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1

Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case-control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP)  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Recent changes in labour market conditions and in the organisation of work in developed societies have increased exposure to work related stress. The question is whether this also implies an increased risk of myocardial infarction, either through the triggering effect of acute stress, or through accumulation of stress over several months. Design: A case-control and a case-crossover study design was applied. Setting: The Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP), in Stockholm County during 1992 to 1994. Participants: Patients with a first episode of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, a total of 1381 men and women, responded to questionnaires and participated in interviews and health examinations. Main results: The case-crossover analysis showed triggering effects of sudden, short term situations of increased work load or work competition. Having "had a high pressure deadline at work" entailed a sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction (OR = 6.0 95% CI (1.8 to 20.4)) during the next 24 hours. The importance of work related life events as risk factors for myocardial infarction was supported by the case-control analysis. However, no support was found for the hypothesis that an accumulation of stressful life events over a period of 12 months increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Specific work related stressful life events seem to be potential triggers of the onset of myocardial infarction.

Moller, J.; Theorell, T.; de Faire, U.; Ahlbom, A.; Hallqvist, J.

2005-01-01

2

Epidemiology of dermatophyte infections in Stockholm, Sweden: a retrospective study from 2005-2009.  

PubMed

Dermatophytic infections are common worldwide but the distribution of dermatophyte species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic profile of dermatophytosis in Stockholm, Sweden. Laboratory records comprising direct microscopy and culture results of 37,503 specimens from skin, hair and nail scrapings collected from January 2005 through December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed in the mycology laboratory at Karolinska University Hospital. Onychomycosis had, over time, the highest overall prevalence of 14.1%, followed by tinea pedis (4.4%). Trichophyton rubrum was the predominant pathogen isolated from these cases (83.2%), followed by T. mentagrophytes (7.4 %). In contrast, T. violaceum and T. soudanense accounted for 81.6% of the isolates from patients with tinea capitis. PMID:21128711

Drakensjö, Iara Trocoli; Chryssanthou, Erja

2010-12-03

3

Epidemiology of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome occurring as the end result of many different forms of heart disease. There are\\u000a many different definitions and classifications of heart failure (Table 1.1) but a simple, practical definition of the syndrome\\u000a of heart failure is that it is characterized by typical symptoms such as shortness of breath, exercise limitation and fatigue\\u000a and

Robert Neil Doughty; Harvey D. White

4

Anabolic steroids and violent crime — An epidemiological study at a jail in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violent crime has been associated with the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in several reports. Speculations concerning such associations have been raised with regard to several recent crimes committed in Sweden. To test this hypothetical relationship, individuals in a Stockholm jail who had been arrested for violent crimes were screened for AAS in the urine. No AAS were detected in

Göran Isacsson; Mats Garle; Else-Britt Ljung; Ulf Åsgård; Ulf Bergman

1998-01-01

5

Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the Years 2000 to 2003: Association of the GGIIb Genetic Cluster with Infection in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains were studied during three seasons (2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003) among patients of all ages, mainly from the Stockholm region in Sweden. A total of 3,252 fecal samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- PCR. The incidences of norovirus infection among adults were 23, 26, and 30% during the three

Annika Tiveljung Lindell; Lena Grillner; Lennart Svensson; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart

2005-01-01

6

Stockholm Declaration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Stockholm Declaration was adopted on 21 January 1988 in Stockholm by the President of Argentina, the Prime Minister of Greece, the Prime Minister of India, the President of Mexico, the Prime Minister of Sweden and the President of the United Republic ...

1988-01-01

7

Incidence and Epidemiology of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic data from the Framingham Study provide insights into the population burden of heart failure (CHF), its prognosis and modifiable risk factors that promote it. In the general population CHF is chiefly the end stage of hypertensive, coronary and valvular cardiovascular disease. It is a major and growing problem in most affluent countries because of aging populations of increased size,

William B. Kannel

2000-01-01

8

Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of Escherichia coli Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamases for Identification of Nosocomial Outbreaks in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

From June to October of 2002, a cluster of Escherichia coli isolates producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) was detected in Stockholm. The isolates were grouped into two clones, one of which had already circulated in the same area before the outbreak. CTX-M-type ESBLs and coresistance to ciprofloxacin were identified in the strains.

Fang, Hong; Lundberg, Christina; Olsson-Liljequist, Barbro; Hedin, Goran; Lindback, Emma; Rosenberg, Asa; Struwe, Johan

2004-01-01

9

Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers. HF represents a considerable burden to the health-care system, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizations, readmissions, and outpatient visits. HF is not a single entity, but a clinical syndrome that may have different characteristics depending on age, sex, race or ethnicity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status, and HF etiology. Furthermore, pathophysiological differences are observed among patients diagnosed with HF and reduced LVEF compared with HF and preserved LVEF, which are beginning to be better appreciated in epidemiological studies. A number of risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of HF as well as its severity. In this Review, we discuss key features of the epidemiology and risk profile of HF.

Bui, Anh L.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2011-01-01

10

Nuts and coronary heart disease: an epidemiological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological evidence for the cardio-protective effect of nut consumption is presented and reviewed. Four large prospective epidemiological studies of primary prevention of coronary heart disease are reviewed and discussed (Adventist Health Study, Iowa Women's Health Study, Nurses' Health Study and the Physicians' Health Study). Other studies of nuts and coronary heart disease risk are addressed. The combined evidence for

John H. Kelly Jr; Joan Sabaté

2006-01-01

11

Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Heart failure is common and is associated with poor prognosis. Chronic kidney disease is common in heart failure, and shares many risk factors with heart failure such as age, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Over half of all heart failure patients may have moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. The presence of chronic kidney disease is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, yet it is also associated with underutilization of evidence-based heart failure therapy that may reduce morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology and outcomes of chronic kidney disease in heart failure is essential to ensure proper management of these patients.

Ahmed, Ali; Campbell, Ruth C.

2010-01-01

12

The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge in the field of congenital heart disease. However, planning of care for this population is difficult, because the number of patients currently living with congenital heart disease is difficult to measure. Birth prevalence estimates vary widely according to different studies, and survival rates have not been well recorded. Consequently, the prevalence of congenital heart disease is unclear, with estimates exceeding the number of patients currently seen in cardiology clinics. New developments continue to influence the size of the population of patients with congenital heart disease. Prenatal screening has led to increased rates of termination of pregnancy. Improved management of complications has changed the time and mode of death caused by congenital heart disease. Several genetic and environmental factors have been shown to be involved in the etiology of congenital heart disease, although this knowledge has not yet led to the implementation of preventative measures. In this Review, we give an overview of the etiology, birth prevalence, current prevalence, mortality, and complications of congenital heart disease. PMID:21045784

van der Bom, Teun; Zomer, A Carla; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Meijboom, Folkert J; Bouma, Berto J; Mulder, Barbara J M

2010-11-02

13

The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge

Bom van der T; A. C. Zomer; A. H. Zwinderman; F. J. Meijboom; B. J. Bouma; B. J. M. Mulder

2011-01-01

14

The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge

Teun van der Bom; A. Carla Zomer; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Folkert J. Meijboom; Berto J. Bouma; Barbara J. M. Mulder

2010-01-01

15

Factor VII and Ischaemic Heart Disease: Epidemiological Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of factor VII are associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease, especially ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence, the latter including the results of clinical trials, suggest that the association may be one of cause and effect. The general epidemiology of factor VII also supports this view. Thus, characteristics such as increasing

T. W. Meade

1983-01-01

16

Stress Reduction Prolongs Life in Women With Coronary Disease The Stockholm Women's Intervention Trial for Coronary Heart Disease (SWITCHD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Psychosocial stress may increase risk and worsen prognosis of coronary heart disease in women. Interventions that counteract women's psychosocial stress have not previously been presented. This study implemented a stress reduction program for women and investigated its ability to improve survival in women coronary patients. Methods and Results—Two hundred thirty-seven consecutive women patients, aged 75 years or younger, hospitalized for

Kristina Orth-Gomer; Neil Schneiderman; Hui-Xin Wang; Christina Walldin; Tomas Jernberg

2010-01-01

17

Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management  

PubMed Central

Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications.

Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

2012-01-01

18

Getting to the Heart of the Matter: Epidemiology of Cyanotic Heart Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect, making significant contributions to infant morbidity\\u000a and mortality, but not all CHDs contribute equally to such outcomes. Although cyanotic CHDs constitute some of the most serious\\u000a CHDs, its epidemiology is poorly understood. We present a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on the epidemiology\\u000a of cyanotic CHD, with

Jennifer L. Kornosky; Hamisu M. Salihu

2008-01-01

19

Stockholm Southwest field  

SciTech Connect

The Stockholm Southwest (SW) field, discovered by Texas Oil and Gas Production Corporation in March 1979, is located in southwest Wallace and northwest Greeley Counties, Kansas, and eastern Cheyenne County, Colorado. It consists of 87 original oil wells which have produced 5.5 million bbl of oil. As of the middle of 1989, it was producing almost 1,200 bbl oil/day from 66 active wells. Regionally, the Stockholm, SW field is situated on a stable Paleozoic platform which extended north from the Anadarko basin. During the early late Morrowan time, there was a significant regression of the Anadarko sea. The subsequent Stockholm fluvial system created an erosional valley which was later back-filled with fluvial and estuarine sediments during transgressions of the Anadarko sea. Regionally, the upper Morrow section is approximately 85 ft (26.2 m) thick, whereas it is approximately 150 ft (46.2 m) thick in the Stockholm Valley. This striking thick can be mapped seismically. Subsequent valley system subparalleled the preexisting Stockholm Valley system, depositing the overlying Johannes sandstone, which is a secondary pay at Stockholm SW. Since the discovery of Stockholm SW field, subsequent exploration activity has extended the productive trend five townships in a north-south direction along the Colorado/Kansas border. This activity has led to the discovery of eight new oil fields. Conservative engineering estimates indicate approximately 170 million bbl of oil in place in the entire trend.

Miller, W.A. (Pacific Enterprises Oil Co., Denver, CO (United States)); Hundley-Goff, E.M. (Marathon Oil Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Veal, S.L. (DCX Resources, Denver, CO (United States)); Brown, L.G.

1991-08-01

20

[Heart failure: epidemiology, costs and healthcare programs in Italy].  

PubMed

Epidemiological data show an even greater prevalence of heart failure in the general population, in particular in elderly people, both in Italy and the other European countries. Patients admitted to hospital because of heart failure are commonly complex patients with relevant comorbidities and frequent readmissions. Hospital care accounts largely for the costs due to heart failure, whereas expenditure for therapies (drugs, devices and surgery) is less significant; non-medical and social costs represent also a relevant part of total costs. By far, the real challenge in the care of heart failure patients consists in the efforts to reduce hospital readmissions. A broad spectrum of interventions has been proposed for improving care of heart failure patients: multidisciplinary interventions involving physicians and nurses consisting of different modalities of transtelephonic monitoring have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing readmission rates and improving patient outcome. New technologies for remote monitoring with implantable devices (defibrillators and pacemakers) are becoming the standard of clinical practice in a great number of cardiology departments in our country. In addition, implantable devices for automatic and continuous hemodynamic monitoring are in an advanced phase of clinical evaluation. In conclusion, new modalities of care, centered on out-of-hospital assistance by means of interactive as well as automatic remote monitoring, are now available and seem to impact positively on the growing need for resources to be allocated to the care of heart failure patients. PMID:23096393

Marangoni, Egidio; Lissoni, Fabio; Raimondi Cominesi, Irene; Tinelli, Stefano

2012-10-01

21

Cohort Profile: The Stockholm Public Health Cohort.  

PubMed

The Stockholm Public Health Cohort was set up within the Stockholm County Council public health surveys to inform on determinants and consequences of significant contributors to the current burden of disease. Participants are 89 268 randomly selected individuals from the adult population of Stockholm County. Baseline surveys took place in 2002, 2006 and 2010 via self-administered questionnaires. So far, participants recruited in 2002 were re-surveyed twice, in 2007 and 2010, and those enrolled in 2006 were re-surveyed once, in 2010. Self-reported data are regularly supplemented by information from national and regional health data and administrative registers, for study participants and their relatives (including their offspring). Available data are extensive and include a wide array of health, lifestyle, perinatal, demographic, socio-economic and familial factors. The cohort is an international resource for epidemiological research, and the data available to the research community for specific studies obtained approval from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort Steering Committee and the Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board. PMID:23042793

Svensson, Anna C; Fredlund, Peeter; Laflamme, Lucie; Hallqvist, Johan; Alfredsson, Lars; Ekbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria; Forsberg, Birger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Vågerö, Denny; Magnusson, Cecilia

2012-10-01

22

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

23

Honors in Stockholm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes the full text of Toni Morrison's acceptance speech for the 1996 Nobel Prize, awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. In the context of a modern day fable, Morrison investigates interwoven themes of language, creativity, and responsibility. Includes several photographs of the ceremony. (MJP)|

Morrison, Toni

1996-01-01

24

Progress in Stockholm talks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January

Borawski

1986-01-01

25

Epidemiological basis for the prevention of coronary heart disease  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have laid the basis for a preventive approach to coronary heart disease (CHD). On balance, present evidence indicates that the following should form the basis of a preventive programme: low-fat diet, cessation of smoking, and control of blood pressure. Other factors likely to produce a beneficial effect on CHD occurrence include reduction of obesity and increased physical activity. Although psychosocial factors are most likely to be causally related to CHD, it is not possible at present to provide clear guidelines as to their role in a preventive programme. Trials are being conducted to investigate the possibility of preventing CHD by a variety of approaches: a doctor-centred approach or health education in certain sectors of a community or in whole communities. These trials have shown that it is possible to achieve behavioural changes and a reduction in the levels of risk factors in a proportion of the participants. It is not yet clear to what extent these changes in levels of risk factors in middle-aged people will lead to a reduction in the incidence of CHD. It can be calculated, however, that the greatest benefit is likely to come from approaches to prevention that involve the whole community, rather than only high-risk groups.

Marmot, M. G.

1979-01-01

26

Insights into the contemporary epidemiology and outpatient management of congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To evaluate the epidemiology, prognosis, and patterns of practice in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) treated and followed at a specialized clinic. Methods Prospective cohort study of consecutive patients referred to and followed up in a specialized heart failure clinic between September 1989 and March 1996. Results Of the 628 patients referred, 566 were confirmed to have

Finlay A. McAlister; Koon K. Teo; Muba Taher; Terrence J. Montague; Dennis Humen; Lawrence Cheung; Mercedeh Kiaii; Rita Yim; Paul W. Armstrong

1999-01-01

27

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Report of the Task Force on Research in Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Task Force on Research in Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs). It developed specific recommendations for research in CVD epidemiology and CVD prevention, as well as...

1994-01-01

28

Anxiety and coronary heart disease: A synthesis of epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiological, psychological, and experimental evidence for an association\\u000a between anxiety and coronary heart disease (CHD). Papers published during the years 1980–1996 on anxiety and CHD and relevant\\u000a publications from earlier years were selected for this review. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that anxiety may be a risk\\u000a factor for the development of CHD.

Laura D. Kubzansky; Ichiro Kawachi; Scott T. Weiss; David Sparrow

1998-01-01

29

[Epidemiology and treatment of chronic heart failure; use of bisoprolol].  

PubMed

The prevalence of chronic heart failure in Hungary is 1.6% in the adult population, but it occurs in 15-20% of subjects over 80 years of age. The base of treatment of heart failure is the blockade of the neuro-hormonal system, which includes the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (angiotensin receptor blockers in case of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors intolerance), beta receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Because of their negative inotropic effect, beta blockers were neglected for a long time from the treatment of heart failure. However, during the past decades several studies have demonstrated that beta blockers decrease mortality in patients with heart failure. The effectiveness of bisoprolol in reducing mortality has also also been documented in a number of studies. Orv. Hetil., 154 (44), 1731-1734. PMID:24161596

Nagy, Viktor

2013-11-01

30

Epidemiology of Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational population-based studies have consistently shown an inverse dose-response gradient between physical activity or fitness and coronary heart disease. This relationship is more firmly established in men. Existing studies suggest that the physical activity gradient, and perhaps the fitness gradient, is produced by a combination of varying levels of both the intensity and the amount of habitual physical activity. It

Mitchell H. Whaley; Steven N. Blair

1995-01-01

31

[Heart failure in chronic kidney disease: from epidemiology to therapy].  

PubMed

Many patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) die before reaching endstage renal disease because of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent guidelines and position statements have therefore defined CKD as a cardiovascular risk equivalent, and patients in all stages of CKD are considered in the highest risk group for development of CVD. Heart failure (HF) is the main cardiovascular complication that occurs in renal patients and its incidence increases proportionally with the reduction of glomerular filtration rate. In fact, pressure and volume overload, that are inherent to the abnormalities of homeostasis typical of CKD, lead to concentric/eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Initially, LVH is adaptative because energy is spared by maintaining stable wall stress. However, in the long term, LVH becomes maladaptative, inducing systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction that, in turn, lead to symptomatic left ventricular failure. Nowadays, it is well established that several classes of drugs, including reninangiotensin system antagonists, beta blockers and aldosterone antagonists, improve survival in patients with HF. In fact, all major guidelines on HF recommend such drugs as standard therapy. The problem for nephrologists is that the general approach and recommendations for the management of HF in the general population may not be completely safe in renal patients with HF. This review is conducted with the purpose to provide more information on the efficacy and safety of HF therapy in renal patients. PMID:18278761

Zamboli, P; De Nicola, L; Minutolo, R; Stanzione, G; Bertino, V; Sosio, R; De Luca, A; Crivaro, M; Tassinario, S; Conte, G

32

Engineering geology of Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bedrock in the Stockholm area provides an excellent material for construction. The paper describes the geology of the\\u000a area and provides case histories, mainly related to infrastructure development, illustrating the use of underground construction\\u000a and the importance given to environmental considerations. It discusses the research being undertaken to establish data bases\\u000a which will record the geological and geotechnical information

L. Persson

1998-01-01

33

Epidemiology and prevention of ischaemic heart disease in automobile industry workers.  

PubMed

Following on the epidemiological study of cardiovascular diseases carried out in the rural population of Northern Bohemia in 1970 a long-term ischaemic heart disease prevention programme was launched in a group of 2582 men aged between 30-59 years, worked of two automobile plants in the district of Mladá Boleslav. Under der programme "Protected Your Heart", sponsored by the Automobile Works National Enterprise (AZNP), workers were urged to adjust their food intake in keeping with the principles of rational nutrition, to stop smoking and to take regular after-work cross-country 4 km/1 hr walks. No such programme was carried out at the automobile plant LIAZ serving as control. PMID:6409557

Reinis, Z; Pokorný, J; Bazika, V; Tiserová, J; Gorican, K; Horáková, D; Stuchlíková, K; Havránek, T; Hrabovský, F

1983-01-01

34

Physical activity levels and coronary heart disease. Analysis of epidemiologic and supporting studies.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease, the primary health problem in western life, is caused by the interaction of multiple factors. Absolute proof of the contributing role of physical inactivity is not possible owing to the complexity of the CHD problem and the infeasibility of a definitive clinical trial because of logistical and economic constraints. Despite limitations, existing epidemiologic studies strongly suggest, but fall short of proving, the concept that habitual physical exercise offers partial protection against primary or secondary events of CHD and associated mortality. However, experimental data support this hypothesis and provide evidence of possible mechanisms responsible for the protection. The available epidemiologic data also suggest that physical inactivity is probably not as potent an individual risk factor as elevated serum cholesterol levels, hypertension, and cigarette smoking, and that the protective effects of exercise may be overwhelmed by high levels of these major risk factors. On the other hand, there is some evidence that exercise may attenuate other risk factors both directly and through associated weight reduction. Epidemiologic studies also suggest a dose response relationship between physical activity and rates of CHD. About 2000 kcal per week of moderate intensity, dynamic, endurance-type of exercise (such as walking or jogging about 20 miles per week) or at least one hour of intermittent hard physical labor are required to obtain the optimal effect of exercise on coronary heart disease rates. Experimental studies suggest that this amount of exercise should provide sufficient stimulus to favorably alter blood HDL cholesterol levels and perhaps other CHD risk factors, especially if there is an accompanying reduction in weight. Possible mechanisms for the protective effects of exercise against CHD are illustrated in Figure 1. Insistence on final experimental proof prior to prudent medical practice or public health policy on physical inactivity or other coronary risk factors indicates a lack of understanding of the nature of scientific proof and evidence required for health actions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3883077

Leon, A S

1985-01-01

35

Alcohol consumption and coronary atherosclerosis progression—the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Angiographic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association of alcohol intake with progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Although moderate drinkers have a lower risk of coronary heart disease than abstainers, the relation of alcohol use and coronary atherosclerosis has not been well studied. Methods and results: In the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Angiographic Study, we evaluated 103 women, aged 65 years or younger, hospitalized

Imre Janszky; Kenneth J. Mukamal; Kristina Orth-Gomér; Anders Romelsjö; Karin Schenck-Gustafsson; Bertil Svane; Richard L. Kirkeeide; Murray A. Mittleman

2004-01-01

36

Clinical Physiology in Sweden: Part IV. Stockholm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents selected aspects of the staff organization, mission, and research programs of the Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet (medical college) in Stockholm and of its affiliated laboratories in the Military Medical Examin...

J. W. Cox

1968-01-01

37

Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol intake patterns on ischaemic heart disease in two countries with contrasting lifestyles, Northern Ireland and France.Design Cohort data from the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) were analysed. Weekly alcohol consumption, incidence of binge drinking (alcohol >50 g on at least one day a week), incidence of regular drinking (at least one

Jean-Bernard Ruidavets; Pierre Ducimetière; Alun Evans; Michèle Montaye; Bernadette Haas; Annie Bingham; John Yarnell; Philippe Amouyel; Dominique Arveiler; Frank Kee; Vanina Bongard; Jean Ferrières

2010-01-01

38

Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure in high risk patients: community based epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and of heart failure due to different causes, in patients with risk factors for these conditions. Design Epidemiological study, including detailed clinical assessment, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. Setting 16 English general practices, representative for socioeconomic status and practice type. Participants 1062 patients (66% response rate) with previous myocardial infarction, angina, hypertension,

R C Davis; F D R Hobbs; J E Kenkre; A K Roalfe; R Hare; R J Lancashire; M K Davies

2002-01-01

39

Epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community in northern India.  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural community (total population 114,610) in northern India was studied by setting up a registry based on primary health care centres. Health workers and schoolteachers were trained to identify suspected patients in school and village surveys (121 villages). Medical specialists screened 5-15-year-olds (n = 31,200). The population was followed up for 3 years (from March 1988 to March 1991). All suspected and registered cases were investigated by serial echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography at a tertiary care centre. A total of 102 cases were confirmed to have rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (prevalence, 0.09%); 66 were aged 5-15 years (prevalence, 0.21%). A total of 48 patients (24 males, 24 females; mean age, 12.11 +/- 3.7 years) were diagnosed to have a possible first attack of rheumatic fever (incidence, 0.54 per 1000 per year). Arthritis was observed in 36 (75%) and carditis in 18 (37.5%) of cases. Prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet into the left atrium occurred in 5 (22%) cases with carditis. Mitral regurgitation was observed in all 18 cases of carditis; over the period of observation it disappeared in three cases and progressed to mitral stenosis in a further three. A total of 22 patients (11 males, 11 females; mean age, 19.41 +/- 8.1 years) were registered as rheumatic fever recurrences, and 32 patients (18 females, 14 males; mean age, 22.1 +/- 10.1 years) had chronic rheumatic heart disease. Of those with recurrences, 9 (41%) had carditis and 11 (50%) had arthritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Grover, A.; Dhawan, A.; Iyengar, S. D.; Anand, I. S.; Wahi, P. L.; Ganguly, N. K.

1993-01-01

40

Stumm and Morgan receive 1999 Stockholm water prize  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a March 22 press conference in Stockholm, the Stockholm Water Foundation announced that Professors Werner Stumm and James J. Morgan will be awarded the 1999 Stockholm Water Prize. The aquatic chemists will share this distinguished prize of $150,000, which recognizes an individual, organization, or institution that makes a sizable contribution to water resources.The scientists were chosen for their extensive

Shermonta L. Grant

1999-01-01

41

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis and contact allergy are common medical conditions. But how common are they? Are they more common in certain\\u000a populations? Are reactions to specific contact allergens more prevalent than to other allergens? This chapter presents some\\u000a basic epidemiologic principles which are important in population-based or clinic-based studies on contact dermatitis. Examples\\u000a of studies on contact allergy as well as

Pieter-Jan Coenraads; Wolfgang Uter; Thomas Diepgen

42

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a From an epidemiologic perspective, retinoblastoma is one of the most interesting childhood tumors to study. Retinoblastoma\\u000a is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and its occurrence in early childhood suggests that incidence can be associated with\\u000a events affecting development of neuroectodermal tissues during the fetal period. Furthermore, it exists in two genetically\\u000a distinct forms associated with differing (though not mutually exclusive) clinical

M. Orjuela

43

Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Stockholm Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment,…

Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-01-01

44

PAQ database: Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire  

Cancer.gov

Stockholm Public Health Questionnaire In: Leijon O, Wiktorin C, Harenstam A, Karlqvist L; MOA Research Group. Validity of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing physical work loads in a general population. J Occup Environ Med 2002 Aug;44(8):724-35.

45

Geosynthetic containment beneath Stockholm-Arlanda Airport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arlanda International Airport in Stockholm, Sweden, is in the process of constructing a new, third runway. Through extensive siting studies and economic evaluation, the alignment of this runway and the associated taxiway has been located over an esker, a ridge-like glacio-fluvial formation common in Sweden. This esker is an aquifer and constitutes a water supply for the airport as well

J. Byström; L. K. Overmann; L. O. Ericsson

1996-01-01

46

Cardiovascular epidemiology in a changing world--challenges to investigators and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  

PubMed

Over the past 60 years, revolutionary discoveries made by epidemiologists have contributed to marked declines in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Now, in an era of increasingly constrained resources, researchers in cardiovascular epidemiology face a number of challenges that call for novel, paradigm-shifting approaches. In this paper, the authors pose to the community 4 critical questions: 1) How can we avoid wasting resources on studies that provide little incremental knowledge? 2) How can we assure that we direct our resources as economically as possible towards innovative science? 3) How can we be nimble, responding quickly to new opportunities? 4) How can we identify prospectively the most meritorious research questions? Senior program staff at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute invite the epidemiology community to join them in an ongoing Web-based blog conversation so that together we might develop novel approaches that will facilitate the next generation of high-impact discoveries. PMID:22415032

Sorlie, Paul D; Bild, Diane E; Lauer, Michael S

2012-03-12

47

[Epidemiology].  

PubMed

In France, the incidence of PE is estimated to range between 1 and 3% in the nuliparous and between 0.5 and 1.5% in the multiparous women. Factors associated with the development of PE are of various types. Studies conducted on families affected by PE suggest the existence of a genetic component to the disease, even though the association between PE and certain genes, allotypes and polymorphisms are still under scrutiny. The hypotheses suggesting an immunological mechanism is supported by several arguments. Indeed, being nuliparous, changing partner, insemination with donor semen are factors associated with the development of PE whereas pre-exposition to the father's sperm bears protection. Some factors qualified as physiological are also associated with the occurrence of PE although no clear pathophysiological explanation can be put forward. These are being a mother of African descent, an increase in the mothers' age or herself being born prematurely. Some gestational incidents are also associated with the occurrence of PE: multiparity, a congenital defect affecting the foetus, UTI. Similarly, some pre-existing conditions of the mother are associated with PE, i.e. chronic hypertension, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Several well designed epidemiological studies confirm that tobacco consumption is itself associated with a 20 to 50% reduction in the development of PE, although being itself associated with an increase in other vascular gestational complications such as retroplacental haemorrhage and IUGR. Living conditions and stress, especially at work are also associated with the occurrence of PE. All these identified risk factors by far do not account for all the reported cases of PE and do not bear sufficient positive or negative predictive value. PMID:20338718

Goffinet, F

2010-03-24

48

Epidemiology and prevention of valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis in Africa  

PubMed Central

Valvular heart diseases in Africa affect mainly children and young adults and are a result of rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is a preventable disease, but in Africa the combination of a lack of resources, lack of infrastructure, political, social and economic instability, poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition and lack of political will contributes to the persistence of a high burden of rheumatic fever, rheumatic valvular heart diseases and infective endocarditis. Combating and eradicating rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases requires economic development and implementation of best practices of primary and secondary prevention measures. The barriers to achieving this goal in Africa are numerous, but not insurmountable.

Nkomo, Vuyisile T

2007-01-01

49

Epidemiology of heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of heart failure and\\/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction has long been regarded as an ominous complication,\\u000a significantly increasing the morbidity and short- and long-term mortality of survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Although\\u000a the incidence of heart failure after myocardial infarction has fallen over the last few decades, it remains common, complicating\\u000a up to 45% of infarcts. Moreover, up

Robin A. P. Weir; John J. V. McMurray

2006-01-01

50

DSM-IV Personality Disorders and Coronary Heart Disease in Older Adults: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the relationship between seven personality disorders listed in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. We analyzed data on 10,573 adults aged 60 or older from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. In our results, we

Robert H. Pietrzak; Julie A. Wagner; Nancy M. Petry

51

Epidemiologic features of recent trends in coronary heart disease in the Soviet Union.  

PubMed

Beginning in the mid 1960s the Soviet Union experienced a sharp increase in the mortality rate for men over the age of 20 and for women 50 to 64 years. The principal cause of this increase appears to be the rising rates of coronary heart disease. The rate of increase in coronary heart disease for men in the 30 to 59 year age group over the years 1966 to 1972 was almost 7% per year. Rural death rates have increased at a faster rate than those in cities, although the absolute level remains somewhat lower. Mortality from other major cardiovascular diseases has also increased. It would appear that the coronary heart disease epidemic has been particularly severe in the USSR and there is no evidence that it has abated. PMID:6875119

Cooper, R S

1983-09-01

52

The worldwide epidemiology of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are significant public health concerns around the world. Despite decreasing incidence, there is still a significant disease burden, especially in developing nations. This review provides background on the history of ARF, its pathology and treatment, and the current reported worldwide incidence of ARF and prevalence of RHD.

