agree in providing evidence

Enrico Vizzardi; Tania Bordonali; Elena Tanghetti; Marco Metra; Livio Dei Cas



Adult congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children call adults ‘grown-up’. Adults may call teenagers, but not mature men and women grown-up. As many people with repaired congenital heart disease (CHD) live a full life, the appropriate perspective is adult CHD superceding the term grown-up congenital heart disease (GUCH). Population-based data now show some adults with corrected cardiac defects revert to normal life expectancy. Maternal and fetal

Elliot A. Shinebourne; Michael A. Gatzoulis



Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

Bioengineering, Climb: C.


Heart Rate Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.



Changes in alcohol-related inpatient care in Stockholm County in relation to socioeconomic status during a period of decline in alcohol consumption.  

PubMed Central

Alcohol sales in Stockholm County decreased by 18 per cent from 1976 to 1981. The socioeconomic status of inpatients treated for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis was studied by linking data from the National Housing and Population Censuses in 1975 and 1980 with the inpatient care registers for 1976 and 1981. In both years, all rates were highest for people outside the labor market and lowest among white collar employees. The employment rate for those aged 25-44 years and treated in 1981 for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, and alcohol intoxication--already low in 1975--had drifted further downward by 1980. Total rates of inpatient treatment for alcohol-related diagnoses generally declined but the gap between blue collar workers and white collar workers widened. We conclude that the goal for national alcohol policy, suggested by the WHO--a reduction of per capita consumption--should be combined with additional measures that will reach all social groups.

Romelsjo, A; Diderichsen, F



Brain tumor epidemiology: consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium.  


Epidemiologists in the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) have prioritized areas for further research. Although many risk factors have been examined over the past several decades, there are few consistent findings, possibly because of small sample sizes in individual studies and differences between studies in patients, tumor types, and methods of classification. Individual studies generally have lacked samples of sufficient size to examine interactions. A major priority based on available evidence and technologies includes expanding research in genetics and molecular epidemiology of brain tumors. BTEC has taken an active role in promoting understudied groups, such as pediatric brain tumors; the etiology of rare glioma subtypes, such as oligodendroglioma; and meningioma, which, although it is not uncommon, has only recently been registered systematically in the United States. There also is a pressing need for more researchers, especially junior investigators, to study brain tumor epidemiology. However, relatively poor funding for brain tumor research has made it difficult to encourage careers in this area. In this report, BTEC epidemiologists reviewed the group's consensus on the current state of scientific findings, and they present a consensus on research priorities to identify which important areas the science should move to address. PMID:18798534

Bondy, Melissa L; Scheurer, Michael E; Malmer, Beatrice; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Davis, Faith G; Il'yasova, Dora; Kruchko, Carol; McCarthy, Bridget J; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tihan, Tarik; Wiemels, Joseph L; Wrensch, Margaret; Buffler, Patricia A



Information Metrics in Genetic Epidemiology*  

PubMed Central

Information-theoretic metrics have been proposed for studying gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic epidemiology. Although these metrics have proven very promising, they are typically interpreted in the context of communications and information transmission, diminishing their tangibility for epidemiologists and statisticians. In this paper, we clarify the interpretation of information-theoretic metrics. In particular, we develop the methods so that their relation to the global properties of probability models is made clear and contrast them with log-linear models for multinomial data. Hopefully, a better understanding of their properties and probabilistic implications will promote their acceptance and correct usage in genetic epidemiology. Our novel development also suggests new approaches to model search and computation.

Tritchler, David L; Sucheston, Lara; Chanda, Pritam; Ramanathan, Murali



[Epidemiology of mental health care].  


Mental health care epidemiology seeks to investigate the practical situation of the health care system and services for individuals with mental disorders. In the past decades, mental health care structures in Germany were successively transformed from long-term inpatient treatment capacities to decentralized outpatient and day clinic services. Currently, the proportional relation between treatment facilities in different settings has been stabilized and the strategy of mental health care development focuses on innovative and integrative models of care provision. The aim is to integrate fragmented services by the introduction of network structures to overcome rigid sector boundaries. The need for health care services is associated with multiple factors such as population-based epidemiological data, usage behavior, and health politics. Due to scarce data and poor standards of care it is difficult to determine if current structures of mental health services cover the actual needs. Therefore, a substantial increase of mental health service research is needed. PMID:22371103

Jäger, M; Rössler, W



Epidemiology as a liberal art.  


Epidemiology has features that resemble those of the traditional liberal arts. This makes it fit both for inclusion in an undergraduate curriculum and as an example in medical school of the continuing value of a liberal education. As a "low-technology" science, epidemiology is readily accessible to nonspecialists. Because it is useful for taking a first look at a new problem, it is applicable to a broad range of interesting phenomena. Furthermore, it emphasizes method rather than arcane knowledge and illustrates the approaches to problems and the kinds of thinking that a liberal education should cultivate: the scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values. PMID:3807963

Fraser, D W



Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics

Aviles, L



Validation of Patient Recall of Doctor-diagno sed Heart Attack and Stroke: A Postal Questionnaire and Record Review Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have assessed the accuracy of patient recall of doctor-diagnosed heart attack and stroke on postal questionnaire, yet such data are widely used in epidemiologic studies. In the national prospective British Regional Heart Study of 7,735 men aged 40-59 years, based in general practice and followed up for a mean 13.8 years, a mailed questionnaire was sent to all

Mary K. Walker; Peter H. Whincup; A. Gerald Shaper; Lucy T. Lennon; Andrew G. Thomson


Contemporary trends in the epidemiology and management of cardiomyopathy and pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

Heart failure in sub?Saharan Africans is mainly due to non?ischaemic causes, such as hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The two endemic diseases that are major contributors to the clinical syndrome of heart failure in Africa are cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. The major forms of endemic cardiomyopathy are idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, peripartum cardiomyopathy and endomyocardial fibrosis. Endomyocardial fibrosis, which affects children, has the worst prognosis. Other cardiomyopathies have similar epidemiological characteristics to those of other populations in the world. HIV infection is associated with occurrence of HIV?associated cardiomyopathy in patients with advanced immunosuppression, and the rise in the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis. HIV?associated tuberculous pericarditis is characterised by larger pericardial effusion, a greater frequency of myopericarditis, and a higher mortality than in people without AIDS. Population?based studies on the epidemiology of heart failure, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis in Africans, and studies of new interventions to reduce mortality, particularly in endomyocardial fibrosis and tuberculous pericarditis, are needed.

Mayosi, Bongani M



Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews a number of aspects of the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, and the evidence relating to the major issues.\\u000a There is strong evidence for a rising epidemic of diabetes in many countries of the world, although the prevalence and incidence\\u000a of diabetes varies markedly among regions, countries within regions, and by ethnicity. Some of the increase in

Jonathan E. Shaw; Richard Sicree


Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic.

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.



Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health  

PubMed Central

In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research.

Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.



Selection bias in epidemiologic studies.  


Consideration of factors involved in the selection of subjects is essential for evaluating the validity of a putative etiologic association. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding selection bias; this framework integrates both epidemiologic and statistical considerations. Emphasis is given to specifying the conditions under which such bias is likely to occur, identifying the direction and magnitude of the bias, and illustrating how these features differ by type of study design. PMID:6971055

Kleinbaum, D G; Morgenstern, H; Kupper, L L



Ethical Aspects of Epidemiological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two quotes are about values and expectations, about perceived responsibilities, about community benefits and individual\\u000a rights in medical care and research, and reflect thereby compellingly the tensions, the paradoxes, the different views and\\u000a ethical aspects concerning biomedical research (Coughlin 2000). Epidemiology is part of the arena of biomedical research and\\u000a is particularly focussed on determinants of disease occurrences in

Hubert G. Leufkens; Johannes J. M. Delden


Climate change epidemiology: methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is now thought to be unequivocal, while its potential effects on global and public health cannot be ignored.\\u000a However, the complexities of the causal webs, the dynamics of the interactions and unpredictability mean that climate change\\u000a presents new challenges to epidemiology and magnifies existing methodological problems. This article reviews a number of such\\u000a challenges, including topics such as

Wei W. Xun; Aneire E. Khan; Edwin Michael; Paolo Vineis



Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.  


In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions. PMID:24406106

McNamara, Donald J



Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.



Heart to heart: cardiospheres for myocardial regeneration.  


