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1

Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case-control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP)  

PubMed Central

Study objectives: Recent changes in labour market conditions and in the organisation of work in developed societies have increased exposure to work related stress. The question is whether this also implies an increased risk of myocardial infarction, either through the triggering effect of acute stress, or through accumulation of stress over several months. Design: A case-control and a case-crossover study design was applied. Setting: The Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP), in Stockholm County during 1992 to 1994. Participants: Patients with a first episode of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, a total of 1381 men and women, responded to questionnaires and participated in interviews and health examinations. Main results: The case-crossover analysis showed triggering effects of sudden, short term situations of increased work load or work competition. Having "had a high pressure deadline at work" entailed a sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction (OR = 6.0 95% CI (1.8 to 20.4)) during the next 24 hours. The importance of work related life events as risk factors for myocardial infarction was supported by the case-control analysis. However, no support was found for the hypothesis that an accumulation of stressful life events over a period of 12 months increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Specific work related stressful life events seem to be potential triggers of the onset of myocardial infarction. PMID:15598722

Moller, J.; Theorell, T.; de Faire, U.; Ahlbom, A.; Hallqvist, J.

2005-01-01

2

Vital epidemiologic clues in heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic investigation of heart failure evolution by the Framingham Heart Study has provided vital clues concerning the pathogenesis, predisposing conditions, other predictive risk factors, and indicators of deteriorating ventricular function related to the disease. This information is important in the early detection of those susceptible to heart failure who are candidates for preventive measures—of importance because the prevalence of

W. B Kannel

2000-01-01

3

Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis: a population-based study in Stockholm, Sweden.  

PubMed

A regional database of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients was used to estimate the prevalence and selected characteristics of the disease in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. The prevalence of MG was 14.1/100,000 (17.1 for women and 10.8 for men). The mean age at onset for women and men was 34.9 and 48.5 years, respectively. About 60% of patients were diagnosed within the first year after initial symptoms. Generalized MG was found in 79% of patients, and 10% had severe symptoms. Almost two thirds of the patients had undergone thymectomy, and 30% needed immunosuppressive treatment. The increase in the prevalence of MG since the 1960s probably reflects an improvement in prognosis and higher detection rates of patients with milder symptoms. A delay in diagnosis indicates that early signs and symptoms of MG are still not well known by all doctors. PMID:12207149

Kalb, B; Matell, G; Pirskanen, R; Lambe, M

2002-01-01

4

The epidemiology of heart failure in adults with congenital heart disease.  

PubMed

The impact of lifelong exposure to myocardial dysfunction in populations with congenital heart disease (CHD) is becoming increasingly recognized. Most children born with CHD now reach adulthood and the long-term sequelae of treatment are contributing to substantial comorbidity. The combination of structural changes present at birth with changes resulting from cardiac surgery can result in heart failure. This article reports on the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology of heart failure in this patient population. PMID:24275290

Rodriguez, Fred H; Marelli, Ariane J

2014-01-01

5

[Epidemiology and risk factors for heart failure in the elderly].  

PubMed

Heart failure achieves particular relevance and different characteristics in the elderly population, especially for the clinical complexity related to the presence of comorbidity and chronicity, which are common conditions in these patients. Despite recent advances in clinical approach, diagnosis and therapeutic management of heart failure, the incidence and prevalence of this syndrome are still increasing, owing to the better control of the disease, and, largely, to the aging of the population. Epidemiologic data indicate that heart failure represents a crucial problem in the elderly population in terms of social, economic, and health burden. Despite their importance in the worsening of heart failure and prevention of the progression of this syndrome, the risks of hospital readmission and the causes of exacerbation have not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials. This explains why the precipitating factors of heart failure remain unknown in more than 40% of cases. For these reasons, prospective studies are needed in order to assess and clearly define the risk of hospital readmission and the causes related to heart failure exacerbation in the elderly population. PMID:15712508

Rengo, Franco; Leosco, Dario; Iacovoni, Attilio; Rengo, Giuseppe; Golino, Luca; Borgia, Francesco; De Lisa, Gabriella; Beneduce, Flora; Senni, Michele

2004-12-01

6

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

7

Epidemiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.  

PubMed

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) and its subtype, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is on the rise due to aging of the population. HFpEF is convergence of several pathophysiological processes, which are not yet clearly identified. HFpEF is usually seen in association with systemic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, sleep apnea, renal and pulmonary disease. The proportion of HF patients with HFpEF varies by patient demographics, study settings (cohort vs. clinical trial, outpatient clinics vs. hospitalised patients) and cut points used to define preserved function. There is an expanding body of literature about prevalence and prognostic significance of both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities in HFpEF patients. Current therapeutic approaches are targeted towards alleviating the symptoms, treating the associated comorbid conditions, and reducing recurrent hospital admissions. There is lack of evidence-based therapies that show a reduction in the mortality amongst HFpEF patients; however, an improvement in exercise tolerance and quality of life is seen with few interventions. In this review, we highlight the epidemiology and current treatment options for HFpEF. PMID:25224319

Dhingra, Abhinav; Garg, Aayushi; Kaur, Simrat; Chopra, Saurav; Batra, Jaspreet Singh; Pandey, Ambarish; Chaanine, Antoine H; Agarwal, Sunil K

2014-12-01

8

The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective  

PubMed Central

Summary On October 11, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of its first participant in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. The origin of the study is closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. The present article describes the events leading to the founding of the Framingham Heart Study, and provides a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

Mahmood, Syed S.; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wang, Thomas J.