Seckeler, Michael D; Hoke, Tracey R

2011-01-01

53

Depression and coronary heart disease: A review of the epidemiological evidence, explanatory mechanisms and management approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is compelling evidence that depression is an independent risk factor for both the development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and for worsening prognosis once CHD is established. Given the increasing awareness of the high prevalence of co-morbid depression in individuals with CHD, clinical psychologists are likely to become increasingly involved in the care of cardiac patients. It is imperative

Kerrie Goldston; Andrew J. Baillie

2008-01-01

54

Longitudinal epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in a rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and related risk factors for coronary heart diseases and hypertension in the rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat (India). The observations from the first five years of this ongoing project (May 1987-May 1992) are described in this paper. Out of an initial sample of 750 individuals in the age group 30-62 years, who were selected by stratified random sampling, 714 persons (males = 429; females = 285) were actually studied, after excluding those suffering from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Initially, all the included subjects were examined clinically and appropriate laboratory investigations were done. A detailed socio-economic history was also obtained. Subsequently all of them were followed up and biannual clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. Cases of CHD were diagnosed according to the recommendations of the New York Heart Association. The overall five-year incidence of CHD was 25.17 per thousand persons. The incidence in males was 3 times higher than in females. More males suffered from myocardial infarction (MI), while in the females the incidence of sudden death was higher (33.3%). The average yearly mortality rate due to CHD was 2.46 per thousand persons. CHD was significantly associated with increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), smoking, and family history of heart disease, and was weakly associated with body weight (p = 0.06). PMID:9008839

Trivedi, D H; Sharma, V; Pandya, H; Arya, R K; Mehta, R; Bansal, R K; Sharma, A; Gandhi, S P

1996-01-01

55

Risk Stratification of Coronary Heart Disease in Greece: Final Results from the CARDIO2000 Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In past years several risk factors have been associated with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the risk of developing acute coronary syndromes and several risk factors in Greece.Methods. During 2000–2002, 700 male (59 ± 10 years old) and 148 female (65 ± 9 years old) patients with

Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Christine Chrysohoou; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Pavlos Toutouzas

2002-01-01

56

Using college alumni populations in epidemiologic research: the UNC Alumni Heart Study.  

PubMed

The UNC Alumni Heart Study (UNCAHS) is a prospective study of the role of psychosocial factors, in particular hostility, in the development of coronary heart disease. The target population is composed of persons who completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory while attending the University of North Carolina in the mid-1960s. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine whether hostility, demographic and other variables were significant determinants of the subjects' locatability and participation. It was found that MMPI hostility scores at initial testing were unrelated to either potential or actual locatability or participation. Thus there is no evidence that hostility is the source of selection bias in the UNCAHS. Selection into the study was predicted by age, sex, degree status and variables concerned with the conditions under which the MMPI was administered. It is concluded that follow-up studies of college cohorts may have study-specific sources of selection bias. PMID:1432005

Siegler, I C; Peterson, B L; Barefoot, J C; Harvin, S H; Dahlstrom, W G; Kaplan, B H; Costa, P T; Williams, R B

1992-11-01

57

Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4

Puigbo, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. Garcia; Suarez, J. A.; Yepez, C. Gil

1966-01-01

58

Publication Bias in the Environmental Tobacco Smoke\\/Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiologic Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches are used to assess publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke\\/coronary heart disease (ETS\\/CHD) literature: (1) Statistical tests applied to all sex-specific relative risk (rr) estimates from 14 previously published studies indicate that publication bias is likely. A funnel graph of the studies? log relative risks plotted against their standard errors is asymmetrical, and weighted regression of the

M. E. Levois; M. W. Layard

1995-01-01

59

The challenge of congenital heart disease worldwide: epidemiologic and demographic facts.  

PubMed

Congenital heart disease (CHD) afflicts a large number of children every year. The incidence of CHD is generally considered to be 8 per 1,000 live births. However, this estimate is perhaps inaccurate and does not take into consideration regional differences. A large review of the literature was performed to establish the true incidence of CHD and geographical variations. Data on the incidence of specific lesions and their geographical variation, as well as on mortality from CHD, was also reviewed. Taking into consideration the available data on incidence, mortality, and access to care, the global challenge that CHD represents was analyzed. Insight into how to confront this challenge is given. PMID:20307858

Bernier, Pierre-Luc; Stefanescu, Ada; Samoukovic, Gordan; Tchervenkov, Christo I

2010-01-01

60

Psychosocial Characteristics of Subjects with Myocardial Infarction in Stockholm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter presents a review of studies carried out in Stockholm, Sweden, pertaining to subjects' recent life changes information and their development of myocardial infarction (MI). Several samples of Swedish subjects are presented--persons who had rec...

T. Theorell R. H. Rahe

1973-01-01

61

Ethnic Profile of Patients Undergoing Aesthetic Rhinoplasty in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   During 1985–1995 we performed 640 rhinoplasties in 578 patients. Five hundred eighteen of them were inhabitants of the Province\\u000a of Stockholm, with a population of 1,708,502. The patients from the Stockholm area were analyzed and divided into subgroups\\u000a depending on their ethnic origin. It was found that 272 (52%) of them were of Nordic descent, while 248 (48%) were

Igor Niechajev; Per-Olle Haraldsson

1997-01-01

62

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

63

Livsmedelsfoersoerjningen i Norrland och Stockholm vid Isolering (Food Supply in Northern Sweden and in Stockholm in Case of Isolation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study treats statistics concerning production, consumption and stocks of food supplies in the five administrative provinces of northern Sweden and in the province of Stockholm. Calculations are made concerning how long the inhabitants of the provinces...

Y. Jerhamre

1985-01-01

64

"Gum Bug, Leave My Heart Alone!"--Epidemiologic and Mechanistic Evidence Linking Periodontal Infections and Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Evidence from epidemiologic studies suggests that periodontal infections are independently associated with subclinical and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease. Although the strength of the reported associations is modest, the consistency of the data across diverse populations and a variety of exposure and outcome variables suggests that the findings are not spurious or attributable only to the effects of confounders. Analysis of limited data from interventional studies suggests that periodontal treatment generally results in favorable effects on subclinical markers of atherosclerosis, although such analysis also indicates considerable heterogeneity in responses. Experimental mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies have established the plausibility of a link between periodontal infections and atherogenesis, and have identified biological pathways by which these effects may be mediated. However, the utilized models are mostly mono-infections of host cells by a limited number of ‘model’ periodontal pathogens, and therefore may not adequately portray human periodontitis as a polymicrobial, biofilm-mediated disease. Future research must identify in vivo pathways in humans that may (i) lead to periodontitis-induced atherogenesis, or (ii) result in treatment-induced reduction of atherosclerosis risk. Data from these studies will be essential for determining whether periodontal interventions have a role in the primary or secondary prevention of atherosclerosis.

Kebschull, M.; Demmer, R.T.; Papapanou, P.N.

2010-01-01

65

Organizational instability and cardiovascular risk factors in white-collar employees: An analysis of correlates of structural instability of workplace organization on risk factors for coronary heart disease in a sample of 3,904 white collar employees in the Stockholm region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The economic crisis in Sweden in the 1990s led to major reorganization at many workplaces, which appears to have had negative consequences for occupational and public health. Methods: Psychosocial questionnaires and medical screening data for 3,904 white-collar employees in 15 major companies plus a large number of small-scale entrepreneurs in Stockholm were used. Subjects were part of a study

HUGO WESTERLUND; TÖRES THEORELL; LARS ALFREDSSON

2004-01-01

66

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.

67

Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses in Stockholm preschoolers.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment, habilitation and follow-up. Records of 142 of a total of 147 (123 boys and 24 girls) identified children with ASD diagnoses were scrutinised with respect to type of diagnosis, cognitive level, other developmental disorders and medical/neurological disorders. The overall prevalence of such disorders was 6.2/1000 (95% confidence interval 5.2-7.2/1000). The rates of learning disability/mental retardation, developmental delay without a specified cognitive level and normal intelligence constituted about one third, respectively. AS and atypical autism tended to be diagnosed more often at age 5-6 years while AD with learning disability/mental retardation was more often diagnosed at age 3-4 years. The awareness of ASDs has resulted in increasing numbers of children being diagnosed at young ages. We conclude that it is important to take into account these children's broader developmental profiles, need for repeated assessment of cognitive functions and follow-up over time and also the requirement for medical/neurological consideration and work-up. PMID:20149593

Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-02-10

68

Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: diagnostic pitfalls and epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are global epidemics incurring significant morbidity and mortality. The combination presents many diagnostic challenges. Clinical symptoms and signs frequently overlap. Evaluation of cardiac and pulmonary function is often problematic and occasionally misleading. Echocardiography and pulmonary function tests should be performed in every patient. Careful interpretation is required to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Airflow obstruction, in particular, must be demonstrated when clinically euvolaemic. Very high and very low concentrations of natriuretic peptides have high positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing HF in those with both conditions. Intermediate values are less informative. Both conditions are systemic disorders with overlapping pathophysiological processes. In patients with HF, COPD is consistently an independent predictor of death and hospitalization. However, the impact on ischaemic and arrhythmic events is unknown. Greater collaboration is required between cardiologists and pulmonologists to better identify and manage concurrent HF and COPD. The resulting symptomatic and prognostic benefits outweigh those attainable by treating either condition alone.

Hawkins, Nathaniel Mark; Petrie, Mark C.; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Chalmers, George W.; Dunn, Francis G.; McMurray, John J.V.

2009-01-01

69

Epidemiological and Pathogenic Relationship between Sleep Apnea and Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea is recognized as having high prevalence and causing remarkable cardiovascular risk. Coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea in many reports. The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease in obstructive sleep apnea patients probably includes the activation of multiple mechanisms, as the sympathetic activity, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and systemic hypertension. Moreover, chronic intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress have an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary disease and are also fundamental to the development of atherosclerosis and other comorbidities present in coronary artery diseases such as lipid metabolic disorders. Interestingly, the prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea and the severity of sleep disordered breathing may have a direct relationship with the morbidity and mortality of patients with coronary diseases. Nevertheless, treatment with CPAP may have important effects, and recent reports have described the benefits of obstructive sleep apnea treatment on the recurrence of acute heart ischaemic events in patients with coronary artery disease.

Carpio, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala, Rodolfo; Garcia-Rio, Francisco

2013-01-01

70

Stumm and Morgan receive 1999 Stockholm water prize  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a March 22 press conference in Stockholm, the Stockholm Water Foundation announced that Professors Werner Stumm and James J. Morgan will be awarded the 1999 Stockholm Water Prize. The aquatic chemists will share this distinguished prize of $150,000, which recognizes an individual, organization, or institution that makes a sizable contribution to water resources.The scientists were chosen for their extensive research accomplishments in the discipline, which have improved the understanding of processes in the water environment and have led to the production of better methods for treating wastewater and drinking water throughout the world. Both scientists established aquatic chemistry as a primary discipline for many colleagues, including limnologists, ecologists, and oceanographers. They also coauthored a book titled Aquatic Chemistry, which is a renowned reference for professionals and students throughout the scientific community.

Grant, Shermonta L.

71

Diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease incidence, and death from all causes in African American and European American women: The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study.  

PubMed

Few data are available on risk for coronary heart disease in African American women with diabetes mellitus, a well-established coronary risk factor in European American women. This study tests the hypothesis that medical history of diabetes predicts coronary heart disease incidence in African American women in a national cohort. Participants in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study in this analysis were 1035 African American and 5732 European American women aged 25-74 years without a history of coronary heart disease. Average follow-up for survivors was 19 years (maximum 22 years). Risk of incident coronary heart disease by baseline diabetes status was estimated. Proportional hazards analyses for African American women aged 25-74 revealed significant associations of coronary heart disease risk with diabetes after adjusting for age (RR = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.58-3.64, P < 0.01). After adjusting for age, smoking, and low education, there was an elevated risk in diabetics age 25-74 (RR = 2. 34; 95% CI, 1.54-3.56, P < 0.01); this association did not differ significantly from that for European American women. Excess coronary incidence in African American compared to European American women aged 25-64 was statistically explained by controlling for diabetes history, age, education, and smoking but only partly explained by age and diabetes history. In African American women aged 25-74, diabetes was also associated with increased coronary heart disease, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. The population attributable risk of coronary heart disease incidence associated with a medical history of diabetes was 8.7% in African American women and 6.1% in European American women. Medical history of diabetes was a significant predictor of coronary heart disease incidence and mortality in African American women and explained some of the excess coronary incidence in younger African American compared to European American women. PMID:10812324

Gillum, R F; Mussolino, M E; Madans, J H

2000-05-01

72

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/Ãstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

73

An epidemiologic review of dietary intake studies among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Implications for heart disease and cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Dietary factors play an important role in the occurrence of heart disease and cancer. While American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) have unique heart disease and cancer mortality profiles, little is known about the effect of diet on heart disease and cancer risk in these populations. This paper reviews existing nutritional intake data from adult AIANs, and considers the

Ronny A. Bell; Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis; Yvonne Jackson; Connie Dresser

1997-01-01

74

Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa

75

Epidemiologic Studies of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke in Japanese Men Living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: Prevalence of Coronary and Hypertensive Heart Disease and Associated Risk Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of coronary heart disease (CHD) among Japanese migrants compared with Japanese living in Japan provided the opportunity to study factors possibly responsible for the high rates of CHD in America as compared with Japan. Comparable methods were empl...

M. G. Marmot S. L. Syme A. Kagan H. Kato J. B. Cohen

1974-01-01

76

Genomic variation associated with mortality among adults of European and African ancestry with heart failure: The cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background-Prognosis and survival are significant concerns for individuals with heart failure (HF). To better understand the pathophysiology of HF prognosis, the association between 2 366 858 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and all-cause mortality was evaluated among individuals with incident HF from 4 community-based prospective cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the

A. C. Morrison; J. F. Felix; L. A. Cupples; N. L. Glazer; L. R. Loehr; A. Dehghan; S. Demissie; J. C. Bis; W. D. Rosamond; Y. S. Aulchenko; T. J. Wang; T. Haritunians; A. R. Folsom; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; E. J. Benjamin; T. Lumley; D. J. Couper; B. H. Ch. Stricker; C. J. O´Donnell; K. M. Rice; P. P. Chang; A. Hofman; D. Levy; J. I. Rotter; E. R. Fox; A. G. Uitterlinden; B. M. Psaty; J. T. Willerson; P. Tikka-Kleemola; E. Boerwinkle; J. C. M. Witteman; R. S. Vasan; N. L. Smith

2010-01-01

77

A Meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: The cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity.Methods.We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene\\/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90

A. B. Newman; S. Walter; K. L. Lunetta; M. E. Garcia; P. E. Slagboom; K. Christensen; A. M. Arnold; T. Aspelund; Y. S. Aulchenko; E. J. Benjamin; L. Christiansen; R. B. D'Agostino; A. L. Fitzpatrick; N. Franceschini; N. L. Glazer; V. Gudnason; A. Hofman; R. Kaplan; D. Karasik; M. Kelly-Hayes; D. P. Kiel; L. J. Launer; K. D. Marciante; J. M. Massaro; I. Miljkovic; M. A. Nalls; D. G. Hernandez; B. M. Psaty; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; J. I. Rotter; S. Seshadri; A. V. Smith; K. D. Taylor; H. Tiemeier; H. W. Uh; A. G. Uitterlinden; J. W. Vaupel; J. Walston; R. G. J. Westendorp; T. B. Harris; T. Lumley; P. Tikka-Kleemola; J. M. Murabito

2010-01-01

78

Risk of suicide by psychiatric diagnosis in Stockholm County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The risk of suicide associated with different psychiatric diagnoses was estimated in 80,970 inpatients in Stockholm County (population 1.6 million). All patients discharged with at least one psychiatric diagnosis between 1973 and 1986 were followed by linkage with the cause-of-death registry through 1987. There were 1,115 definite suicides and 467 undetermined suicides among these during the 15-year follow-up. When

Christer Allgulander; Peter Allebeck; Thomas R. Przybeck; John P. Rice

1992-01-01

79

Patterns and scale relations among urbanization measures in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we measure urbanization based on a diverse set of 21 variables ranging from landscape indices to demographic\\u000a factors such as income and land ownership using data from Stockholm, Sweden. The primary aims were to test how the variables\\u000a behaved in relation to each other and if these patterns were consistent across scales. The variables were mostly identified

Erik Andersson; Karin Ahrné; Markku Pyykönen; Thomas Elmqvist

2009-01-01

80

Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context.  

PubMed

There are 14 unconfounded randomised trials of antihypertensive drugs (chiefly diuretics or beta-blockers): total 37,000 individuals, mean treatment duration 5 years, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) difference 5-6 mm Hg. In prospective observational studies, a long-term difference of 5-6 mm Hg in usual DBP is associated with about 35-40% less stroke and 20-25% less coronary heart disease (CHD). For those dying in the trials, the DBP difference had persisted only 2-3 years, yet an overview showed that vascular mortality was significantly reduced (2p less than 0.0002); non-vascular mortality appeared unchanged. Stroke was reduced by 42% SD 6 (95% confidence interval 35-50%; 289 vs 484 events, 2p less than 0.0001), suggesting that virtually all the epidemiologically expected stroke reduction appears rapidly. CHD was reduced by 14% SD 5 (95% CI 4-22%; 671 vs 771 events, 2p less than 0.01), suggesting that just over half the epidemiologically expected CHD reduction appears rapidly. Although this significant CHD reduction could well be worthwhile, its size remains indefinite for most circumstances (though beta-blockers after myocardial infarction are of substantial benefit). At present, therefore, a sufficiently high risk of stroke (perhaps because of age, blood pressure, or, in particular, history of cerebrovascular disease) may be the clearest indication for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:1969567

Collins, R; Peto, R; MacMahon, S; Hebert, P; Fiebach, N H; Eberlein, K A; Godwin, J; Qizilbash, N; Taylor, J O; Hennekens, C H

1990-04-01

81

Risk Stratification of Coronary Heart Disease Through Established and Emerging Lifestyle Factors in a Mediterranean Population: CARDIO2000 Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background In recent decades various lifestyle factors have been associated with the increasing risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study is to assess coronary risk, based on established and emerging lifestyle risk factors such as smoking habit, physical activity, alcohol consumption and depression in a Mediterranean population.Methods During 2000–2001, 535 male and 126 female patients with a

Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Christos Pitsavos; Christine Chrysohoou; Christodoulos Stefanadis; Pavlos Toutouzas

2001-01-01

82

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions. In this article, epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases and, more specifically, of coronary heart disease (CHD), are reviewed to document their major public health importance, the changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of these trends. The major risk indicators for CHD are reviewed and found

C. David Jenkins

1988-01-01

83

Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.  

PubMed

A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

2012-07-01

84

Dynamics of Two Separate but Linked HIV-1 CRF01_AE Outbreaks among Injection Drug Users in Stockholm, Sweden, and Helsinki, Finland? †  

PubMed Central

Detailed phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize an HIV-1 outbreak among injection drug users (IDUs) in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2006. This study investigated the source and dynamics of HIV-1 spread during the outbreak as well as associated demographic and clinical factors. Seventy Swedish IDUs diagnosed during 2004 to 2007 were studied. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected, and the V3 region of the HIV-1 envelope gene was sequenced to allow detailed phylogenetic analyses. The results showed that the Stockholm outbreak was caused by a CRF01_AE variant imported from Helsinki, Finland, around 2003, which was quiescent until the outbreak started in 2006. Local Swedish subtype B variants continued to spread at a lower rate. The number of new CRF01_AE cases over a rooted phylogenetic tree accurately reflected the transmission dynamics and showed a temporary increase, by a factor of 12, in HIV incidence during the outbreak. Virus levels were similar in CRF01_AE and subtype B infections, arguing against differences in contagiousness. Similarly, there were no major differences in other baseline characteristics. Instead, the outbreak in Stockholm (and Helsinki) was best explained by an introduction of HIV into a standing network of previously uninfected IDUs. The combination of phylogenetics and epidemiological data creates a powerful tool for investigating outbreaks of HIV and other infectious diseases that could improve surveillance and prevention.

Skar, Helena; Axelsson, Maria; Berggren, Ingela; Thalme, Anders; Gyllensten, Katarina; Liitsola, Kirsi; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki; Kivela, Pia; Spangberg, Erika; Leitner, Thomas; Albert, Jan

2011-01-01

85

Ethnic profile of patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty in Stockholm.  

PubMed

During 1985-1995 we performed 640 rhinoplasties in 578 patients. Five hundred eighteen of them were inhabitants of the Province of Stockholm, with a population of 1,708,502. The patients from the Stockholm area were analyzed and divided into subgroups depending on their ethnic origin. It was found that 272 (52%) of them were of Nordic descent, while 248 (48%) were born in and immigrated from non-Scandinavian countries. Among the latter, the largest group were 166 people of Middle Eastern extraction, who generally strived to reduce the size of their noses to the size similar to the average nose of the native Swedes. Middle Easterners were 17 times more prone to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty than the ethnic Swedes (p < 0.001), whereas immigrants from the other Scandinavian countries had the same rhinoplasty frequency pattern as the natives. In the Slavic group females outnumbered males by the ratio 17:1. The large prevalence of patients of foreign extraction desiring alteration of their noses may reflect the assimilation difficulties and low tolerance of the society in accepting people with a foreign look or name, both in the private sector and in the job market. Psychological aspects of decision making by patients and medico-ethical aspects of decision making by surgeons are discussed. PMID:9204171

Niechajev, I; Haraldsson, P O

86

Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on Heart Attack and Mortality in Mexican-American Elderly Persons: Findings of 7Year Follow-Up From the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We aim to examine the effect of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) on heart attack and overall mortality in Mexican-American elderly persons over 7-year follow-up. Methods. We studied 3050 Mexican Americans aged 65 or older from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly conducted in five Southwestern states of the United States. Participants were categorized into two

Max E. Otiniano; Xianglin L. Du; Mario R. Maldonado; Laura Ray; Kyriakos Markides

87

Outcomes in Pediatric Trauma Care in the Stockholm Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background:\\u000a   Although trauma is a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity in Sweden, few studies have examined the outcome of\\u000a pediatric trauma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective:\\u000a   Here, we describe the age and gender distribution, injury mechanisms, injury severity, and outcome of pediatric trauma in\\u000a the Stockholm region.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:\\u000a   This retrospective study comprises all trauma patients (age ? 15 years) admitted to

Kerstin Sluys; Margaretha Lannge; Lennart Iselius; Lars E. Eriksson

2010-01-01

88

Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago.  

PubMed

Improved benthic conditions compared to the 1990s were found during benthic investigations, including sediment and benthic macrofauna in the inner Stockholm archipelago during 2008. In the 1990s, these areas were dominated by black and laminated surface sediments and very sparse fauna. A clear relationship was found when comparing sediment status with the benthic macrofauna. Reduced surface sediment and impoverished macroinvertebrate community was only found at one sampling station representing an enclosed part of the inner archipelago, whereas the other seven stations, with depths ranging from 20 to 50 m, had oxidized surface sediments and considerable biomasses of benthic macrofauna (6-65 g m(-2)) dominated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta. An extrapolation of the results shows that, within the investigated area, the coverage of reduced surface sediments had decreased from approximately 17% in the late 1990s to 4% in 2008. PMID:21090003

Karlsson, O Magnus; Jonsson, Per O; Lindgren, Dan; Malmaeus, J Mikael; Stehn, Anders

2010-11-01

89

A first report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers and bus drivers were performed in Stockholm during the autumn of 2004. Another field survey of the attitude of the fuel cell bus passengers is planned towards the end of the CUTE Stockholm project, i.e. during the autumn of 2005.The main results from the surveys are:•People are generally positive

K. Haraldsson; A. Folkesson; M. Saxe; P. Alvfors

2006-01-01

90

Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives\\u000a in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm,\\u000a Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A

Marika Wenemark; Åsa Vernby; Annika Lindahl Norberg

2010-01-01

91

A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.  

PubMed

Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets. PMID:22795396

Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery

2012-07-12

92

Social Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

93

Primary Prevention of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed.

Butler, Javed

2012-01-01

94

Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular. The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site

Kerstin Castenfors; Lina Svedin

2001-01-01

95

How Can Local Environmental Planning Affect Forest Soil Acidity? A Case Study in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to assess how local planning can influence the acidity in the upper forest soil layer. Exceedance of soil acidity was determined by a steady-state mass balance model approach in relation to both present and future deposition. Future deposition scenarios were derived for Stockholm County based on transportation planning. Europe-wide scenarios were derived using the

Eric Rapaport

2002-01-01

96

Childhood overweight and obesity prevalences levelling off in Stockholm but socioeconomic differences persist  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Time trends in overweight, obesity and underweight among 10-year-old children were investigated between 1999 and 2003 with attention to gender and areas with different socioeconomic status (SES). MATERIAL: The study was performed in Stockholm County, where schools within eight different SES areas were randomly sampled. In selected schools, data on height and weight were abstracted from school health records

E. Sundblom; M. Petzold; F. Rasmussen; E. Callmer; L. Lissner

2008-01-01

97

Nutrient management for coastal zones: a case study of the nitrogen load to the Stockholm Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates cost-effective solutions of decreasing the nutrient load to a coastal area, using a drainage basin approach. The study is applied to the Stockholm Archipelago, a coastal area of the Baltic Sea suffering from eutrophication caused by the load of nutrients entering the area. Nitrogen is the nutrient of concern in this study since it is the limiting

H. Scharin

98

Markets work in war: World War II reflected in the Zurich and Stockholm bond markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines how trading on two geographically separate financial markets reflected political events before and during World War II. Specifically, we compare sovereign debt prices on the Zurich and Stockholm stock exchanges and find considerable (but not complete) symmetry in the price responses across the two markets in relation to turning points in the war, which suggests that markets

BRUNO S. FREY; DANIEL WALDENSTR M

2004-01-01

99

Scandinavian Corrosion Congress NKM 10. Proceedings of Congress Held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 2, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The congress was arranged by the Swedish Corrosion Institute, 2-4 June 1986, in Stockholm. 48 lectures and 35 poster presentations were given. The number of attendees was approximately 270. 75 of the presentations have been published in proceedings in Eng...

E. Mattsson

1986-01-01

100

50Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis.

Lennart Tomenius

1986-01-01

101

Daily Air Temperature and Pressure Series for Stockholm (1756–1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily meteorological observations have been made at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. Complete daily mean series of air temperature and sea level pressure are reconstructed from the observational data for 1756–1998. The temperature and pressure series arereconstructed and homogenized with the aid of metadata, statistical tests and comparisons with data from other stations. Comparisons with independently reconstructed

Anders Moberg; Hans Bergström; Josefin Ruiz Krigsman; Ola Svanered

2002-01-01

102

Computational Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Born from a desire to predict the future, epidemiology has largely been limited to studying the past. Now, computational epidemiology researchers are harnessing computing power to crack the complicated mystery of how diseases spread.

Pam Frost Gorder

2010-01-01

103

Spartaxi: Ett Effektivt och Hallbart Trafiksystem. Analyser av en Pilotbana i Stockholm. Marknad och Ekonomi (Personal Rapid Transit (PRT). An Efficient and Long-Term Sustainable Traffic System. Analysis of a Demonstration Network in Stockholm).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On behalf of the Office of Regional Planning and Urban Transportation at the Stockholm County Council and with financial funding from KFB, Transek Consultants was commissioned to analyze conditions, market and economic viability of a Personal Rapid transi...

G. Tegner J. Henningsson V. Loncar-Lucassi G. Lind I. Andreasson

1999-01-01

104

The relationship of HDL-apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-Cholesterol to risk factors of coronary heart disease: initial results of the prospective epidemiological study in company employees in Westfalia.  

PubMed

In a prospective epidemiologic study in company employees in Westfalia aimed at improving early diagnosis of coronary heart disease in 3069 men and 1387 women, concentrations of HDL-apolipoprotein A-I and HDL-cholesterol were measured and the results were correlated with several risk factors of coronary heart disease. A negative correlation between hypertriglyceridaemia and HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.25 male;-0.27 female;p less than 0.001) and between relative body weight and HDL-cholesterol (r=-0.21 male;-0.20 female;p less than 0.001) could be shown but not between hypertriglyceridaemia and HDL-apolipoprotein A-I and between relative body weight and HDL-apolipoprotein A-I. In cigarette smokers HDL-apolipoprotein A-I as well as HDL-cholesterol were found to be lower than in non-smokers. On the other hand HDL-apolipoprotein A-I but not HDL-cholesterol was positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:7108447

Assmann, G; Funke, H; Schriewer, H

1982-05-01

105

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) as new Stockholm Convention POPs—a global perspective on the management of Lindane and its waste isomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (?-, ?- and ?- (Lindane)) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants\\u000a (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention, and therefore, the legacy of HCH and Lindane production became a contemporary topic of\\u000a global relevance. This article wants to briefly summarise the outcomes of the Stockholm Convention process and make an estimation\\u000a of the amount of HCH waste

John Vijgen; P. C. Abhilash; Yi Fan Li; Rup Lal; Martin Forter; Joao Torres; Nandita Singh; Mohammad Yunus; Chongguo Tian; Andreas Schäffer; Roland Weber

2011-01-01

106

The effects of UV disinfection on distribution pipe biofilm growth and pathogen incidence within the greater Stockholm area, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the effects of the transition from conventional chlorination to UV disinfection on potable water biofilm growth and pathogen incidence was made. Two hydraulic systems were tested, one a 1.0km polyethylene pilot-scale system within the Lovö waterworks, Stockholm, Sweden, as well as Hässelby and Nockeby municipal distribution systems within the greater Stockholm area. Biofilms were propagated on coupons

Jonas Långmark; Michael V. Storey; Nicholas J. Ashbolt; Thor-Axel Stenström

2007-01-01

107

‘Concrete bodies’: young Latina women transgressing the boundaries of race and class in white inner-city Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines young Latina women's interactions in the urban landscape of Stockholm, with a particular focus on white, middle-class areas, and how social difference and racial positioning are produced in and through the processes of urban segregation. Although Stockholm consists of different multiethnic and middle-class white suburbs, a discourse of sharp division between ‘the suburb’ and the inner-city is

Catrin Lundström

2010-01-01

108

A scale for identifying "Stockholm syndrome" reactions in young dating women: factor structure, reliability, and validity.  