Cardiac regenerative therapies seek to grow new myocardium after "irreversible" injury such as myocardial infarction. Various cell types and delivery techniques have been used in experimental models of human disease and clinical trials. When selecting a candidate stem cell type for clinical use, multiple factors need to be taken into consideration. The ability to regenerate myocardium without potentiating arrhythmogenesis is a critical property. Skeletal myoblasts engraft, differentiate, and are arrhythmogenic; in contrast, bone marrow-derived cells do not engraft long-term and have not been associated with excess arrhythmias. Neither cell type, however, achieves true myocardial regeneration. Recognition of the existence of cardiac stem cells and of the ability of mature myocytes to reenter the cell cycle and proliferate has motivated the development of new approaches to cardiac regenerative medicine. Cardiosphere-derived cells decrease scar mass and regenerate viable myocardium both in animal models and in the CADUCEUS (Cardiosphere-Derived Cells For Heart Regeneration After Myocardial Infarction) clinical trial. Although cardiosphere-derived cells fulfill the criteria for stem cells, their stemness appears not to mediate the therapeutic benefit; instead, indirect mechanisms lead to proliferation of the host myocardium. Being of endogenous origin, the newly grown heart muscle is electrically and mechanically well integrated with preexisting myocardial tissue. We hypothesize that cardiac arrhythmias are less likely to complicate cell therapy when the mechanisms of benefit involve secondary proliferation of endogenous myocardium. Conversely, arrhythmias will more likely bedevil therapeutic approaches (such as transplantation of skeletal myoblasts or pluripotent stem cells) that lead to exogenous grafts within the heart, with the degree of coupling and the extent of inhomogeneity being critical determinants of the net effect. PMID:22813578

Marbán, Eduardo; Cingolani, Eugenio



[Italian Network on Congestive Heart Failure: ten-year experience].  


IN-CHF is a multicenter registry, designed in 1995 to compile a large clinical database on the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of heart failure outpatients. Main objectives of IN-CHF registry were to provide cardiological centers with a software to collect data of outpatients during office visit, for educational purpose; and to enter local data into a national registry (IN-CHF registry), for scientific purpose. Entry into the database required a diagnosis of heart failure according to the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. The central coordinator of the project was the ANMCO Research Center. The Italian cardiological centers participating in the project are 142, they are well representing the entire country and from March 1995 to July 2005 collected data from 23 855 outpatients. The mean age of the patients was 65+/-13 years and 71.3% were men. Main etiologies were ischemic in 39.4%, hypertensive in 15.8 %, and due to dilated cardiomyopathy in 29%. More than half of the patients (55.3%) had a history of admission for heart failure within the last year; 25.8% of the patients were in NYHA class III-IV, 9.5% showed a heart rate > 100 bpm and 16.5% third heart sound. Left ventricular ejection fraction was severely depressed (< 30%) in 27.6% of the patients, while it was > 40% in 30.9%. Renal dysfunction was present in 3.6% of the patients (serum creatinine level > 2.5 mg/dl), pulmonary disease in 18.7%, diabetes in 16.8% and anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl) in 18.7%. A history of arterial hypertension was common (30.3%); 20.0% and 18.5% of the patients showed atrial fibrillation and left bundle branch block, respectively. Data from our registry provide important insights into clinical and epidemiological characteristics of heart failure outpatients followed in Italian cardiological centers. Starting from this article, every 3 months, the most relevant epidemiological data collected by the IN-CHF investigators will be published. PMID:17171992

Fabbri, Gianna; Gorini, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo P; Cacciatore, Giuseppe; Di Lenarda, Andrea



Review on depression and coronary heart disease.  


The impact of psychological factors on somatic disorders - and vice versa - and the involvement of biological mechanisms in psychic disorders have generated considerable interest in recent years, notably thanks to cutting-edge investigation techniques (immunohistochemistry, functional imaging, genetics, etc.). In the field of psychosomatics, coronary heart disease (CHD) is a frequent co-morbidity of mental disorders, particularly mood disorders. Indeed, there is a bidirectional relationship between CHD and mood disorders, with a strong co-occurrence of the two diseases accompanied by a reciprocal worsening of the prognosis for the two conditions. Various epidemiological studies have shown that depression is a psychic risk factor for CHD and that CHD is present in almost 30% of patients with affective disorders. In this review of the literature, we tackle the crucial question of the diagnosis of depression during myocardial infarction. This clinical approach is essential given the underevaluation of this psychic problem. Then, various psychological, biological and genetic arguments are presented in support of the hypothesis that various aetiological mechanisms of the two disorders are partly shared. We finally deal with the treatment of depression in the context of CHD with its pharmacological and psychological specificities. In conclusion, this review reiterates the need for a multidisciplinary approach, which is necessary to understand, diagnose and then treat this frequent co-morbid condition of heart disease and depression. PMID:23527914

Chauvet-Gélinier, Jean-Christophe; Trojak, Benoit; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Cottin, Yves; Bonin, Bernard



[Levosimendan in heart failure].  


Clinical trials investigating traditional inotropic agents in patients with heart failure demonstrated an increased mortality rate (odds ratio 1.50; IC=0.51-3.92), high incidence of discontinuation of infusion therapy (odds ratio 0.46; IC=0.083-2.29) due to major side effects and, most of all, a limited clinical benefit (odds ratio 0.75; IC=1.42-0.08). On this background a new class of inotropic drugs, the calcium-sensitisers, have been developed. The safety and efficacy of levosimendan (Simdax) has been recently demonstrated in trials (LIDO e RUSSLAN) in patients with heart failure due to ischemic and not ischemic disease. Twenty-six patients with decompensated heart failure of different etiology have been treated with 24 hour infusion of levosimendan. In this experience the levosimendan improved the clinical status and the left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:15303549

Scelsi, Laura; Campana, Carlo; Ghio, Stefano; Monti, Lorenzo; Opasich, Cristina; De Feo, Stefania; Cobelli, Franco; Orlandi, Mario; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Luigi



Atherosclerosis in transplant heart.  


Graft atherosclerosis in the transplant heart is essentially asymptomatic due to denervation of the transplant heart and also is rapidly progressive. After one year it is the major cause of transplant rejection. Histopathologically, graft atherosclerosis differs from the conventional atherosclerosis. Intra-vascular ultrasound and repeated coronary angiography help in its early diagnosis. Angioplasty and bypass graft surgery are not of much help. Preventive measures through dietary means to keep triglycerides under control and prophylactic use of calcium channel blocker, diltiazem are rewarding. Many patients with graft coronary atherosclerosis end up with retransplant. PMID:9251401

Sharada, B; Wasir, H S



Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. METHODS The disease model of IHD for the GBD 2010 Study included IHD death and 3 sequelae: myocardial infarction, heart failure, and angina pectoris. Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched for IHD epidemiology studies in GBD high-income and low- and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008 using a systematic protocol validated by regional IHD experts. Data from included studies were supplemented with unpublished data from selected high-quality surveillance and survey studies. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were incidence, prevalence, case fatality, and mortality. RESULTS Literature searches yielded 40,205 unique papers, of which 1,801 met initial screening criteria. Upon detailed review of full text papers, 137 published studies were included. Unpublished data were obtained from 24 additional studies. Data were sufficient for high-income regions, but missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS A systematic review for the GBD 2010 Study provided IHD epidemiology estimates for most world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IHD will require improved IHD surveillance programs in all world regions.

Moran, Andrew E.; Oliver, John T.; Mirzaie, Masoud; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Chilov, Marina; Anderson, Laurie; Morrison, Janina L.; Khan, Aayla; Zhang, Nasen; Haynes, Norrisa; Tran, Jackie; Murphy, Adrianna; DeGennaro, Vincent; Roth, Gregory; Zhao, Dong; Peer, Nasheeta; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Pogosova, Nana; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Mensah, George A.



Assessment of right heart function in the athlete's heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the heart of an athlete has been physiologically adapted by prolonged training. There are a large number\\u000a of echocardiographic studies which have focused on left ventricular wall thickness and dilatation, but there are few studies\\u000a concerning right heart function in the athlete's heart. The aim of this study was to assess right heart function in elite

Mustafa Kemal Erol; Sule Karakelleoglu



[Epidemiologic characterization of Brucellosis under modern conditions].  


The spread of brucella infection under modern conditions of cattle breeding were studied with the foci in the Rostov region taken as an example. The main epidemiological features and tendencies of epidemiological importance were established. To find out specific antigen in different environmental objects, the approbation of the enzyme immunoassay test systems was carried out and the possibility of their use at the institutions of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological inspection was shown. PMID:9700876

Batashev, V V; Uraleva, V S; Kuchin, V V; Karbyshev, G L; Kruglikov, V D; Usatkin, A V; Koreshkova, E A; Kondratenko, T A; Shvager, M M; Sherstneva, T A; Nosov, A M; Bratkova, T N



Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing.  


Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical records) may create a holistic picture of cardiac arrest in the community. PMID:24054508

Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo



Heart Disease without Coronary Plaque Buildup Linked to Heart Attack Risk  


... RSS Email Alerts Follow @HeartNews Making News on Learn More Heart disease without coronary plaque buildup linked to heart attack risk American Heart Association Meeting Report Abstract ...


Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).


Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)



Dietary Factors and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. A variety of dietary components and patterns have been suggested to decrease the risk of CHD. The current review examines the epidemiological evidence lending support to beneficial effects of dietary factors on CHD risk. The current literature strongly supports the notion that Mediterranean diet, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, flavonoids and polyphenols, dietary fiber, and whole grains confer protection against CHD. Overall, there is no evidence that vitamin intake reduces the risk of incident CHD and data on the role of garlic in CHD prevention are equivocal.

Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djousse, Luc



[Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].  


Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the formulation of causal hypotheses, which will be a basis for all methodological choices. Beyond this step, statistical analysis tools recently developed offer new possibilities to delineate complex relationships, in particular in life course epidemiology. PMID:24388738

Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R



FastStats: Heart Disease  


... Data Related Links Accessibility NCHS Home FastStats Home Heart Disease (Data are for the U.S.) Morbidity Number of noninstitutionalized adults with diagnosed heart disease: 26.6 million Percent of noninstitutionalized adults with ...


Army Heart Monitor -- Model Iv.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model IV of the Army Heart Monitor is an electronic device that monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG); sounds an alarm on diagnosing a high or low heart rate, excess electrical noise, cardiac arrest, or ventricular fibrillation; and displays the diagnosis ...

C. W. Ragsdale



Panic Attack or Heart Attack?  


... you think you might be pregnant. learn more Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart uses strong magnets to detect energy signals from your heart muscle. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a variation of this test, ...


Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery  


... Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to develop guidelines on the management of ...


Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack  


... Update) A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ( ...


Cholesterol, Diet, and Heart Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video identifies three primary factors that can increase the risk of having heart attacks: smoking, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol levels. Dr. Byran Brewer, chief of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, describes the ways that...



Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... one cause of death among women. And the risk of having a heart attack increases with age, especially after menopause. So it's essential that women become more aware of their heart health. JOAN HAMILTON: When we go to parties, we ...


How Is Heart Block Treated?  


... second-degree heart block, you may need a pacemaker . A pacemaker is a small device that's placed under the ... third-degree heart block, you will need a pacemaker. In an emergency, a temporary pacemaker might be ...


Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge  


... Update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ...


Healthy Heart Handbook for Women  


... after physical activity. — 97 — Pay attention to warning signals. Although physical activity can strengthen your heart, some ... of activity may worsen existing heart problems. Warning signals include sudden dizziness, cold sweat, paleness, fainting, or ...


Heart Transplantation (Beyond the Basics)  


... donor heart — To ensure that donor hearts are distributed fairly, an organization known as UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) has created a system. This system spells out rules that consider time ...


Modeling the Heart - Figure 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure describes the first analysis of potassium channel currents in the heart and their incorporation into a heart cell model, and sodium and potassium conductance changes computed from the first biophysically detailed model of cardiac cells.

Denis Noble (Oxford University Department of Physiology)



Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

Weller, R.E.



Epidemiology of youth sports concussion.  


The overall prevalence of concussion is high school sports is unknown. In general, concussions in this age range occur much more frequently in games than in practice. Also for sports in which both sexes participate, reported concussion rates are higher for female than male high school athletes. Recent data show that the time required for return to play and resolution of symptoms is similar for women and men. Very little is known about the epidemiology of concussions in middle school-aged athletes and younger children. PMID:22050936

Jinguji, Thomas M; Krabak, Brian J; Satchell, Emma K



Some aspects of cancer epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

Lilienfeld, A.M.



Epidemiology Visualized: The Prosecutor's Fallacy.  


The "prosecutor's fallacy" (the assumption that Pr [probability] (A|B) = Pr (B|A)) arises often in epidemiology but is often unrecognized as such, in part because investigators do not have strong intuitions about what the fallacy means. Here, we help inform such intuitions and remind investigators of this fallacy by using visualizations. In figures, we demonstrate the prosecutor's fallacy, as well as show conditions under which Pr (A|B) can be assumed to be equal to Pr (B|A). Visualizations can help build intuition around statistical concepts such as the prosecutor's fallacy and should be more widely considered as teaching tools. PMID:24607595

Westreich, Daniel; Iliinsky, Noah



Be Still My Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda


Heart Health: Your Choice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet is for children ages 11 to 14 with high blood cholesterol. Using a comic book approach and age appropriate language the booklet provides information on the relationship of high blood cholesterol to heart disease and how choosing foods low in s...



Imidapril in heart failure.  


Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve the prognosis in mild, moderate and severe heart failure, as well as preventing the onset of heart failure in patients with chronic asymptomatic left-ventricular dysfunction and in those with reduced ejection fraction after myocardial infarction (MI). Imidapril is a long-acting ACE inhibitor that is rapidly converted in the liver to its active metabolite, imidaprilat. Maximum plasma concentrations of imidapril and imidaprilat are achieved after 2 and 5-6 hours, respectively, with corresponding elimination half-lives of 1.1-2.5 and 10-19 hours. Imidapril is used in the treatment of hypertension, chronic heart failure, acute MI and diabetic nephropathy. In patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure, imidapril 10 mg once-daily increased exercise time and physical working capacity, decreased plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide levels and reduced blood pressure. It also improved left ventricular ejection fraction, being significantly more effective than bisoprolol, in patients with acute MI. Imidapril is well tolerated and preliminary studies suggest it has an advantage over captopril and enalapril in terms of a lower incidence of cough. In conclusion, imidapril is a well-investigated versatile ACE inhibitor for the treatment of a range of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17094051

Dolezal, Tomas



Heart transplant - series (image)  


... common (corneas and kidneys are the most common) transplant operations in the U.S. (over 1,500 cases per year). A healthy heart is obtained from a donor who has suffered brain death but remains on life-support. The healthy ...


Gum and Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scientists have long noticed a connection between gum disease and heart disease. Now, they've found a key piece of the puzzle. This science update examines what scientists have found linking the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery.

Science Update;



Polish artificial heart program.  


Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika



Postconditioning the Human Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In animal models, brief periods of ischemia performed just at the time of reperfusion can reduce infarct size, a phenomenon called postconditioning. In this prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter study, we investigated whether postconditioning may protect the human heart during coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results—Thirty patients, submitted to coronary angioplasty for ongoing acute myocardial infarction, contributed to

Patrick Staat; Gilles Rioufol; Christophe Piot; Yves Cottin; Thien Tri Cung; Isabelle L'Huillier; Jean-François Aupetit; Eric Bonnefoy; Gérard Finet; Xavier André-Fouët; Michel Ovize




EPA Science Inventory

Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke....


?-Blockade in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both experimental and clinical observation suggest that activation of the sympathetic nervous system exerts an important deleterious effect in patients with chronic heart failure. The precise mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been defined, but prolonged exposure to norepinephrine is associated with a variety of adverse physiologic and biochemical\\/molecular actions. Identification of these deleterious pathways has helped to explain

Milton Packer



Teaching from the Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to illustrate learning for the whole person, including attending to spiritual, biological, intellectual, and emotional dimensions. It is expected that learners will discover the meaning of learning from the heart and teachers will learn how to develop their own such learning and then to explore ways that they can teach from…

Apps, Jerold W.


Picturing the Heart  


... Glossary Picturing the Heart Government Resources – Science Information and services on the web from government agencies, ... and educational organizations. Gateway to government science information and research results. PubMed Central Free full-text ...


Modeling the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Models of the heart have been developed since 1960, starting with the discovery and modeling of potassium channels. The first models of calcium balance were made in the 1980s and have now reached a high degree of physiological detail. During the 1990s, these cell models were incorporated into anatomically detailed tissue and organ models.

Denis Noble (Oxford University Department of Physiology)



Heart Truth for Latinas  


... 1-888-220-5446 NIH Publication No. 07-5065 Originally printed September 2003 Revised December 2007 ® , ™ The Heart Truth , its logo and The Red Dress are trademarks of HHS. N O R M A ”I have some risk factors for ...


Determinants of heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to examine clinical determinants of heart rate variability and to report normative reference values for eight heart rate variability measures.Background. Although the clinical implications of heart rate variability have been described, clinical determinants and normative values of heart rate variability measures have not been studied systematically in a large community-based population.Methods. The first 2 h of

Hisako Tsuji; Ferdinand J. Venditti; Emily S. Manders; Jane C. Evans; Martin G. Larson; Charles L. Feldman; Daniel Levy



The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.



Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a relatively rare malignancy, occurring in the United States (US) at approximately 1\\/20th the rate\\u000a of lung cancer, and 1\\/7th the rate of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2006 [1]. Yet, it has inspired a high degree of scientific interest\\u000a because of the heterogeneity of its clinical presentation and behavior, with some aspects characteristic of malignancy but\\u000a others

Sally L. Glaser; Ellen T. Chang; Christina A. Clarke; Theresa H. Keegan



NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Vollmer-Buhl, Brian



What Are the Risks of Heart Transplant?  


... on Twitter. What Are the Risks of a Heart Transplant? Although heart transplant surgery is a life-saving measure, it has ... of these risks. The risks of having a heart transplant include: Failure of the donor heart Complications from ...


What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  


... NHLBI on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... are not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...


Sustained Workouts May Help Aging Hearts  


... Help Aging Hearts Researchers found improvements in seniors' 'heart rate variability' that might reduce heart attack risk (*this news ... physical activity the participants did, the better their heart rate variability, according to the findings appearing May 5 in ...


Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring during Labor  


... performed? • What happens if the fetal heart rate pattern is abnormal? • Glossary Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring During ... broken). What happens if the fetal heart rate pattern is abnormal? Abnormal fetal heart rate patterns do ...


When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant  


... Atrial Septal Defect Congenital Heart Defects Heart and Circulatory System When Your Baby Is Born With a Health ... Heart Disease Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System Cardiac Catheterization What's It Like to Have Surgery? ...