2014-01-01

9

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEART FAILURE AND FEASIBILITY OF HOME CARE IN PATIENTS WITH WORSENING CHRONIC HEART FAILURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: To investigate gender-specific trends in long-term mortality in patients hospitalised for ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure (HF) and explore temporal trends in the risk of HF complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Another aim is to characterise patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) that seek an emergency department (ED) because of their deteriorating condition and evaluate the feasibility of home

Masoud Shafazand

10

Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in France: Therapeutic and prognostic implications of heart failure during the acute phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year outcome of acute myocardial infarction, in current practice, according to the presence or absence of heart failure. This was an epidemiologic, prospective survey involving 2152 patients recruited in November 1995 from 312 French coronary care units. Methods and Results All consecutive patients admitted within 48 hours for confirmed acute

Laurent Vaur; Nicolas Danchin; Nathalie Genès; Isabelle Dubroca; Sylvie Etienne; Jean Ferrières; Jean-Pierre Cambou

1999-01-01

11

Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects  

PubMed Central

This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

12

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology  

E-print Network

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology Posted at: Stockholm University 2013-04-02 Refnr: SU FV-4.2.3-xxxx-14 Administrator: Cecilia Törnqvist Stockholm University Department of MeteorologyD student position in XX at the Department of Meteorology Ref.nr SU FV-XXXX-14. Application deadline: 2014

Brandenburg, Axel

13

The epidemiological aspects of congenital heart disease in central and southern district of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a major health problem and its prevalence is different around the world. The aim of study was determination of the epidemiological aspects of CHD in central and southern district of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 3714 medical records were evaluated from March 21, 2001 to December 18, 2011. Medical records of inpatients from angiography and outpatients in the Heart Clinic of Afshar hospital (a referral hospital in center and south of Iran) were the source of information. Types of CHD and demographic data including age, sex and residential location are collected. The data were analyzed by SPSS (version 17) software. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare variables between groups. Results: At the study, the mean age of the patients at diagnosis time was 8.8 ± 11.6 year (at the range of one day to 76 years with median of 4 years). The percentage of females and males was 54.2 (n: 2014) and 43.8 (n: 1627), respectively. The chi-square test showed that there was significant difference in frequency of CHDs between females and males (P value < 0.0001). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was found to be the most frequent of CHDs (27%). Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (16.8%), atrial septal defect (ASD) (15.8%), pulmonary stenosis (PS) (11%) and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (8.9%) were more prevalent in CHDs after VSD. Conclusions: The frequency of CHDs in female was more than male and VSD, PDA, ASD, PS, and TOF were most common in CHDs, respectively. PMID:25538919

Amel-Shahbaz, Sara; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Vafaeenasab, Mohammadreza; Andishmand, Abbas; Moghimi, Samane; Negahdary, Masoud; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

2014-01-01

14

Epidemiology of decompensated heart failure in a single community in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Limited data are available describing the clinical characteristics, hospital treatment practices, and hospital and long-term death rates of patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure (HF). To examine the descriptive epidemiology of acute HF in residents of a large New England metropolitan area during the 2 study years of 1995 and 2000, we reviewed the medical records of patients hospitalized with acute HF at 11 medical centers in the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan area during 1995 and 2000 for purposes of collecting information about patients' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, hospital management approaches, and hospital and postdischarge mortalities. The mean age of 4,537 residents of the Worcester metropolitan area hospitalized with decompensated HF was 76 years, 57% were women, and most study patients had been previously diagnosed with several co-morbidities. The average duration of hospitalization was 6.3 days and 6.8% of patients died during hospitalization. Diuretics (98%) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (54%) were the most common medications used to treat acutely ill patients. The 1- and 5-year death rates of hospital survivors were 39% and 77%, respectively, with no change observed in these death rates between our 2 study years. In conclusion, the results of this observational study in residents of a central New England metropolitan area provide insights into the characteristics, treatment practices, and short- and long-term death rates associated with this increasingly prevalent clinical syndrome. PMID:19616671

Goldberg, Robert J; Darling, Chad; Joseph, Bernard; Saczynski, Jane; Chinali, Marcello; Lessard, Darleen; Pezzella, Steven; Spencer, Frederick A

2009-08-01

15

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-11 K R I S H N A G U T T I Low cost Stockholm, Sweden Stokab AB Stockholm, Sweden Supervisors: Prof. Dr. Gerald Q. Maguire Jr., Royal Institute of Technology Department of Microelectronics and Information Technology Stockholm, Sweden Johan Finnved

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

16

Progress in Stockholm talks  

SciTech Connect

Public interest focuses on whether the superpowers will eventually agree to reduce their strategic nuclear arsenals by 50% or better, and on whether Star Wars should be bargained away or preserved at all costs. Yet progress in arms control quietly proceeded in Stockholm at the multilateral Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE), convened on January 17, 1984. The Conference examined ways to reduce the risks of war, but not arbitrarily lowering weapons levels or restricting the deployment of certain systems. Rather, the goal is to lower these risks by clarifying politico-military intentions and regulating the uses of military activities by means of confidence- and security-building measures. Through information exchange, observation, and inspection, along with operational restraints on military activities, these measure seek to diminish the opportunities for wars to start by surprise attack, miscalculation, or accident, and to inhibit the threat or indirect use of force for political intimidation. 2 references.

Borawski, J.