PubMed

The factor structure, reliability, and validity of a 49-item scale designed to measure Stockholm Syndrome (also referred to as "traumatic bonding" and "terror bonding"), that is, bonding with an abusive partner, were assessed for college women in heterosexual dating relationships. Factor analysis identified three major factors: Core Stockholm Syndrome, characterized by cognitive distortions and other strategies for coping with abuse; Psychological Damage, marked by depression, low self-esteem, and loss of sense of self; and Love-Dependence, typified by the feeling that one cannot survive without one's partner's love. The scale and factors had excellent internal consistency and good test-retest reliabilities. They correlated negatively with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale and positively with Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez' (1979) Impact of Event Scale, Hyler and Rieder's (1987) Borderline Personality Disorder Scale, Hatfield and Sprecher's (1986) Passionate Love Scale, and Straus' (1979) Verbal Aggression and Violence scales of the Conflict Tactics Scales. PMID:8555117

Graham, D L; Rawlings, E I; Ihms, K; Latimer, D; Foliano, J; Thompson, A; Suttman, K; Farrington, M; Hacker, R

1995-01-01

109

Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods.

Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jarup, L

2001-01-01

110

Epidemiology of heart failure in a community-based study of subjects aged 57 years: Incidence and long-term survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background: Survival data from hospital-based or clinical trial studies of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) do not represent survival in community-based,settings. Aims: To determine the incidence of CHF and the associated long-term survival in a community-based,sample aged,57 years and to assess the mortality risk associated with sex and age. Methods: This study was part of the Groningen Longitudinal

Cornelia H. m. Van Jaarsveld; Adelita V. Ranchor; Gertrudis I. j. m. Kempen; James C. Coyne; Dirk J. Van Veldhuisen; Robbert Sanderman

111

Chronic Chagas’ heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening\\u000a complications, and with a latency of 10–30 years, mostly Chagas’ heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients’ social and labor

Silvia Gilka Muñoz-Saravia; Annekathrin Haberland; Gerd Wallukat; Ingolf Schimke

112

Quality of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug prescribing in Croatia (Rijeka) and Sweden (Stockholm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We compared the utilisation pattern and cost of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Rijeka, Croatia and in Stockholm, Sweden using a newly introduced method for assessing the quality of drug use, i.e. to determine the number of drugs that account for 90% of the use and the adherence to evidence-based recommendations within this segment (the DU90% methodology). Methods. We

Vera Vlahovic-Palcevski; Björn Wettermark; Ulf Bergman

2002-01-01

113

Advantages of breastfeeding according to Turkish mothers living in Istanbul and Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a cross-sectional study, carried out among Turkish mother-infant pairs, the mothers of 269 infants living in Istanbul and 30 living in Stockholm were asked about their opinions as to the advantages and\\/or disadvantages of breastfeeding. The answers were categorized according to the attributes mentioned, quantified and related to the socio-economic status of the area of residence, maternal

Tahire Koctürk

1988-01-01

114

Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveReports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity.MethodThe Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage

Selma Idring; Dheeraj Rai; Henrik Dal; Christina Dalman; Harald Sturm; Eric Zander; Brian K. Lee; Eva Serlachius; Cecilia Magnusson

2012-01-01

115

The colour-system of architectural structuralism: The office complex Garnisonen, Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swedish architectural structuralism is closely connected to the golden years of Swedish economy when standardisation and rational prefabrication were prerequisite. The foundations were Anglo-Saxon post-war architectural theory as well as English and Dutch practice. The giant office complex Garnisonen on Karlavägen in Stockholm (1969-1972, Tage Herzell, A4 \\/ ELLT architects) has a uniform facade covered in plates of dark

Mari FERRING

116

Surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis in Stockholm County, 1955 to 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time trends in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis in Stockholm County over the 30-year period 1955 to 1984 were investigated.\\u000a Four hundred eighty-six patients (263 men and 223 women) were submitted to colectomy with or without proctectomy. In elective\\u000a cases, proctocolectomy was the procedure of choice until the 1980s, when subtotal colectomy became more common. In acute cases\\u000a subtotal colectomy

Carl-Eric Leijonmarck; Olle Broström; Ulla Monsen; Göran Hellers

1989-01-01

117

Randomized study of mammography screening — preliminary report on mortality in the stockholm trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In March 1981, 40,318 women in Stockholm, aged 40–64, entered a randomized trial of breast cancer screening by single-view mammography alone versus no intervention in a control group of 20,000 women. The attendance rate during the first screening round was 81 per cent and the cancer detection rate was 4.0 per 1000 women. The detection the rate fell to

J. Frisell; G. Eklund; L. Hellström; E. Lidbrink; L.-E. Rutqvist; A. Somell

1991-01-01

118

Clinical profile and management of heart failure: rural community hospital vs. metropolitan heart center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Knowledge on clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with heart failure originates from studies of selected populations in clinical trials or from epidemiological observations. Reports on the large numbers of patients with heart failure treated in community hospitals are sparse. Objectie: Are there differences in patient characteristics and heart Ž. Ž . failure management between a metropolitan heart center

G. Taubert; C. Bergmeier; H. Andresenb; J. Potratz

2001-01-01

119

Environmental Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

120

Diastolic heart failure: mechanisms and controversies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological and experimental studies have documented both the rising burden of diastolic heart failure (DHF) and several mechanisms that distinguish this disease from systolic heart failure (SHF). Controversies continue to surround the term 'DHF' as well as its existence as a pathophysiological entity distinct from SHF. Approximately half of all patients who present with heart failure have near-normal systolic function

Maral Ouzounian; Douglas S Lee; Peter P Liu

2008-01-01

121

Inflammatory and hemostatic markers in relation to cardiovascular prognosis in patients with stable angina pectoris. Results from the APSIS study. The Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm.  

PubMed

Increased inflammatory activity and platelet activation have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in epidemiological studies, but their prognostic importance in patients with stable angina pectoris is less well established. The Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm (APSIS), comprised 809 patients (2766 patient years) with stable angina pectoris on double-blind treatment with verapamil or metoprolol. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and orosomucoid (an acute phase reactant), white blood cell counts (WBC), platelet counts and the urinary excretion of beta-thromboglobulin (reflecting platelet secretion), were related to the risk of CV death (n=36), non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) (n=30) or revascularization (n=99) in a subgroup of 782 patients. Verapamil and metoprolol had only minor effects on the inflammatory variables. In multivariate Cox regression analyses (adjusted for previous MI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking), fibrinogen and WBC were independent predictors of CV death or non-fatal MI, as well as the risk of revascularization. Orosomucoid did not carry any independent information. Platelet counts and urinary beta-thromboglobulin were not significantly related to CV prognosis. The treatment given did not significantly influence the prognostic impact of either fibrinogen or WBC. Fibrinogen and WBC were independent predictors of CV death or non-fatal MI as well as disease progression leading to revascularization in patients with stable angina pectoris. As fibrinogen is also an acute-phase reactant, the present findings indicate that inflammatory activity is involved in disease progression in stable angina pectoris. PMID:10580184

Held, C; Hjemdahl, P; Håkan Wallén, N; Björkander, I; Forslund, L; Wiman, B; Rehnqvist, N

2000-01-01

122

Nutritional status of deceased illicit drug addicts in Stockholm, Sweden--a longitudinal medicolegal study.  

PubMed

Autopsy investigations, toxicological analyses, and calculation of body mass index were performed in 1180 deceased illicit drug addicts (IDAs) in Stockholm. Sweden during 1988-2000, i.e., during a period of time when the general population in numerous countries showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight. Nutritional deficit in IDAs has been pointed out as a threat to their health as well as to their quality of life. The prevalence of overweight in deceased IDAs increased from 27.4% in 1988 to 45.5% in 2000. The prevalence of overweight among all heroin users, heroin injectors, methadone, cocaine, and amphetamine users was 36.0, 38.4, 43.1, 45.0 and 50.9%, respectively, the lowest prevalence being among users of cannabis alone and HIV-positive IDAs (22.0 and 16.1%, respectively). In conclusion, Stockholm's IDAs are affected by the past decade's dramatically increased prevalence of overweight, at least to the same degree as the general population. The increased body weight seems not to influence the danger of dying upon heroin administration. PMID:15027554

Rajs, Jovan; Petersson, Anna; Thiblin, Ingemar; Olsson-Mortlock, Caroline; Fredriksson, Ake; Eksborg, Staffan

2004-03-01

123

[The Ribe family during the 1700- and 1800 centuries. A distinguished family of doctors in Stockholm].  

PubMed

The Ribe family descended from Mecklenburg. The first member Mathias Bernhard Ribe, arriving in Stockholm 1660, became appointed barber-surgeon to the court of King Charles XI and elected as Director of the Surgical Society 1693. In the following three generations, seven members of the family, after basic university studies in Uppsala and lengthy stays at foreign universities and hospitals, returned to Sweden practising surgery or medicine in Stockholm and Gothenburg. A biography of each of the Ribe doctors is presented. Two members of the family are specially interesting from ophthalmological point of view, Evald and Carl-Fredric Ribe. They were both fellows of the Royal Swedish Academy of Science. In the proceedings of the Academy they have published articles dealing with ophthalmological subjects. Evald Ribe gives a case report on treatment of a young man with a sudden loss of vision and partly paralized due to a traumatic accident. After repeated treatments with emetica, part of the vision returned, also the capability to move the paralysed right fingers, hand and arm. Carl-Fredric Ribe described the surgical technique on a case of cataracta lactea, and the surgical treatment of a young man with a probable conjunctivitis gonorroica. - When he is resigning from a period as president of the Academy, he gives a lecture reviewing the contemporary knowledge of the physiology and pathology of the eye, and advises about treatment of various eye diseases. PMID:11624767

Rehn, N O

1995-01-01

124

Personal exposure to carcinogenic and toxic air pollutants in Stockholm, Sweden: A comparison over time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benzene, 1,3-butadiene, benz(a)pyrene, NO x and NO 2 were measured by personal sampling, stationary indoor sampling, and at two reference sites (urban background/traffic site) in Stockholm, Sweden during September-December 2009. The aim was to investigate whether the air pollution levels had decreased since a previous study conducted six year earlier, and to compare personal exposure levels (one-week average) and indoor levels with levels at outdoor reference sites. Participants were 20-50 years of age, randomly selected among residents in the Stockholm municipality. The personal exposure levels to benzene and 1,3-butadiene were higher than the levels at the reference sites. Personal exposure to NO x and NO 2 were higher than urban background levels, but the NO 2 exposure level was lower than traffic site levels. Benz(a)pyrene showed lower concentrations indoors compared to outdoor levels, although a significant correlation was found between indoor and outdoor levels. All of the air pollutant levels had decreased since the previous study, both for personal exposure and reference site levels. The results from the present study indicate that urban background measurements for these compounds are suitable for monitoring decreasing or increasing trends in air pollution levels but since the personal exposure levels did not correlate well with weekly ambient levels, personal sampling seems essential for assessing population exposure.

Yazar, Mine; Bellander, Tom; Merritt, Anne-Sophie

2011-06-01

125

The prevalence of alcohol-related mortality in both sexes: variation between indicators, Stockholm, 1987.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence rates of alcohol-related mortality--according to various indicators--in both sexes in Stockholm, Sweden. METHODS. A study of alcohol involvement at death was undertaken for all 668 deceased persons aged 15 through 54 years in 1987 in Stockholm. Death certificates, autopsy information, police records, and information about earlier conviction were analyzed. RESULTS. When different measures of estimation were compared, there were great differences in the prevalence rates of alcohol involvement. According to the death certificates, 9.2% of the males and 11.2% of the females had alcoholism, alcohol intoxication, pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis as underlying cause of death. When all accessible information was used, potential alcohol involvement was found in 57.5% of the male and in 32.2% of the female deaths. There was a marked association between earlier drunken driving and alcohol involvement. After reevaluation of the diagnoses with autopsy findings, the number of cases with cardiac enlargement and suspected cardiomyopathy increased from 10 to 62. CONCLUSION. The results point to the serious underdiagnosis of alcohol involvement in death certificates and the misclassification of important causes of death (i.e., liver cirrhosis and cardiac disease); they also call for increased efforts regarding prevention.

Romelsjo, A; Karlsson, G; Henningsohn, L; Jakobsson, S W

1993-01-01

126

Latrin och Matavfall iKretslopp i Stockhoms Skaefgaerd (Recirculation of Latrine and Food Waste in Stockholm Archipelago).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

YMCA-YWCA hire Angsholmen, an island in the archipelago of Stockholm, for different kind of youth camps in a wonderful environment. The treatment latrine waste of today poses a large economic and nutrient recycling problem. Latrine is collected in buckets...

A. Bjoerklund

2002-01-01

127

PAHs in Stockholm window films: Evaluation of the utility of window film content as indicator of PAHs in urban air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thin organic film that builds up on the exterior surface of windows has been proposed as a ubiquitously available passive sampler for semi-volatile organic contaminants (SOCs) in urban air. Readily available school windows were sampled in Stockholm city centre and suburban locations in both winter and summer season to evaluate the putative usefulness of this matrix for assessing the

Maria Unger; Örjan Gustafsson

2008-01-01

128

Interaction Domains and Suicide: A Population-Based Panel Study of Suicides in Stockholm, 1991-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6…

Hedstrom, Peter; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Nordvik, Monica K.

2008-01-01

129

Do Students Correctly Estimate Their Reading Ability? A Study of Stockholm Students in Grades 3 and 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from a survey in Stockholm are used to look at differences between how students' self-concepts and self-efficacy relate to actual reading skills, differences between how boys and girls estimate their reading, and differences between how older and younger students estimate their reading. A quarter of the students made correct self-assessments…

Fredriksson, Ulf; Villalba, Ernesto; Taube, Karin

2011-01-01

130

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

131

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood ... the section of heart muscle begins to die. Heart attacks are a leading killer of both men and ...

132

Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...

133

Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... to Repair or replace heart valves, which control blood flow through the heart Repair abnormal or damaged structures in the heart ... control the heartbeat or support heart function and blood flow Replace a damaged heart with a healthy heart from a donor Treat ...

134

Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina).  

PubMed

The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers--were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others. PMID:22580747

Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Sinanovic, Kemo; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Larssen, Thorjørn

2012-05-13

135

Apolipoprotein C-I genotype and serum levels of triglycerides, C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein C-I (apoCI) is implicated in lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, both important risk factors for human heart disease. However, most findings come from in vitro or animal studies, whereas data on human apoCI are sparse. To elucidate the role of apoCI in human disease, we analyzed a functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the apoCI gene in relation to blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), coronary artery disease (CAD), and myocardial infarction (MI). Rs11568822 is a 4-base pair insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphism, and the Ins allele leads to a higher transcription in vitro compared with the Del allele. This polymorphism was analyzed in the Intergene study, a case-control study for CAD (N = 1236), and the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a case-control study for MI (N = 2774). Subjects homozygous for the Ins genotype had significantly higher serum levels of triglycerides (P = .01 and P = .006) and lower serum levels of CRP (P = .02 and P < .0001) compared with all other subjects in both studies. Similar results were obtained when analyzing only the controls of both studies (P = .002 and P = .0002, triglycerides; P = .002 and P < .0001, CRP). However, apoCI was not associated with CAD or MI. In conclusion, our data show that apoCI genotype is associated with serum levels of triglycerides and CRP, confirming the role of apoCI in lipid metabolism and suggesting that it also influences inflammation. PMID:20580041

Olsson, Bob; Gigante, Bruna; Mehlig, Kirsten; Bergsten, Alicia; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Lissner, Lauren; Thelle, Dag S; Carlsson, Lena M S

2010-07-02

136

Psychophysiology of Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The link between heart and mind has represented for centuries an intriguing topic for researchers; it is interesting and at\\u000a the same time difficult to explore [1]. A number of pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical studies have emphasized the complex interactions that exist\\u000a between neural influences and cardiovascular function, both physiologically and in the context of neural or cardiovascular\\u000a diseases [1].

G. Parati; M. Valentini; G. Mancia

137

Socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics among snus users and dual tobacco users in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of snus users have not been systematically described. Such knowledge is pivotal for tobacco control efforts and for the assessment of health effects of snus use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on the Stockholm Public Health Survey, including a population-based sample of 34,707 men and women aged 18-84 years. We examined how socio-demographic,

Karin Engström; Cecilia Magnusson; Maria Rosaria Galanti

2010-01-01

138

Favourable long term prognosis in stable angina pectoris: an extended follow up of the angina prognosis study in Stockholm (APSIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the long term prognosis of patients with stable angina pectoris.Design: Registry based follow up (median 9.1 years) of patients participating in the APSIS (angina prognosis study in Stockholm), which was a double blind, single centre trial of antianginal drug treatment.Patients: 809 patients (31% women) with stable angina pectoris < 70 (mean (SD) 59 (7) years at inclusion)

P Hjemdahl; S V Eriksson; C Held; L Forslund; P Na?sman; N Rehnqvist

2006-01-01

139

Antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes on the skin of patients with moderate to severe acne in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to study the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from patients with moderate to severe acne in Stockholm, Sweden and to determine the diversity of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types among resistant P. acnes strains. One hundred antibiotic-treated patients and 30 non-antibiotic-treated patients with moderate to severe acne participated in the investigation. Facial, neck

Cristina Oprica; Lennart Emtestam; Jan Lapins; Erik Borglund; Filippa Nyberg; Kajsa Stenlund; Lena Lundeberg; Eva Sillerström; Carl Erik Nord

2004-01-01

140

Patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35–64 years at four primary health care centres in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the prevalence of known diabetes, and complications of type 2 diabetes, among subjects aged 35–64 years, in relation to socio-economic factors and gender at four primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Stockholm County, Sweden. A total of 685 diabetic subjects aged 35–64 years of age were identified in primary care by diagnosis using electronic patient records. Data

Per Eric Wändell; Catharina Gåfvels

2004-01-01

141

Sexual expression among 60–80?year?old men and women: A sample from stockholm, sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire concerning physical and mental health, religion, loneliness, sexual interest and activity (masturbation, sexual intercourse) was sent by post to 1,574 randomly chosen persons, between 60–80 years of age, in the larger Stockholm area. The main findings from this survey were: sexual interest and activity are present even in older ages (i.e., sixty?one percent of the total group express

Helle H. Nielsen

1990-01-01

142

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... WHO .int site Submit Advanced search Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Subnavigation WER Home 2013: Volume 88 2012: ... 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as ...

143

Optimization of the Stockholm R-EBIT for production and extraction of highly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a refrigerated EBIT (R-EBIT) commissioned at the AlbaNova Research Center at Stockholm University. As an innovative solution, the superconducting magnet and the trapping drift tubes of the R-EBIT are cooled to a temperature of 4 K by a set of two cooling heads connected to helium compressors. This dry, i.e. liquid helium and liquid nitrogen free, system is easily operated and creates highly charged ions at a fraction of the cost of traditional liquid-cooled systems. A pulsed and continuous gas injection system was developed to feed neutral particles into the electron beam in the trap region. This improves significantly the highly charged ion production and R-EBIT performance. Fast extraction of ions from the R-EBIT yields very short ( < 100 ns), charge-separated ion bunches which can be either analysed using a straight time-of-flight section or sent to experimental beam lines following selection in a bending magnet. An emittance meter was used to measure the emittance of the ions extracted from the R-EBIT. The extracted ions were also re-trapped in a cylindrical Penning trap and properties of the re-trapped ions have been measured using the emittance meter. Results of these measurements are reported in this publication.

Hobein, M.; Orban, I.; Böhm, S.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Fritioff, T.; Tashenov, S.; Schuch, R.

2010-11-01

144

Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

2013-04-21

145

Development of a black carbon-inclusive multi-media model: application for PAHs in Stockholm.  

PubMed

A multi-media model was developed for predicting the fate of organic chemicals in the Greater Stockholm Area, Sweden, and applied to selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although urban models have been previously developed, this model is novel in that it includes sorption to pyrogenically-derived particles, commonly termed "black carbon" (BC), within the model structure. To examine the influence of BC sorption on environmental fate of PAHs, two versions of the model were generated and run: one in which sorption to BC was included and one in which BC sorption was excluded. The inclusion of BC sorption did not cause any significant variations to air levels, but it did cause an average 20-30% increase in sediment concentrations related to increased sediment solids partitioning. The model also predicted reduced advective losses out of the model domain, as well as chemical potential to diffuse from sediments, whilst total chemical inventory increased. In all cases, the lighter PAHs were more affected by BC inclusion than their heavier counterparts. We advocate the addition of sorption to BC in future multi-media fate and exposure models, which as well as influencing fate will also alter (lower) chemical availability and, thus, wildlife exposure to hydrophobic chemicals. A quantification of the latter was derived with the help of the soot-inclusive model version, which estimated a lowering of dissolved water concentrations between five and >200 times for the different PAHs of this study. PMID:17714755

Prevedouros, Konstantinos; Palm-Cousins, Anna; Gustafsson, Orjan; Cousins, Ian T

2007-08-21

146

Traffic aerosol emission velocity derived from direct flux measurements over urban Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-resolved aerosol vertical number fluxes were measured using the eddy covariance method, 105 meters above the ground over the city of Stockholm, Sweden, between 1st April 2008 and 15th April 2009. The size range of the measurements cover particles from 0.25 to 2.5 ?m diameter ( D p ). Emission velocities ( v e ) were calculated for the same size range and were found to be well correlated with friction velocity ( u ) and CO 2 fluxes ( F CO 2 ). These variables were used to parameterize the emission velocity as v = ( 129.14 ( 0.01 D p 2 + 0.06 D + 0.008 ) + 1.22 ) u F CO where v e and u are given in [m s -1 ], D p in [?m], and F CO 2 in [mmol m -2 s -1 ]. The parameterization reproduces the average diurnal cycle from the observations well for particles sizes up to 0.6 ?m D p . For larger particles the parameterization tends to over predict the emission velocity. These larger particles are not believed to be produced by combustion and therefore not well represented by F CO 2 , which represents the traffic source through its fossil fuel consumption and the related CO 2 emissions.

Vogt, M.; Nilsson, E. D.; Ahlm, L.; Mårtensson, E. M.; Struthers, H.; Johansson, C.

2011-10-01

147

Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... in learning more about heart disease in women? View a Storify archive of a September 28, 2012, Twitter chat on women’s heart health. The discussion includes experts from The Heart Truth® , Million Hearts™ , healthfinder.gov , and the American College of Cardiology’s CardioSmart ™ Know the Facts and ...

148

[Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (diastolic heart failure)].  

PubMed

Diastolic heart failure, which is also called as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, is a clinical syndrome in which patients have signs and symptoms of heart failure, normal or near normal left ventricular ejection fraction (? 50%) and evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that more than half of all heart failure patients have diastolic heart failure. The syndrome is more common in women than in men and the prevalence increases with age. Patients with diastolic heart failure form a fairly heterogeneous group with complex pathophysiologic mechanisms. The disease is often in association with other comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus or obesity. The diagnosis of diastolic heart failure is best achieved by two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, which can detect abnormal myocardial relaxation, decreased compliance and increased filling pressure in the setting of normal left ventricular dimensions and preserved ejection fraction. Unlike heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, there is no such an evidence-based treatment for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which would improve clinical outcomes. Thus, pharmacological therapy of diastolic heart failure is based mainly on empiric data, and aims to the normalization of blood pressure, reduction of left ventricular dimensions and increased heart rate, maintenance of normal atrial contraction and treatment of symptoms caused by congestion. Beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers may be utilized in patients with diastolic dysfunction, especially in those with hypertension. Beta-blockers appear to be useful in lowering heart rate and thereby prolonging left ventricular diastolic filling time, while diuretic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for preventing pulmonary congestion. Nonetheless, treatment of the underlying disease is also an important therapeutic approach. This review summarizes the state of current knowledge with regard to diastolic heart failure. PMID:23248058

Czuriga, István; Borbély, Attila; Czuriga, Dániel; Papp, Zoltán; Edes, István

2012-12-23

149

EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

In this paper we have described the first part of an experimental study of the epidemiology of mouse typhoid. One set of data has been presented on the basis of which little or no analysis has been attempted. The immediate object has been rather to collect materials than to undertake to account for the phenomena encountered. It is obvious that the factors involved in the inquiry are intricate, but it is believed that they are not necessarily or all beyond disentanglement. About 500 mice in all have been studied in an experimental village, brought together in increments among a population in which mouse typhoid experimentally induced was prevailing. The results have been presented according to two phenomena; namely, mortality or death rate, and bacillus carriage rate. The material does not lend itself to consideration according to morbidity rates. If it were established that every instance of attack, when not fatal, was attended by carrier production for the bacillus of mouse typhoid, reliable morbidity tables could be constructed. In the absence of this certain criterion, the materials here presented can be dealt with only as mortality data. This fact is attended with obvious disadvantages in respect to the epidemiological material assembled regarding infectious disease in man. In spite, however, of the drawbacks, it is already evident that the results obtained by the sort of inquiry here described may come to throw no inconsiderable light on moot problems on the origin, mode of spread, and manner of decline of epidemic diseases in general. The analysis of the strains by selecting single cells and thus establishing substrains has yielded results which may eventually have value in explaining fluctuations in virulence. Among the positive data arising from the experiments with such cultures are, first, that there have been obtained by mechanical means from the ordinary bacteriologically pure culture, single cell strains exhibiting slightly different pathogenic activity, whether administered by mouth or parenterally, and second, that more regular results are obtained with intraperitoneal injections of these strains than with the parent strain. Among the negative results to be recorded are the failures of two single cell strains to incite an epidemic among mice under conditions known to be suitable when the parent strain is used.

Amoss, Harold L.

1922-01-01

150

Changing epidemiology of infective endocarditis.  

PubMed

Infective endocarditis (IE) continues to be a serious infection with a stable incidence rate over time and a persistently high mortality. Population-based studies from France, Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States reported on the epidemiology of this infection. These studies suggest a changing distribution of underlying valvular heart disease in patients with IE, namely a decreasing proportion of patients with rheumatic heart disease and an increasing proportion with underlying prosthetic valves or mitral valve prolapse. There is controversy regarding the change of spectrum of IE-causative organisms. In some geographically defined populations with complete case ascertainment, viridans group streptococci continue to be the most common causative organisms, whereas in passively reported community surveys and in referral-center case series, Staphylococcus aureus is surpassing streptococci as the leading cause for IE. PMID:16822369

Tleyjeh, Imad M; Steckelberg, James M

2006-06-01

151

Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a prospective cohort study from an STI-clinic in Stockholm  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Sweden. A mutated Chlamydia, nvCT, has contributed to the increase. The occurrence of repeat infections is not investigated in Sweden. The current paper presents the study protocol for the first Swedish clinical investigation of repeat Chlamydial infection. The concern of the study is whether a Chlamydia infection at inclusion indicates an increased risk for Chlamydia at follow-up after 6–8 months, gender-specific risk factors for and clinical presentation of repeat infections. Methods and design Sesam City is a drop-in clinic in the city centre of Stockholm. Patients 20 years and older are admitted. During 2007, the clinic had 15 000 visits, 60% made by men. In December 2007, a cohort study began, and data collection was finished in April 2009. A total of 2813 study participants aged 20–39 years were recruited. Data collection included an anonymous self-administered paper-and-pen questionnaire on sexual behaviour, reproductive health and history of Chlamydia, and condom use. Chlamydia tests were performed by self-sampled specimens, analyzed by the ProbeTec (Becton Dickinson) method, Ct-positive specimens also analyzed with a nvCT-specific method. Data from medical records were summarized in clinical report forms. Patients positive for Chlamydia were retested 4 weeks after treatment. Contact tracing covered sexual contacts during the last 12 months. At follow-up 6–8 months after inclusion, Chlamydia tests were performed, and a new questionnaire and CRF completed. Discussion A STI-clinic-based prospective cohort study allowed us to survey 2813 adult patients. The collected data will provide gender-specific information on the occurrence of and risk for repeat Chlamydia infection, the occurrence of nvCT, and clinical data and information on sexual behaviour and reproductive health, risk-taking and condom use.

Edgardh, Karin; Kuhlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Grunewald, Maria; Rotzen-Ostlund, Maria; Qvarnstrom, Ivar; Everljung, Jennie

2009-01-01

152

Application of the Stockholm Hierarchy to Defining the Quality of Reference Intervals and Clinical Decision Limits  

PubMed Central

The Stockholm Hierarchy is a professional consensus created to define the preferred approaches to defining analytical quality. The quality of a laboratory measurement can also be classified by the quality of the limits that the value is compared with, namely reference interval limits and clinical decision limits. At the highest level in the hierarchy would be placed clinical decision limits based on clinical outcome studies. The second level would include both formal reference interval studies (studies of intra and inter-individual variations) and clinical decision limits based on clinician survey. While these approaches are commonly used, they require a lot of resources to define accurately. Placing laboratory experts on the third level would suggest that although they can also define reference intervals by consensus, theirs aren’t as well regarded as clinician defined limits which drive clinical behaviour. Ideally both analytical and clinical considerations should be made, with clinicians and laboratorians both having important information to consider. The fourth level of reference intervals would be for those defined by survey or by regulatory authorities because of the focus on what is commonly achieved rather than what is necessarily correct. Finally, laboratorians know that adopting reference limits from kit inserts or textbook publications is problematic because both methodological issues and reference populations are often not the same as their own. This approach would rank fifth and last. When considering which so called ‘common’ or ‘harmonised reference intervals’ to adopt, both these characteristics and the quality of individual studies need to be assessed. Finally, we should also be aware that reference intervals describe health and physiology while clinical decision limits focus on disease and pathology, and unless we understand and consider the two corresponding issues of test specificity and test sensitivity, we cannot assure the quality of the limits that we report.

Sikaris, Ken

2012-01-01

153

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... may require heart transplantation or support with an artificial heart device. Preparing for your appointment If you ... surgery, the damaged valve is replaced by an artificial (prosthetic) valve. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). An ICD ...

154

[Update on stroke epidemiology].  