Effect of Spironolactone on ventricular arrhythmias in congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated or to ischemic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have shown an important increase in the high mortality of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) despite optimal medical management. Ventricular arrhythmia was recognized as the most common cause of death in this population. Electrolyte imbalance, myocardial fibrosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and inappropriate neurohumoral activation are presumed responsible for sudden cardiac death. In this study, we focused on

Felix J. A Ramires; Antonio Mansur; Otavio Coelho; Mario Maranhão; Cesar J Gruppi; Charles Mady; José A. F Ramires



Influence of milk source on serum lipids and lipoproteins during the first year of life, Bogalusa Heart Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiological study of coronary heart disease risk factor variables in a cohort of 440 infants from birth to age 4 was conducted in Bogalusa, LA. This report evaluates differences in serum lipids and lipoproteins and dietary intakes of infants fed various milk or formula types during the 1st year of life. There were significant positive correlations between serum total

Rosanne P. Farris; M. S. Hyg; Gail C. Frank; Larry S. Webber; Sathanur R. Srinivasan; Gerald S. Berenson


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS) refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch). Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision relative to treatment, and long-term prognosis as information on long-term survival and quality of life for those born with the syndrome is limited.

Connor, Jean Anne; Thiagarajan, Ravi




Microsoft Academic Search

An increased risk of death from heart attack has been identified in coal miners in the United States. The prevalence of coronary heart disease and the effect on the mortality rate of Australian coal miners has not been previously investigated. This project examined the question as to whether there is an increased risk of coronary heart disease in the coal

Carmel Bofinger; Bruce Ham


Current Trends in Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of cyclosporin A in the early 1980s, heart transplantation was transformed from an experimental procedure into a successful therapeutic option for patients with end-stage heart disease. Since then, constant progress has extended the benefits of the procedure to an increasing number of patients. Despite all this progress, heart transplantation is not an option that can be offered

Malek G. Massad



Living with Coronary Heart Disease  


... 11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 05/16/2012 Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 Coronary Heart Disease Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies ...


Heart Disease and African Americans  


... in the these categories: Content Index > Data/Statistics > Data by Health Topic > Heart Disease Content Index > Health Topics > Heart Disease > Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are 40 percent more likely to have high blood pressure, they are half as likely than ...


Beta blockers in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for beta blockade in heart failure is now well established. Heart failure mortality, which is predicted by neurohormonal activation, remains high despite modern treatment, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, and additional neurohormonal blockade has further therapeutic potential. Previous clinical trial experience in heart failure, most of which has been in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy, indicates consistent improvement in

Norman Sharpe



Multivariable analysis of heart rate recovery after cycle ergometry in heart failure: Exercise in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the association between impairment in heart rate recovery (HRrec) after cycle ergometry and prognostic markers in patients with heart failure (HF) compared with healthy controls.

Melissa Jehn; Martin Halle; Tibor Schuster; Henner Hanssen; Friedrich Koehler; Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss



The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  


A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L



Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers.

Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.



Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R



Epidemiology of yaws: an update.  


Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol



Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication.

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitja, Oriol



Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom  

PubMed Central

Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions.

Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu



Social epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom.  


Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu



Increased heteroscedasticity of heart rate in fatal heart failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy human heart rate is known to fluctuate in a highly complex manner, displaying complexity characteristics such as those shared by physical systems at a critical state. It is, however, widely believed that chronic heart failure reduces this complexity and that heart rate data from chronic-heart-failure patients can be used for the validation of complexity measures and paradigms applicable both to heart rate and more generally to assess any system's complexity. Here, we counter the above belief, showing an increase in fluctuations and in complexity of heart rate in chronic-heart-failure patients, in particular those at risk of death. This is supported by evidence of increased non-Gaussianity and heteroscedasticity resulting from the emergence of a characteristic correlation scale in the magnitude correlation landscape.

Struzik, Z. R.; Kiyono, K.; Hayano, J.; Watanabe, E.; Yamamoto, Y.



What do epidemiologic findings tell us about health effects of environmental aerosols?  


In the last 10 years there has been an abundance of new epidemiological studies on health effects of particulate air pollution. The overall evidence suggests that fine particulate pollution can be an important risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease. Long-term, repeated exposure to fine particulate air pollution may increase the risk of chronic respiratory disease and the risk of cardiopulmonary mortality. Short-term exposures exacerbate existing cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and increase the risk of becoming symptomatic, requiring medical attention, or even dying. This paper outlines the results of the basic epidemiologic studies and briefly reviews and discusses recent studies that have looked at specific physiologic health endpoints in addition to lung function. A few recent, mostly exploratory pilot studies, have observed particulate pollution associations with blood plasma viscosity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and indicators of bone marrow stimulation. A systemic response to particulate-related pulmonary inflammation remains somewhat speculative. The epidemiologic evidence, nevertheless, seems consistent with the hypothesis that particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, cytokine release, and altered cardiac autonomic function may be part of the pathophysiological mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. PMID:11262440

Pope, C A



Heart failure in elderly patients.  


Several structural and functional changes contribute to heart failure in elderly patients: an age dependent increase in sympathetic nervous activity, left ventricular wall diameter, myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis, micro- and macrovascular coronary sclerosis, aortic stiffness. As a consequence, diastolic, but also systolic heart failure is a frequent finding in elderly patients. The relation of systolic to diastolic heart failure is clearly shifted towards diastolic heart failure in elderly patients, especially in women. Mortality is increased with systolic dysfunction in elderly patients compared to younger heart failure patients. Mortality is less with diastolic dysfunction, but still higher compared to elderly without heart failure. In addition, morbidity is increased both with diastolic and systolic heart failure in elderly patients. Cognitive dysfunction is a frequent finding. After exclusion of specific cardiac and extracardiac reasons for dyspnoea, drug therapy of systolic heart failure in elderly is similar to younger patients. However, the physiological decrease of renal function and the more frequent renal impairment in elderly patients with heart failure needs to be considered. Guideline recommendations for drug therapy are based in most cases on studies conducted in younger systolic heart failure patients. A recent meta-analysis of randomized beta-blocker trials suggests improved survival with beta-blockers even in the elderly subgroup. Guidelines for the treatment of diastolic heart failure are available only recently. The term heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been proposed instead of diastolic heart failure. Given the increased morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with heart failure and normal LVEF, therapy should include general measures, such as physical activity, weight reduction, volume restriction. Specific therapy includes optimal control of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diuretics, nitrates, and frequency-control. However, randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of specific therapies in heart failure with normal LVEF are still missing. PMID:16621389

Spiecker, Martin



16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Commercial...FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive...



16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Commercial...FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive...




EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...



EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...


Heart to Heart: Using Heart Rate Telemetry to Meet Physical Education Outcomes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a foundation for establishing measurable physical education outcomes, demonstrating how heart rate telemetry can help measure and achieve such outcomes. After explaining heart rate telemetry function, the article examines student and teacher outcomes that could be included in school physical education outcomes and achieved using heart

Deal, Tami Benham; Deal, Laurence O.



Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure.

Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical epidemiology, the what, was introduced by John Paul in 1938 as a new basic science for preventive medicine. Its definition subsequently took on a more bedside tone, but continues to be adapted to the needs of its practitioners. Clinical epidemiology, the who, centers on Alvan Feinstein and the way that he led the field and nurtured so many of

David L. Sackett



Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas



Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy



Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly trans- ferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent

Hamish I. McCallum; Armand Kuris; C. Drew Harvell; Kevin. D. Lafferty; Garriet W. Smith; James Porter



Cholesterol and Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hardly limited to being in the news this week, cholesterol and the role it plays in heart disease has emerged again. Science, while seeking to describe and dissect the pros and cons of LDL and HDL, has yet to produce a truly definitive answer to the many uncertainties regarding cholesterol. Yet, in the midst of this seemingly uncertain topic, research has provided a whole host of recommendations and definitive lifestyle changes that do lead to lower blood cholesterol, reduced risk of heart disease, and, the true goal, better overall wellness. The sites selected here not only introduce recent media coverage of the topic but this In the News issue pulls back and offers sites with good general information and suggestions about cholesterol and trans fats as well as offering some heart healthy recipes and exercise ideas.The first link leads to a recent _New York Times_ article by Gina Kolata which offers a look at new research into the true benefits of "good cholesterol" or HDL. The article cites two recent studies that question how much HDL is good and whether, indeed, it is always a good thing. (Remember: Most NY Times articles are free to registered users, which is also free, but you may be asked to sign up if you haven't yet done so). The second link leads to a recent NPR feature by Richard Knox which examines how a significant lowering of cholesterol affects those with risk of heart disease. Third, traditionally a disease of adults, high cholesterol and heart disease often begins with eating and exercise habits adopted as a child. In fact, heart disease problems can even manifest themselves then, too. This CBS story on Children and Heart Disease offers a brief look at the topic. The fourth site from the NIH Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute is a great primer to the topic of high blood cholesterol, breaking down the language it offers information about causes, symptoms, and treatments. The fifth site, from University of Maryland, says it all with it's title: Trans Fats 101. The site offers a great introduction to the issue of trans fats and their relationship to cholesterol. A great addition to the site is the page on daily menu ideas. While not detailed, it offers good ideas. Also providing helpful ideas is the sixth site from the American College of Sports Medicine. This great site offers detailed information about active aging and how to bring fitness into your everyday life. Finally, if you're looking for tangible eating advice, check out Dr. Zorba Paster's Hearth Healthy Recipes. Zorba, a family physician in Madison, Wisconsin, blends knowledge of eastern and western medicine as part of a weekly call-in show on Wisconsin Public Radio and syndicated nationally. Each week, several recipes are offered -- some of which are catalogued at this site. Included currently are minted turkey meatballs with pine nuts and winter harvest pork tenderloin.