1986-02-01

17

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:105 X I A O W U SIP on an Overlay) Stockholm, Sweden #12;#12;i Abstract With the development of mobile (specifically: wide area cellular

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

18

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:6 Y I K E L I U WCDMA Test of Technology Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract In the modern wireless communication industry, radio communication

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

19

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 COS/CCS 2008-19 J I A Z H O U Adding bandwidth of Technology Stockholm, Sweden #12;Adding bandwidth specifications to a AAA server Abstract Authentication

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

20

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:27 E D O A R D O PA O N E OSSIE School of Information and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

21

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-01 Q I A N G F U Building models of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract Wireless LANs are becoming more and more popular because

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

22

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-22 X U C H E N Performance Analysis;Performance Analysis of Wireless Multiplayer Games on Terraplay System Xu Chen Stockholm, Sweden 10 October

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

23

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2004  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2004 IMIT/LCN 2004-03 M i n g - S h u a n g L a n g, Stockholm, Sweden and Information Technology Björn Thelin Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Ecton AB, Stockholm, Sweden #12;M-S Lang Remote Residential Control System - i - Abstract A remote residential control

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

24

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-12 X I A O K U N Y I Adaptive Wireless Xiaokun Yi 9 th May, 2006 Master of Science Thesis performed at Wireless Center, KTH Stockholm, Sweden of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden #12;- i

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

25

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-26 D A N I E L H � B I N E T T ES) School of Information and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden Tekniska Högskolan (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, during the period 2007-04-24 ­ 2007-12-17. The goal

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

26

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 COS/CCS 2008-14 H U L I D A N An Intelligent. Department of Communication System Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm Sweden August 7th, 2008 #12 Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. The focus of this thesis is designing, building

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

27

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-06 I N M A C U L A D A R A N G E L VA Rangel Vacas 9th March 2005 Masters of Science thesis performed at Wireless Center, KTH Stockholm, Sweden Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract Today a large percentage

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

28

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-04 I VA N G L A U S E R Improving Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden A Master of Science thesis project performed at Saab Security Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. #12;Improving Alarm Interoperability with External Systems

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

29

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-13 X I N B A I Broadband Wireless Access in Disaster Emergency Response Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden May 18th , 2006 XIN BAI This Master thesis project was performed at Ericsson AB Stockholm, Sweden. #12;Supervisor

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

30

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2004  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2004 IMIT/LCN 2004-05 C A O W E I Q I U A new Content-30 Stockholm, Sweden A thesis presented to the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm in partial regarding living and working in Sweden. Thanks for their deep love and support in my life! My Godparents

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

31

Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online is Heart (formerly the British Heart Journal), "a leading international clinical journal" reporting advances on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group, online full-text content begins October 1997; online abstracts begin with 1970 issues, and tables of contents go back to 1966. Heart is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.

32

[Epidemiology of heart failure in mainland Portugal: new data from the EPICA study].  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is common, costly, disabling and lethal, and can be prevented. The progression of overt HF (CHF) can be slowed by correct management including precise diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Patients with CHF can be misdiagnosed, mainly in primary care, where patients are actually less symptomatic than those seen in hospitals. Accurate diagnosis requires objective evidence of cardiac dysfunction at rest by imaging techniques, according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Guidelines. The EPICA Project (EPidemiologia da Insuficiência Cardiaca e Aprendizagem) was one of the first European studies designed to evaluate the prevalence of CHF according to those criteria. The estimated overall prevalence of CHF in Portugal was 4.36% in adults over 25 years. 1058 individuals were identified by the Boston questionnaire as possible or probable CHF cases; only 551 had objective evidence of cardiac dysfunction at rest by echocardiography. 264 patients in sinus rhythm had a Boston score > 3 and no echocardiographic abnormalities. These patients were predominantly older obese women; coronary artery disease was less prevalent than in patients with proved CHF. The ECG was normal in 40.9%, versus 20% in CHF patients. About one half of these patients were prescribed ACE inhibitors and diuretics; 17% were prescribed digoxin. According to these EPICA data concerning CHF, older obese women are more frequently misdiagnosed and incorrectly medicated. PMID:15526610

Ceia, Fátima; Fonseca, Cândida; Mota, Teresa; Morais, Humberto; Matias, Fernando; Costa, Catarina; Gouveia-Oliveira, Antonio

2004-09-01

33

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-25 A L E X A N D E R L I N D S T R � M Stockholm, Sweden Alexander Lindström 2007-11-26 alindstr@kth.se GMPLS multi-layer networking Routing-11-26 Stockholm, Sweden Supervisor Academic Supervisor / Examiner Ericsson Research Royal Institute of Technology

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

34

Bachelor of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 COS/CCS 2008-15 D AV I D S A B AT Ã? M O G I C) Stockholm, Sweden 2008 #12;Abstract Electronic devices have acquired an increasingly important role in our

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

35

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-10 R O L A N D W A LT E R S S O N Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden #12;ii Abstract As the coverage of modern wireless technologies

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

36

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-19 A J E E T N A N K A N I A detailed Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden. #12;#12;Abstract IEEE 802.11 based Wireless Local Area

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

37

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:209 A N Q I L U O a n d L E I G E and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden #12;i Abstract The thesis seeks

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

38

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 COS/CCS 2008-04 H A R U U M I S H I O D E Realizing of Technology Stockholm, Sweden March 14, 2008 #12;i Abstract Exploiting context-aware environments, where

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

39

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-03 M A R K U S S W E N S O N Prototype of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden Project

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

40

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-08 D A N I E L Y U N D A L O Z A N O Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract Wireless local area

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

41

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-1 PA N T E L E I M O N PA N I D I and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden 18/01/06 #12;#12;i Abstract

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

42

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-09 A D M I R M U H O V I C Secure of Communication Systems Stockholm, Sweden Supervisor at KTH: Professor Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. Supervisor at FMV