PubMed

In the past 50 years, there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiological profiles of stroke in Japan. Although stroke used to be a leading cause of death between 1950s and 1970s, thereafter stroke mortality rate has declined mainly due to the decrease in the mortality of cerebral hemorrhage and stroke has dropped to the fourth leading cause of death following cancer, heart disease, and pneumonia in 2011. The Akita Stroke Onset Registry (ASOR), which was set up in 1983 to collect data on all stroke events in Akita prefecture, revealed a substantial increase in the incidence of first ever strokes, suggesting a marked increase in the incidence of cerebral infarction, although the age-standardized incidence did not change significantly. These trends were explained by the rapid aging of the population in Akita. Stroke recurrence rates were 22.8%, 17.7%, and 7.0% for cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. When the index stroke event was cerebral infarction, 84.2% of the recurrence was also cerebral infarction, while 13.6% experienced cerebral hemorrhage. The yearly recurrence rate was highest in the first year following the index stroke event and gradually decreased afterwards. The prevalence of dementia was only 3% in those without a history of stroke events, whereas it was 27% in the stroke survivors in the cohort data. These findings suggest a participation of cerebrovascular lesions in the development and evolution of dementia, especially in the elderly population. PMID:23832988

Nagata, Ken; Suzuki, Kazuo

2013-07-01

155

Maste? s Programme at Stockholm University: Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many environmental risks and societal concerns are directly related to the way we manage our land and water environments. The two-year master's programme "Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources" at Stockholm University, Sweden, is based on a system perspective and provides extended knowledge about water and soil-rock-sediment systems and how these interact with each other and with land use, socio-economic and water resource policy and management systems. This water system perspective includes the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems and associated risks for society. Questions related to water resources are also covered: the management of water resources and conflicts as well as collaborations caused by shared water resources on local, regional and global scales. A common learning objective for the courses in the programme is to be able to identify, extract and combine relevant information from databases and scientific publications, and use the resulting dataset in hydrological, hydrogeological and water resources analyses, on local, regional or global levels. Traditional classroom teaching is to large extent complemented by case study analyses, performed as project assignments. The importance of water resources for both the society and the environment is emphasized through applications to practical water resources management challenges in society. The courses in this program include the following topics: · Hydrological and hydrogeological processes, main components of the water cycle (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, discharge) and the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems. · Water resources and water quality, pollution spreading through surface, ground and coastal water systems, as well as vulnerability and resilience of water resources. · Regional analyses related to global water resource vulnerability and resilience. · Models and information systems as important tools for dealing with hydrologic and hydrogeologic problems, and as a basis for sustainable governance and management of water resources. · Mathematical equations that are used in models for describing water flow and contaminant transport and their physico-chemical basis. · Handling of hydrologic data including methods for time series analyses and management of spatial data using geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics. · Integrated natural and social science studies of natural and anthropogenic flows of water, nutrients, pollutants and other biogeochemical substances that are important for environmental risk assessment, ecosystem development, and management of environmental resources.

Jarsjö, J.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.

2009-04-01

156

Tularemi: Epidemiologi, Diagnostik och Skyddsatgaerder (Tularemia: Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Protection),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a small gram-negative bacterium. Tularemia occurs in Sweden north of 60 deg latitude, i.e., north of Stockholm. The county of Gavleborg shows the highest frequency of epidemics in Sweden. Epidemics are expect...

A. Taernvik

1988-01-01

157

[Can we afford good cholesterol lowering therapy? Budgeting of statin costs versus medical needs in the county of Stockholm].  

PubMed

Increasing drug costs are a concern in Sweden. The costs for statin treatment are considerable, and among those increasing most rapidly (by 30-35% per year). Our survey of eligibility for statin treatment in Stockholm according to current Swedish recommendations (i.e. patients < 75 years with elevated cholesterol and manifest atherosclerotic disease, hereditary dyslipidemia, and diabetes) indicates marked undertreatment. The cost for statins in Stockholm 2000 was SEK 175 M (144 M for patients < 75 years). The projected cost, if current recommendations were to be fully implemented, is SEK 450 M for the target group and > 100 M extra for patients > 75 years and/or high cardiovascular risk. We propose that individual risk assessments should replace crude patient group recommendations to obtain reasonable "numbers needed to treat", i.e. to optimize the expenditure on statins and cost-effectiveness of the therapy. Prioritization of drug expenditures (within and between patient categories) must be debated, and medical needs must be made clear to those who determine the medical budget. PMID:11769362

Wettermark, B; Hjemdahl, P

2001-11-28

158

Preventive activities in primary health care in Stockholm County, Sweden. Results from a survey in November 1985.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted, during November 1985, in 110 Stockholm Public Primary Health Care Centres (PHCC) to study ongoing preventive activities. In 71% of the Health Centres there was an awareness of special risk groups in the PHCC area, such as alcohol abusers, elderly people and single parents, and in 40% of more specific risk factors like unemployment and loneliness. Individualised preventive activities were provided in 25% and group oriented activities in 50% of the health centres. There were great differences between the different regions of Stockholm County and, for example, quit-smoking groups were not distributed according to the geographical needs, i.e. to the areas with the highest prevalence of smokers. Involvement of PHC in community-based preventive activities is still rare but has started in the area of accident prevention in some PHCC. The study also underlines the need for more education as well as support to increase the element of prevention in primary health care activities. PMID:2814391

Haglund, B J

1989-01-01

159

Left heart ventricular angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... left heart valves An aneurysm of the heart wall Areas of the heart that are not contracting normally Blood flow problems on the left side of the heart Heart-related blockages The overall pump function of the heart

160

Diastolic heart failure in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is now widely recognized that isolated diastolic dysfunction can lead to the classic signs and symptoms of congestive\\u000a heart failure (CHF), this disease process is poorly understood and remains of great interest and concern to cardiovascular\\u000a disease specialists, as well as to primary care physicians. Recent epidemiologic data have suggested that diastolic heart\\u000a failure is predominantly a disease

Chari Y. T. Hart; Margaret M. Redfield

2000-01-01

161

Socioeconomic factors and mental health of Swedish adolescents – a cross-sectional study among Stockholm high-school students aged 15–19 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may increase the risk of mental health problems. This study investigates the path between self-reported mental health, feeling of alienation, and self-reported physical health by examining the role of demographic factors and socioeconomic variables. Participants were recruited from high schools in Stockholm, Sweden. In total, 445 students participated, aged

Jalal Safipour; Donald Schopflocher; Gina Higginbottom; Azita Emami

2012-01-01

162

Multiple sclerosis in Stockholm County. A pilot study exploring the feasibility of assessment of impairment, disability and handicap by home visits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A pilot study performed within Stockholm County to evaluate the feasibility of collecting data using a comprehensive evaluation package administered in the home environment to assess impairment, disability and handicap in order to explore the consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). Design: Home visits to 26 purposefully selected MS patients with different levels of disability, in both ordinary and sheltered

U Einarsson; K Gottberg; S Fredrikson; G Bergendal; L von Koch; L Widén Holmqvist

2003-01-01

163

Psycholinguistics and Foreign Language Learning. Papers from a Conference (Stockholm, Sweden and Abo, Finland, October 25-26, 1982). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut Nr.86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At irregular intervals, beginning in 1977, Swedish-Finnish conferences on contrastive and applied linguistics have been arranged in Stockholm and Turko/Abo. This volume presents most of the papers given at the 1982 conference. Papers include: "Free Recall of Mixed Language Lists. Error Patterns in Bilingual Memory" (Karin Aronsson, Anja Metsola,…

Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.

164

Prognostic implications of ambulatory myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias and relations to ischemia on exercise in chronic stable angina pectoris (the Angina Prognosis Study In Stockholm [APSIS])  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognostic significance of ambulatory ischemia, alone and in relation to ischemia during exercise was assessed in 686 patients (475 men) with chronic stable angina pectoris taking part in the Angina Prognosis Study In Stockholm (APSIS), who had 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic registrations and exercise tests at baseline (n = 678) and after 1 month (n = 607) of double-blind treatment

Lennart Forslund; Paul Hjemdahl; Claes Held; Sven V. Eriksson; Inge Björkander; Nina Rehnqvist

1999-01-01

165

Biotoxicity testing and chemical analysis at a munitions dumping area in the Stockholm archipelago (Baltic Sea) revealed low toxicity and low concentrations of lipophilic pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential toxicity of lipophilic pollutants in surficial sediment from a munitions dumping area in the Stockholm archipelago (Sweden, Baltic Sea) was investigated by nanoinjection of sediment extracts into newly fertilized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. Mortality and several types of abnormal development of the larvae were analyzed as measures of biotoxicity. Biochemical variables, such as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and

Tomas Hansson; G. Akerman; U. Tjamlund; H. Sundberg; K. Grander; Y. Zebuhr; A. Caiti; L. Balk

2005-01-01

166

Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

1994-11-01

167

A national survey of heart failure in French hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale The epidemiology of heart failure and patient management procedures may vary from one country to another. This study was designed to analyse the spectrum of patients hospitalized in France for heart failure. Patients and Methods A registry involving 120 depart- ments (cardiology, general medicine and geriatrics) and 1058 patients. Results The patients' median age was 76 years, and the

A. Cohen-Solal; M. Desnos; F. Delahaye; J. P. Emeriau; G. Hanania

2000-01-01

168

Antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infections in hospitals in Addis Ababa and Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A high level of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria has been detected at the Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa, for many years. In contrast, at the Karolinska Hospital (KH), Stockholm, the level of resistance is low. Reported are the results of an investigation of the correlation between antibiotic usage and the antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in these hospitals. At TAH the strains of E. coli isolated were considerably more resistant to all seven antibiotics tested. The level of multiresistance was 63% at TAH and 7% at KH. There were no significant differences in the total amount of antibiotics used in the two hospitals, except for antituberculosis agents. The strain biotypes and antibiograms, together with the length of patients' hospitalization before a positive urine culture was obtained, suggest that the majority of the strains from TAH were of nosocomial origin.

Ringertz, S.; Bellete, B.; Karlsson, I.; Ohman, G.; Gedebou, M.; Kronvall, G.

1990-01-01

169

Trans-Fats and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of data from epidemiologic, clinical trial, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse consequences of industrially synthesized trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing database of more recent research from virtually all experimental models demonstrates evidence of detrimental consequences of TFAs on the risk of diabetes. Evidence is accumulating about

Penny M. Kris-Etherton

2010-01-01

170

Particle Effects on Heart-Rate Regulation in Senescent Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because epidemiology studies consistently identify the elderly at risk for air pollution-related morbidity and mortality, we developed a model of senescent-dependent susceptibility based on indices of physiological aging. In the current study, we hypothesized that heart-rate regulation during particulate matter (PM) exposure differs with senescence-dependent susceptibility owing to variation in autonomic nervous control. Heart rate (HR) and heart-rate variability (HRV)

Clarke G. Tankersley; Matthew Campen; Alexis Bierman; Susan E. Flanders; Karl W. Broman; Richard Rabold

2004-01-01

171

Elevated heart rate and atherosclerosis: An overview of the pathogenetic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies have reported that an elevated heart rate is associated with coronary atherosclerosis independently of other risk factors. In this review we explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the pro-atherosclerotic effect of elevated heart rate, apart from its association with sympathetic tone. An elevated heart rate enhances the magnitude and frequency of the tensile stress imposed on the

George D. Giannoglou; Yiannis S. Chatzizisis; Chrysanthos Zamboulis; George E. Parcharidis; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; George E. Louridas

2008-01-01

172

Heart Surgery Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine made heart surgery possible: The heart-lung machine, which takes over the work of the heart. ... causing brain damage. What is a heart-lung machine? Perfusion technologists operate the heart-lung machine during ...

173

Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease—epidemiological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective epidemiologic studies and case–control studies using adipose tissue analyses support a major role of trans fatty acids (TFA) in risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The magnitude of the association with CHD is considerably stronger than for saturated fat, and is stronger than predicted by the effects of TFA on LDL and HDL cholesterol. The apparent gap between the

W. C. Willett

2006-01-01

174

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... prescribe a statin. I’m a woman. Can estrogen replacement therapy reduce my risk for heart disease? No. Estrogen replacement therapy, also called hormone replacement therapy (HRT), was prescribed ...

175

Heart Murmur  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index only NHLBI Entire ... How the Heart Works Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Clinical ...

176

Heart Attacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents Dr. Robert Levy explaining heart attacks: symptoms, causes, risk factors, treatment, and research. Discusses encouraging evidence showing that cardiovascular death rates have recently decreased due to people's willingness to change diet and life ...

1994-01-01

177

Heart Attacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video presents Dr. Robert Levy explaining heart attacks: symptoms, causes, risk factors, treatment, and research. He discusses encouraging evidence showing that cardiovascular death rates have recently decreased due to people's willingness to change d...

1994-01-01

178

Heart transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... tests, and medications needed to keep the new heart healthy. ... Risks from any anesthesia are: Reactions to medications Problems breathing ... and bone thinning from the use of rejection medications ...

179

Kingdom Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kingdom Hearts is a popular action Role-Playing Game (RPG ) for PlayStation 2, developed collaboratively by Square Enyx, known for its stylistic\\u000a series Final Fantasy (1987–2006), and Disney, known around the world for its animated movies and characters. The world of Kingdom Hearts is a meta-verse: a multidimensional reality through which an infinite number of fantastical worlds are interconnected. This

Troy Whitlock

180

Aging of the United States population: impact on heart failure.  

PubMed

The United States population, particularly among older age groups, continues to expand. Because the incidence of heart failure increases with age, largely due to the development of heart failure risk factors such as hypertension and coronary artery disease, the epidemic of heart failure is likely to grow further in the coming decades. This article will review the epidemiology of heart failure among older adults, the influence of an aging population on heart failure prevalence and phenotype, the complications in management for a larger and older heart failure population, and the potential implications of these changes for health care costs and delivery. Ultimately, these challenges demand research into optimal therapeutic strategies for older heart failure patients, including improved prevention and treatment of the major causes of heart failure, an increasing role forpalliative care, and innovations in patient-centered health care delivery. PMID:22940871

Vigen, Rebecca; Maddox, Thomas M; Allen, Larry A

2012-12-01

181

Psychiatric epidemiology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders from 9.5 to 370\\/1000 populations in India. This review critically evaluates the prevalence rate of mental disorders as reported in Indian epidemiological studies. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed and MEDLARS using search terms \\

Suresh Bada Math; C. R. Chandrashekar; Dinesh Bhugra

2007-01-01

182

Computers and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogies with biological disease with topological considerations added, which show that the spread of computer viruses can be contained, and the resulting epidemiological model are examined. The findings of computer virus epidemiology show that computer viruses are far less rife than many have claimed, that many fail to thrive, that even successful viruses spread at nowhere near the exponential rate

J. O. Kephart; S. R. White; D. M. Chess

1993-01-01

183

Epidemiology - SEER Landmark Studies  

Cancer.gov

The area of cancer epidemiology has benefited immensely from the SEER network, a key resource not only for descriptive and correlational studies of cancer in the United States, but also for population-based case-control and cohort studies. SEER is often where changes in cancer incidence and death rates are first detected, stimulating additional epidemiologic investigation to reveal the cause.

184

Epidemiology of STIs: UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents data on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the UK, focusing on syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, genital herpes and warts, and lymphogranuloma venereum. The epidemiology of STIs has changed considerably over the course of the 20th century, reflecting changes in sexual behaviour, new diagnostic techniques, and social, economic and demographic shifts in society. Following historically

Catherine M. Lowndes; Gwenda Hughes

2010-01-01

185

[Epidemiology and heterogeny].  

PubMed

The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2660269

Breilh, J; Granda, E

1989-01-01

186

Epidemiology: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important to determine whether a maximum human life span, genetically determined, exists. A maximal rectangularization of the mortality curve should then be the ultimate goal. At the same time the possible re-emergence of old and new infectious diseases (SARS, Ebola, BSE, AIDS) should be kept in mind. PMID:15641567

Kesteloot, H

2004-01-01

187

Lycopene and heart health.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of human morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Specific biomarkers in this context are markers of inflammation, lipid status, thrombosis and oxidative stress. One recommendation for CVD prevention is to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables as good sources of secondary plant products, e.g. carotenoids. This review aimed to show linkages between lycopene, one main carotenoid in the human diet, and prevention of heart diseases by looking for epidemiological data, results from in vitro experiments and results from in vivo studies (animal studies and human intervention trials). In addition, patents and products within the context of lycopene and CVD prevention will be discussed with a special emphasis on health claims. Epidemiological data, in vitro data and results from animal experiments partly showed promising preventive mechanisms of lycopene. In contrast, until now, human intervention studies mostly failed to show any CVD prevention. However, there is still an encouraging situation, giving hints for antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene. These mechanisms could be the background for cardio-protective effects of tomatoes and tomato products. In summary, there are a lot of investigations needed in the future to give reliable results to establish these CVD-preventive effects. PMID:22419532

Böhm, Volker

2012-02-01

188

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective.

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

189

Family History, and Impact on Clinical Presentation and Prognosis, in a Population-based Breast Cancer Cohort from the Stockholm County  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of the present study was to define the proportion of different levels of family history in a cohort of consecutive breast cancer patients from the Stockholm region, and to assess whether familial breast cancer has phenotypic traits different from those of sporadic patients.Methods  All incident breast cancer patients in a 19-month period were eligible for the study and 70%

Sara Margolin; Hemming Johansson; Lars Erik Rutqvist; Annika Lindblom; Tommy Fornander

2006-01-01

190

Social Movements and Ecosystem Services—the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations—from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups—that have protected the Stockholm National Urban

Henrik Ernstson; Sverker Sörlin; Thomas Elmqvist

191

[Artificial heart and heart transplantation].  

PubMed

The advances in the treatment of many different heart diseases have on the one side led to a significant prolongation of life expectancy but have also contributed to an increase of patients with heart failure. This tendency is supported even more so by the demographic development of our population. The replacement of insufficient organs has always been in the focus of medical research. In the 1960's Shumway and Lower developed the technique of cardiac transplantation and also worked intensively on the treatment and diagnosis of rejection. However, it was Barnard who, in 1967 performed the first human cardiac transplantation. Other centers followed worldwide but the mortality was high and the new therapy was controversially discussed in many journals. By the introduction of cyclosporin as a new immunosuppressive agent in 1978, results improved rapidly and cardiac transplantation became an accepted therapeutic option for patients with end stage heart failure and also for children and newborns with congenital heart defects. Today, with newer immunosuppressive regimens and improved techniques, cardiac transplantation offers excellent results with a long-term survival of nearly 50% of patients after 15 years and among the pediatric population even after 20 years. However, the donor organ shortage as well as the increasing number of elderly patients with end stage heart failure has necessitated work on other alternatives. Neither stem cell transplantation nor xenotransplantation of animal organs are yet an option and there are still some obstacles to be overcome. In contrast, the development of so-called artificial hearts has made significant progress. While the first implants of totally artificial hearts were associated with many comorbidities and patients were seriously debilitated, new devices today offer a reasonable quality of life and long-term survival. Most of these systems are no longer replacing but mainly assisting the heart, which remains in place. These ventricular assist devices have been used as a bridge to transplantation for a long time and are now also offered as a destination therapy for patients who for a variety of reasons are no longer amenable to heart transplantation. Further miniaturization and a decrease of the costs will make these devices a realistic alternative to a sole medical therapy and studies have already proven the superiority in terms of survival as well as rehospitalization rates. However, at present they are still not an alternative to heart transplantation. PMID:23104433

Moosdorf, R

2012-12-01

192

A Prospective Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Heart Failure: The Sleep Heart Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Clinic-based observational studies in men have reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of OSA to incident coronary heart disease and heart failure in a general community sample of adult men and women. Methods and Results A prospective, longitudinal epidemiologic study of 1927 men and 2495 women aged ? 40 years and free of coronary heart disease and heart failure at the time of baseline polysomnography were followed for a median of 8.7 years. After adjustment for multiple risk factors, OSA was a significant predictor of incident coronary heart disease (myocardial infarction, revascularization procedure, or coronary heart disease death) only in men age ?70 years (adjusted hazard ratio 1.10 [95% CI 1.00, 1.21] per 10-unit increase in apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]), but not in older men or in women of any age. Among men age 40–70 years, those with AHI ?30 were 68% more likely to develop coronary heart disease than those with AHI <5. OSA predicted incident heart failure in men but not in women (adjusted hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.02, 1.26] per 10-unit increase in AHI). Men with AHI ?30 were 58% more likely to develop heart failure than those with AHI <5. Conclusion OSA is associated with increased risk of incident heart failure in community-dwelling middle-aged and older men; its association with incident coronary heart disease in this sample is equivocal.

Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Newman, Anne B.; O'Connor, George T.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine E.; Tong, Elisa K.; Diener-West, Marie; Shahar, Eyal

2010-01-01

193

To keep the catch - that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm  

PubMed Central

The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12–15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science.

Wollheim, Frank A

2002-01-01

194

Metal emissions from brake linings and tires: case studies of Stockholm, Sweden 1995/1998 and 2005.  

PubMed

Road traffic has been highlighted as a major source of metal emissions in urban areas. Brake linings and tires are known emission sources of particulate matter to air; the aim of the current study was to follow the development of metal emissions from these sources over the period 1995/ 1998-2005, and to compare the emitted metal quantities to other metal emission sources. Stockholm, Sweden was chosen as a study site. The calculations were based on material metal concentrations, traffic volume, particle emission factors, and vehicle sales figures. The results for metal emissions from brake linings/tire tread rubber in 2005 were as follows: Cd 0.061/0.47 kg/year, Cu 3800/5.3 kg/year, Pb 35/3.7 kg/year, Sb 710/0.54 kg/year, and Zn 1000/4200 kg/ year. The calculated Cu and Zn emissions from brake linings were unchanged in 2005 compared to 1998, indicating that brake linings still remain one of the main emission sources for these metals. Further, brake linings are a source of antimony. In contrast, Pb and Cd emissions have decreased to one tenth compared to 1998. The results also showed that tires still are one of the main sources of Zn and Cd emissions in the city. PMID:17822083

Hjortenkrans, David S T; Bergbäck, Bo G; Häggerud, Agneta V

2007-08-01

195

Patterns of suicide and other trespassing fatalities on state-owned railways in greater Stockholm; implications for prevention.  

PubMed

Each year, approximately 80-100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005-2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas. PMID:22690162

Rådbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

2012-03-05

196

Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas.

Radbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

2012-01-01

197

Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND- Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that affect cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. They are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis and are the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Levels of these fatty acids have been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS- Genome-wide association studies were conducted in 5 population-based cohorts comprising 8961 participants of European ancestry to investigate the association of common genetic variation with plasma levels of these 4 fatty acids. We identified polymorphisms in 7 novel loci associated with circulating levels of ?1 of these fatty acids. ALG14 (asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:0 (P=2.7×10(-11)) and lower 18:0 (P=2.2×10(-18)). FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7 (P=6.6×10(-13)) and 18:1n-9 (P=2.2×10(-32)) and lower 18:0 (P=1.3×10(-20)). LPGAT1 (lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase) polymorphisms were associated with lower 18:0 (P=2.8×10(-9)). GCKR (glucokinase regulator; P=9.8×10(-10)) and HIF1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1; P=5.7×10(-9)) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7, whereas PKD2L1 (polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1; P=5.7×10(-15)) and a locus on chromosome 2 (not near known genes) were associated with lower 16:1n-7 (P=4.1×10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS- Our findings provide novel evidence that common variations in genes with diverse functions, including protein-glycosylation, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, phospholipid modeling, and glucose- and oxygen-sensing pathways, are associated with circulating levels of 4 fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway. These results expand our knowledge of genetic factors relevant to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid biology. PMID:23362303

Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Tanaka, Toshiko; Foy, Millennia; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Djousse, Luc; Siscovick, David; Fretts, Amanda M; Johnson, Catherine; King, Irena B; Psaty, Bruce M; McKnight, Barbara; Rich, Stephen S; Chen, Yii-Der I; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Tang, Weihong; Bandinelli, Stefania; Jacobs, David R; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C; Gu, Xiangjun; Tsai, Michael Y; Steffen, Lyn M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush

2013-01-29

198

Epidemiology of Lice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

Juranek, Dennis D.

1977-01-01

199

Epidemiology of Lice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)|

Juranek, Dennis D.

1977-01-01

200

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

201

Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration  

Cancer.gov

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

202

Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

203

Ecological Genomics and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge amount of genomic data now becoming available offers both opportunities and challenges for epidemiologists. In this\\u000a “preview” of likely developments as the field of ecological genomics evolves and merges with epidemiology, we discuss how\\u000a epidemiology can use new information about genetic sequences and gene expression to form predictions about epidemic features\\u000a and outcomes and for understanding host resistance

K. A. Garrett; S. H. Hulbert; J. E. Leach; S. E. Travers

2006-01-01

204

Ecological genomics and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge amount of genomic data now becoming available offers both opportunities and challenges for epidemiologists.In this\\u000a “preview“ of likely developments as the field of ecological genomics evolves and merges with epidemiology,we discuss how epidemiology\\u000a can use new information about genetic sequences and gene expression to form predictions about epidemic features and outcomes\\u000a and for understanding host resistance and pathogen

K. A. Garrett; S. H. Hulbert; J. E. Leach; S. E. Travers

205

Heart pacemaker  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath. Some, pacemakers can be used to stop a heart rate that is too fast ( tachycardia ) or that ... et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities: a report of the American College ...

206

Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... your cancer risk. Taking these medications can put you at a greater risk of skin and lip tumors and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, among others. Infection. Immunosuppressants decrease your body's ability to fight infection. Many people who have heart transplants have an infection ...

207

Conjoined hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thoracopagus twins were delivered at 37 weeks' gestation by caesarean section. Respiratory distress was present and mechanical ventilation was needed; 36 hours after delivery severe lactic acidosis developed and the twins died. The pericardial sac was common and the hearts were conjoined as a single structure with ventricular fusion.

D Antonelli; L Shmilovitz; M Dharan

1986-01-01

208

Nuclear Heart Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

209

Heart Valves Explained  

MedlinePLUS

... repaired. The American Heart Association does not conduct technical review of mechanical heart valves. The U.S. Food ... forming. The American Heart Association does not conduct technical review of mechanical heart valves. The U.S. Food ...

210

Coronary heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the heart can slow down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting it. You cannot change some risk factors for heart disease, but others you can change. See: Heart disease - ...

211

Texas Heart Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... brings renewed health - stories with heart Ask a Texas Heart Institute Doctor Find out about heart health ... Prevention of Heart Disease & Stroke December 7 13th Texas Update in Cardiovascular Advancements GRAND ROUNDS ONLINE • Cardiac ...

212

Welcome to epidemiology and health.  

PubMed

The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology. PMID:21191464

Choi, Bo Youl

2009-10-29

213

Favourable long term prognosis in stable angina pectoris: an extended follow up of the angina prognosis study in Stockholm (APSIS)  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the long term prognosis of patients with stable angina pectoris. Design Registry based follow up (median 9.1 years) of patients participating in the APSIS (angina prognosis study in Stockholm), which was a double blind, single centre trial of antianginal drug treatment. Patients 809 patients (31% women) with stable angina pectoris

Hjemdahl, P; Eriksson, S V; Held, C; Forslund, L; Nasman, P; Rehnqvist, N

2006-01-01

214

Heart Rate Variability in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The autonomic nervous system has an important role in the development and progression of the heart failure syndrome. Increased sympathetic, reduced parasympathetic, and impaired baroreceptor activity are well-documented features of heart failure. The analysis of heart rate variability can give insight into these autonomic abnormalities. A number of techniques now exist for assessing heart rate variability, and in general they

John E. Sanderson

1998-01-01

215

Heart diseases diagnosis using heart sounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart sound is one of the oldest means for assessing the function of heart valves. It helps, together with echocardiograms and electrocardiographs, to give a clear and proper diagnosis of several diseases. Artificial neural networks are used to classify several valve-related heart disorders. A library of heart sound files, recorded via the traditional stethoscope, are used to extract relevant features

O. Abdel-Alim; Nadder Hamdy; M. A. El-Hanjouri

2002-01-01

216

[Epidemiology of schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Schizophrenia exhibits wide variation in epidemiological characteristics. Through the past few decades, we have learned much about schizophrenia epidemiology, providing important findings for etiological research, clinical care and public health. In this article, we provide overview of current research on incidence, prevalence, risk factors, mortality and outcome of schizophrenia. Contrary to traditional understanding, the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia show prominent variation between locations. Risk factors for schizophrenia include urbanicity, migration, sex, season of birth and pregnancy and birth complications. Schizophrenia patients have an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Recent studies about outcome show not so tragic, especially in regard to social functioning. Over the recent decades, circumstances have been changing around schizophrenia. As to treatment, for example, 'the second generation antipsychotics' have replaced conventional ones and 'early intervention' is developing. However, we have only limited evidences of current schizophrenia. Further epidemiological development is needed. PMID:23678583

Nonaka, Shunsuke; Ichinose, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Nakane, Hideyuki

2013-04-01

217

JPRS Report, Epidemiology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: SubSaharan Africa, Drugs, Heart Diseases, Malaria, Death, Influenza Virus, Animal Diseases, Fevers, Cholera, Anthrax, Dengue, Public health, Hemorrhagic fever, Cancer, Meningitis, Death, Salmonella Case, Myxomatosis Vaccine, Virus, Swine...

1989-01-01

218

Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz

2013-06-13

219

Resting Heart Rate and Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Currently Stand?  

PubMed Central

Background Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggest that the favorable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate–lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure may be, at least in part, due to their heart rate–lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score include admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. Aims This article critically reviews the key epidemiology concerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevated resting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacological reduction in resting heart rate. Conclusions Prospective randomised data from patients with significant coronary heart disease or heart failure suggest that intervention to reduce heart rate in those with a resting heart rate >70 bpm may reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the established observational data and randomised trial evidence, it now appears appropriate to include reduction of elevated resting heart rate by lifestyle +/? pharmacological therapy as part of a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cardiovascular disease.