Heart Imaging System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.



Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease: A Risk Factor for the Global Epidemic  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in the United States and the world. In this we will paper focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, review the mechanisms of atherogenesis in diabetics, the impact of hypertension and the treatment goals in diabetics, the guidelines for screening, and review the epidemiologic consequences of diabetes and heart disease on a global scale. The underlying premise to consider diabetes a cardiovascular disease equivalent will be explored as well as the recommendations for screening and cardiac testing for asymptomatic diabetic patients.

Chiha, Maguy; Njeim, Mario; Chedrawy, Edgar G.



Teaching Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines and Assessing Heart Failure Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the effectiveness of the heart failure screening form in teaching heart failure treatment guidelines and prompting students to evaluate patients' medications to initiate patient education and provider intervention. Design Between 2002 and 2009, 123 students used the heart failure screeing form during an elective cardiology advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). A subset of 41 students were also assessed for change in heart failure knowledge and confidence pre- and post-APPE. Assessment A total of 1,114 heart failure patients were screened and assessed using the tool with a mean age of 71.9 ± 12.9 years. Of those, 535 (48%) patients met screening criteria and participated in heart failure education. From 2008 through 2009, there were 45 heart failure interventions with a 60% provider acceptance rate. Significant improvements were made in heart failure knowledge and in all areas of confidence at the end of the APPE for the 41 students assessed. Discussion The heart failure screening form is an effective tool to teach evidence-based medicine and to prompt students to initiate provider intervention and patient education. Its use is associated with significant increases in knowledge and confidence in heart failure medication therapy management in fourth-year pharmacy students.

Lenz, Thomas L.; Destache, Christopher J.



FOREWORD: Proceedings of the IVC-17/ICSS-13 and ICN+T 2007 Congress (2-6 July 2007, Stockholm, Sweden)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined congress of 17th International Vacuum Congress (IVC-17), 13th International Conference on Surface Science (ICSS-13) and the International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology 2007 (ICN+T 2007), was held 2-6 July 2007 in Stockholm, Sweden. The Congress was organised by the Swedish Vacuum Society, on commission from the International Union for Vacuum Science, Technique, and Applications (IUVSTA). The main scientific topics of the congress were:

  • Surface Science
  • Nanometer Science
  • Applied Surface Science
  • Thin Films
  • Electronic Materials
  • Advanced Surface Engineering
  • Plasma Science and Technology
  • Vacuum Science
  • In addition, special sessions were held on the topics: low-temperature scanning probe microscopy, advanced light sources, fusion and ITER, education in nano and vacuum based science, and nanowires. The congress had close to 2000 participants from 58 countries, more than 700 oral presentations (including 138 invited) and more than 1000 poster presentations. In these proceedings from the Congress, 358 presentations are represented. We would like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings and to the Congress. We would also like to thank all reviewers for their important work. Lars S O Johansson, Jesper N Andersen, Mats Göthelid, Ulf Helmersson, Lars Montelius, Marek Rubel, Janez Setina and Lars-Erik Wernersson Editors

    Johansson, Lars S. O.; Andersen, Jesper N.; Göthelid, Mats; Helmersson, Ulf; Montelius, Lars; Rubel, Marek; Setina, Janez; Wernersson, Lars-Erik



    Is BDE-175 an important enough component of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether mixtures to be listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention?  


    Commercial octabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, containing hexabromodiphenyl ethers and heptabromodiphenyl ethers were listed in Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on May 2009 (Fourth Conference of the Parties) (UNEP, 2009a). Four compounds are specifically mentioned: 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,2',3,3',4,5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-175), and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-183). Presumably they were identified as key components of commercial mixtures and found to be present in environmental samples. However, since BDE-175 and BDE-183 co-elute on common HRGC columns, the presence of BDE-175 as an important component in technical octa-BDE mixtures has not been illustrated. The successful HRGC/LRMS separation of a 1:1 mixture of BDE-175 and BDE-183, as well as (1)H NMR analysis of technical material, has allowed us to confirm that this congener is not present in technical products (e.g. Great Lakes DE-79™) in quantifiable amounts. PMID:21122891

    Konstantinov, Alexandre; Chittim, Brock; Potter, David; Klein, Jeffery; Riddell, Nicole; McCrindle, Robert



    Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region  

    SciTech Connect

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

    Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail:



    Straight from the Heart  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Every adult who reads to a child has seen what happens when a book speaks. For a time, the book becomes the child's beloved friend. It is asked for repeatedly and learned by heart. But books do more than speak to a child. Children use books to speak to adults. If one wants to understand a child's deepest emotions, take a look at the books they…

    Jonell, Lynne



    Schwannoma of the Heart  

    PubMed Central

    We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who complained of chest pain at rest. A mass was detected adjacent to her left atrium. The mass was completely excised, and a pathologic examination revealed it to be a schwannoma. Schwannomas are tumors that originate in the nerve sheath and are rarely detected in the heart. Here, we describe a rare case of primary schwannoma of the left atrium.

    Hwang, Su Kyung



    Genetics and heart disease.  


    Production of genome sequence has recently skyrocketed with many advances in the understanding and etiology of certain diseases. Researchers have localized a region of the human genome that plays a role in determining a persons susceptibility to myocardial infarction. A new apolipoprotein gene that influences triglyceride levels in humans is also described. A recent study from Finland showed that certain families are likely to carry a genetic form of insulin resistance syndrome that predisposes them to accelerated atherosclerosis. Researchers identified 3 mutations in the gene producing a protein called metavinculin, which appears to be linked to abnormalities in cellular structures and function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Gene therapy has emerged as a genuine therapeutic option with the potential to alter the manner in which cardiologists manage the 2 most common cardiac disorders--coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. Along with angiogenesis and gene therapy, cell transplantation is one of the newest treatment modalities proposed to improve the outcome of patients with cardiac failure. Two major advances in stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease were published recently. They demonstrate how bone marrow stem cells can regenerate myocardium in the infarct area of a mouse heart. A German Cardiologist has for the first time successfully transplanted a patients own stem cells in an infracted area in the heart. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the genetic associations with cardiac diseases. PMID:12590266

    Chamsi Pasha, Hassan



    Frailty in heart failure.  


    Considering the increasing age of individuals affected with heart failure (HF), a specific approach to their treatment is required, with more attention paid to geriatric conditions such as poor mobility, multiple disabilities, and cognitive impairment. Frailty is a distinct biological syndrome reflecting decreased physiologic reserve and resistance to stressors. It was shown to occur frequently in patients with heart failure, with the prevalence ranging from 15 to 74 %, depending on the studied population and the method of assessment. We reviewed literature data on the influence of frailty, skeletal abnormalities, comorbidities and geriatric condition on diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in elderly patients with HF. Identification of frailty in patients with HF is important from the clinical point of view, as this condition exerts unfavorable effects on the course of heart failure. Frailty contributes to a higher frequency of visits to emergency departments, hospitalizations, and mortality in patients with HF. Exercise may improve mobility, and nursing support can be implemented to help the patients adhere to medications. Therefore, frail patients should be diagnosed and treated according to available guidelines, and successfully educated about their condition. PMID:24733407

    Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Loboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Szel?g, Przemys?aw; Jankowska-Pola?ska, Beata; Loboz-Grudzie?, Krystyna



    Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology.  

    PubMed Central

    This paper deals with the area of environmental epidemiology involving measurement of exposure and dose, health outcomes, and important confounding and modifying variables (including genotype and psychosocial factors). Using examples, we illustrate strategies for increasing the accuracy of exposure and dose measurement that include dosimetry algorithms, pharmacokinetic models, biologic markers, and use of multiple measures. Some limitations of these methods are described and suggestions are made about where formal evaluation might be helpful. We go on to discuss methods for assessing the inaccuracies in exposure or dose measurements, including sensitivity analysis and validation studies. In relation to measurement of health outcomes, we discuss some definitional issues and cover, among other topics, biologic effect markers and other early indicators of disease. Because measurement error in covariates is also important, we consider the problems in measurement of common confounders and effect modifiers. Finally, we cite some general methodologic research needs.