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

43

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-7 J E S Ã? S M I G U E L G U I T Ã? R R and Information Technology (IMIT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Wireless@KTH Stockholm, Sweden 30th March

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

44

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-13 C A R L O S M A R C O A R R A N Z and Communication Technology (ICT) Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden #12;#12;i Abstract

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

45

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-3 Y O U N E S O U K H AY Context Aware) Stockholm, Sweden Supervisor : Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. Examiner : Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. #12;i Abstract Today

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

46

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:2 S H UA N G D I Uplink Technology Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden #12;Abstract More and more people all over the world are using a USB modem to connect to the Internet. This is especially true in Sweden- which has

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

47

Associations of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes to heart failure: Epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and clinical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure, a common condition in most industrialized nations, is disabling and deadly. Type 2 diabetes, recognized as\\u000a a risk factor for incident heart failure more than three decades ago, consistently has been associated with a twofold to threefold\\u000a increased risk of heart failure and type 2 diabetes often coexist, and several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes in

Erik Ingelsson

2008-01-01

48

Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

2013-07-01

49

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:62 S U M A N TA S A H A OBSAI of Technology (KTH), Sweden Instructor: Petri Mikkonen, Nokia Siemens Networks, Finland #12;#12;HELSINKI

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

50

Incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County 1955-1989  

PubMed Central

Aim—To evaluate the incidence of Crohn's disease in Stockholm County between 1955 and 1989. ?Methods—A cohort of 1936 patients with Crohn's disease was retrospectively assembled. Incidence rates and changes in disease distribution were assessed.?Results—The mean increase in incidence was 15% (95% confidence intervals 12% to 18%) per five year period with a mean annual incidence rate at 4.6/105 during the last two decades. The mean incidence for the entire study period was similar for men and women. The mean age at diagnosis increased from 25 years in 1960-64 to 32 years in 1985-89, partly because of an increasing proportion of patients aged at least 60 years at diagnosis. The proportion of patients with colonic Crohn's disease at the time of diagnosis increased from 15% to 32% (17% difference; 95% confidence intervals 12% to 23%) whereas the proportion of patients with ileocaecal disease decreased from 58% to 41% (17% difference; 95% confidence intervals 10% to 24%) during the study period. Elderly patients had a higher proportion of small bowel disease and a lower proportion of ileocolonic disease compared with the younger patients.?Conclusion—The incidence rate of Crohn's disease in Stockholm has stabilised at 4.6/105 and the proportion of elderly patients has increased during a 35 year period. Colonic Crohn's disease has increased in frequency with a reciprocal decrease in ileocaecal disease. ?? Keywords: Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; incidence; epidemiology PMID:9391246

Lapidus, A; Bernell, O; Hellers, G; Persson, P; Lofberg, R

1997-01-01

51

Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive Language Learning  

E-print Network

Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive. of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm 2 Dept. of Speech, Music, Hearing, KTH, Stockholm 3 Dept adult-infant interaction, underlie the infant's ability to progressively derive linguistic struc- ture

Holt, Lori L.

52

Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block – A Moroccan center-based study  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p < 0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block.

Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.

2014-01-01

53

Stockholm workshop on respiratory measurements June 5, 2013  

E-print Network

1 Stockholm workshop on respiratory measurements June 5, 2013 The Phonetics lab at Stockholm University invites you to the Stockholm workshop on respiratory measurements, June 5th, 2013. Several speech and phonetics labs around the world are currently creating facilities for doing respiratory measurements

54

Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Stockholm Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment,…

Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-01-01

55

MITSIMLab for Stockholm Enhancements, Calibration and Validation  

E-print Network

Toledo Intelligent Transportation Systems Program, MIT Haris N. Koutsopoulos VOLPE National of Stockholm and jointly undertaken with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), VOLPE National Transportation Systems Center and Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The MIT/VOLPE team consisted of Professor

Entekhabi, Dara

56

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-21 I VA R G A I TA N Delay analysis in the process of writing this thesis. Prof. Fumiyuki Adachi for letting me write this thesis at his lab

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

57

Nobel symposium Stockholm 2010 Graphene: Experimental Overview  

E-print Network

by atmospheric pressure graphitization of silicon carbide K. V. Emtsev1, et al Nature materials (2009) #12;NobelNobel symposium Stockholm 2010 102 papers 103 papers Graphene: Experimental Overview Nobel: An Experimental overview Making graphene Gee Wizz experiments Graphene decoupled from substrate Graphene

Andrei, Eva Y.

58

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2008 COS/CCS 2008-28 W I L L I A M E K L � F Adapting Technologies in Kista, Sweden. #12;ii Sammanfattning Under det senaste decenniet har överföringshastigheterna i

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

59

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:212 A N D E R S O R R E VA D When. The thesis was proposed by and carried out at Ericsson in Kista, Sweden during the summer and fall of 2009

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

60

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/TS-LAB-2005-09 L U D O V I C C O P Ã? R Ã? As the concluding work of my double-degree studies in Sweden (Royal Institute of Technology) and in France (Ecole

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

61

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2009 TRITA-ICT-EX-2009:63 B E M N E T T E S FAY E M E R of Technology (KTH), Sweden Host University Supervisor & Examiner: Prof. Rolv Bræk Department of Telematics (KTH), in Sweden. The major goal of the project is to examine how multimedia communication systems

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

62

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:28 M U H A M M A D S A R W A R J of Information and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockhom, Sweden Supervisor

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

63

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 COS/CCS 2006-15 A B H I N A S H M U R U K E S VA N Maguire Jr, IP Networks Ericsson AB Kista, Sweden #12;i Abstract This thesis investigates two This degree project was carried out at Ericsson Research in Kista, Sweden. I would like to express my