Menown, Ian BA; Davies, Simon; Gupta, Sandeep; Kalra, Paul R; Lang, Chim C; Morley, Chris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2013-01-01

220

Epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2008-01-01

221

Epidemiology of reflex syncope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective diagnostic approaches to reflex syncope require knowledge of its frequency and causes in different age groups. For this purpose we reviewed the available literature dealing with the epidemiology of reflex syncope. The incidence pattern of reflex syncope in the general population and general practice is bimodal with peaks in teenagers and in the elderly. In the young almost all

N. Colman; K. Nahm; K. S. Ganzeboom; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer; W. Wieling; H. Kaufmann

2004-01-01

222

Epidemiology by computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collecting epidemiological data from a large community sample has, in the past, been a costly and timeconsuming exercise. This paper outlines a methodology for undertaking such research by using a set of standard psychiatric questionnaries, including a computerised version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Screening Interview on a portable laptop computer. The study of 1009 country South Australian subjects found

J. R. Clayer; A. C. McFarlane; G. Wright

1992-01-01

223

Changing epidemiology of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

1994-01-01

224

Spatial analysis for epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis provide important tools that are as yet under-exploited in the fight against disease. As the use of such tools becomes more accepted and prevalent in epidemiological studies, so our understanding of the mechanisms of disease systems has the potential to increase. This paper introduces a range of techniques used in remote

A. J Graham; P. M Atkinson; F. M Danson

2004-01-01

225

Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

2007-01-01

226

Epidemiology of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of osteoporosis is reviewed in this article. Attempts were made to answer the following questions: How should osteoporosis be defined? How can risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements be applied to diagnose osteoporosis? How do the rates for osteoporotic fractures vary by country, sex, age and time? What are the costs for osteoporosis in terms of

Edith M. C. Lau

2001-01-01

227

Epidemiology of clavicle fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all

Franco Postacchini; Stefano Gumina; Pierfrancesco De Santis; Francesco Albo

2002-01-01

228

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

229

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

230

Drug abuse epidemiology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of drug abuse epidemiology is a relatively new one and recognition of drug abuse as a phenomenon amenable to study within the field of epidemiology is still forthcoming. Reviews of programmes for meetings of epidemiologic research societies rarely highlight drug abuse, even in association with the transmission of, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis

Z. SLOBODA

231

Significance of reduction in heart rate in cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic studies suggest that lower heart rate is associated with decreased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Heart rate has also been reported to be an independent predictor of outcome after myocardial infarction (MI). Because it is a major determinant of oxygen consumption and metabolic demand, a decrease in heart rate would be expected to decrease cardiac workload. Among patients with restricted coronary blood flow, increased heart rate is associated with more severe myocardial ischemia, angina, and an increase in size of MI. Pharmacologic interventions that reduce heart rate, such as beta blockers, generally reduce mortality and improve outcome. A number of clinical trials using beta blockers after MI has shown a relationship between reduction in heart rate and reduction in mortality. Most beta blockers demonstrate a nearly linear relationship between reductions in mortality and in heart rate. The evidence from trials with calcium antagonists is more equivocal, possibly because until very recently none were available that decreased heart rate without decreasing myocardial contractility. Drugs that do not reduce the heart rate after an MI and in congestive heart failure have not been found to improve survival. In light of the findings thus far reported, reduction in heart rate should be a therapeutic goal in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:9853192

Hjalmarson, A

1998-12-01

232

Causation in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the application of scientific knowledge.???Keywords: causality; counterfactual; philosophy

Parascandola, M; Weed, D

2001-01-01

233

Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update.  

PubMed

Background & Aim. Changing socio-economic conditions generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of urolithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical-physical composition of the calculi.In the latter part of the 20(th) century the prevalence of upper urinary tract stones was increasing in Western countries whereas endemic infantile bladder stone disease was fairly widespread in huge areas of developing countries. The aim of this paper was to update previous epidemiological reports of urolithiasis by reviewing the more recent literature.Methods. Citations were extracted using PubMed database from January 2003 through December 2007 on the basis of the key words epidemiology AND urinary calculi. Results. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis was described in Germany whereas data from the United States were contradictory with stone disease rates increased only for women with a change of male-to-female ratio. Prevalence figures of stone disease observed in some developing country in tropical regions were similar to rates of Western countries with incidence of renal colic particularly high in warm months. African Americans had a reduced risk of stone disease compared to other racial groups but in renal stone patients all racial groups demonstrated a similarity in the incidence of underlying metabolic abnormalities. Upper urinary tract stones in children were associated more frequently with metabolic disturbances rather than with urinary tract anomalies and infection. Endemic childhood bladder stones are still present in some developing countries.Dietary risk factors for stone disease were shown different by age and sex. In particular in younger women dietary calcium, phytate and fluid intake were associated with a reduced risk of stone formation whereas animal protein and sucrose increased the risk of stone incidence. In older adults there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation whereas magnesium, potassium and fluid intakes decreased and total vitamin C intake increased the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index < 25 kg/m(2). Type 2 diabetes and several other coronary heart disease risk factors, including hypertension and obesity are associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:22460989

Trinchieri, Alberto

2008-05-01

234

Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

235

Holter heart monitor (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... electrical activity of their heart (similarly to the recording of an electrocardiogram). This usually occurs for 24 ... their activity. Health care providers then analyze the recording, tabulate a report of the heart’s activity, and ...

236

Travel and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure Readings 2 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 3 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 4 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 5 Low Blood Pressure 6 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 7 Target Heart Rates ...

237

For Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... page content. Jump to "Do you know your heart risk" call out box Welcome to For Your Heart – ... That's why we've created the For Your Heart Risk Assessment, a short questionnaire that will profile your ...

238

Heart and Vascular Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... HTML files are available for viewing online. Cholesterol Web Sites and Interactive Web Applications: 10 Year Heart Attack Risk Calculator: Public ... of Fallot HTML Back to Top Heart Attack Web Sites and Interactive Web Applications: 10 Year Heart ...

239

(European aerosol conference and workshop on aerosol deposition to natural surfaces, Lund, Goteborg, and Stockholm, Sweden, and Oslo, Norway, August 29--September 17, 1988): Foreign trip report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this trip was to (1) present a paper and chair a session on gas/particle interactions at the European Aerosol Conference (EAC) at the University of Lund, Sweden; (2) chair a working group and present a plenary lecture at the workshop of the Nordic Society for Aerosol Research (NOSA) on Aerosol Deposition to Natural Surfaces; (3) present seminars at the University of Stockholm and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute; (4) analyze data from the Integrated Forest Study research site at Nordmoen, Norway; and (5) present a plenary lecture at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Heavy Metals in the Atmosphere at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research. At the EAC, the traveler presented a paper titled ''Aerosol Dry Deposition Estimates from a Throughfall Model.'' At the NOSA workshop, the traveler described a summary of recent applications of surface analysis methods to aerosol deposition in complex terrain. At the University of Stockholm and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, the traveler presented seminars on recent results of the EPRI Integrated Forest Study on the Effects of Atmospheric Deposition. At the NATO workshop, the traveler presented a lecture titled ''Behavior of Trace Metals in Forest Systems.'' 19 refs.

Lindberg, S.E.

1988-09-28

240

The Stockholm spinal cord injury study: 4. Psychosocial and financial issues of the Swedish annual level-of-living survey in SCI subjects and controls.  

PubMed

In a series of articles from the Stockholm Spinal Cord Injury Study (SSCIS), the health status of a near-total regional SCI population comprising 353 subjects has been investigated. The present study describes the psycho-social and financial consequences of SCI in this group. It is based on a level-of-living survey that has been used annually on 8000-14,000 Swedes since 1974. The health-focused version of this survey was used for data collection in the subset of 326 subjects in the SSCIS that were residents of the Greater Stockholm area. The normative material consisted of 1978 interviews of residents of the same area, provided by the Swedish Bureau of Statistics. The results show that SCI subjects, although provided with basic material commodities up to par with the general population, have less financial reserves and more frequently express worry about their finances. Less than half of the subjects are gainfully employed, when part-time jobs are also included. Social activities are more restricted, and more centered on the core social network. Several items in the survey point to a preoccupation with personal rather than public matters. We feel that these factors, at least to some degree, are consequential to separation from the workplace, with resulting disadvantageous financial and social effects. Intensified vocational rehabilitation efforts might thus be justified from both an economic and a psycho-social point of view. PMID:8668355

Levi, R; Hultling, C; Seiger, A

1996-03-01

241

Ischaemic heart disease in the ageing woman.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Since 1984, the total number of deaths from cardiovascular disease has been greater for women compared with men. This might be, in part, related to gender-specific differences in the presentation of people with chest pain but, importantly, the risk of heart disease in women is often underestimated owing to the misperception that women are 'protected' against cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that medical services are underused, delays occur in health-care seeking behaviour, resource use patterns are less intensive, and it takes longer to diagnose women compared with men. This often leads to less aggressive treatment strategies which, in turn, may translate into poorer outcomes compared with those in men. In this chapter, we review the gender-specific differences in epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of people with ischaemic heart disease, and focus particularly on the effect of ageing and menopause in ischaemic heart disease. PMID:23587768

Papadopoulou, Sofia A; Kaski, Juan Carlos

2013-04-12

242

[Epidemiological situation of Chad].  

PubMed

Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers. PMID:19145944

Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

2008-10-01

243

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed.

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

244

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. METHODS: We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark,

Igor Burstyn; Hans Kromhout; Timo Partanen; Ole Svane; S. Langard; Wolfgang Ahrens; Timo Kauppinen; I. Stucker; Judith Shaham; Dick Heederik; Gilles Ferro; P. Heikkila; Christoffer Johansen; Britt G. Randem; Paolo Boffetta

2005-01-01

245

Hormones and Heart Disease in Women: The Timing Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely on the basis of results from meta-analyses of observational studies, postmenopausal estrogen was widely prescribed to prevent coronary heart disease. However, epidemiologic studies, no matter how consistent and coherent, are not sufficient to recommend mass preventive therapy to healthy women. In fact, all three large clinical trials failed to confirm estrogen's expected cardiac protection. The most persistent explanatory hypothesis

Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

246

Epidemiology of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness with\\u000a episodic weakness often triggered by strong emotions. Due to difficulty in diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and delayed diagnosis,\\u000a measurement of prevalence rates in population-based samples is complicated. However, the most intensively screened population-based\\u000a studies suggest that prevalence rates for narcolepsy with cataplexy range between 25

Lauren Hale

247

Epidemiology of Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies of this condition suffer from many shortcomings related to definition of the disease, diagnostic criteria and assessment of subjects. The prevalence of VaD increases linearly with age and varies greatly from country to country, ranging from 1.2 to 4.2% of people over 65 years old, even

Réjean Hébert; Carol Brayne

1995-01-01

248

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

249

Epidemiology of Faecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the prevalence and incidence rate of faecal incontinence in the general population and specific subgroups,\\u000a including the elderly and children. Epidemiological definitions are described, and problems with measuring faecal incontinence\\u000a are discussed. Descriptive studies of prevalence and incidence rates are reviewed, including demographic determinants and\\u000a the reliability of the prevalence estimates. A thorough discussion of risk

Alexandra K. Macmillan; Arend E. H. Merrie

250

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease.

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

251

Epidemiology of hip fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were an estimated 1.66 million hip fractures worldwide in 1990. According to the epidemiologic projections, this worldwide annual number will rise to 6.26 million by the year 2050. This rise will be in great part due to the huge increase in the elderly population of the world. However, the age-specific incidence rates of hip fractures have also increased during

P. Kannus; J. Parkkari; H. Sievänen; A. Heinonen; I. Vuori; M. Järvinen

1996-01-01

252

Social relations and extent and severity of coronary artery diseaseThe Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Social relations have been repeatedly linked to coronary heart disease in men, even after careful control for standard risk factors. Women have rarely been studied and results have not been conclusive. We investigated the role of social support in the severity and extent of coronary artery disease in women. Methods and Results One hundred and thirty-one women, aged 30

K. Orth-Gomer; M. Horsten; S. P. Wamala; M. A. Mittleman; R. Kirkeeide; B. Svane; L. Ryden; K. Schenck-Gustafsson

1998-01-01

253

Chromosome 22q11 microdeletion and congenital heart disease – a survey in a paediatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is a common finding in patients with microdeletion of chromosome 22q11. To determine if the deletion\\u000a is an epidemiologically important cause of congenital heart disease, we studied a consecutive series of children attending\\u000a a paediatric cardiac clinic and of neonates diagnosed as having structural congenital heart disease. Venous blood samples\\u000a were tested by fluorescent in-situ hybridisation analysis

D. E. J. Yong; P. Booth; J. Baruni; D. Massie; G. Stephen; D. Couzin; J. C. S. Dean

1999-01-01

254

Hazards, Risks, and Threats of Heart Disease from the Early Stages to Symptomatic Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiac Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic approach to investigation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has provided many insights into the preclinical and clinical spectrum of the disease. The hazard of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is substantial with coronary heart disease (CHD), the most common and most lethal feature. The outlook in those who manage to survive the initial episode is also serious, with a 10-year

William B. Kannel

1997-01-01

255

[Religiosity and health in epidemiological studies].  

PubMed

The relationship between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in epidemiological research. The aim of this paper is to review the data on relationship between health-related behaviors associated with religiosity and reduced mortality and morbidity. In this review beneficial effects of religiosity on specific physical and mental health diseases, focusing on coronary heart disease, cancer, depression, suicide, psychosis, and substance abuse are described. Religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning and they are associated with protective dietary habits and reduced risk of substance abuse. Religiosity can be also harmful as it is often entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders. The current published data suggests that religiosity has a favorable effect on survival, although the methodological controversies including presence of biases typical for observational research indicate that results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:22779346

Zagozdzon, Pawe?

2012-05-01

256

Getting a New Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... These are: Getting a New Heart Facts About Heart Transplants Pacemakers. These devices are used to treat a heart that beats ... This can help restore blood flow to your heart muscle. Ventricular assist devices (VAD). These are mechanical pumps that surgeons insert ...

257

Heart size in thyrotoxicosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Enlargement of the heart was found in 35% of a group of older patients with thyrotoxicosis who had no evidence of associated heart disease. Atrial fibrillation was present in 48% of patients with cardiac enlargement and in 10% with a normal sized heart. Both complications were more common when there was associated heart disease.(2) In patients with an enlarged

J. S. Staffurth; N. D. W. Morrison

1968-01-01

258

Multi-Organ Expression Profiling Uncovers a Gene Module in Coronary Artery Disease Involving Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes and LIM Domain Binding 2: The Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental exposures filtered through the genetic make-up of each individual alter the transcriptional repertoire in organs central to metabolic homeostasis, thereby affecting arterial lipid accumulation, inflammation, and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). The primary aim of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study was to determine whether there are functionally associated genes (rather than individual genes) important for

Sara Hägg; Josefin Skogsberg; Jesper Lundström; Peri Noori; Roland Nilsson; Hua Zhong; Shohreh Maleki; Ming-Mei Shang; Björn Brinne; Maria Bradshaw; Vladimir B. Bajic; Ann Samnegård; Angela Silveira; Lee M. Kaplan; Bruna Gigante; Karin Leander; Ulf de Faire; Stefan Rosfors; Ulf Lockowandt; Jan Liska; Peter Konrad; Rabbe Takolander; Anders Franco-Cereceda; Eric E. Schadt; Torbjörn Ivert; Anders Hamsten; Jesper Tegnér; Johan Björkegren

2009-01-01

259

Ballistics '92: En Sammanfattning av det 13:e Internationella Symposiet om Ballistik (Ballistics '92: A Summing Up of the International Symposium (13th) on Ballistics. Held in Stockholm on June 1-3, 1992).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a short summing up of the main oral and poster presentations at the 13th International Symposium on Ballistics held in Stockholm on June 1-3, 1992. Practically all aspects of ballistics are covered at these symposiums. This time there wer...

1993-01-01

260

A follow-up and conclusive report on the attitude towards hydrogen fuel cell buses in the CUTE project—From passengers in Stockholm to bus operators in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the attitude towards the fuel cell bus and the hydrogen technology used in the CUTE project, represented by two passenger surveys performed in Stockholm, a survey performed among drivers in four cities and final statements as well as recommendations for future projects by project partners.Main results are:•The passengers’ willingness to pay for having more fuel cell buses

M. Saxe; A. Folkesson; P. Alvfors

2007-01-01

261

Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the risk of neurological and autoimmune disorders of special interest in people vaccinated against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with Pandemrix (GlaxoSmithKline, Middlesex, UK) compared with unvaccinated people over 8-10 months. Design Retrospective cohort study linking individualised data on pandemic vaccinations to an inpatient and specialist database on healthcare utilisation in Stockholm county for follow-up during and after the pandemic period. Setting Stockholm county, Sweden. Population All people registered in Stockholm county on 1 October 2009 and who had lived in this region since 1 January 1998; 1?024?019 were vaccinated against H1N1 and 921?005 remained unvaccinated. Main outcome measures Neurological and autoimmune diagnoses according to the European Medicines Agency strategy for monitoring of adverse events of special interest defined using ICD-10 codes for Guillain-Barré syndrome, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, polyneuropathy, anaesthesia or hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia, narcolepsy (added), and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes; and short term mortality according to vaccination status. Results Excess risks among vaccinated compared with unvaccinated people were of low magnitude for Bell’s palsy (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.48) and paraesthesia (1.11, 1.00 to 1.23) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and healthcare utilisation. Risks for Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis remained unchanged. The risks of paraesthesia and inflammatory bowel disease among those vaccinated in the early phase (within 45 days from 1 October 2009) of the vaccination campaign were significantly increased; the risk being increased within the first six weeks after vaccination. Those vaccinated in the early phase were at a slightly reduced risk of death than those who were unvaccinated (0.94, 0.91 to 0.98), whereas those vaccinated in the late phase had an overall reduced mortality (0.68, 0.64 to 0.71). These associations could be real or explained, partly or entirely, by residual confounding. Conclusions Results for the safety of Pandemrix over 8-10 months of follow-up were reassuring —notably, no change in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. Relative risks were significantly increased for Bell’s palsy, paraesthesia, and inflammatory bowel disease after vaccination, predominantly in the early phase of the vaccination campaign. Small numbers of children and adolescents with narcolepsy precluded any meaningful conclusions.

2011-01-01

262

Beyond Medical Risk: Investigating the Psychological Factors Underlying Women's Perceptions of Susceptibility to Breast Cancer, Heart Disease, and Osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships of epidemiological (objective) risk indices, perceived disease characteristics, and cognitive heuristics to women's perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis in a community sample of 312 women ages 40–86 were examined. Epidemiological indices accounted for a small to moderate proportion of the variance in perceived susceptibility. Psychological factors (perceived similarity to women who contract the target

Mary A. Gerend; Leona S. Aiken; Stephen G. West; Mindy J. Erchull

2004-01-01

263

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

264

Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics, Chickenpox, Measles, Eye Diseases, Dengu...

1983-01-01

265

Heart Rate and Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about heart health (on page 27 of the PDF), learners measure their heart rates after a variety of physical activities and compare the results with their resting heart rates, and with the heart rates of other learners in their groups. Learners also make predictions about their pulse rates. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extension ideas, information about the heart in space and a handout.

Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Matyas, Marsha L.; Mcneel, Ronald L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

266

Epidemiology of tuberculosis immunology.  

PubMed

Immunological impairment plays a major role in the epidemiology of TB. Globally, the most common causes of immunological impairment are malnutrition, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, aging, and smoking. With the notable exception of HIV, each factor leads to relatively mild immunological impairment in individuals. However, as these conditions affect a significant proportion of the population, they contribute substantially to the incidence of TB at a global scale. Understanding immunological impairment is central to understanding the global TB pandemic, and vital to the development of effective disease control strategies. PMID:23468101

Fox, G J; Menzies, D

2013-01-01

267

Epidemiological studies on syncope.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient- and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact in Denmark and that the risk of syncope is tightly associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities and use of pharmacotherapy. Furthermore in patients with no co-morbidities (or healthy individuals), syncope is a significant and independent prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcome and death compared to the background population. Lastly, evaluation of the CHADS2 score, as a tool for risk stratification, showed that it provided additional prognostic information on short- and long-term cardiovascular mortality in syncope patients compared to controls. PMID:24001470

Ruwald, Martin Huth

2013-09-01

268

[Epidemiology of allergic diseases].  

PubMed

The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

Aleraj, Borislav; Tomi?, Branimir

2011-01-01

269

[Epidemiological approach to mesothelioma].  

PubMed

Mesothelioma, the primitive cancer of pleura, peritoneum or pericardium, is a tumor for which many etiologic studies have been conducted, because of close relations with environment. If asbestos remains the essential risk factor, many uncertainties persist on extent of phenomena in next decades. Furthermore, emergence of new etiologies, confirmed on human (erionite, ionizing radiations) or only suspected in experimentation (some biopersistent synthetic fibers, some virus as the SV40), ask new questions which are susceptible to modify our view of mesothelioma epidemiology. PMID:9248100

Brochard, P

1997-06-15

270

[Epidemiology of thyroid disease].  

PubMed

Thyroid dysfunction induces clinical problems even in the stage of subclinical. Patients with clinical signs suggesting thyroid dysfunction, as well as pregnant women, should be examine their thyroid function despite the high prevalence, 7-10% of adults. Thyroid nodules, most of which should not be treated blindly, are frequently found in the ultrasonographic screening. Therefore, careful consideration regarding the method in dealing thyroid nodules is necessary to avoid unnecessary clinical examinations and treatments. In the screening program of thyroid disease for children and adolescents after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, importance of epidemiological findings is growing to assess the results. PMID:23214052

Shimura, Hiroki

2012-11-01

271

Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis.

Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

2008-01-01

272

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes.

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

273

Epidemiology in early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood educators are keen observers of young children, and as such are important sources of information about the health and safety of young children. This paper discusses the importance to quality early childhood programs of an epidemiological approach to those observations. Surveillance is described using examples from the literature on preschoolers’ unintentional injuries. Basic epidemiological measurements (count, rate, incidence,

Rene R. Gratz

1994-01-01

274

Epidemiology of urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the epidemiological risk factors for calcium stone formation is shown in Table. 4. At present, the data would seem to support the hypothesis that calcium stone disease is a multi-factorial disorder for which no single underlying metabolic or environmental factor is uniquely responsible. That is not to say that certain epidemiological factors are unimportant in the genesis

W. G. Robertson

1990-01-01

275

The Era of Genomic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent revolution in genomics is already having a profound impact on the practice of epidemiology. The purpose of this commentary is to demonstrate how genomics and epidemiology will continue to rely heavily on each other, now and in the future, by illustrating a number of interaction points between these 2 disciplines: (1) the use of genomics to estimate disease

Bryan J. Traynor

2009-01-01

276

The epidemiology of acute encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of encephalitis and is based on a literature

Julia Granerod; Natasha S. Crowcroft

2007-01-01

277

Heart failure in East Asia.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. Betablocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory Y H; Banerjee, Amitava

2013-05-01

278

Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

2012-01-01

279

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

280

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision.

2012-01-01

281

Epidemiology of spondyloarthritis.  

PubMed

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27. Reports of incidence and prevalence of diseases vary depending on methodological differences between studies, the case definition used to classify disease, and the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the population studied. Newly proposed criteria for axial SpA and peripheral SpA present a new approach to facilitate classification of the SpA into 2 main subtypes and the criteria allow earlier detection of patents with inflammatory back pain. These criteria were developed for use in a (specialized) clinical setting and not for large epidemiologic studies. PMID:23083748

Stolwijk, Carmen; Boonen, Annelies; van Tubergen, Astrid; Reveille, John D

2012-08-01

282

[Epidemiology of osteoporosis].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

Grazio, Simeon

2006-01-01

283

Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  

PubMed

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

2012-10-01

284

The Treatment Gap in Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Failure: Community Standards and the Post-Discharge Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in vascular biology, epidemiology, clinical trials, and cost-effectiveness analyses have allowed development of guidelines for risk reduction in patients with vascular disease and congestive heart failure. However, these advances appear necessary but not sufficient to promote implementation of these guidelines for treating coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Evidence from the United Kingdom and Europe, and

Thomas A Pearson; Theodore D Peters

1997-01-01

285

Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease: National heart, lung, and blood institute working group report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an interdisciplinary working group of experts to develop recommendations for the assessment and treatment of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method: Consensus of experts. Results: Our current recommendations are that the Beck Depression Inventory-I be employed for epidemiological studies of depression and CHD, that the Patient Health Questionnaire

Karina W. Davidson; David J. Kupfer; J. Thomas Bigger; Robert M. Califf; Robert M. Carney; James C. Coyne; Susan M. Czajkowski; Ellen Frank; Nancy Frasure-Smith; Kenneth E. Freedland; Erika S. Froelicher; Alexander H. Glassman; Wayne J. Katon; Peter G. Kaufmann; Ronald C. Kessler; Helena C. Kraemer; K. Ranga R. Krishnan; François Lespérance; Nina Rieckmann; David S. Sheps; Jerry M. Suls

2006-01-01

286

[Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis].  

PubMed

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by weakness and fatigue of voluntary muscles, and presence of autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptor of postsynaptic muscle membrane. A review of the international literature suggests that there is large variety of MG frequency and distribution. An annual incidence rate of MG is thought to be between 0.25 and 20 per 1,000,000 population. The prevalence of MG in world shows even wider variation, i.e. ranging from 50/1,000,000 in Hong Kong to 200/1,000,000 in Virginia (USA). Among population of Belgrade, an average annual incidence rate during the period 1983-1992 was 7.1/1,000,000, and prevalence on December 31, 1992 was 121.5/1,000,000. The mortality rate of MG is very low with value under 1/1,000,000. Epidemiological studies of MG have indicated trend of increasing MG prevalence with relatively stable incidence. This reflects the impact of effective treatment, improved diagnostic methods and prolonged survival. Due to development of intensive care facilities and immunomodulating treatment, the mortality of MG has significantly decreased. The most common age of MG onset is between 20 and 40 years. In this age group, about 60% of patients are women, while sex ratio at older age is 1:1. Stressful life events, viral infections, pregnancy and delivery may precipitate the development of MG. MG is associated with other autoimmune diseases in about 30% of cases. Although the number of patients with MG continues to rise, it is still a rare disease. Further epidemiological research with a view to establish population registries and to estimate economic impact of disease on population as well as quality of life of patients with MG is needed. PMID:17252917

Pekmezovi?, Tatjana; Lavrni?, Dragana; Jarebinski, Mirjana; Apostolski, Slobodan

287

[Epidemiology of lung tumors].  

PubMed

Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will be provided on the epidemiology of lung tumors and predominantly preventable risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:22753285

Ott, S; Geiser, T

2012-07-01

288

Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3?billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

Bhate, K; Williams, H C

2013-03-01

289

Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... others do. Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

290

Patterns of Heart Attacks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Myocardial infarction is a derivative of heart disease that is a growing concern in the United States today. With heart disease becoming increasingly predominant, it is important to not only take steps toward preventing myocardial infarction, but also tow...

K. N. Shenk

2010-01-01

291

Amazing Heart Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the NOVA Cut to the Heart Web site highlights facts about the heart -- including its size and placement -- and will help you to understand the importance of this wondrous organ in our bodies.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

292

Heart valve surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... 61. Otto CM, Bonow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap ...

293

Prosthetic Heart Valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The development of prosthetic heart valves has been a major advance in the treatment of patients with valvular heart disease.\\u000a There have been ongoing improvements in valve design so that the performance and durability of the currently available heart\\u000a valves far surpasses early generation valve prostheses. Despite the major improvements in prosthetic heart valves and the\\u000a positive impact on outcome

Kwan-Leung Chan; John P. Veinot

294

Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large.

Rothman, K J

1993-01-01

295

Nuts and berries for heart health.  

PubMed

Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as L-arginine, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially impact heart health. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary heart disease in both genders and diabetes in women. Limited evidence also suggests beneficial effects on hypertension and inflammation. Interventional studies consistently show that nut intake has a cholesterol-lowering effect and there is emerging evidence of beneficial effects on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity, and glycemic control also appear to be positively influenced by frequent nut consumption without evidence of undue weight gain. Berries are another plant food rich in bioactive phytochemicals, particularly flavonoids, for which there is increasing evidence of benefits on cardiometabolic risk that are linked to their potent antioxidant power. PMID:20820955

Ros, Emilio; Tapsell, Linda C; Sabaté, Joan

2010-11-01

296

Heart failure - surgeries and devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Suggested procedures may include: Angioplasty and stent placement Heart bypass surgery ... This problem may cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. As a result, the patient may need surgery to repair one of the heart valves .

297

Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is ... used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta ...

298

Primitive Heart Turnabout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation displays both sides of the two chambered heart. It begins with a ventral view, labeling the chambers and aortic arches. The heart then turns around to a dorsal view, labeling the major vessels. A button allows one to see the inside of the heart and the openings of the major vessels.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2009-11-20

299

Sex and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Sex and Heart Disease Updated:Mar 2,2012 Is sex safe for heart disease patients? Readjusting to everyday life can be tough for heart disease patients. You wonder about everything: Should I eat this food? Can I do that activity? ...

300

Working Model Hearts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

Brock, David

2009-01-01

301

Heart Failure - new insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten years ago we published a review updating current knowl- edge on heart failure. We summarized that heart failure is a neuro-humoral and inflammatory syndrome, and that pro- inflammatory cytokines are involved in cardiac depression and in the complex syndrome of heart failure. We suggested that understanding the role of these cytokines may enable us to reverse cardiac depression and

Arnon Blum

2009-01-01

302

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Sullivan, Kevin; Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.

2009-02-09

303

Epidemiology of fecal mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Fecal mutagenicity presents unique difficulties of measurement (63); nonetheless, population studies of fecal mutagenicity typify the common methodological problems of colorectal cancer epidemiology. For example, correlational studies have linked fecal mutagenicity both to colorectal cancer incidence and to dietary practices postulated to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The threat of an ecologic fallacy, however, is just as strong for biochemical assays as for other epidemiologic data. Fecal mutagenicity may represent, along with high-fat or low-fiber intake, a mere correlate of some true risk factor still to be elucidated in high-risk populations. Dietary trials, on the other hand, may directly confirm the influence of diet on fecal mutagenicity (or another presumed "intermediate end point") but cannot directly address the relationship of mutagenicity to colorectal cancer risk. Case-control comparisons of fecal mutagenicity might initially seem to promise more compelling evidence regarding colorectal cancer risk, but they are actually unsuitable, since the possibility of disease affecting this "exposure" is so strong. Specifically, fecal mutagenicity might be affected by the clinical tests required to diagnose colorectal cancer; it might also be affected by the malignancy itself, or indirectly by the dietary modifications that can accompany gastrointestinal illness. The resultant biases threaten to confound a case-control comparison as much as recall bias can affect interview data. A proper case-control study of fecal mutagenicity and colorectal cancer must therefore consider the effect of diagnostic workup on each mutagenicity assay, before the test is used to compare case and control specimens. In addition, case subjects should be followed through hospitalization and recovery, in the hope that for some cured patients the measurements after surgery will exclude any effect of disease on exposure. A case-control study incorporating these extra efforts is now underway. It seems reasonable to state that most biochemical assays incorporated into case-control studies of colorectal cancer will require similar modifications. Moreover, even if an effect of disease or of health care on biochemical measurements is excluded, an additional concern regarding the role of fecal mutagenicity or other assays in case-control studies will remain. The use of biochemical tests in a case-control context is analogous to asking questions regarding current smoking or current diet in a case-control interview. The current measurements reflect past values only to the degree that the exposure variable remains stable during the subject's lifetime.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3533586

Schiffman, M H

1986-01-01

304

EPISCOPE: computer programs in veterinary epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary epidemiology is a rapidly developing science. However, many veterinarians are unfamiliar with the relevant techniques because veterinary schools have not introduced biostatistics as a core element of their courses or adopted epidemiology as a specific discipline. EPISCOPE, the computer software presented in this paper, covers many epidemiological principles and calculations. It can assist both the teaching of epidemiology and

K. Frankena; J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; P. Willeberg; PF van Voorthuysen; J. O. Goelema

1990-01-01

305

Worldwide Report: Epidemiology. No. 326.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from around the world on epidemiology. Some titles include: Chittagong Diarrhea, Dysentery; Infant Mortality Rate Fourth Highest in Latin America (Brazil); Reasons for Continue...