    Hatch, M; Thomas, D



    Atrial fibrillation: Current knowledge and future directions in epidemiology and genomics  

    PubMed Central

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is of public health importance and profoundly increases morbidity, mortality and health-related expenditures. Morbidities include the increased risks of cardiovascular outcomes such as heart failure and stroke, and the deleterious effects on quality of life, functional status and cognition. The clinical epidemiology of AF, its risk factors and outcomes, have been extensively investigated. Genetic advances over the last decade have facilitated the identification of mutations and common polymorphisms associated with AF. Metabolomics, proteomics and other “omics” technologies have only recently been applied to the study of AF, and have not yet been systematically investigated. Systems biology approaches, while still in their infancy, offer the promise of providing novel insights into pathways influencing AF risk. In the present review, we address the current state of the epidemiology and genomics of AF. We seek to emphasize how epidemiology and “omic” advances will contribute towards a systems biology approach that will help to unravel the pathogenesis, risk stratification, and novel targets for AF therapies. Our purpose is to articulate questions and challenges that hinge on integrating novel scientific advances in the epidemiology and genomics of AF. As a reference we have provided a glossary in the inset box.

    Magnani, Jared W.; Rienstra, Michiel; Lin, Honghuang; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; McManus, David D.; Dupuis, Josee; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.



    Do Neonatal Mouse Hearts Regenerate following Heart Apex Resection?  

    PubMed Central

    Summary The mammalian heart has generally been considered nonregenerative, but recent progress suggests that neonatal mouse hearts have a genuine capacity to regenerate following apex resection (AR). However, in this study, we performed AR or sham surgery on 400 neonatal mice from inbred and outbred strains and found no evidence of complete regeneration. Ideally, new functional cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells should be formed in the necrotic area of the damaged heart. Here, damaged hearts were 9.8% shorter and weighed 14% less than sham controls. In addition, the resection border contained a massive fibrotic scar mainly composed of nonmyocytes and collagen disposition. Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in the number of proliferating cardiomyocytes in AR hearts. Our results thus question the usefulness of the AR model for identifying molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration of the adult heart after damage.

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Ganesalingam, Suganya; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Sheikh, S?ren Paludan



    Effects of bisoprolol on heart rate variability in heart failure  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) provides a noninvasive index of autonomic nervous system activity. HRV has been shown to be reduced in heart failure. Preliminary data indicate that ? blockers improve clinical status in patients with heart failure, but HRV improvement remains to be demonstrated. Fifty-four patients from the randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study were included in

    Francoise Pousset; Xavier Copie; Philippe Lechat; Patrice Jaillon; Jean-Pierre Boissel; Martin Hetzel; Frédéric Fillette; Willem Remme; Louis Guize; Jean-Yves Le Heuzey



    Nonlinear ARX modeling of heart diseases based on heart sounds  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper proposed the heart disease modeling system based on heart sounds. The model uses ARX model as regression vector and Neural Network as nonlinear model structures. The number of hidden neurons was optimised by minimizing the criterion of NSSE, fit and FPE criterion. The model architecture of 2-4-1 perfectly fits the original heart sound signals with average R-square of

    Noraishah Shamsuddin; Mohd. Nasir Taib



    Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents  

    PubMed Central

    Background In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. Methods The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Results Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (??=?0.005, p?=?0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (??=??0.207, p?=?0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve?=?0.611?±?0.039 [0.534 – 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve?=?0.618?±?0.044 [0.531 – 0.705]). Conclusion High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate.



    Plant-based diets and control of lipids and coronary heart disease risk  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Dietary factors have an important role in influencing the\\u000a outcome of this disease. Dietary guidelines around the world now recommend increased consumption of plant foods for the prevention\\u000a of CHD. Epidemiologic and human intervention studies have documented an inverse relationship between the consumption of plant-based\\u000a diets and deaths attributed

    Venket Rao; Amir Al-Weshahy



    Patterns and costs of hospital care for coronary heart disease related and not related to diabetes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ObjectiveTo describe the epidemiology and costs of coronary heart disease (CHD) requiring hospital admission, with particular reference to diabetes.SettingThe former South Glamorgan Health Authority, South Wales.MethodsRoutine hospital activity data were record linked and all diabetic and non-diabetic individuals over a four year period (1991–95) were identified. A cost weight was included for each admission based on diagnosis related groups.ResultsThere were

    C J Currie; C L Morgan; J R Peters



    Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease among individuals with type 2 diabetes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The epidemiologic evidence on the association between moderate alcohol intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), biological\\u000a mechanisms for this association, and potential hazards of alcohol intake in individuals with type 2 diabetes is reviewed here.\\u000a Three prospective cohort studies have examined the association between alcohol consumption and risk of CHD among diabetics.\\u000a The results indicated significant risk reductions,

    Mihaela Tanasescu; Frank B. Hu



    Sudden cardiac death in Chagas' heart disease in the contemporary era  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This article reviews epidemiology, clinical–morphological aspects, and primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease in the current era. Chagas' disease patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias are at risk of sudden cardiac death. No evidence-based support is available for guiding prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients with this condition. Therefore, measurements for

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Augusto Cardinalli-Neto



    The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology  

    PubMed Central

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized.

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N



    C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: All Said--Is Not It?  

    PubMed Central

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been the subject of intensive investigations over the last decades. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between moderately elevated CRP levels and incident CHD whereas genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms associated with elevated CRP levels do not increase the risk of ischemic vascular disease, suggesting that CRP might be a bystander rather than a causal factor in the progress of atherosclerosis. Beside all those epidemiological and genetic studies, the experimental investigations also try to reveal the role of CRP in the progress of atherosclerosis. This review will highlight the complex results of genomic, epidemiological, and experimental studies on CRP and will show why further studies investigating the relationship between CRP and atherosclerosis might be needed.

    Strang, Frederik; Schunkert, Heribert




    SciTech Connect

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times/wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.




    Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs  

    SciTech Connect

    The Committee on DoE Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs was originally established in response to the needs of the Office of Health and Envirorunental Research, Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DoE). Following a reorganization of DoE health related programs in 1990, the committee now advises the Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance which is under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. These administrative changes have not altered the committee concerns but have served to focus the committee's attention on helping DoE plan for an effective system of worker health surveillance as well as an epidemiologic research program.

    Mahlum, D.D.



    Lycopene, atherosclerosis, and coronary heart disease.  


    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing carotenoids have been of interest because of their potential health benefit against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Interest particularly in lycopene is growing rapidly following the recent publication of epidemiological studies that have associated high lycopene levels with reductions in CVD incidence. Two studies were conducted. In the first one, we examined the role of lycopene as a risk-lowering factor with regard to acute coronary events and stroke in the prospective Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) Study. The subjects were 725 middle-aged men free of coronary heart disease and stroke at the study baseline. In a Cox's proportional hazards' model adjusting for covariates, men in the lowest quartile of serum levels of lycopene had a 3.3-fold (P < 0.001) risk of the acute coronary event or stroke as compared with others. In the second study, we assessed the association between plasma concentration of lycopene and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery wall (CCA-IMT) in a cross-sectional analysis of the Antioxidant Supplementation in the Atherosclerosis Prevention (ASAP) study data in 520 asymptomatic men and women. In a covariance analysis adjusting for common cardiovascular risk factors, low plasma levels of lycopene were associated with an 18% increase of IMT in men as compared with men in whom plasma levels were higher than median (P = 0.003 for difference). In women, the difference did not remain significant after the adjustments. On the basis of these works, it is evident that the circulating levels of lycopene play some role with regard to cardiovascular health in Finland, at least in men. We conclude that circulating levels of lycopene, a biomarker of tomato-rich food, may play a role in early stages of atherogenesis and may have clinical and public health relevance. PMID:12424332

    Rissanen, Tiina; Voutilainen, Sari; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Salonen, Jukka T



    Heart rate variability: a review  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the\\u000a heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous\\u000a systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions.\\u000a Heart rate (HR) is

    U. Rajendra Acharya; Paul K. Joseph; N. Kannathal; Choo Min Lim; Jasjit S. Suri



    [Ischaemic heart disease].  


    In the year 2011, cardiovascular diseases were responsible of 31.2% of total deaths in Spain. The absolute number of cases of acute coronary syndrome in this year will be approximately 115,752 cases (95%CI: 114,822-116,687). The prevalence of stable angina in the population aged 25-74 years is 2.6% in men and 3.5% in women. Cardiovascular diseases were in the year 2011 the first cause of hospitalizations representing 14.1% of the total hospitalizations. Diagnose of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction were responsible of 110,950 and 50,064 hospitalizations, respectively. In the year 2003, the hospitalization rate was 314 while in the year 2011 was 237 per 100,000, a reduction of 24.4%. The average cost of hospitalization due to ischaemic heart disease in 1997 was 3,093.7euros while in the year 2011 was 7,028.71euros. Cardiovascular mortality rates have decreased from 2007 to 2011, showing a relative reduction of 7% in women and 8% in men. With regard to myocardial infarction, it was observed a relative reduction of 17% in men and 20% in women. According to EUROASPIREIII survey done in 8,966 patients with ischaemic heart disease in Europe, 17% of patients were still smokers, 35% were obese, 56% has uncontrolled blood pressure, 51% has raised blood cholesterol and 25% were diabetics. With regard to drugs utilisation, 91% were treated with antiplatelets agents, 80% with beta blockers, 71% with ACE inhibitors/ARBs. PMID:24238749

    Brotons, Carlos; Cuende, José I; Fernández Pardo, Jacinto; Plana, Nuria; Moral, Irene



    Nutrition and the heart.  


    Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., carnitine in dogs, taurine in cats) resulting in cardiomyopathy, and nutritional excesses (e.g., calories leading to obesity, sodium leading to hypertension) have emerged as important considerations in cardiology. These dietary factors may become particularly exaggerated in altered physiological and/or pathological states (e.g., pregnancy, old age, primary cardiovascular disease). Unfortunately, we do not have complete information on requirements for essential nutrients, nor do we know the precise role nutrition may play in the production of so-called old-age diseases or on the interactions among other organ systems (e.g., kidney, liver) and the heart. PMID:2658289

    Hamlin, R L; Buffington, C A



    Heart Valve Prostheses  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    \\u000a Prosthetic heart valves may be mechanical or bioprosthetic. Mechanical valves, which are composed primarily of metal or carbon\\u000a alloys, are classified according to their design as ball-caged, single-tilting-disc, or bileaflet-tilting-disc valves (Fig.\\u000a 9.1). In ball-caged valves, the occluder is a sphere that is contained by a metal “cage” when the valve is in its open position,\\u000a and fills the orifice

    Luigi P. Badano; Rosa Sicari


    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Prenatal diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome is strongly encouraged through careful, routine level II ultrasound\\u000a screening, especially in highrisk families.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a A decision for palliative care (leading to death) should be discouraged if cardiac anatomy or physiology is favorable, centers\\u000a of expertise are available, sufficient resources exist, and there are no associated coexisting anomalies or genetic

    Richard M. Donner



    Gum and Heart Disease  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over the past ten years, there have been many studies linking gum disease and hardening of the arteries. At first, there were observations that people with poor oral health were more prone to heart disease. More recently, scientists have found clear links between the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery. This study proves that at least some of the bacteria manage to escape that fate. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry.

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



    Depression and Coronary Heart Disease  

    PubMed Central

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression.

    Davidson, Karina W.



    [Fetal echocardiography. The normal heart].  


    At 20 weeks amenorrhoea, it is currently possible to determine with echocardiography whether a fetal heart, which then weighs approximately 400g with a diameter of 15 mm, is normal or not. The incidence of cardiac malformations has been estimated at 8 per 1000 fetuses. Fetal factors including retarded growth, hydramnios and arrhythmia and maternal factors including rubeola, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, Rhesus incompatibility and drugs increase fetal risk. In certain cardiopathies such as aortic stenosis, coarctation, malformation of the mitral valve or left ventricle hypoplasia, the risk of recurrence in a second fetus is greatly increased. With 2D echocardiography, the apical section of the four heart cavities orients the heart in the thorax, identifies the atria and ventricles and visualizes valve movement. The origin of the aorta and the kinetics of the mitral and aortic valves are studied on the para-sternal section. TM mode reproduces the P-QRS sequence thus allowing a measurement of heart rate, the thicknesses of heart walls and septa and identifies conduction disorders. The transvalvular systolic pressures can be measured with Doppler echocardiography and pulsed Doppler quantifies blood flow through the different heart structures. Precision can be increased with colour coding. A complete echocardiography of the fetal heart should be an integral part of all examinations of fetal morphology. Usually performed between 22 and 32 weeks of amenorrhoea, echocardiography of the fetal heart requires a perfect understanding of two-dimensional Doppler modes and of three-dimensional representation of heart anatomy. PMID:8072977

    Kchouk, H; Bernard, J P; Taurelle, R



    Adiposity of the Heart, Revisited  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physiology in Medicine review article. Obesity is a major risk factor for heart disease. In the face of obesityÃÂs growing prevalence, it is important for physicians to be aware of emerging research of novel mechanisms through which adiposity adversely affects the heart. Conventional wisdom suggests that either hemodynamic (that is, increased cardiac output and hypertension) or metabolic (that is, dyslipidemic) derangements associated with obesity may predispose individuals to coronary artery disease and heart failure. The purpose of this review is to highlight a novel mechanism for heart disease in obesity whereby excessive lipid accumulation within the myocardium is directly cardiotoxic and causes left ventricular remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PhD Jonathan M. McGavock (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Department of Internal Medicine); MD Ronald G. Victor (Univ of Texas Southwestern Dept of Internal Medicine); MD Roger H. Unger (VA Hospital Internal Medicine); PhD Lidia S. Szczepaniak (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Dept. of Internal Medicine)



    Depression and coronary heart disease.  


    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression. PMID:23227360

    Davidson, Karina W



    Improving the use of epidemiologic data in health risk assessment  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Epidemiologic data with quantitative exposure measures is infrequently available for specific environmental agents. This lack of exposure measures creates confusion in interpreting epidemiologic data and therefore has impeded its efficient use in health risk analysis. This paper discusses screening and evaluating epidemiologic studies for use in assessing health risk. It also describes the larger role of epidemiology in reducing uncertainties

    L. S. Erdreich; C. Burnett



    Heart Rate Variability Analysis in the Assessment of Autonomic Function in Heart Failure.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Heart rate is not static but rather changes continuously in response to physical and mental demands. In fact, an invariant heart rate is associated with disease processes such as heart failure. Heart rate variability analysis is a noninvasive technique us...

    M. J. De Jong D. C. Randall



    Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology  

    PubMed Central

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n = 8) occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8), pneumonia (3), and asthma (2). Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%.

    Kunder, Christian; Sun, Heather Y.; Berry, Gerald; Messner, Anna; Frankovich, Jennifer; Mark, John



    Monounsaturated fatty acids and atherosclerosis: opposing views from epidemiology and experimental animal models.  


    A substantial body of epidemiologic data has shed light on the potential protective effects of the Mediterranean diet against atherosclerosis in humans. Many believe the reason the Mediterranean diet is atheroprotective is the elevated consumption of olive oil, an oil poor in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and highly enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Based on human feeding studies, the American Heart Association and the US Food and Drug Administration have advocated for the consumption of MUFA as a more healthy replacement for SFA. However, using experimental animal models in which extent of atherosclerosis can be directly measured following dietary intervention, it has been demonstrated that MUFA-enriched diets are not atheroprotective when compared with SFA-enriched diets. Hence, the current body of experimental evidence refutes the idea that MUFAs per se are atheroprotective; therefore much additional work is needed to determine which aspects of the Mediterranean diet are indeed heart healthy. PMID:18377790

    Brown, J Mark; Shelness, Gregory S; Rudel, Lawrence L



    Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans  

    PubMed Central

    A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.

    Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua




    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes the evolution of air pollution epidemiology over a period when changes in pollution technologies have both lowered total exposures and dispersed them over vastly greater areas. Since personal exposure and microenvironmental measurements are expensive, studie...


    Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups

    Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.


    Future directions for epidemiology in epilepsy.  


    Epidemiology continues to be an important research tool in the study of epilepsy and related disorders, providing a better understanding of the frequency, causes and natural history of the disorder. But, beyond risk factors and seizure prognosis, epidemiological studies advance knowledge of many other aspects of epilepsy. Epidemiological studies are being conducted in a new environment in which high quality neuroimaging and fast through-put genomic technologies have become routine tools in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics. Epilepsy is currently understood, not as a single, homogeneous disorder, but a multitude of different clinical syndromes and disease, each with its own cause(s), natural history, and treatment implications. That is why; the comorbidites of epilepsy represent an important area, amenable to study, as they may ultimately have a greater impact on quality of life than epilepsy itself. In this document we share our thoughts on what we think are the future directions for epidemiology in epilepsy. PMID:21820360

    Linehan, Christine; Tellez-Zenteno, José F; Burneo, Jorge G; Berg, Anne T



    Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational


    2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

    2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposure–particularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.


    Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

    SciTech Connect

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)



    Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    As an intramural division, the Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), has an ambitious three-fold mission that includes: conducting inn...



    Epidemiology of Diabetes Mellitus in Japan.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The clinical and epidemiological features of diabetes mellitus in Japan have been compiled and compared with data from other countries. Diabetes is basically the same in Japan as elsewhere: however, consideration of important differences has led to the fo...

    W. G. Blackard Y. Omori L. R. Freedman




    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...


    [Integration of genetic factors into epidemiological studies].  


    During the last two decades, genetic epidemiology has been established in parallel to the area of classical epidemiology. This paper presents some essentials of the epidemiology of genetic factors. It begins with a discussion of complex diseases that are characterized by an involvement of several genes. The problems that are attached to modeling gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and their integration into causal pathways are elucidated and the role of genetic factors in the etiology of complex diseases is investigated. Classical and new epidemiological study designs that allow an integration of genetic data are introduced. The introduction of this data is partly motivated by the danger of bias due to genetic heterogeneity (population stratification) in classical designs. The problem of replication of study results is discussed and the concept of Mendelian randomization is presented. PMID:17013779

    Bammann, K; Wawro, N



    Epidemiology of Legionnaires Disease: A Case Study.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    An epidemiological investigation was made of the cause of death of a hospital patient who contracted pneumonia. It was determined the source of infection was Legionella pneumophila occurring in the hot water system of the patient's flat. (ERA citation 11:...