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

64

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:1 M D. S A K H A W AT H O S S E N of Technology (KTH) Stockhom,Sweden Supervisor and Examiner: Professor Gerald Q. Maguire Jr. #12;Abstract Voice

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

65

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007 COS/CCS 2007-19 P E T T E R E D S T R Ã? M Overhead, Sweden Kista, Sweden #12;Overhead Impacts on Long-Term Evolution Radio Networks 2 (98) Overhead Impacts

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

66

Associations of NINJ2 Sequence Variants with Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. Methods and Results We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). Conclusion Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24959832

Bis, Joshua C.; DeStefano, Anita; Liu, Xiaoming; Brody, Jennifer A.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Shahar, Eyal; Butler, Kenneth R.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Gupta, Mayetri; Wolf, Philip A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Seshadri, Sudha; Fornage, Myriam

2014-01-01

67

Epidemiology of Noncomplex Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Malformations (Aortic Valve Stenosis, Coarctation of the Aorta, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome) in Texas, 1999 –2001  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) contribute significantly to infant mortality due to birth defects. Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program, enables study in a large, diverse population including Hispanics. METHODS Records of children up to 1 year old with AVS, CoA, and HLHS born in Texas from 1999 to 2001, were collected from the registry. Those including additional heart defects or a chromosomal anomaly were excluded. Multivariate analysis included: infant sex; United States–Mexico border county residence; and maternal age, race/ethnicity, birthplace, and education. RESULTS There were 910 cases among 1.08 million live births, of which 499 met inclusion criteria. Multivariate modeling of all LVOT malformations combined demonstrated lower prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for black males (0.26) and Hispanic males (0.70). Similar results were found for CoA but not AVS or HLHS. Higher PRRs were noted for increased maternal age for LVOT (1.3 for 24–34 years; 1.7 for >34 years), AVS, and HLHS, but not CoA, and higher PRRs across all diagnoses for males (LVOT PRR, 2.4) were noted. CoA PRRs were higher in border county vs. non–border county residents (PRR, 2.1). Maternal education and birthplace were not significant factors. CONCLUSIONS There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic etiologies, where the ethnic differences could be used to find susceptibility loci with mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium. Increased CoA rates along the U.S.–Mexico border suggest environmental causes that will require further monitoring. PMID:16007587

McBride, Kim L.; Marengo, Lisa; Canfield, Mark; Langlois, Peter; Fixler, David; Belmont, John W.

2006-01-01

68

A genome-wide association study for venous thromboembolism: the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.  

PubMed

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, heritable disease resulting in high rates of hospitalization and mortality. Yet few associations between VTE and genetic variants, all in the coagulation pathway, have been established. To identify additional genetic determinants of VTE, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) among individuals of European ancestry in the extended cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology (CHARGE) VTE consortium. The discovery GWAS comprised 1,618 incident VTE cases out of 44,499 participants from six community-based studies. Genotypes for genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were imputed to approximately 2.5 million SNPs in HapMap and association with VTE assessed using study-design appropriate regression methods. Meta-analysis of these results identified two known loci, in F5 and ABO. Top 1,047 tag SNPs (P ? 0.0016) from the discovery GWAS were tested for association in an additional 3,231 cases and 3,536 controls from three case-control studies. In the combined data from these two stages, additional genome-wide significant associations were observed on 4q35 at F11 (top SNP rs4253399, intronic to F11) and on 4q28 at FGG (rs6536024, 9.7 kb from FGG; P < 5.0 × 10(-13) for both). The associations at the FGG locus were not completely explained by previously reported variants. Loci at or near SUSD1 and OTUD7A showed borderline yet novel associations (P < 5.0 × 10(-6) ) and constitute new candidate genes. In conclusion, this large GWAS replicated key genetic associations in F5 and ABO, and confirmed the importance of F11 and FGG loci for VTE. Future studies are warranted to better characterize the associations with F11 and FGG and to replicate the new candidate associations. PMID:23650146

Tang, Weihong; Teichert, Martina; Chasman, Daniel I; Heit, John A; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Li, Guo; Pankratz, Nathan; Leebeek, Frank W; Paré, Guillaume; de Andrade, Mariza; Tzourio, Christophe; Psaty, Bruce M; Basu, Saonli; Ruiter, Rikje; Rose, Lynda; Armasu, Sebastian M; Lumley, Thomas; Heckbert, Susan R; Uitterlinden, André G; Lathrop, Mark; Rice, Kenneth M; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Glazer, Nicole L; Pankow, James S; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Amouyel, Philippe; Bis, Joshua C; Bovill, Edwin G; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Tracy, Russell P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Loth, Daan W; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ridker, Paul M; Folsom, Aaron R; Smith, Nicholas L

2013-07-01

69

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility  

E-print Network

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

Haviland, David

70

THE STOCKHOLM EDUCATIONAL AIR SHOWER ARRAY Mark Pearce(1)  

E-print Network

-school studies. 1. INTRODUCTION The goal of the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (`SEASA') project this endeavour is primarily motivated by educational goals, useful scientific results may be forthcomingTHE STOCKHOLM EDUCATIONAL AIR SHOWER ARRAY Mark Pearce(1) (1) KTH, Department of Physics, Alba

Haviland, David

71

“What the Eyes Don’t See, the Heart Doesn’t Grieve Over”: Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infections following Cardiac Catheterization  

PubMed Central

No standard definition exists for surveillance and characterization of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) after cardiac catheterization (CC) procedures. We proposed a novel case definition and determined the epidemiology and risk factors of BSIs after CC procedure using this new definition. PMID:22759552

Dicks, Kristen V.; Staheli, Russell; Anderson, Deverick J.; Miller, Becky A.; Jones, W. Schuyler; Harrison, J. Kevin; Sexton, Daniel J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Chen, Luke F.