1983-01-01

306

EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

307

Georeferenced data in epidemiologic research.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some conceptual and practical issues regarding the application of georeferenced data in epidemiologic research. Starting with the disease mapping tradition of geographical medicine, topics such as types of georeferenced data, implications for data analysis, spatial autocorrelation and main analytical approaches are heuristically discussed, relying on examples from the epidemiologic literature, most of them concerning mapping disease distribution, detection of disease spatial clustering, evaluation of exposure in environmental health investigation and ecological correlation studies. As for concluding remarks, special topics that deserve further development, including the misuses of the concept of space in epidemiologic research, issues related to data quality and confidentiality, the role of epidemiologic designs for spatial research, sensitivity analysis and spatiotemporal modeling, are presented. PMID:18833352

Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

308

On the epidemiology of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, \\

John J Cannell; Michael Zasloff; Cedric F Garland; Robert Scragg; Edward Giovannucci

2008-01-01

309

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

310

Epidemiology of esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital malformation consisting of a lack of continuity between the upper and lower esophageal pouches, frequently associated with tracheoesophageal fistula. The prevalence of such rare abnormalities is established by global birth surveillance programs over the world. EUROCAT is a European program covering 1.7 million births since its creation. The prevalence of EA in Europe seems stable over decades. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network in the USA also shows a stable prevalence with a wide range between states or regions. In France, with the implementation of the national rare diseases plan, a reference center for congenital abnormalities of the esophagus was created in 2006 and a national registry for EA began patient inclusion in 2008. This has resulted in the establishment of the national live birth prevalence for EA, prenatal diagnosis rates, and clinical characteristics of EA patients, early survival, and early morbidity. Prevalence rates seem stable all over the world since many decades. Continuous surveillance of congenital abnormalities and specific registries are useful for epidemiologic data but also for public health authorities for helping families of rare diseases patients. PMID:23679022

Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Salleron, J; Gottrand, F

311

Epidemiology of the leishmaniases.  

PubMed

The leishmaniases are a group of zoonotic infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. These infections produce a variety of different clinical diseases depending on the virulence or tropism of the parasite and differential host immune responses. Newly recognized clinical presentations, such as viscerotropic leishmaniasis in American military veterans of Operation Desert Storm, continue to challenge clinicians. Epidemics of classic visceral leishmaniasis leading to thousands of deaths are ongoing in Brazil, India, and the Sudan. Epidemics of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis are ongoing in many areas of South America, North Africa, and Central Asia. A marked increase in cases is often associated with an influx of nonimmune populations into newly cleared agricultural populations into newly cleared agricultural areas or population expansion into previously unsettled areas surrounding cities. The emergence of leishmaniasis as an important opportunistic infection in AIDS patients portends an ominous future as the HIV pandemic sweeps into the hyperendemic areas of South America, Africa, and the Indian subcontinent. Parenteral transmission via needle sharing in HIV coinfected individuals in Spain is an epidemiologically significant new mode of transmission. Finally, recent work has elucidated an enzootic transmission cycle involving L. mexicana in Texas. PMID:7554500

Magill, A J

1995-07-01

312

Epidemiology of the vasculitides.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of systemic vasculitis is becoming increasingly well understood. Giant cell arteritis is the commonest type of vasculitis with an incidence that is highest in populations of Scandinavian descent, where the annual incidence reaches 15 to 35/100,000 aged > 50 years. Takayasu's arteritis has a relatively uniform global incidence of one to two/million. The ANCA-associated vasculitides have an overall incidence of 20/million with a peak age of onset at 65 to 74 years. Wegener's granulomatosis appears to be more common in northern Europe compared with microscopic polyangiitis, which seems to be more common in southern Europe. Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the commonest form of childhood vasculitis in the West with an incidence of 20/100,000 aged < 17 years, but it is much rarer in adults (13/million). Kawasaki disease is commonest in the childhood population of southeast Asia; in Japan the incidence is 500/million aged < 5 years, 50% of cases occur in those aged < 2 years. Behçet's disease occurs along the Silk Road and in the Mediterranean littoral with a prevalence in Turkey of 380/100,000. The various types of vasculitis have very different geographical and ethnic distributions, which provide clues to the pathogenesis. PMID:16088491

Watts, Richard A; Scott, David G I

2004-10-01

313

Epidemiology of pancreas cancer (1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This article reviews the epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas, both descriptive and analytical, at all times cognizant of\\u000a the problems of misdiagnosis, particularly underdiagnosis, of this lethal disease that continue to hinder epidemiological\\u000a studies. Pancreas cancer is consistently reported to occur more frequently in men than in women, in blacks than in whites,\\u000a and in urban rather than rural

P. Boyle; C.-C Hsieh; P. Maisonneuve; C. La Vecchia; G. J. Macfarlane; A. M. Walker; D. Trichopoulos

1989-01-01

314

[Heart failure due to metabolic heart disorders].  

PubMed

The classification of myocardial diseases, proposed by the WHO/ISFC task force in 1980, distinguishes specific heart muscle diseases from myocardial diseases of unknown origin, termed cardiomyopathies. In this article, specific heart muscle diseases caused by metabolic disturbances are reviewed. The disorders were categorized into 4 types: 1. endocrine disorders; 2. storage or infiltration disorders, such as amyloidosis, hemochromatosis and familial storage disorders; 3. nutritional disorders, such as Kwashiorkor, beri-beri, obesity and alcoholic and electrolyte disorders; and 4. Diabetic heart. Since the first type disorders have been covered by a separate review, the other 3 types were covered in this article. A common clinical picture of these disorders is chronic congestive heart failure. The pathogenesis and laboratory findings of these disorders are briefly discussed. PMID:8331805

Shimizu, M; Isogai, Y

1993-05-01

315

Blood Donations and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—In experimental animals, iron overload appears to promote atherosclerosis and ischemic myocardial damage, but the results of epidemiological studies that relate iron stores to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent. Methods and Results—We prospectively studied blood donations, which effectively reduce body iron stores, in relation to the risk of CHD among participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up

Alberto Ascherio; Eric B. Rimm; Edward Giovannucci; Walter C. Willett; Meir J. Stampfer

2010-01-01

316

Self-directed and interpersonal male violence in adolescence and young adulthood: a 30-year follow up of a Stockholm cohort.  

PubMed

In line with Wilkinson's theory on inequality and health, this study simultaneously analyses self-directed and interpersonal violence among men in a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 with respect to their early life experiences of stress, their lack of social connectedness and their relative deprivation. Multinomial logistic regressions with cluster-robust variance estimates were used. Self-directed violence was found to be related to self-rated loneliness and non-membership of voluntary associations but not to a lack of friendship in school at the age of 12-13, while the opposite was shown to be true for interpersonal violence. Growing up in a family that received means-tested social assistance at least once during the period 1953-1965 was taken as an objective indicator of relative deprivation and proved to be correlated with both self-directed and interpersonal violence. Disadvantaged social comparison at the age of 12-13, taken as a subjective indicator of relative deprivation, was only statistically related to a subsequent risk of interpersonal violence. It is suggested that different types of social connectedness and relative deprivation, respectively, explain these different patterns of violence. Furthermore, the study speculates on the possibility of frequent social comparison itself being a factor to consider when trying understanding violence in general. PMID:21592142

Rojas, Yerko

2011-05-18

317

Pre-vaccination prevalence of human papillomavirus types in the genital tract of 15-23-year-old women attending a youth health clinic in Stockholm, Sweden.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the prevalence of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types in young girls is important for the early detection of changes in HPV prevalence, e.g. due to HPV vaccines. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the prevalence of 24 different genital HPV types in a group of sexually active young women (aged 15-23 y) attending a major youth healthcare centre in Stockholm, before the introduction of public HPV vaccination of young women in the autumn of 2010. A total of 615 women were analyzed for 24 different, mainly high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Luminex technology. A high HPV prevalence in this cohort was demonstrated, particularly with regard to HPV16, but also to all included HR-HPV types. Of the 544 successfully analyzed samples from non-vaccinated individuals, 70% were positive for the HPV types assayed for, and 62% were positive for HR-HPV types. Over a third (34.7%) of the women were infected with HPV16, and a high frequency of infections with HR-HPV types 51 (10.7%), 18 (10.1%), 52 (9.9%) and 73 (9.4%) was also observed. At least 9 different non-vaccine HR-HPV types were present with a prevalence of >6% in this selected group of young women. PMID:20964488

Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Du, Juan; Lundén, Mikaela; Ahrlund-Richter, Sofie; Ferreira, Joana; Marions, Lena; Sparén, Pär; Andersson, Sören; Dalianis, Tina

2010-10-21

318

Scale issues in the assessment of ecological impacts using a GIS-based habitat model - A case study for the Stockholm region  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) provide two interlinked platforms for the assessment of impacts on biodiversity caused by human developments. Although it might be too early to draw conclusions on the efficiency of SEA to assess such impacts, a number of persistent problems have been identified in the case of EIA. Some of these shortcomings concern the lack of proper prediction and impact quantification, and the inadequate/insufficient assessment of cumulative effects. A number of problems are related to the scale(s) at which the assessment is performed. SEA may provide a more adequate framework than EIA to discuss scale-related issues (i.e. cumulative impacts) but it also requires the use of adapted tools. This paper presents a case study where a GIS-based habitat model for the lesser spotted woodpecker is tested, validated and applied to a planning scenario in the Stockholm region in Sweden. The results show that the method adopted offers great prospects to contribute to a better assessment of biodiversity-related impacts. Even though some limitations remain in the form of data requirement and interpretation of the results, the model produced continuous, quantified predictions over the study area and provided a relevant basis for the assessment of cumulative effects. Furthermore, this paper discusses potential conflicts between different scales involved in the assessment - related to administrative boundaries, ecological processes, data availability, the method adopted to perform the assessment and temporal aspects.

Gontier, Mikael [Environmental Management and Assessment Research Group, Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: gontier@kth.se

2007-07-15

319

On the estimation of heat-intensity and heat-duration effects in time series models of temperature-related mortality in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background We examine the effect of heat waves on mortality, over and above what would be predicted on the basis of temperature alone. Methods Present modeling approaches may not fully capture extra effects relating to heat wave duration, possibly because the mechanisms of action and the population at risk are different under more extreme conditions. Modeling such extra effects can be achieved using the commonly left-out effect-modification between the lags of temperature in distributed lag models. Results Using data from Stockholm, Sweden, and a variety of modeling approaches, we found that heat wave effects amount to a stable and statistically significant 8.1-11.6% increase in excess deaths per heat wave day. The effects explicitly relating to heat wave duration (2.0–3.9% excess deaths per day) were more sensitive to the degrees of freedom allowed for in the overall temperature-mortality relationship. However, allowing for a very large number of degrees of freedom indicated over-fitting the overall temperature-mortality relationship. Conclusions Modeling additional heat wave effects, e.g. between lag effect-modification, can give a better description of the effects from extreme temperatures, particularly in the non-elderly population. We speculate that it is biologically plausible to differentiate effects from heat and heat wave duration.

2012-01-01

320

Peripartum heart disease.  

PubMed

Peripartum heart disease is reviewed in the light of reports in the literature and personal experience from the University College Hospital, Ibadan. It is concluded that it is worldwide in distribution but appears most commonly in multiparous black women with a low socioeconomic background. The clinical features are the same as those of dilated cardiomyopathy, with the exception of cases from Zaria, northern Nigeria, where heart failure may be induced by high salt and fluid intake. The possible causes of peripartum heart disease are reviewed. Glomerulonephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, and malnutrition have not been shown convincingly to be causal, and infection, hypertension, and alcoholism have been suggested. Hypertensive heart failure and toxemia of pregnancy can induce peripartum heart disease. It is concluded that the myocardial disorder in peripartum heart disease is probably the same condition as dilated cardiomyopathy, and that infection may be an important element. However, diverse other factors may also play a part. PMID:3843585

Falase, A O

1985-01-01

321

Heart Rate Slowing for Myocardial Dysfunction\\/Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure is a major health problem, and is one of the few cardiovascular diseases that increased its prevalence over the last decade. Increased heart rate, generally observed in patients with heart failure, is involved in the deterioration of cardiac pump function. However, the effects of ’pure’ heart rate reduction on the progression of heart failure are unknown. In a

P. Mulder; C. Thuillez

2006-01-01

322

Congenital heart disease in adults: management of advanced heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of adults living with congenital heart disease grows annually. The sequelae of congenital heart disease surgery may involve the electrical conduction system, cardiac valves, prosthetic materials, the myocardium, vascular beds, and the nervous system. These sequelae may lead to heart failure. Adults with congenital heart disease develop heart failure as a consequence of: (1) chronic cyanosis, volume overload,

Stacy F. Davis; Thomas P. Graham

2003-01-01

323

An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

Martcheva, M.

2011-11-01

324

Refractory heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing patients with heart failure is rooted in appropriate recognition of the syndrome and subsequent tailoring of therapies\\u000a to individual patients based on the stage of the disease. An individual with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (the\\u000a earliest stage of heart failure) is treated quite differently than a patient with more advanced heart failure manifested by\\u000a problematic fluid retention, peripheral organ

James B. Young

1999-01-01

325

Hearts and Worms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of potentially useful drugs have been banned from the market because of a mysterious and deadly heart reaction. A worm that has no heart may help scientists figure out why. This Science Update focuses on experiments involving the worm C. elegans and using its pharynx, an organ similar in function and histology to the human heart, to test the effects of certain therapeutic drugs.

Science Update;

2004-10-11

326

Heart Failure (Part 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment for heart failure (HF) caused by systolic dysfunction (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, HFREF) is currently better defined than that of HF caused by diastolic dysfunction (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, HFPEF). Available drugs include blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (i.e. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II AT-1 receptor blockers, aldosterone antagonists, direct renin inhibitors), beta blockers,

J.-J. Perrenoud

2011-01-01

327

Diabetic heart disease  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is responsible for a spectrum of cardiovascular disease. The best known complications arise from endothelial dysfunction, oxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodelling and contribute to atherogenesis. However, the effects on the heart also relate to concurrent hypertensive heart disease, as well as direct effects of diabetes on the myocardium. Diabetic heart disease, defined as myocardial disease in patients with diabetes that cannot be ascribed to hypertension, coronary artery disease, or other known cardiac disease, is reviewed.

Marwick, T H

2006-01-01

328

Epidemiology of urolithiasis.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of urolithiasis differs according to geographical area and historical period: changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the incidence and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the physical-chemical composition of the calculi. Reno-ureteral calculosis typical of adult age and featuring mainly calcium oxalate and phosphate is currently more frequent in economically developed countries, where the prevalence rate hovers between 4% and 20% and the annual incidence of hospitalization for calculosis ranges from 0.03 to 0.1%. On the contrary "primitive" vesical calculosis is fairly widespread in Asia, with calculi composed of ammonium urate and calcium oxalate. Vesical calculosis, due to malnutrition in the very early years of life, is currently frequent in huge areas of Turkey, Iran, India, China, Indochina and Indonesia, although the incidence is decreasing in proportion as social conditions gradually improve. At the beginning of the 20th century primitive vesical calculosis was relatively frequent in Europe also, but in the course of the last 100 years, there has been a gradual decrease in its incidence, while the reno-ureteral calculosis has become more common. This trend definited as "stone wave" has been explained in terms of changing social conditions and the consequent changes in eating habits. In Europe, Northern America, Australia, Japan, and, more recently, Saudi Arabia affluence has spread to all social classes, and with it the tendency to eat "rich" food in large quantities. Calcium oxalate and/or phosphate stones account for almost 70% of all renal stones observed in economically developed countries. The prevalence of this type of stones varies considerably on account of environmental factors, especially dietary intake and lifestyle, while radiolucent and infection stones seem to be less influenced by environmental conditions. In the seventies the pathogenetic role for calcium oxalate stones of a diet rich in proteins, refined carbohydrate and sodium has become evident, while the effect of alimentary calcium and oxalate is still debated. However, the concurrence of a genetic predisposition seem to be crucial for calcium stone formation. In fact the importance of family history for idiopathic calcium stone disease is clearly demonstrated, although little is known about the metabolic alterations underlying this predisposition and their genetic transmission mechanisms. PMID:8936716

Trinchieri, A

1996-09-01

329

Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today.

Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

2001-01-01

330

Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Women's Health Pregnant Women Coronary Heart Disease Depression Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Sexual Health Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Health Care Professional ...

331

Diabetes and heart failure.  

PubMed

Heart failure affects more than five million Americans. It is a health and financial burden on the US health care system. The 5-year mortality of heart failure with diabetes is about 50%. This article discusses the treatment of heart failure in the patient with diabetes, including developing effective communication skills between physicians and nurses, developing an effective plan for transitioning the patient between care settings, documenting patient visits consistently and clearly, and performing medication reconciliation at each visit. This article also discusses the need for monitoring readmission for heart failure, length of stay, discharge on beta-blocker, and vaccination rate. PMID:23410648

Glover, Talar L; Galvan, Esperanza

2012-12-02

332

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... of the complications include: Tiring easily when participating in sports or other exercise Heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias) Fluid buildup in the lungs, abdomen, legs and feet (edema) Formation ...

333

Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Diabetes Prevention & Treatment of Diabetes Diabetes Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

334

Variational causal claims in epidemiology.  

PubMed

This article examines definitions of cause in the epidemiological literature. Those definitions describe causes as factors that make a difference to the distribution of disease or to individual health status. In philosophical terms, they are "difference-makers." I argue that those definitions are underpinned by an epistemology and a methodology that hinge upon the notion of variation, contra the dominant Humean paradigm according to which we infer causality from regularity. Furthermore, despite the fact that causes are defined in terms of difference-making, this doesn't fix the causal metaphysics but rather reflects the "variational" epistemology and methodology of epidemiology. I suggest that causality in epidemiology ought to be interpreted according to Williamson's epistemic theory. In this approach, causal attribution depends on the available evidence and on the methods used. In turn, evidence to establish causal claims requires both difference-making and mechanistic considerations. PMID:19855123

Russo, Federica

2009-01-01

335

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-06-06

336

Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

1987-01-01

337

Some Heart Birth Defects May Increase Children's Heart Infection Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... increase children’s heart infection risk American Heart Association Journal Report September 23, 2013 Study Highlights: Children with ... and valves, according to new research in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association . The risk for ...

338

The Puzzle of Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Brief Review of Epidemiologic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

While coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke share some major risk factors, limited epidemiologic data on dietary fats and vascular disease risk indicate that ischemic stroke is affected differently by these fatty acids than is CHD. The established associations between types of fat and CHD do not appear to apply to ischemic stroke. One explanatory hypothesis for the paradoxical

Ka He; Youjia Xu; Linda Van Horn

2007-01-01

339

[Atrial fibrillation and heart failure].  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are two conditions widespread on the population, especially in elderly people. When AF and HF coexist in the same patient, as frequently happens, they trigger a vicious circle of mutual influence, who dramatically hesitates in lower quality of life and in increased mortality. The relationship between AF and HF is long and vigorously investigated: it is an ever-changing field of knowledge because alongside well known and proven results, especiallythe pathophysiological ones, there are new horizons of research since many aspects are still obscure. Hence, this limit is reflected in the complexity of the combined management of AF and HF in clinical practice. It also explains an ominous prognosis despite significant therapeutic advances. In this review we go over again the well-established knowledge about the pathophysiology binder HF and AF; we provide some epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic informations, we also highlight the new acquisitions, the new research areas and, finally, the still unresolved questions. PMID:20540402

Capucci, Alessandro; Matassini, Maria Vittoria

2010-04-01

340

Risk of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction in a Spanish population: observational prospective study in a primary-care setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ischaemic heart disease is a global priority of health-care policy, because of its social repercussions and its impact on the health-care system. Yet there is little information on coronary morbidity in Spain and on the effect of the principal risk factors on risk of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of coronary

Alejandro Marín; María José Medrano; José González; Héctor Pintado; Vicente Compaired; Mario Bárcena; María Victoria Fustero; Javier Tisaire; José M Cucalón; Aurelio Martín; Raquel Boix; Francisco Hernansanz; José Bueno

2006-01-01

341

Open Heart Surgery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open heart surgery plan was prepared by the Mid-America Comprehensive Health Planning Agency in Kansas City, Missouri. The purpose of the plan is to establish policies that will guide the development of open heart surgery programs in Kansas City area h...

A. Dennis D. A. Rings

1976-01-01

342

Adult Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions.

Moodie, Douglas S.

2002-01-01

343

Adult congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

One million people over the age of 20 suffer from congenital heart disease in the United States. These adult patients can slip through the cracks of our medical system; many are too old to be cared for in most pediatric institutions by pediatric cardiologists and, unfortunately, most adult cardiologists are not trained in congenital heart disease. Therefore, it is important to identify the common lesions in adult congenital heart disease and how they should be managed. Acyanotic congenital heart disease in the adult population primarily involves left-to-right shunts, such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and obstructive lesions such as aortic coarctation of the aorta. The most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease in adults is tetralogy of Fallot. Other complex conditions seen in adults include univentricular hearts, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve, and corrected transposition of the great vessels. Most patients with congenital heart disease will need to undergo surgery, catheterization, or catheterization intervention. Results are excellent in the adult population. Long-term follow-up is needed for any adult congenital heart patient receiving care in institutions that are well organized and well equipped, as we learn more about the natural and unnatural history of these conditions. PMID:22826662

Moodie, Douglas S

2002-01-01

344

Mapping the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

Hulse, Grace

2012-01-01

345

[Risk factors for heart failure in women: diabetes].  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, the most dramatic increase being observed in younger women. Diabetes is a multiplier of cardiovascular risk and decreases life expectancy more in women than in men. Diabetic women are less likely to achieve therapeutic targets for cardiovascular risk factors and to be optimally treated. They present more often with atypical symptoms that cause delays in timely recognition and management of cardiovascular disease. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for heart failure and is associated with a worse outcome in women than in men affected by heart failure. Despite the high prevalence of early asymptomatic ventricular dysfunction in diabetics observed in the DYDA and SHORTWAVE studies, female gender was neither a protective nor predisposing factor to ventricular dysfunction or heart failure. Among 1129 outpatients with heart failure, data from the Cardiovascular Epidemiologic Observatory of Trieste show a prevalence of diabetes of 39% in men and 28% in women. In this ongoing epidemiological study, a significantly better prognosis was observed in female than in male diabetics, whereas diabetic and non-diabetic women showed comparable mortality and hospital admission rates. These findings underscore the impact and effectiveness of strict follow-up and management in the high-risk female diabetic population. PMID:23678529

Russo, Giulia; Cherubini, Antonella; Faganello, Giorgio; Candido, Riccardo; Di Lenarda, Andrea

2012-05-01

346

Facts about Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... living with a congenital heart defect » Other Health Problems Associated With Congenital Heart Defects Many people with a congenital heart defect lead typical, independent lives without difficulty, while ... have genetic problems or other health conditions that increase their risk ...

347

What Happens After Heart Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ... for several days, depending on the type of heart surgery and the time you need to recover. Then ...

348

Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive  

MedlinePLUS

Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass; MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... your heart to stabilize it. You will receive medicine to slow the heart down.

349

HyperHeart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Utah's Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library has worked to create everything from mobile applications to digitized slide collections for medical professionals. One of their most interesting applications is this interactive rendering of the human heart that can be used to understand blood flow and the operations of the heart. The site includes a set of controls that gives visitors the ability to look at the heart in motion, complete with a stop, play, rewind, and fast-forward button. The rendering is accompanied by an electrocardiogram and heart sounds chart to give interested parties a bit more detail about each motion of the heart. The site also includes seven "Tutorials" that provide detailed graphics and text that explain atrial systole, rapid ejection, rapid ventricular filling, and more.

2012-01-27

350

Theory of heart  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

Glass, L. (ed.) (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. (ed.) (Auckland Univ., Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. (ed.) (California Univ., San Diego (United States))

1991-01-01

351

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

2009-01-01

352

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma In Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. F. Press

1997-01-01

353

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma In Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. Press

1999-01-01

354

Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography. Third edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and a...

1993-01-01

355

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma in Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. F. Press

1998-01-01

356

[Association between ethanol intake and ischemic heart disease].  

PubMed

Most world populations consume alcoholic beverages. Ethanol may have both protective and harmful effects on health depending on the amount and way of consumption. An extensive body of data shows concordant J or U-shaped associations between alcohol intake and a variety of adverse health outcomes, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. In particular, moderate ethanol consumption is associated with cardioprotective benefits such as lower cardiovascular risk and mortality, probably mediated by beneficial effects on inflammation, lipids, and coagulation. In contrast, binge and/or heavy drinking results in proportional worsening of outcomes, increasing cardiovascular events and mortality. This harmful effect has been recently associated with the blockade of ischemic preconditioning mediated by high doses of ethanol. In this review, we highlight the recent epidemiological and experimental evidences regarding the specific benefits and risks of ethanol in the setting of ischemic heart disease. PMID:19209541

Niccoli, Giampaolo; Bacà, Marco; Cosentino, Nicola; Fabretti, Alessandro; Crea, Filippo

2008-11-01

357

[Diabetes mellitus and heart failure - incidence and surgical therapy options].  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in heart failure populations is close to 20% compared with 4-6% in control populations. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an increased risk of heart failure in diabetics. Experimental and clinical studies support the existence of a specific diabetic cardiomyopathy related to microangiopathy, metabolic factors or myocardial fibrosis. The knowledge of the diabetes status may help to define the optimal therapeutic strategy for heart failure patients. In ischemic cardiomyopathy the choice of the surgical treatment may differ according to diabetes status, coronary atherosclerosis and left ventricular function. At present, surgical revascularization techniques seem to be superior to interventional revascularization procedures. In the last decade a growing part of diabetics presenting severe heart failure underwent heart transplantation. Thereby, it was found that the survival rates of patients with uncomplicated diabetes mellitus and of nondiabetics did not differ. The survival rates in patients with severe and progressive form of diabetes mellitus are discussed controversially in the literature. Because of donor organ shortage each diabetic patient presenting severe heart failure should be evaluated to find the best therapy including permanent mechanical circulatory support ("destination therapy"). PMID:18568315

Reiss, Nils; Kleikamp, Georg; Tenderich, Gero; Tschöpe, Diethelm; Körfer, Reiner

2008-04-01

358

Epidemiology of pelvic floor dysfunction.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of female pelvic floor disorders, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence, and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is reviewed. The natural history, prevalence, incidence, remission, risk factors, and potential areas for prevention are considered. PMID:19932408

Sung, Vivian W; Hampton, Brittany Star

2009-09-01

359

The changing epidemiology of gout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides, which is considered to be a true crystal deposition disorder caused by the formation of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints. A number of epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that gout has increased in prevalence and incidence in recent years and that the clinical pattern of

Weiya Zhang; Michael Doherty; Edward Roddy

2007-01-01

360

The Changing Epidemiology of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood…

Fombonne, Eric

2005-01-01

361

The Changing Epidemiology of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood…

Fombonne, Eric

2005-01-01

362

Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

2009-12-01

363

Social network visualization in epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks

Nicholas A. Christakis; James H. Fowler

2009-01-01

364

Epidemiologic Aspects of Toilet Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toilet training is becoming an increasingly important child care issue as child raising becomes an institutional enterprise. This paper reviews the literature of the last 40 years, focusing on the epidemiology of the development of day and night bladder control. The studies indicate that bladder control is usually obtained between 24 months and 48 months of age. Many variations exist

Lawrence B. Berk; Patrick C. Friman

1990-01-01

365

Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes key results of epidemiologic studies published in peer-reviewed journals between April 2003 and March 2004. The prevalence of H. pylori infection continues to vary strongly between developing countries and developed countries, and according to ethnicity, place of birth and socio- economic factors among people living in the same country. Intrafamilial spread appears to play a central role

Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Hermann Brenner

2004-01-01

366

The cancer epidemiology of radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors

Richard Wakeford

2004-01-01

367

Possible contribution from epidemiological studies  

PubMed Central

The problem of chemically contaminated water supplies are in general terms followed by a description of three examples of water supply problems in China. A large-scale prospective epidemiological study, now in the early planning stages, to be carried out in China is also described.

Hammond, E. Cuyler; You, Wei-cheng; Wang, Long-de

1983-01-01

368

Epidemiology of Thrombosis in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have utilized epidemiological data to address three questions in patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE): (1) What is the risk for occult cancer in patients with idiopathic versus secondary VTE? (2) What is the risk for thrombosis in patients with cancer (vs. noncancer patients)? (3) What is the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer patients with an initial

Frederick R. Rickles; Mark N. Levine

2001-01-01

369

Huanglongbing Epidemiology: An international perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior to the discovery of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The main issue is the perennial nature of the dise...

370

Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different definitions for acute kidney injury (AKI) once posed an important impediment to research. The RIFLE consensus classification was the first universally accepted definition for AKI, and has facilitated a much better understanding of the epidemiology of this condition. The RIFLE classification was adapted by a broad platform of world societies, the Acute Kidney Injury Network group, as the preferred

Eric A. J. Hoste; John A. Kellum; Nevin M. Katz; Mitchell H. Rosner; Michael Haase; Claudio Ronco

2010-01-01

371

Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found

Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez

2000-01-01

372

Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators and their organizations agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) post excerpts of their grant applications online. The applications in the table below are excellent examples of grantsmanship.

373

Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell A. Green G. Chenevix-Trench A. DeFazio D. Gertig

2004-01-01

374

Biological Markers in Epidemiologic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies some of the issues relevant to the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research. Foremost among these are clarity of definitions and marker classification. Illustrations of markers in the categories of internal dose, biological effective dose, biological response, disease, and susceptibility are presented with a theoretical model for the interrelationship among these. Issues faced by epidemiologists in

Barbara S. Hulka; Timothy Wilcosky

1988-01-01

375

The 'wise list'- a comprehensive concept to select, communicate and achieve adherence to recommendations of essential drugs in ambulatory care in Stockholm.  