    P. J. G. M. Rietra



    Instructed heart rate control in a high heart rate population  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forty college students were selected from a large number of introductory psychology students on the basis of high heart rate during an initial screening session. Subjects were then contacted and participated in two additional sessions during which heart rate, respiration rate, and skin conductance measures were obtained. Each session consisted of a baseline period followed by five trial periods during

    Craig T. Twentyman; Paul F. Malloy; Alex S. Green



    Epidemiology 1: What's My Hypothesis  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson is part of a 34-lesson curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom, a project of the College of Education and Human Services at Montclair State University. The project is supported by Science Education Partnership Awards from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. The entire curriculum, which can be viewed at the Detectives in the Classroom site, consists of five instructional modules that explore specific health-related issues relevant to middle-school students through the science of epidemiology.This lesson is the third of six lessons in Module 1 that all deal with the Essential Question: Why do some people get sick while others remain healthy? In learning to answer this question, students will come to appreciate the Enduring Understanding that Clues for formulating hypotheses can be found by describing the way a disease is distributed in a population of people in terms of person, place, and time. The lessons which precede and follow this lesson help develop this Essential Understanding but are not prerequisites.

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)



    Current issues in perinatal epidemiology.  

    PubMed Central

    The main national data sources for perinatal epidemiology are birth and death certificates, yet routinely linked birth and death certificate data are still not available in the U.S. Completeness and quality of the reporting of perinatal events should be considered in examining trends over time and between jurisdictions. The U.S. has experienced a marked decline in its infant mortality rate, but only a very modest decline in the rate of low birth weight. Research must focus more on studies of pre-term labor, rather than low birth weight, which include children who are underground or who are born too early and who, therefore, may represent different etiologies. Sensitive hormonal tests may provide more precise estimates of the rate of very early fetal loss. Management of labor and delivery and of the high-risk newborn have undergone marked changes during the last 15 years, and yet clinical trials have not played a major role in the evaluation of these changes. The difference in reproductive outcomes between whites and blacks, especially in the rate of low birth weight, have persisted and are not understood. Data bases are becoming available for intergenerational studies to determine whether nature or nurture accounts for this difference.

    Berendes, H. W.



    Hepatitis C: an epidemiological review.  


    The aim of the study was to analyse the current literature regarding the mode of transmission of HCV and its global prevalence in different groups of people. A systematic review of the literature on the epidemiology of hepatitis C from 1991 to 2000 using computerized bibliographic databases which include Medline, Current Content and Embase. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies tremendously in different parts of the world, with the highest incidence in the Eastern parts of the globe compared with the Western parts. Furthermore, certain groups of individuals such as intravenous drug users are at increased risk of acquiring this disease irrespective of the geographical location. Although the main route of transmission is via contaminated blood, curiously enough in up to 50% of the cases no recognizable transmission factor/route could be identified. Therefore, a number of other routes of transmission such as sexual or household exposure to infected contacts have been investigated with conflicting results. Hepatitis C infection is an important public health issue globally. Better understanding of routes of transmission will help to combat the spread of disease. In order to prevent a world wide epidemic of this disease, urgent measures are required to (i) develop a strategy to inform and educate the public regarding this disease and (ii) expedite the efforts to develop a vaccine. PMID:11876790

    Memon, M I; Memon, M A



    Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication  

    PubMed Central

    It is a general clinical experience that prognosis varies not only from one disease to another, but also between different categories of patients suffering from the same disease. The object of the study reported was to demonstrate quantitatively how the prognosis of respiratory tuberculosis depends upon the patient's age and sex and upon the severity of disease at the time of diagnosis. Based as it is upon a follow-up through the years 1961-64 of all respiratory tuberculosis patients in Denmark, the study also provides an epidemiological characterization of the course of the disease in northern Europe today. Two aspects of prognosis are considered: the patients' mortality and their curability. A convenient prognosis index for a group of patients, combining the two aspects, is obtained by expressing the number of patients dying before cure as a percentage of the initial size of the group. The comparison between various patient-categories in the study material is made partly by means of this index and partly by means of annual death and cure rates.

    Iversen, Erik



    Epidemiology of hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Epidemiologic studies provide increasing evidence that hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis of 17 population-based studies of triglyceride levels and cardiovascular disease identified a 76% increase in cardiovascular disease risk in women and a 31% increase in men associated with a 1 mmol\\/L increase in triglyceride levels. Additional epidemiologic studies have shown that plasma triglyceride levels

    Melissa A Austin



    The epidemiology of influenza and its control  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this chapter we highlight how recent advances in influenza epidemiology can inform existing strategies for disease control.\\u000a As a field, influenza epidemiology has benefited greatly from analysis of large data sets regarding hospitalization, mortality,\\u000a and outpatient visits. These data have allowed comparison of the impact of influenza in various climates and the evaluation\\u000a of the direct and indirect benefits

    Lone Simonsen; Cécile Viboud; Robert J. Taylor; Mark A. Miller


    Variable selection: current practice in epidemiological studies  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Selection of covariates is among the most controversial and difficult tasks in epidemiologic analysis. Correct variable selection\\u000a addresses the problem of confounding in etiologic research and allows unbiased estimation of probabilities in prognostic studies.\\u000a The aim of this commentary is to assess how often different variable selection techniques were applied in contemporary epidemiologic\\u000a analysis. It was of particular interest to

    Stefan Walter; Henning Tiemeier



    Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks  

    PubMed Central

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies.

    Rahman, Atiqur; Bonny, Tania S.; Stonsaovapak, Siriporn; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn



    Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers

    EGRP and NIH's Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) cosponsored a workshop to stimulate epidemiologic research on rare cancers in May on the NIH Campus in Bethesda, MD. Many current and former EGRP grantees expert in epidemiologic research on rare cancers attended along with scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other components of NIH, survivors of rare cancers, and representatives of foundations devoted to supporting research and education on these cancers. View meeting agenda.


    The Epidemiology of Influenza and Its Control  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    \\u000a In this chapter, we highlight how recent advances in influenza epidemiology can inform strategies for disease control. Given\\u000a the challenge of direct measurement, influenza epidemiology has benefited greatly from statistical inference from the analysis\\u000a of large datasets regarding hospitalization, mortality, and outpatient visits associated with seasonal circulation of influenza\\u000a viruses. These data have allowed comparison of the impact of influenza

    Lone Simonsen; Cécile Viboud; Robert J. Taylor; Mark A. Miller


    Mathematical modeling and the epidemiological research process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The authors of this paper advocate for the expanded use of mathematical models in epidemiology and provide an overview of\\u000a the principles of mathematical modeling. Mathematical models can be used throughout the epidemiological research process.\\u000a Initially they may help to refine study questions by visually expressing complex systems, directing literature searches, and\\u000a identifying sensitive variables. In the study design phase,

    Mikayla C. Chubb; Kathryn H. Jacobsen



    The evolving epidemiology of stone disease  

    PubMed Central

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends.

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj



    Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations

    The symposium honored the visionary leadership of Dr. Fraumeni, the founding director of the NCI Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. The conference provided an opportunity for scientific exchange by the leading experts in cancer epidemiology. Speakers highlighted critical findings made over the past 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research that have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the causes of cancer.


    Controversies in epidemiology of occupational asthma  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ABSTRACT: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution, determinants and outcome of disease. In this article, the recently acquired knowledge of the epidemiology of occupational asthma is described, as well as current areas of controversy. Incidence figures obtained from field studies in high-risk workplaces, medicolegal statistics and,sentinel programmes,indicate that y10% of adult-onset asthma,is attributable to the workplace. The strategy to

    D. Gautrin; A. J. Newman-Taylor; H. Nordman; J. L. Malo



    Descriptive epidemiology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome in Europe.  


    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, microcephaly, hypertrichosis, upper limb defects, growth retardation, developmental delay, and a variety of associated malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study of the classical form of CdLS. The data were extracted from the database of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database, a European network of birth defect registries which follow a standard methodology. Based on 23 years of epidemiologic monitoring (8,558,346 births in the 1980-2002 period), we found the prevalence of the classical form of CdLS to be 1.24/100,000 births or 1:81,000 births and estimated the overall CdLS prevalence at 1.6-2.2/100,000. Live born children accounted for 91.5% (97/106) of cases, fetal deaths 2.8% (3/106), and terminations of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis 5.7% (6/106). The most frequent associated congenital malformations were limb defects (73.1%), congenital heart defects (45.6%), central nervous system malformations (40.2%), and cleft palate (21.7%). In the last 11 years, as much as 68% of cases with major malformations were not detected by routine prenatal US. Live born infants with CdLS have a high first week survival (91.4%). All patients were sporadic. Maternal and paternal age did not seem to be risk factors for CdLS. Almost 70% of patients, born after the 37th week of gestation, weighed

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Tokic, Visnja; Loane, Maria; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Eliza; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen



    Death Summary Tables from the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR)  

    DOE Data Explorer

    Note: During the summer of 2010 CEDR is in the process of moving from a server at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to a new home at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. Collections may be reorganized and will certainly have new urls. This record will be updated when the changes have stabilized. Death Summary Tables summarize causes of death in individual CEDR d