2013-01-01

72

"What the eyes don't see, the heart doesn't grieve over": epidemiology and risk factors for bloodstream infections following cardiac catheterization.  

PubMed

No standard definition exists for surveillance and characterization of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) after cardiac catheterization (CC) procedures. We proposed a novel case definition and determined the epidemiology and risk factors of BSIs after CC procedure using this new definition. PMID:22759552

Dicks, Kristen V; Staheli, Russell; Anderson, Deverick J; Miller, Becky A; Jones, W Schuyler; Harrison, J Kevin; Sexton, Daniel J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F

2012-08-01

73

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

74

Five-year epidemiological survey of valvular heart disease: changes in morbidity, etiological spectrum and management in a cardiovascular center of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the present study is to analyze the epidemiological profile of patients with abnormal valvular structure and function and highlight the etiological spectrum and management of valvular heart disease (VHD) in a single cardiovascular center of Southern China in five years. Methods The retrospective study included 19,428 consecutive patients (9,441 men and 9,987 women with a mean age of 52.03±20.50 years) with abnormal valvular structure and function who were screened by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the in-patient department of Guangdong General Hospital from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on baseline characteristics, potential etiology, treatment strategies and discharge outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. Results There were 13,549 (69.7%) patients with relatively definite etiology for VHD. VHD was rheumatic in 7,197 (37.0%) patients, congenital in 2,697 (13.9%), degenerative in 2,241 (11.5%), ischemic in 2,460 (12.7%). The prevalence decreased significantly in rheumatic VHD from 2009 to 2013 (from 42.8% to 32.8%, P<0.001), but increased markedly in congenital VHD (from 9.0% to 12.3%, P<0.001), ischemic VHD (from 9.2% to 11.3%, P=0.003) and degenerative VHD (from 8.8% to 14.5%, P<0.001). Meantime, the prevalence of ischemic VHD increased after the age of 45, similar to that of degenerative VHD. From 2009 to 2013, the proportion of patients with VHD undergoing open cardiac valvular surgery decreased (from 49.5% to 44.3%, P<0.001) and that of patients treated with general medication increased (from 49.2% to 54.1%, P<0.001). However, there was markedly increment in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from 2009 to 2013 (from 0.3% to 4.4%, P<0.001). Increasing tendencies were showed in aortic mechanical valve replacement (from 32.1% to 34.5%, P=0.001) and double mechanical valve replacement (from 20.9% to 22.3%, P=0.035), especially in mitral valvuloplasty (from 8.5% to 15.7%, P<0.001). However, the proportion of patients undergoing bioprosthetic valve replacement decreased from 2009 to 2013 (from 26.3% to 15.5%, P<0.001). Conclusions Despite a significant shift from rheumatic towards degenerative etiology from 2009 to 2013, rheumatic VHD remains the leading etiology in Southern China, with a significant increase in the prevalence of ischemic, congenital and degenerative VHD. General medication and cardiac valvular surgery remain the main treatment options. The proportion of VATS increased markedly from 2009 to 2013, and mechanical valve replacement and mitral valvuloplasty showed an increasing tendency.

Liu, Fang-Zhou; Xue, Yu-Mei; Liao, Hong-Tao; Zhan, Xian-Zhang; Guo, Hui-Ming; Huang, Huan-Lei; Fang, Xian-Hong; Wei, Wei; Rao, Fang; Deng, Hai; Liu, Yang; Lin, Wei-Dong

2014-01-01

75

STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET 2013-10-02 Meteorologiska Institutionen  

E-print Network

the evolution from the initial state to the asymptotic state. (10 p) #12;STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITET 2013 ' -++= Hg f yq . The impulse for this system is ( ) += dxdyqHqHyIx 2211 . a) Show that xI is conserved

Nycander, Jonas

76

Primary Prevention of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed. PMID:22957272

Butler, Javed

2012-01-01

77

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.

78

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ÃÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

79

Dietary sodium intake and incidence of congestive heart failure in overweight U.S. men and women: NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study (NHEFS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationship between dietary sodium intake and incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF) in 7,593 normal weight and 3,155 overweight men and women who participated in the NHEFS and were free of CHF at their baseline examination. Dietary sodium and caloric intake were estimated at baseline using a 24-hour dietary recall method. Other risk factors for CHF including

H. Jiang; L. G. Ogden; L. A. Bazzano; S. Vupputuri; C. Loria; P. K. Whelton

2000-01-01

80

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

81

Homicidal and suicidal sharp force fatalities in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of 174 homicidal and 105 suicidal sharp force deaths in the Stockholm area is presented in order to identify variables of importance in the differentiation between homicides and suicides. In homicides, a significantly (p<0.05) higher number of cut and stab wounds were seen in the head, upper and lower extremities and a significantly higher number of vertical

Thore Karlsson

1998-01-01

82

Stockholm Recommendation 96: Viable in the Dominican Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Dominican Republic has taken steps to develop and implement a comprehensive plan (called Plan Sierra) for national natural resources management. The plan (which includes an environmental education component) demonstrates a commitment to Stockholm Recommendation 96 in a way that could become a model for other Latin American nations. (JN)

Shepard, Clinton L.; Roth, Robert E.