PubMed

The aim was to present and evaluate the impact of a comprehensive strategy over 10 years to select, communicate and achieve adherence to essential drug recommendations (EDR) in ambulatory care in a metropolitan healthcare region. EDRs were issued and launched as a 'Wise List' by the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee in Stockholm. This study presents the concept by: (i) documenting the process for selecting, communicating and monitoring the impact of the 'Wise List'; (ii) analysing the variation in the number of drug substances recommended between 2000 and 2010; (iii) assessing the attitudes to the 'Wise List' among prescribers and the public; (iv) evaluating the adherence to recommendations between 2003 and 2009. The 'Wise List' consistently contained 200 drug substances for treating common diseases. The drugs were selected based on their efficacy, safety, suitability and cost-effectiveness. The 'Wise List' was known among one-third of a surveyed sample of the public in 2002 after initial marketing campaigns. All surveyed prescribers knew about the concept and 81% found the recommendations trustworthy in 2005. Adherence to recommendations increased from 69% in 1999 to 77% in 2009. In primary care, adherence increased from 83% to 87% from 2003 to 2009. The coefficient of variation (CV%) decreased from 6.1% to 3.8% for 156 healthcare centres between these years. The acceptance of the 'Wise List' in terms of trust among physicians and among the public and increased adherence may be explained by clear criteria for drug recommendations, a comprehensive communication strategy, electronic access to recommendations, continuous medical education and involvement of professional networks and patients. PMID:21414143

Gustafsson, Lars L; Wettermark, Björn; Godman, Brian; Andersén-Karlsson, Eva; Bergman, Ulf; Hasselström, Jan; Hensjö, Lars-Olof; Hjemdahl, Paul; Jägre, Ingrid; Julander, Margaretha; Ringertz, Bo; Schmidt, Daniel; Sjöberg, Susan; Sjöqvist, Folke; Stiller, Carl-Olav; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Tryselius, Rolf; Vitols, Sigurd; von Bahr, Christer

2011-04-01

376

Prognostic implications of ambulatory myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias and relations to ischemia on exercise in chronic stable angina pectoris (the Angina Prognosis Study in Stockholm [APSIS]).  

PubMed

The prognostic significance of ambulatory ischemia, alone and in relation to ischemia during exercise was assessed in 686 patients (475 men) with chronic stable angina pectoris taking part in the Angina Prognosis Study In Stockholm (APSIS), who had 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic registrations and exercise tests at baseline (n = 678) and after 1 month (n = 607) of double-blind treatment with metoprolol or verapamil. Ambulatory electrocardiograms were analyzed for ventricular premature complexes and ST-segment depression. During a median follow-up of 40 months, 29 patients died of cardiovascular (CV) causes, 27 had a nonfatal myocardial infarction, and 89 underwent revascularization. Patients with CV death had more episodes (median 5 vs. 1; p<0.01) and longer median duration (24 vs. 3 minutes; p<0.01) of ST-segment depression than patients without events. For those who had undergone revascularization, the duration was also longer (12 vs. 3 minutes; p<0.05). In a multivariate Cox model including sex, history of previous myocardial infarction, hypertension, and diabetes, the duration of ST-segment depression independently predicted CV death. When exercise testing was included, ambulatory ischemia carried additional prognostic information only among patients with ST-segment depression > or =2 mm during exercise. When the treatment given and treatment effects on ambulatory ischemia were added to the Cox model, no significant impact on prognosis was found. Ventricular premature complexes carried no prognostic information. Thus, in patients with stable angina pectoris, ischemia during ambulatory monitoring showed independent prognostic importance regarding CV death. Ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise testing provide complementary information, but only among patients with marked ischemia during exercise. Treatment reduced ambulatory ischemia, but the short-term treatment effects did not significantly influence prognosis. PMID:10569322

Forslund, L; Hjemdahl, P; Held, C; Eriksson, S V; Björkander, I; Rehnqvist, N

1999-11-15

377

Clinical cardiac electrophysiology and heart failure: impact of electrical disorders and their treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ageing of the population, life style and increased survival of patients with cardiovascular diseases has favoured the development of heart failure and made of it a growing epidemiological problem in developed countries. The understanding of the mechanisms of progression of this disease and the recent advances in medical therapy has improved symptoms and prognosis of these patients. However, the degree

M. Rivero-Ayerza

2009-01-01

378

Commentary: Hormones and heart disease: do trials and observational studies address different questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1990, the number of epidemiological studies of postmenopausal hormone use and coronary heart disease (CHD) was sufficient to justify a quantitative assessment of the evidence. Divergent views of the potential effect of postmenopausal hormones on cardiovascular risk were common. On the one hand, the observation that premenopausal women had substantially lower risk for cardiovascular disease led many to suspect

Meir Stampfer

379

Cardiogenic Effects of Trichloroethylene and Trichloroacetic Acid Following Exposure during Heart Specification of Avian Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are common drinking water contaminants in the United States. Both chemicals have been implicated in causing congenital heart defects (CHD) in human epidemiological and animal model studies. However, the latter studies have primarily focused on assessment of cardiac morphology at late embryonic stages. Here, we tested whether treating avian embryos with TCE

Victoria J. Drake; Stacy L. Koprowski; Norman Hu; Susan M. Smith; John Lough

2006-01-01

380

Depressive Symptoms and Risks of Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality in Elderly Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Several epidemiological studies have associated depressive symptoms with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether depressive symptoms constituted a risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and total mortality among an apparently healthy elderly cohort. Methods and Results—In a prospective cohort of 5888 elderly Americans ( $65 years) who were enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study, 4493 participants who were free of cardiovascular

Abraham A. Ariyo; Mary Haan; Catherine M. Tangen; John C. Rutledge; Mary Cushman; Adrian Dobs; Curt D. Furberg

2010-01-01

381

Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Hispanic Populations: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among Hispanics were examined. Hispanics as compared with Anglo Americans and blacks appear to have somewhat lower mortality rates of CHD. This suggests that Hispanics may have lifestyle patterns which reduce CHD risk in the areas of stress, diet, exercise, hypertension, and smoking. However, independent studies report that their samples of

Felipe G. Castro; Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati; Hector Beltran

1985-01-01

382

Self rated health as a predictor of coronary heart disease in Copenhagen, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between self rated health and the incidence of fatal and non-fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Danish cohort followed up over 16 years. DESIGN: This was a prospective epidemiological follow up study. SETTING: A cohort from the County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 1052 men and women born in 1936. During

L Møller; T S Kristensen; H Hollnagel

1996-01-01

383

The validity of hospital discharge register data on coronary heart disease in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the validity of the Finnish hospital discharge register data on coronary heart disease (CHD) for the purposes of epidemiologic studies and health services research. The Finnish nationwide hospital discharge register (HDR) was linked with the FINMONICA acute myocardial infarction (AMI) register for the years 1983–1990. The frequency of errors in the HDR was assessed separately. Between 8% and

Markku Mähönen; Veikko Salomaa; Mats Brommels; Anu Molarius; Heikki Miettinen; Kalevi Pyörälä; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Matti Arstila; Esko Kaarsalo; Matti Ketonen; Kari Kuulasmaa; Seppo Lehto; Harri Mustaniemi; Matti Niemelä; Pertti Palomäki; Jorma Torppa; Tapio Vuorenmaa

1997-01-01

384

Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Heart Disease: A Critique of the Claims of Glantz and Parmley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—A review by Glantz and Parmley published in 1995 and subsequently widely cited claims to demonstrate that passive smoke exposure increases the risk of heart disease. We have critically examined this claim in the light of the published evidence which they cite and of more recent publications. Methods and results—An updated review of the epidemiological evidence reveals no association between

Peter N. Lee; Francis J. C. Roe

1999-01-01

385

Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Patients with Heart Failure: An Often Neglected Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications in patients with acute heart failure; in addition, the level of risk associated with this disease is notable, ranging from 15 to 30%. Three large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the efficacy and safety of pharmacological prophylaxis in internal medicine patients hospitalized for an acute medical disease;

Davide Imberti; Matteo Giorgi Pierfranceschi; Michela Falciani; Domenico Prisco

2009-01-01

386

Vascular holism: The epidemiology of vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the distinguishing features of epidemiology and clinical medicine and their interdependence in clinical epidemiology as applied to vascular disease. Selected literature is reviewed to emphasize the principles of clinical epidemiology for five vascular disorders: abdominal aortic aneurysms, lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease, cerebrovascular disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and varicose veins. These vascular disorders

Robert W. Barnes

1995-01-01

387

The Changing Epidemiology of Pediatric Endocarditis at a Children’s Hospital Over Seven Decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine whether improvements in the care of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have changed\\u000a the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE). A retrospective study of patients 18 years of age and younger treated for\\u000a IE from 1992 to 2004 (era 3) was conducted at the authors’ children’s hospital in New York City. This study was compared with

Lauren B. Rosenthal; Kristina N. Feja; Stéphanie M. Levasseur; Luis R. Alba; Welton Gersony; Lisa Saiman

2010-01-01

388

Anxiety and cardiovascular risk: Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Evidence  

PubMed Central

An increasing body of evidence suggests that anxiety is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. Individuals with high levels of anxiety are at increased risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, fatal ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Anxiety following a major cardiac event can impede recovery, and is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. This linkage between anxiety and CV disease is further corroborated by evidence suggesting that treatment of anxiety may improve cardiac symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying the observed associations are not entirely delineated. Several intermediary mechanisms have been suggested, including sympathetic activation, impaired vagal control, reduced heart rate variability, stimulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, hyperventilation-induced coronary spasm, oxidative stress, increased inflammatory mediators, and unhealthy lifestyle. There is a need for several clinical trials to explicate the complex associations between anxiety and CV disease, which may be compounded by the involvement of other psychosocial factors. In this review, we examine the epidemiological evidence for the association between anxiety and CV disease, and discuss the proposed mechanisms that may be responsible for this association.

Olafiranye, O; Jean-Louis, G; Zizi, F; Nunes, J; Vincent, MT

2011-01-01

389

Mechanical heart valve cavitation.  

PubMed

Cavitation was first directly related to mechanical heart valves in the mid 1980s after a series of valve failures observed with the Edwards-Duromedics valve. The damages observed indicated that cavitation could be responsible. Later, several in vitro studies visualized the bubble formation and collapse of cavitation at mechanical heart valves. It was suggested that cavitation could also cause damage to the formed elements of blood and thereby enhance the risk of thromboembolic complications seen in mechanical heart valve patients. Therefore, an applicable technique for in vivo detection of cavitation is required. This article reviews techniques developed for in vivo detection of cavitation and suggests focus for future studies. PMID:16293013

Johansen, Peter

2004-09-01

390

Epidemiology Research and Epigenetics: Translational Epidemiology of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Epigenetic processes can explain some of the epidemiological associations between environmental exposure and disease, particularly\\u000a when the exposure occurs at a critical developmental stage. In this chapter, we present several epigenetic pathways associated\\u000a with the risk for schizophrenia. We discuss nongenetic factors – such as paternal age, toxin exposure, and psychological stressors\\u000a – which may influence human development by way

Mary Perrin; Karine Kleinhaus; Mark Opler; Julie Messinger; Dolores Malaspina

391

The use of epidemiology in alcohol research  

PubMed Central

Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions.

Rossow, Ingeborg; Norstrom, Thor

2013-01-01

392

Sex, the heart, and heart failure.  

PubMed

In the modern era of pharmacologic treatment of erectile dysfunction, men with heart disease increasingly approach their physicians regarding the possibility of restoring sexual activity. At the same time, patients are also frequently aware of public figures that have reportedly died during coitus, often in the arms of their mistresses or prostitutes. Added to this is the perception of patients, and oftentimes their physicians, that coitus and orgasm are associated with a near maximal or even "supermaximal" cardiac workload and therefore may be hazardous for a diseased heart. Accordingly, knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of sexual activity, the risks of triggering a cardiovascular event, and the potential risks inherent in the use of drug therapy of male impotence is important to properly advise patients and their spouses regarding this sensitive issue. PMID:16959762

Kiowski, Wolfgang; Brunner, Hanspeter; Schalcher, Christoph

2006-09-01

393

Heart disease. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 62 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiological and Angiographic Examination of the Heart; Newer Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Digital Subtraction Angiography, Computerized Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Nuclear Cardiology; and Genetics and Cardiovascular Disease.

Braunwald, E.

1988-01-01

394

Heart, front view (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

395

Wine and heart health  

MedlinePLUS

... Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA. Effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers associated with risk of coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. BMJ . 2011;342:d636. Lange ...

396

Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... metal stents for angina or acute coronary syndromes. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2010:5:CD004587. DOI: ... coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2012:3:CD007224. DOI: ...

397

[Heart involvement in sarcoglycanopathies].  

PubMed

Sarcoglycanopathies (SG) are autosomic recessive muscular dystrophies, secondary to mutations of the sarcoglycan complex. Clinical pictures include muscle weakness affecting mainly the proximal limb girdle musculature. We review heart involvement in this group of disease. PMID:22405990

Fayssoil, A; Nardi, O; Orlikowski, D; Annane, D

2012-03-09

398

Broken Heart Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... or similar medications that block the potentially damaging effects of stress hormones on the heart. Managing stress in your life is also important. Symptoms ... References Nef HM, et al. Mechanisms ...

399

Heart Truth for Latinas  

MedlinePLUS

... in “To Learn More.” THE HEART TRUTH® FOR LATINAS: AN ACTION PLAN T H E T R ... medication. Overweight/Obesity. Nearly two of every three Latinas are overweight or obese, increasing the risk not ...

400

Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index only NHLBI Entire ... the Heart Works Types Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments ...

401

Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement.

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K

2007-01-01

402

Healthy Heart Quizzes  

MedlinePLUS

... Types of Blood Pressure Medications 10 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red Day® is a registered trademark. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

403

Heart and Athlete  

PubMed Central

Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death.

Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein

2010-01-01

404

Prostaglandins and the Heart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Relationships between prostaglandins and the heart are discussed. Physiologically active prostaglandins and their essential fatty acid precursors are reviewed. The mechanism of action is discussed and experiments on the effect of prostaglandins on the hea...

F. Tenhoor A. J. Vergroesen

1974-01-01

405

Suicide a Risk for Young Cancer Patients, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... Lu, from the department of medical epidemiology and biostatistics at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. The ... Ph.D. student, department of medical epidemiology and biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Lanny Berman, Ph.D., ...

406

Heart diseases diagnosis using HMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bare ear and the stethoscope were until recently of great help in classifying most heart diseases especially those related to valve problems. The newly developed electronic stethoscope and phonocardiography represent useful tools for recording heart sound signals. In this paper a diagnostic technique for heart diseases using heart sounds is suggested. Wavelet decomposition and mel cepstrum are used for

M. El-Hanjouri; W. Alkhaldi; N. Hamdy; O. A. Alim

2002-01-01

407

Metabolic Mechanisms in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure 3 altered metabolism 3

Houman Ashrafian; Michael P. Frenneaux; Lionel H. Opie

408

How Is Heart Block Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... in learning more about heart disease in women? View a Storify archive of a September 28, 2012, Twitter chat on women’s heart health. The discussion includes experts from The Heart Truth® , Million Hearts™ , healthfinder.gov , and the American College of Cardiology’s CardioSmart ™ Know the Facts and ...

409

Animal Models of Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure is a complex syndrome characterized by inability of the heart to supply sufficient cardiac output to meet the metabolic needs of the body. Over the past few decades, a number of animal models of heart failure have been developed to study questions that cannot be readily studied in the clinical setting. Because the syndrome of heart failure in

Minoru Hongo; Tsutomu Ryoke; John Ross

1997-01-01

410

Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

Bioengineering, Climb: C.

411

Infant Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The surgical management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a congenital heart disease that is seen in nearly 2,000\\u000a neonates in North America each year, remains controversial. The initial report of palliative surgery for HLHS by Norwood,\\u000a et al. in 1983 heralded modifications, advancements, and the development of a staged reconstructive surgery for this disease\\u000a [1]. Leonard Bayley at Loma

Timothy M. Hoffman; Thomas L. Spray

412

Amyloid Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cardiac involvement in patients with amyloidosis is common. It produces significant clinical symptoms in about 40% of patients\\u000a with AL amyloidosis. A significant proportion of patients with familial amyloidosis have clinical involvement of the heart,\\u000a and heart failure is almost always the presenting feature of senile systemic amyloidosis. The severity of the cardiac symptoms\\u000a and the response to treatment vary

Rodney H. Falk; Simon W. Dubrey

413

Embryogenesis of heart muscle  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This review deals with development of myocardial architecture, crucial for contractile performance of the heart, and its conduction system, essential for generation and coordinated spread of electrical activity. Topics discussed include molecular determination of cardiac phenotype (contractile and conducting), remodeling of ventricular wall structure and its blood supply, and relation of trabecular compaction to noncompaction cardiomyopathy. Illustrated are the structure and function of tubular heart, time course of trabecular compaction and development of multilayered spiral system of the compact layer.

Sedmera, David; McQuinn, Tim

2008-01-01

414

Total artificial heart.  

PubMed

End-stage heart failure represents a highly morbid condition for the patient with limited treatment options. From a surgical perspective, the treatment options for effective long-term survival are usually limited to heart transplantation, heart-lung transplantation or implantation of a destination mechanical circulatory support device. Assuming an advanced heart-failure patient is indeed deemed a candidate for transplantation, the patient is subject to shortages in donor organ availability and thus possible further decompensation and potential death while awaiting transplantation. Various extracorporeal and implantable ventricular-assist devices (VADs) may be able to provide temporary or long-term circulatory support for many end-stage heart-failure patients but mechanical circulatory support options for patients requiring long-term biventricular support remain limited. Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) currently represents one, if not the best, long-term surgical treatment option for patients requiring biventricular mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplant. The clinical applicability of available versions of positive displacement pumps is limited by their size and complications. Application of continuous-flow technology can help in solving some of these issues and is currently being applied in the research towards a new generation of smaller and more effective TAHs. In this review, we discuss the history of the TAH, its development and clinical application, implications for anaesthetic management, published outcomes and the future outlook for TAHs. PMID:22910087

Sale, Shiva M; Smedira, Nicholas G

2012-06-01

415

Information Metrics in Genetic Epidemiology*  

PubMed Central

Information-theoretic metrics have been proposed for studying gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic epidemiology. Although these metrics have proven very promising, they are typically interpreted in the context of communications and information transmission, diminishing their tangibility for epidemiologists and statisticians. In this paper, we clarify the interpretation of information-theoretic metrics. In particular, we develop the methods so that their relation to the global properties of probability models is made clear and contrast them with log-linear models for multinomial data. Hopefully, a better understanding of their properties and probabilistic implications will promote their acceptance and correct usage in genetic epidemiology. Our novel development also suggests new approaches to model search and computation.

Tritchler, David L; Sucheston, Lara; Chanda, Pritam; Ramanathan, Murali

2011-01-01

416

Epidemiology as a liberal art.  

PubMed

Epidemiology has features that resemble those of the traditional liberal arts. This makes it fit both for inclusion in an undergraduate curriculum and as an example in medical school of the continuing value of a liberal education. As a "low-technology" science, epidemiology is readily accessible to nonspecialists. Because it is useful for taking a first look at a new problem, it is applicable to a broad range of interesting phenomena. Furthermore, it emphasizes method rather than arcane knowledge and illustrates the approaches to problems and the kinds of thinking that a liberal education should cultivate: the scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values. PMID:3807963

Fraser, D W

1987-02-01

417

Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

418

Pediatric Obesity: Trends and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric obesity is a prevalent and rapidly increasing problem that poses a serious risk to the health and well-being of\\u000a the nation's youths. As epidemiological studies have shed light on the severity of the problem, concern about children's weight\\u000a problems has intensified, leading some to refer to pediatric obesity as a new “epidemic” (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee\\u000a on Nutrition,

Ric G. Steele; Timothy D. Nelson; Elissa Jelalian

419

Ethical Aspects of Epidemiological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two quotes are about values and expectations, about perceived responsibilities, about community benefits and individual\\u000a rights in medical care and research, and reflect thereby compellingly the tensions, the paradoxes, the different views and\\u000a ethical aspects concerning biomedical research (Coughlin 2000). Epidemiology is part of the arena of biomedical research and\\u000a is particularly focussed on determinants of disease occurrences in

Hubert G. Leufkens; Johannes J. M. Delden

420

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

421

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

422

Epidemiology and etiology of meningioma  

PubMed Central

Although most meningiomas are encapsulated and benign tumors with limited numbers of genetic aberrations, their intracranial location often leads to serious and potentially lethal consequences. They are the most frequently diagnosed primary brain tumor accounting for 33.8% of all primary brain and central nervous system tumors reported in the United States between 2002 and 2006. Inherited susceptibility to meningioma is suggested both by family history and candidate gene studies in DNA repair genes. People with certain mutations in the neurofibromatosis gene (NF2) have a very substantial increased risk for meningioma. High dose ionizing radiation exposure is an established risk factor for meningioma, and lower doses may also increase risk, but which types and doses are controversial or understudied. Because women are twice as likely as men to develop meningiomas and these tumors harbor hormone receptors, an etiologic role for hormones (both endogenous and exogenous) has been hypothesized. The extent to which immunologic factors influence meningioma etiology has been largely unexplored. Growing emphasis on brain tumor research coupled with the advent of new genetic and molecular epidemiologic tools in genetic and molecular epidemiology promise hope for advancing knowledge about the causes of intra-cranial meningioma. In this review, we highlight current knowledge about meningioma epidemiology and etiology and suggest future research directions.

Wrensch, Margaret; Claus, Elizabeth B.

2010-01-01

423

The epidemiology of vascular trauma.  

PubMed

The study of blood vessel injury has largely focused on diagnosis, treatment, and the outcome of treatment. Although the epidemiology of trauma in general has been extensively studied and reported, the specific epidemiology of vascular injury has not. This report includes a general discussion of the incidence of and risk factors associated with injury to blood vessels. Vascular injury epidemiology has been studied in three different settings: military conflicts, large urban centers, and to a lesser extent, in rural areas. There has been an increase in the incidence of vascular injury in the United States over the past four decades that has paralleled the increase in assault with firearms, motor vehicle crashes, and invasive medical procedures. Mortality and the utilization of medical resources is higher among patients with vascular injury than among trauma patients without blood vessel injuries. There are well-documented differences in the demographics of blood vessel injury in urban versus rural settings. The mechanisms of injury (penetrating, blunt, iatrogenic) are associated with characteristic anatomic patterns of vascular and other organ system injury. PMID:9876029

Caps, M T

1998-12-01

424

Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed.

Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

2011-01-01

425

Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?  

SciTech Connect

The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

Schultz-Hector, Susanne [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof. [Gray Cancer Institute, Northwood (United Kingdom)

2007-01-01

426

High prevalence of diagnosis of diabetes, depression, anxiety, hypertension, asthma and COPD in the total population of Stockholm, Sweden - a challenge for public health  

PubMed Central

Background There is limited knowledge on the prevalence of disease in total populations. Such studies have historically been difficult to conduct but the development of health data registers has facilitated large-scale studies on recorded diagnoses in entire regions. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diagnosis of six common diseases in the Swedish capital region. Methods The study population included all living persons who resided in Stockholm County, Sweden, on December 31st 2011 (N?=?2 093 717). Information on all consultations between 2007 and 2011 was obtained from primary health care, specialist outpatient care and inpatient care. Prevalence was defined as the proportion of individuals with a recorded diagnosis of diabetes, depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the five year period, respectively. Analyses were done by age and gender. Results Hypertension had the highest five-year prevalence (12.2%), followed by depression (6.6%), diabetes mellitus (6.2%), asthma (5.9%), anxiety disorders/phobia (4.8%), and COPD (1.8%). Diabetes was more common in men (5.3% of women and 7.1% of men) while depression (8.7% in women and 4.4% in men) and anxiety (6.3% in women and 3.4% in men) were considerably more common in women. Smaller gender differences were also found for hypertension (13.0% in women and 11.4% in men), asthma (6.4% in women and 5.4% in men) and COPD (2.1% in women and 1.6% in men). Diabetes, hypertension and COPD increased markedly with age, whereas anxiety, depression and asthma were fairly constant in individuals above 18 years. During one year of observation, more than half of all patients had only been diagnosed in primary health care, with hypertension being the diagnosis with the largest proportion of patients only identified in primary health care (70.6%). Conclusion The prevalence of common diseases in the population can be estimated by combining data gathered during consecutive years from primary care, specialist outpatient care and inpatient care. However, accuracy of disease prevalence is highly dependent on the quality of the data. The high prevalence of the six diagnoses analysed in this study calls for preventive action to minimize suffering and costs to society.

2013-01-01

427

PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 indoor-outdoor relationships at homes, pre-schools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developed nations people spend about 90% of their time indoors. The relationship between indoor and outdoor air pollution levels is important for the understanding of the health effects of outdoor air pollution. Although other studies describe both the outdoor and indoor atmospheric environment, few excluded a priori major indoor sources, measured the air exchange rate, included more than one micro-environment and included the presence of human activity. PM 2.5, soot, NO 2 and the air exchange rate were measured during winter and summer indoors and outdoors at 18 homes (mostly apartments) of 18 children (6-11-years-old) and also at the six schools and 10 pre-schools that the children attended. The three types of indoor environments were free of environmental tobacco smoke and gas appliances, as the aim was to asses to what extent PM 2.5, soot and NO 2 infiltrate from outdoors to indoors. The median indoor and outdoor PM 2.5 levels were 8.4 ?g m -3 and 9.3 ?g m -3, respectively. The median indoor levels for soot and NO 2 were 0.66 m -1 × 10 -5 and 10.0 ?g m -3, respectively. The respective outdoor levels were 0.96 m -1 × 10 -5 and 12.4 ?g m -3. The median indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios were 0.93, 0.76 and 0.92 for PM 2.5, soot and NO 2, respectively. Their infiltration factors were influenced by the micro-environment, ventilation type and air exchange rate, with aggregated values of 0.25, 0.55 and 0.64, respectively. Indoor and outdoor NO 2 levels were strongly associated ( R2 = 0.71), followed by soot ( R2 = 0.50) and PM 2.5 ( R2 = 0.16). In Stockholm, the three major indoor environments occupied by children offer little protection against combustion-related particles and gases in the outdoor air. Outdoor PM 2.5 seems to infiltrate less, but indoor sources compensate.

Wichmann, J.; Lind, T.; Nilsson, M. A.-M.; Bellander, T.

2010-11-01

428

The "Clubs against Drugs" program in Stockholm, Sweden: two cross-sectional surveys examining drug use among staff at licensed premises  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to examine self-reported drug use among staff at licensed premises, types of drugs used, attitudes towards drugs, and observed drug use among guests. Results are presented from two measurement points (in 2001 and 2007/08). This study was carried out within the framework of the "Clubs against Drugs" program, which is a community-based multi-component intervention targeting licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted, the first in 2001 and the second in 2007/08. Staff at licensed premises attending server training were asked to participate in the anonymous survey. A survey was administered in a classroom setting and consisted of four sections: 1) demographics, 2) respondents' own drug use experience, 3) respondents' attitudes towards drug use, and 4) observed drug use among guests at licensed premises. Results Data were collected from 446 staff in 2001 and 677 staff in 2007/08. The four most commonly used drugs among staff were cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, and ecstasy. The highest rates of drug use were reported by staff in the two youngest age groups, i.e., those younger than 25 and those between the ages of 25 and 29. In 2007/08 staff reported significantly lower rates of drug use than staff in 2001. Last year drug use for the sample in 2007/08 was 19% compared to 27% for the 2001 sample. While drug-using staff compared to non drug-using staff reported more observations of drug use among guests, they were less inclined to intervene. Overall, staff reported restrictive attitudes towards drugs. Conclusions The prevalence of life-time and last year drug use among staff at licensed premises is high compared to the general population in Sweden. Lower rates of self-reported drug use among staff were reported in 2007/08. The results of this study highlight that staff at licensed premises represent an important target population in club drug prevention programs.

2011-01-01

429

Relation of low diastolic blood pressure to coronary heart disease death in presence of myocardial infarction: the Framingham Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis that a J curve relation between blood pressure and death from coronary heart disease is confined to high risk subjects with myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Cohort longitudinal epidemiological study with biennial examinations since 1950. SETTING--Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. SUBJECTS--5209 subjects in the Framingham study cohort followed up by a person examination approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Coronary heart disease deaths and

R B DAgostino; A J Belanger; W B Kannel; J M Cruickshank

1991-01-01

430

Beneficial vs. detrimental actions of ethanol on heart and coronary vascular muscle: Roles of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies suggest that daily ingestion of small amounts of alcohol may protect the heart, whereas higher intake may be detrimental. We studied: 1) cardiac performance, bioenergetics, and [Mg2+]1 of isolated working rat hearts during perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit medium containing different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH), 2) mechanical responses, Ca2+ metabolism, and Mg content of isolated coronary arteries obtained from dogs,

Burton M. Altura; Li Yan Zou; Bella T. Altura; Linda Jelicks; Beatrice A. Wittenberg; Raj K. Gupta

1996-01-01

431

Late Onset of Heart Block After Open Heart Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late onset of complete heart block is a potentially dangerous complication after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease.\\u000a The characteristics of patients with late-onset heart block have not been well described. A retrospective review of a pacemaker\\u000a database was done to identify patients who presented with new onset heart block between 1988 and 2006, after they had been\\u000a discharged

Leonardo Liberman; Robert H. Pass; Allan J. Hordof; Henry M. Spotnitz

2008-01-01

432

Epidemiology of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: a Population-based Perspective  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This review summarizes the recent literature on the epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from various population-based studies. Despite methodologic differences, comparisons have yielded similar prevalence rates of the OSA syndrome in various geographic regions and amongst a number of ethnic groups. Risk factors for OSA including obesity, aging, gender, menopause, and ethnicity are analyzed. We also provide discussion on adverse medical conditions associated with OSA including hypertension, stroke, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiovascular mortality, insulin resistance, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Finally with the progression of the global obesity epidemic, we focus on the economic health care burden of OSA and the importance of recognizing the largely undiagnosed OSA population with emphasis on strategies to improve access to diagnostic resources.

Lee, Won; Nagubadi, Swamy; Kryger, Meir H.; Mokhlesi, Babak

2009-01-01

433

[Alcohol and wine and cardiovascular diseases in epidemiologic studies].  