1984-01-01

83

Heart Failure in South America  

PubMed Central

Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

2013-01-01

84

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden MODELING SAVART'S TRAPEZOIDAL VIOLIN USING A DIGITAL WAVEGUIDE MESH  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Department of Music, Stanford University, Stanford, CA serafin@ccrma.stanford.edu ABSTRACT We propose a real 3kHz) the air modes predominate. The impulse response of a violin body is shown in 1. The response

Fontana, Federico

85

Urban Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40 -75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950 -1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primar- ily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (.85%) resulted in 1,042 cases

Fredrik Nyberg; Per Gustavsson; Lars Jarup; Tom Bellander; Niklas Berglind; Robert Jakobsson; Goran Pershagen

86

Randomized mammographic screening for breast cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 1981 a randomized single-view mammographic screening for breast cancer was started in the south of Stockholm. The screened population in the first round numbered 40,318 women, and 20,000 women served as a well-defined control group. The age groups represented were 40–64 years, and 80.7% of the invited women participated in the study. The first round disclosed 128 breast

J. Frisell; U. Glas; L. Hellström; A. Somell

1986-01-01

87

Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Repair abnormal or damaged structures in the heart Implant medical devices that help control the heartbeat or support heart function and blood flow Replace a damaged heart with a healthy heart from a donor Treat heart failure and coronary heart disease Control abnormal heart rhythms ...

88

Individual Exposure to NO2 in Relation to Spatial and Temporal Exposure Indices in Stockholm, Sweden: The INDEX Study  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology studies of health effects from air pollution, as well as impact assessments, typically rely on ambient monitoring data or modelled residential levels. The relationship between these and personal exposure is not clear. To investigate personal exposure to NO2 and its relationship with other exposure metrics and time-activity patterns in a randomly selected sample of healthy working adults (20–59 years) living and working in Stockholm. Personal exposure to NO2 was measured with diffusive samplers in sample of 247 individuals. The 7-day average personal exposure was 14.3 µg/m3 and 12.5 µg/m3 for the study population and the inhabitants of Stockholm County, respectively. The personal exposure was significantly lower than the urban background level (20.3 µg/m3). In the univariate analyses the most influential determinants of individual exposure were long-term high-resolution dispersion-modelled levels of NO2 outdoors at home and work, and concurrent NO2 levels measured at a rural location, difference between those measured at an urban background and rural location and difference between those measured in busy street and at an urban background location, explaining 20, 16, 1, 2 and 4% (R2) of the 7-day personal NO2 variation, respectively. A regression model including these variables explained 38% of the variation in personal NO2 exposure. We found a small improvement by adding time-activity variables to the latter model (R2?=?0.44). The results adds credibility primarily to long-term epidemiology studies that utilise long-term indices of NO2 exposure at home or work, but also indicates that such studies may still suffer from exposure misclassification and dilution of any true effects. In contrast, urban background levels of NO2 are poorly related to individual exposure. PMID:22745780

Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, Janine; Lind, Tomas

2012-01-01

89

Association of Levels of Fasting Glucose and Insulin with Rare Variants at the Chromosome 11p11.2-MADD Locus: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study  

PubMed Central

Background Common variation at the 11p11.2 locus, encompassing MADD, ACP2, NR1H3, MYBPC3 and SPI1, has been associated in genome-wide association studies with fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI). In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study, we sequenced five gene regions at 11p11.2 to identify rare, potentially functional variants influencing FG or FI levels. Method & Results Sequencing (mean depth 38×) across 16.1kb in 3,566 non-diabetic individuals identified 653 variants, 79.9% of which were rare (MAF <1%) and novel. We analyzed rare variants in five gene regions with FI or FG using the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). At NR1H3, 53 rare variants were jointly associated with FI (p=2.73 × 10?3); of these, seven were predicted to have regulatory function and showed association with FI (p=1.28 × 10?3). Conditioning on two previously associated variants at MADD (rs7944584, rs10838687) did not attenuate this association, suggesting that there are more than two independent signals at 11p11.2. One predicted regulatory variant, chr11:47227430 (hg18; MAF 0.00068), contributed 20.6% to the overall SKAT score at NR1H3, lies in intron 2 of NR1H3 and is a predicted binding site for FOXA1, a transcription factor associated with insulin regulation. In human HepG2 hepatoma cells, the rare chr11:47227430 A allele disrupted FOXA1 binding and reduced FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. Conclusion Sequencing at 11p11.2- NR1H3 identified rare variation associated with FI. One variant, chr11:47227430, appears to be functional, with the rare A allele reducing transcription factor FOXA1 binding and FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. PMID:24951664

Nikpoor, Naghmeh; Morrison, Alanna C.; Chu, Huan; Ahn, Byung Soo; Wang, Shuai; Dauriz, Marco; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C.; Coresh, Josef; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Liu, Ching-Ti; McKnight, Barbara; Muzny, Donna; Pankow, James S.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; White, Charles C.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Wong, Tien Y.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David S.; Sladek, Robert; Meigs, James B.

2014-01-01

90

Heart to Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. They brainstorm ideas that pertain to various heart conditions and organize these ideas into categories that help them research possible solutions. An expert in the field of cardiac valve research was interviewed for this lesson and shares his ideas with the class. Students conclude by researching various possible heart defects.

VU Bioengineering RET Program,

91

Heart transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart ... the new heart on top of it (heterotopic transplant). ... A heart transplant may be done to treat: Severe angina that can no longer be treated with medications or other surgeries ...

92

Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...

93

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die. Heart attacks are a leading killer of both ... heart muscle fed by the artery begins to die. Healthy heart tissue is replaced with scar tissue. ...