PubMed

Moderate alcohol intake is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases. A large number of epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a U- or J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and total mortality, coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. The lowest risk occurs in those who drink one or two drinks per day. Many studies have dealt with the question if specific alcoholic beverage (vodka, beer, wine, liquor) might offer a greater protection. Red wine containing polyphenols is believed to possess exceptional cardioprotective properties, especially if consumed with meals. However, alcohol beverages should not be recommended to patients as a substitute for the well-proven, cardiovascular risk reducing alternatives such as low fat diet, exercise and pharmacotherapy. PMID:19739580

Sinkiewicz, W?adys?aw; Weglarz, Magdalena

2009-01-01

434

Heart to heart: cardiospheres for myocardial regeneration.  

PubMed

Cardiac regenerative therapies seek to grow new myocardium after "irreversible" injury such as myocardial infarction. Various cell types and delivery techniques have been used in experimental models of human disease and clinical trials. When selecting a candidate stem cell type for clinical use, multiple factors need to be taken into consideration. The ability to regenerate myocardium without potentiating arrhythmogenesis is a critical property. Skeletal myoblasts engraft, differentiate, and are arrhythmogenic; in contrast, bone marrow-derived cells do not engraft long-term and have not been associated with excess arrhythmias. Neither cell type, however, achieves true myocardial regeneration. Recognition of the existence of cardiac stem cells and of the ability of mature myocytes to reenter the cell cycle and proliferate has motivated the development of new approaches to cardiac regenerative medicine. Cardiosphere-derived cells decrease scar mass and regenerate viable myocardium both in animal models and in the CADUCEUS (Cardiosphere-Derived Cells For Heart Regeneration After Myocardial Infarction) clinical trial. Although cardiosphere-derived cells fulfill the criteria for stem cells, their stemness appears not to mediate the therapeutic benefit; instead, indirect mechanisms lead to proliferation of the host myocardium. Being of endogenous origin, the newly grown heart muscle is electrically and mechanically well integrated with preexisting myocardial tissue. We hypothesize that cardiac arrhythmias are less likely to complicate cell therapy when the mechanisms of benefit involve secondary proliferation of endogenous myocardium. Conversely, arrhythmias will more likely bedevil therapeutic approaches (such as transplantation of skeletal myoblasts or pluripotent stem cells) that lead to exogenous grafts within the heart, with the degree of coupling and the extent of inhomogeneity being critical determinants of the net effect. PMID:22813578

Marbán, Eduardo; Cingolani, Eugenio

2012-07-17

435

[Heart failure and anemia].  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure has an age-dependent prevalence of 2% and is therefore one of the most frequent diseases in western societies. A reduced hemoglobin concentration according to the definition of the World Health Organization is a common comorbidity affecting more than half of all heart failure patients. Elderly patients, patients suffering from renal impairment and women are more likely to develop anemia but a definitive etiology of anemia is only identified in the minority of cases. Anemia is associated with a poor clinical status and a greater risk of hospitalization and is a predictive factor for increased mortality. The incidence of anemia appears to increase with a poorer functional class. Intravenous iron therapy improves the exercise capacity in patients with systolic heart failure and iron deficiency and is currently being recommended for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal medical and device therapy. However, erythropoietin-stimulating agents as a treatment for anemia in chronic heart failure have failed to improve clinical outcome in a large randomized trial. In patients with heart failure but with maintained ejection fraction, anemia is also associated with a poor prognosis. Specific therapeutic recommendations for these patients are still not available. PMID:23900390

Reda, S; Motloch, L J; Hoppe, U C

2013-09-01

436

Review on depression and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

The impact of psychological factors on somatic disorders - and vice versa - and the involvement of biological mechanisms in psychic disorders have generated considerable interest in recent years, notably thanks to cutting-edge investigation techniques (immunohistochemistry, functional imaging, genetics, etc.). In the field of psychosomatics, coronary heart disease (CHD) is a frequent co-morbidity of mental disorders, particularly mood disorders. Indeed, there is a bidirectional relationship between CHD and mood disorders, with a strong co-occurrence of the two diseases accompanied by a reciprocal worsening of the prognosis for the two conditions. Various epidemiological studies have shown that depression is a psychic risk factor for CHD and that CHD is present in almost 30% of patients with affective disorders. In this review of the literature, we tackle the crucial question of the diagnosis of depression during myocardial infarction. This clinical approach is essential given the underevaluation of this psychic problem. Then, various psychological, biological and genetic arguments are presented in support of the hypothesis that various aetiological mechanisms of the two disorders are partly shared. We finally deal with the treatment of depression in the context of CHD with its pharmacological and psychological specificities. In conclusion, this review reiterates the need for a multidisciplinary approach, which is necessary to understand, diagnose and then treat this frequent co-morbid condition of heart disease and depression. PMID:23527914

Chauvet-Gélinier, Jean-Christophe; Trojak, Benoit; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Cottin, Yves; Bonin, Bernard

2013-02-01

437

Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. Methods We studied in a cross-sectional design 4,970 participants aged 25 to 93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR=1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. Conclusions These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general population.

Djousse, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ellison, R. Curtis

2010-01-01

438

USING COHORT STUDIES IN LIFECOURSE EPIDEMIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Summary The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Population Health Sciences Research Network is a network of MRC research units and centres that aims to bring together and add value to existing MRC investment in public health, health services and epidemiological research. This symposium held in August 2011 at the World Congress of Epidemiology, Edinburgh, discussed a range of topics including methodology and analytical issues based on a number of examples of cohort studies within the context of lifecourse epidemiology.

Cooper, C; Frank, J; Leyland, A; Hardy, R; Lawlor, D; Wareham, N J; Dezateux, C; Inskip, H.

2013-01-01

439

[Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].  

PubMed

A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses. PMID:9504103

Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

1997-01-01

440

Genetic epidemiological study of schizophrenia: reproduction behaviour.  

PubMed

Data from the Tomsk Epidemiological Register and epidemiological family sample were used to study the relationship between schizophrenics' reproductive behaviour (marital status and fertility rate), severity of ICD-9 schizophrenia and risk of illness among relatives of probands. The results are interpreted in terms of multifactorial threshold and single monolocus models. Their importance for the interpretation of epidemiological data (a change of prevalence rate, cohort effect and clinical polymorphism) is discussed. PMID:1642123

Ritsner, M; Sherina, O; Ginath, Y

1992-06-01

441

Evaluating Epidemiological Evidence: A Simple Test  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies that investigate the relationships between health behaviors and diseases may be affected by both known and unknown confounding factors. Alcohol use is one of these behaviors that have been intensively investigated in epidemiological studies. This manuscript introduced a simple test that can identify confounded epidemiological studies. This approach is sensitive to both known and unknown confounders. It provides a new perspective to develop measures for evidence selection in the future.

Liang, Wenbin

2013-01-01

442

The epidemiology of physical activity in children, college students, middle-aged men, menopausal females and monkeys.  

PubMed

Although the inverse relationship between physical activity and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented, little is known concerning the epidemiology of physical activity. A primary reason for the lack of knowledge has been a problem of quantification of physical activity. We have employed the Large-Scale-Integrated (LSI)Activity Monitor in five diverse populations to measure individual physical activity levels. The results indicated that the instrument can accurately index individual physical activity levels, as well as to provide important information concerning the epidemiology of physical activity. PMID:7119081

LaPorte, R E; Cauley, J A; Kinsey, C M; Corbett, W; Robertson, R; Black-Sandler, R; Kuller, L H; Falkel, J

1982-01-01

443

A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology.  

PubMed

A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology uses a multidisciplinary framework to understand the importance of time and timing in associations between exposures and outcomes at the individual and population levels. Such an approach to chronic diseases is enriched by specification of the particular way that time and timing in relation to physical growth, reproduction, infection, social mobility, and behavioral transitions, etc., influence various adult chronic diseases in different ways, and more ambitiously, by how these temporal processes are interconnected and manifested in population-level disease trends. In this review, we discuss some historical background to life course epidemiology and theoretical models of life course processes, and we review some of the empirical evidence linking life course processes to coronary heart disease, hemorrhagic stroke, type II diabetes, breast cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We also underscore that a life course approach offers a way to conceptualize how underlying socio-environmental determinants of health, experienced at different life course stages, can differentially influence the development of chronic diseases, as mediated through proximal specific biological processes. PMID:15760279

Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey

2005-01-01

444

Tobacco use among American Indians in Oklahoma: an epidemiologic view.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: With the exception of national surveys that sample the entire U.S. population, little information exists on tobacco habits among American Indians. This study is a comparison of tobacco use findings in the 1990s among American Indians in Oklahoma, a state with a large and diverse American Indian population (39 tribes). METHODS: Data on current tobacco use are presented from two statewide surveys, the Oklahoma Youth Tobacco Survey and the Native American Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, as well as two large epidemiologic studies of chronic disease among American Indians-the Cherokee Diabetes Study and the Strong Heart Study. Three of these four sources of data involve research/surveys exclusively about American Indians. RESULTS: Nontraditional use of tobacco by American Indians occurs frequently, according to each instrument. Initiation to this habit begins in middle school and increases dramatically during high school. After age 50, reporting by individuals that they currently smoke declines steadily. CONCLUSIONS: Despite sampling different individuals for the surveys and different tribes for the epidemiologic research, results were comparable in age groups that overlapped. These findings support national data indicating that American Indians have higher prevalence rates of smoking than other racial/ethnic groups. American Indians report smoking on average about a half a pack of cigarettes per day. Individuals reporting using tobacco solely for ceremonial purposes were far fewer than habitual users. Buying tobacco products in American Indian smoke shops helps tribal economies; this fact needs to be considered for prevention programs to succeed.

Eichner, June E.; Cravatt, Kymberly; Beebe, Laura A.; Blevins, Kathleen S.; Stoddart, Martha L.; Bursac, Zoran; Yeh, Fawn; Lee, Elisa T.; Moore, William E.

2005-01-01

445

Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: What registries are revealing.  

PubMed

Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical records) may create a holistic picture of cardiac arrest in the community. PMID:24054508

Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo

2013-09-01

446

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

447

[Epidemiology of female urinary incontinence].  

PubMed

Female urinary incontinence becomes a real public health issue in France, with high frequency and outcomes on 20 to 30% of concerned women. Prevalence of incontinence is widely under-estimated because few women consult a physician for this problem, and because of the lack of epidemiologic data about it. Despite female urinary incontinence will increase in the next future with "baby boom" population, and in spite of new treatments, medical help is not suitable. Physicians but also nurses and physical therapists must have better professional training to help and care better these women. PMID:22039736

Egrot, Christophe; Peyrat, Laurence; Ciofu, Calin; Haab, François

2011-09-01

448

Advocacy in epidemiology and demography.  

PubMed

This paper is a summary of a panel discussion at the Conference on Epidemiology and Demography held at Georgetown University, in Washington D.C. on February 8-9, 2001. The participants were Al Hermalin, Linda Martin, Mike Stoto, Robert Wallace, Douglas Weed, and Rose Li (who chaired the session). A list of questions similar to the section headings in this paper was prepared in advance of the conference, and each of the participants was asked to address specific issues, although the presentations typically covered a range of topics. This summary also includes comments from the floor. PMID:11797868

Stoto, M A; Hermalin, A I; Li, R; Martin, L; Wallace, R B; Weed, D L

2001-12-01

449

[Cysticercosis in Spain. Epidemiologic data].  

PubMed

In our country, cysticercosis is an endemic zoonosis due to the infestation of the larva (cysticercus) of the helminth, Tenia Solium. We Have analyzed the epidemiological data of 52 patients studied at the "Doce Octubre" hospital. The areas at risk are those western rural communities of the peninsula. Although the disease has not yet been erradicated, the lowest number of cases reported was in the 70's due to the greater health, sanitary and social development of these areas. Computorized tomography has helped to identify late manifestations of the disease. PMID:2704868

García-Albea, E

1989-01-01

450

Epidemiology of youth sports concussion.  

PubMed

The overall prevalence of concussion is high school sports is unknown. In general, concussions in this age range occur much more frequently in games than in practice. Also for sports in which both sexes participate, reported concussion rates are higher for female than male high school athletes. Recent data show that the time required for return to play and resolution of symptoms is similar for women and men. Very little is known about the epidemiology of concussions in middle school-aged athletes and younger children. PMID:22050936

Jinguji, Thomas M; Krabak, Brian J; Satchell, Emma K

2011-11-01

451

Epidemiology of substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. in PLoS Med 5(7):e141, 2008; Johnston et al. in Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2010, vol I, secondary school students. Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, MI, 2011; SAMHSA in Results from the 2010 national survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings, vol NSDUH, series H-41, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11-4658. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods, and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12-month prevalence rates of substance dependence in US adults (about 12 % for alcohol and 2-3 % for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of US youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8 % and illicit drug use disorders is 2-3 % (Merikangas et al. in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49(10):980-989, 2010; Swendsen et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(4):390-398, 2012; SAMHSA in Results from the 2010 national survey on drug use and health: summary of national findings, vol NSDUH, Series H-41, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 11-4658. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of SUDs. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat SUDs. PMID:22543841

Merikangas, Kathleen R; McClair, Vetisha L

2012-04-28

452

Chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Physicians must aggressively treat heart failure in the early stages to prevent disease progression and improve survival.\\u000a Early treatment implies early diagnosis of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, before the onset of symptoms. Patients with\\u000a risk factors for the development of heart failure, especially coronary disease or hypertension, should undergo echocardiography\\u000a to evaluate LV function. Patients with LV

Elaine Winkel; Maria Rosa Costanzo

1999-01-01

453

[Carcinoid heart disease].  

PubMed

Carcinoids are rare tumors originating from neuroendocrine cells. A large proportion of these tumors produce serotonin and other biologically active hormones which may produce carcinoid syndrome characterized by flushing, diarrhoea and bronchospasm. Carcinoid heart disease, a rare complication of carcinoid syndrome, may itself have a great impact on life expectancy of patients with carcinoid syndrome. The authors present a case history of a patients with carcinoid heart disease and they review the symptoms, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this rare complication of carcinoid syndrome. PMID:23545233

Bencze, Agnes; Szücs, Nikolette; Igaz, Péter; Leiszter, Katalin; Nagy, Zsolt; Patócs, Attila; Rácz, Károly

2013-04-01

454

Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews the incidence of Listeria species in environments, food product and facility, animals and human population; and examines the mechanisms of survival and control measures for listerial bacteria....

455

[Specificities of heart failure in the elderly].  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is frequent in the elderly population and is associated with high mortality, prolonged and frequent hospitalisations. In old patients with multiple comorbid diseases, clinical symptoms of HF are less typical and the prognosis is poorer. Comprehensive geriatric assessment, using simple tests to evaluate cognitive function, falls, depression, malnutrition, dependency, comorbidities, context of life and social conditions, is needed in order to screen concomitant diseases and loss of autonomy. Because of lack of specific studies on octogenarians, most recommendations for HF treatment in this population have been extrapolated from data based on younger populations. Epidemiological studies show that recommended HF therapies as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers are underused in elderly patients with HF. Reasons for this under prescription are various and include the absence of well-defined therapeutic strategy especially in case of preserved ejection fraction, the existence of comorbidities and the fear of adverse events. Special precautions for the use of HF drugs must be followed because of the comorbidities and age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Increase of drug dose must be closely monitored for adverse reactions. Overall, the therapeutic strategy must not be based on the subject's age, but rather on the individual analysis taking into account the severity of the heart disease, the geriatric assessment, the life expectancy and the quality of life. Clinical and laboratory monitoring should be intensified, especially in case of acute episode (infection, dehydration, introduction of a new treatment, fall…). Therefore, monitoring of heart failure in the elderly, involves multidisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists, geriatricians, general practitioners, pharmacists and paramedical team. PMID:23726288

Hanon, Olivier

2013-05-29

456

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

457

Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in pregnancy: A review of epidemiology, diagnosis, and medical and surgical management  

PubMed Central

Ischemic heart disease is uncommon during pregnancy, occurring in approximately one in 10,000 live births. With the increasing age and fertility of mothers, the incidence of coronary artery disease in pregnancy is likely to increase. Atherosclerosis appears to be the most common cause of acute myocardial infarction, although coronary spasm, coronary dissection and thrombus have been reported, among others. The diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in the pregnant population can be challenging and not without risk to the fetus. Although there have been many reports of acute myocardial infarction and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery during pregnancy, most knowledge is based on anecdotal reports. Even less is known about the use of thrombolytics, percutaneous coronary intervention and the optimal medical management of ischemic heart disease during pregnancy. The epidemiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, and prognosis of ischemic heart disease in pregnancy are the subject of the present review.

Kealey, Angela J

2010-01-01

458

Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and any others relating to the study of human health effects. The Office's mission is evolving to encompass the new role of the Department in environmental restoration, weapons dismantlement and nuclear material storage, and development of new energy technologies. Publications in these areas will be included in future editions of the bibliography. The present edition brings the listing up to date, and should facilitate access to specific reports. The program has been divided into several general areas of activity: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which supports studies of survivors of the atomic weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; mortality and morbidity studies of DOE workers; studies on internally deposited alpha emitters; medical/histologic studies; studies on the genetic aspects of radiation damage; community health surveillance studies; and the development of computational techniques and of databases to make the results as widely useful as possible.

Not Available

1993-05-01

459

Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research. PMID:23718236

Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

2013-06-01

460

Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers.

Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

2010-01-01

461

Epidemiology: second-rate science?  

PubMed Central

In recent years epidemiology has come under increasing criticism in regulatory and public arenas for being "unscientific." The tobacco industry has taken advantage of this, insisting for decades that evidence linking cigarettes and lung cancer falls short of proof. Moreover, many epidemiologists remain unduly skeptical and self-conscious about the status of their own causal claims. This situation persists in part because of a widespread belief that only the laboratory can provide evidence sufficient for scientific proof. Adherents of this view erroneously believe that there is no element of uncertainty or inductive inference in the "direct observation" of the laboratory researcher and that epidemiology provides mere "circumstantial" evidence. The historical roots of this attitude can be traced to philosopher John Stuart Mill and physiologist Claude Bernard and their influence on modern experimental thinking. The author uses the debate over cigarettes and lung cancer to examine ideas of proof in medical science and public health, concluding that inductive inference from a limited sample to a larger population is an element in all empirical science. Images p313-a p317-a p318-a

Parascandola, M

1998-01-01

462

[Tuberculosis epidemiology in Mayotte Island].  

PubMed

Mayotte is a French territory island, part of the Comoros Archipelago in the Indian Ocean with 200,000 inhabitants. The tuberculosis control program started in 1976, although available epidemiological data remains incomplete. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based survey in 202 outpatients and hospital medical records from the Hospital Centre of the main city to contribute to the epidemiological evaluation of tuberculosis patterns. The tuberculosis frequency remains unchanged since 2000. It affects a young population partly coming from the other neighbouring Comoro Islands (69%) with illegal immigrate status (53% in 2004). The systematic diagnostic screening efficiency of the condition appears marginal. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequent clinical manifestation (78%), although severe extrapulmonary manifestations are not exceptional. Co-infection with HIV and multi resistance to antituberculosis agents are not frequent. Up to 60% of cases have been proven to be bacteriologically linked. The notification rate remains critically low with an estimate of 39% of notifications to the local sanitary authorities in charge of secondary cases screening. The case coverage seems limited both by low socio-economical status and poor health facility accessibility The loss of follow up is dramatically high, 41% on the overall period, and up to 51% in 2004. Our results make mandatory the reinforcement of a tuberculosis survey and control involvement within the context of this French territory. Screening, care and follow up are to be implemented particularly for vulnerable and precarious groups and for patients. PMID:18956814

Woessner, J; Receveur, M C; Malvy, D; Taytard, A

2008-10-01

463

The cancer epidemiology of radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan in 1945, but substantial evidence is derived from groups exposed for medical reasons, occupationally or environmentally. Notable among these other groups are underground hard rock miners who inhaled radioactive radon gas and its decay products, large numbers of patients irradiated therapeutically and workers who received high doses in the nuclear weapons programme of the former USSR. The degree of carcinogenic risk arising from low levels of exposure is more contentious, but the available evidence points to an increased risk that is approximately proportional to the dose received. Epidemiological investigations of nonionizing radiation have established ultraviolet radiation as a cause of skin cancer. However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely. PMID:15322514

Wakeford, Richard

2004-08-23

464

Social epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom.  

PubMed

Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

2012-06-16

465

Bias in occupational epidemiology studies  

PubMed Central

The design of occupational epidemiology studies should be based on the need to minimise random and systematic error. The latter is the focus of this paper, and includes selection bias, information bias and confounding. Selection bias can be minimised by obtaining a high response rate (and by appropriate selection of the control group in a case?control study). In general, it is important to ensure that information bias is minimised and is also non?differential (for example, that the misclassification of exposure is not related to disease status) by collecting data in a standardised manner. A major concern in occupational epidemiology studies usually relates to confounding, because exposure has not been randomly allocated, and the groups under study may therefore have different baseline disease risks. For each of these types of bias, the goal should be to avoid the bias by appropriate study design and/or appropriate control in the analysis. However, it is also important to attempt to assess the likely direction and strength of biases that cannot be avoided or controlled.

Pearce, Neil; Checkoway, Harvey; Kriebel, David

2007-01-01

466

Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection.  

PubMed

There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. The increased incidence and severity associated with CDI has coincided with the emergence and rapid spread of a previously rare strain, ribotype 027. Recent data from the United States and Europe suggest that the incidence of CDI may have reached a crescendo in the recent years and is perhaps beginning to plateau. The acute care direct costs of CDI were estimated to be US$4.8 billion in 2008. However, nearly all the published studies have focused on CDI diagnosed and treated in the acute care hospital setting and fail to measure the burden outside the hospital, including recently discharged patients, outpatients, and those in long-term care facilities. Enhanced surveillance methods are needed to monitor the incidence, to identify populations at risk, and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of strains causing CDI. PMID:24064435

Depestel, Daryl D; Aronoff, David M

2013-10-01

467

Cysticercosis in Indonesia: epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage, cysticercus or cysticerci, of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium was recognized at first in Bali and in Paniai District, Irian Jaya (Papua), Indonesia in the 1970s. In the 1990s a rapid increase in the number of the cases of epileptic seizures and burns in Jayawijaya district, eastern Papua, was observed. There were a total of 1,120 new cases of burns (7.0%) and 293 new cases of epileptic seizures (1.8%) from 15,939 local people during 1991-1995. Both histopathological examination and mitochondrial DNA analysis of resected cysts from patients and pigs revealed cysticerci of T. solium. Antibody responses highly specific to cysticercosis were revealed in approximately 67% and 65% of persons respectively with epileptic seizures and with subcutaneous nodules. Therefore, most cases of epileptic seizures and burns were considered to be associated with cysticercosis in Papua. Additional serologically data from Bali showed that 13.5% of epileptic seizures (10/74) and 12.6% of asymptomatic individuals (94/746) were supposed having been exposed to T. solium. Histopathological evaluation of 80,000 tissue samples in East Java revealed that nine were cysticercosis. All cases were non-moslems and from two ethnic groups, Chinese and Balinese. Epidemiological data on cysticercosis are not available from other provinces of Indonesia, although cases of cysticercosis are occasionally reported. Therefore, other intensive epidemiological studies are strongly recommended, especially covering the eastern part of Indonesia. PMID:12041608

Margono, S S; Subahar, R; Hamid, A; Wandra, T; Sudewi, S S; Sutisna, P; Ito, A

2001-01-01

468

Common Types of Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... heart and out to the body. Instead, the veins from the lungs attach to the heart in abnormal positions and this problem means that oxygenated blood enters or leaks into the wrong chamber. More information about Total ...

469

Heart failure in Nigerian hypertensives.  

PubMed

A study of 209 consecutive cases of hypertension, seen at the cardiac unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, showed that heart failure occurred more commonly in patients who were in the low socio-economic class. All those who had a haematocrit below 30% had heart failure. The lower the serum albumin, the greater the likelihood of developing heart failure. Hypertensives who were heavy alcohol drinkers were very prone to heart failure while a significant proportion of those who had cardiomegaly or cardiomegaly with aortic unfolding on chest x-ray had heart failure. Age, sex, Hb genotype, obesity and retinal changes had no influence on the development of heart failure. It is concluded that there are other factors, besides hypertension, which precipitate heart failure in Nigerian hypertensives. This may be responsible for the high incidence of heart failure among Nigerian with hypertension. PMID:6314794

Falase, A O; Ayeni, O; Sekoni, G A; Odia, O J

1983-03-01

470

Cholesterol, Diet, and Heart Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video identifies three primary factors that can increase the risk of having heart attacks: smoking, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol levels. Dr. Byran Brewer, chief of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, describes the ways that...

1994-01-01

471

Cholesterol, Diet, and Heart Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identifies three primary factors that can increase the risk of having heart attacks: smoking, high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol levels. Dr. Byran Brewer, Chief of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, describes the ways that cholester...

1994-01-01

472

Heart Healthy Eating  

MedlinePLUS

... of fat called omega-3 (oh-MAY-guh) fatty acids. Research suggests that eating omega-3 fatty acids lowers your chances of dying from heart disease. ... mackerel, anchovies, and sardines) have more omega-3 fatty acids than lean fish (such as cod, haddock, and ...

473

Heart Ed 101  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States. Risk factors and health behaviors combine over time to contribute to the disease process. College communities provide a unique environment for health promotion, risk reduction, and primary intervention. Heart health should be an integral part of college…

Smith, Lynne E.

2008-01-01

474

Angiosarcoma of the heart.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of angiosarcomas of the heart are described. In one the tumour, which arose from the right atrium, was demonstrated during life by angiography. In the other, diagnosed only at necropsy, the tumour arose from the right ventricle. Both cases illustrate many of the typical features of this rare tumour and the difficulties of antemortem diagnosis. Images

Shackell, M; Mitko, A; Williams, P L; Sutton, G C

1979-01-01

475

Peripartum heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Peripartum heart disease is reviewed in the light of reports in the literature and personal experience from the University College Hospital, Ibadan. It is concluded that it is worldwide in distribution but appears most commonly in multiparous black women with a low socioeconomic background. The clinical features are the same as those of dilated cardiomyopathy, with the exception of

Ayodele Olajide Falase

1985-01-01

476

[Management of heart failure].  

PubMed

Heart failure is a common and serious condition. Over recent decades, its therapeutic management has changed considerably. Treatments and therapeutic education help to improve the symptoms as well as reduce mortality and the risk of rehospitalisation. Finally, the management of the condition takes into account the patient as a whole with his or her illness, comorbidities and projects. PMID:23697056

Jourdain, Patrick

2013-04-01

477

Heart valve bioprothesis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A heart valve prosthesis has a supporting frame (22) with a circular cross-section, which is covered with a dacron fabric (23). On one end face the dacron fabric (23) is arranged to form a suture ring (14). The fixed aortic valve (15,16,17) of a kangaroo is attached inside the frame and sutured to the dacron fabric (23).

Reichart; Bruno (Munchen, DE); Weinhold; Christian (8000 Munchen 71, DE)

1986-12-02

478

Polish artificial heart program.  

PubMed

Despite significant advances in the development of artificial heart substitutes, anthrombogenic materials and surfaces remain to be the main challenge for implants, which can prevent thrombosis that leads to rejection. The goal of material engineering is essentially to design polymeric materials of high durability and optimal thrombogenicity in mechanical heart prosthesis, being developed recently in a frame of the polish artificial heart program. For these reasons, various surface modifications are being continuously developed for a 'gold standard' material, which is a polyurethane (PU) thermoplastic elastomer and they will be shortly reviewed. However, new polymeric materials can meet medical word's attention if they are able to provide similar or better characteristics in term of bulk and surface properties. Specifically, if they will show appropriate surface topography, which is the most influential in determining the response of live tissues toward biomaterials. Nanostructured polyester thermoplastic elastomers of high biodurability as an alternative to PU materials for artificial heart are challenging new materials, and they will be discussed briefly. PMID:22110047

El Fray, Miroslawa; Czugala, Monika

2011-11-22

479

Heart failure (Part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome comprising symptoms and signs. From a pathophysiological viewpoint, the old concept of a hemodynamic disorder has given way to a newer neurohormonal model, which underlines the deleterious role of activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) and excessive sympathetic tone. A distinction is made between HF with predominantly systolic dysfunction (suboptimal emptying of the

J.-J. Perrenoud

2011-01-01

480

Regeneration of the heart  

PubMed Central

The death of cardiac myocytes diminishes the heart's pump function and is a major cause of heart failure, one of the dominant causes of death worldwide. Other than transplantation, there are no therapies that directly address the loss of cardiac myocytes, which explains the current excitement in cardiac regeneration. The field is evolving in two important directions. First, although endogenous mammalian cardiac regeneration clearly seems to decline rapidly after birth, it may still persist in adulthood. The careful elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of endogenous heart regeneration may therefore provide an opportunity for developing therapeutic interventions that amplify this process. Second, recent breakthroughs have enabled reprogramming of cells that were apparently terminally differentiated, either by dedifferentiation into pluripotent stem cells or by transdifferentiation into cardiac myocytes. These achievements challenge our conceptions of what is possible in terms of heart regeneration. In this review, we discuss the current status of research on cardiac regeneration, with a focus on the challenges that hold back therapeutic development.

Steinhauser, Matthew L; Lee, Richard T

2011-01-01

481

Alcohol and heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current heart failure (HF) guidelines note that alcohol use should be discouraged or restricted in patients with HF resulting from left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Existing knowledge is limited in the area of HF and alcohol. Methods and Results: The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding the acute and long-term use of alcohol in the setting

Mariann R. Piano

2002-01-01

482

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the United States—A Meta-Analysis and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several major meta-analyses have concluded that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by about 25% among never smokers. However, these reviews have excluded a large portion of the epidemiologic evidence on ques- tionable grounds and have been inconsistent in the selection of the results that are included. We conducted an updated meta-analysis

James E. Enstrom; Geoffrey C. Kabat

2006-01-01

483

A healthy dose of scepticism: Four good reasons to think again about protective effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues. Alcohol has been implicated in both the popular press and scientific literature as having a protective effect for at least a dozen conditions including coronary heart disease (CHD).Approach. Epidemiological evidence for an apparent protective effect of alcohol on CHD is now being challenged on a number of fronts.This paper is a synopsis of those various challenges as they currently

TANYA CHIKRITZHS; KAYE FILLMORE; TIM STOCKWELL

2009-01-01