94

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the ... underway for Heart Failure, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Heart Failure in the News April 9, 2014 Drug does ...

95

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Sign Up for Our Heart-Health E-news ... with brochures and downloadable patient information sheets. Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? (PDF) How Can ...

96

Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 1 Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 2  

E-print Network

Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 1 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 2 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 3 #12;Proc 3rd European Conf on Computer Vision, Stockholm, 1994,pp 85-96 4 #12;Proc 3rd

Murray, David

97

Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Repair or replace heart valves, which control blood flow through the heart Repair abnormal or damaged structures in the heart Implant medical devices that help control the heartbeat or support heart function and blood flow Replace a damaged heart with a healthy heart ...

98

Epidemiology Chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union‘s dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still

J. H. Wolfram; M. K. Butaev; A. Duysheev; A. R. Gabbasova; O. S. Khasanov; Yu. K. Kulakov; A. R. Mkrtchyan; A. M. Myrzabekov; R. Z. Nurgaziev; L. E. Tsirel'son; R. D. Willer; R. G. Yaraev; M. M. Zheludkov

2010-01-01

99

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

100

Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.  

PubMed

A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

2012-07-01

101

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

102

Isolated diastolic heart failure--what is it?  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological evidence suggests that 20 to 40% of all patients with heart failure have normal systolic function. Isolated diastolic dysfunction may be the principle pathophysiological mechanism in these patients. The diagnosis of isolated diastolic heart failure is problematic and not merely based on demonstrating normal systolic function. The prognosis in isolated diastolic heart failure is more favourable than in systolic heart failure. At the present time, there is no licensed treatment for isolated diastolic heart failure and treatment is largely empirical. PMID:9926117

Shiels, P.; MacDonald, T. M.

1998-01-01

103

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

104

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

105

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home 2015: Volume 90 2014: ... 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as ...

106

Heart Failure in North America  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

2013-01-01

107

Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the 17th Annual European Pressure Ulcer Meeting Stockholm, Sweden Copyright © 2014 plantar pressure and their deviation in %. Fig. 1: Top: CT-Scan, MSPP and SSPP maps. Middle: MSPP applied

Payan, Yohan

108

SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM  

E-print Network

SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM TEL +46-8-6116873, FAX +46-8-6117344 Org nr 802008-0639 www.swejap.a.se, info@swejap.a.se SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION STIPENDIER Sweden@swejap.a.se eller per brev till Sweden-Japan Foundation, Grev Turegatan 14, 114 46 Stockholm Sweden-Japan Foundation

Johannesson, Henrik

109

Engineering the Heart: Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how healthy human heart valves function and the different diseases that can affect heart valves. They also learn about devices and procedures that biomedical engineers have designed to help people with damaged or diseased heart valves. Students learn about the pros and cons of different materials and how doctors choose which engineered artificial heart valves are appropriate for certain people.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

110

Heart Failure in South Asia  

PubMed Central

South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

2013-01-01

111

Heart Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... The heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Your heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs, tissues, and cells of your body. Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell ...

112

Heart pacemaker  

MedlinePLUS

... ounce. A pacemaker usually has 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...

113

Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

114

BOX 50005, SE-104 05 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, RECEPTION +46 8 673 95 00, FAX +46 8 15 56 70 BESK/VISIT: LILLA FRESCATIVGEN 4A, STOCKHOLM, INFO@KVA.SE HTTP://KVA.SE  

E-print Network

BOX 50005, SE-104 05 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, RECEPTION +46 8 673 95 00, FAX +46 8 15 56 70 BESÃ?K by Patricia K. Kuhl, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA and Hon. Dr., Stockholm University, Sweden will be followed by a panel discussion including Hugo Lagercrantz, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden, Andrew

115

Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 A biomechanical model for the study of plant morphogenesis  

E-print Network

5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 A biomechanical model and biomechanical model of cell wall expansion have been developed in order to analyses coupled mechanisms for the development and the #12;5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 coupling

Haseloff, Jim

116

Diastolic heart failure in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is now widely recognized that isolated diastolic dysfunction can lead to the classic signs and symptoms of congestive\\u000a heart failure (CHF), this disease process is poorly understood and remains of great interest and concern to cardiovascular\\u000a disease specialists, as well as to primary care physicians. Recent epidemiologic data have suggested that diastolic heart\\u000a failure is predominantly a disease

Chari Y. T. Hart; Margaret M. Redfield

2000-01-01

117

Pediatric heart surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... outside the heart. Some heart defects may need surgery right after the baby is born. For others, ...

118

Who Needs Heart Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat many heart problems. For example, it's used to: Treat heart failure and coronary heart disease (CHD) Fix heart ...

119

The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz

2003-01-01

120

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

121

Heart Murmurs  

MedlinePLUS

... to a heart problem, you will need to see a pediatric cardiologist (say: pee-dee-AT-rik car-dee-OL-uh-jist). This kind of doctor knows a lot about children's hearts. Back Continue What Do Doctors Do? A pediatric cardiologist will ask questions to see if you've ever been short of breath, ...

122

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath that lasts more than a few seconds. Feeling lightheaded, dizzy or faint. Nausea and/or vomiting. Unusual sweating. Overwhelming fatigue. Feeling anxious. Heart palpitations (feeling like your heart is beating really fast, or out of rhythm). Are the symptoms of ...

123

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. It is more common in people who are 65 years old or older, African Americans, people who are ... treatments fail. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

124

Heart River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Heart River meeting the Missouri River. The Heart River is toward the back of the photo. Also in the photo is the Bank of North Dakota, along with the Liberty Memorial Bridge and to the left the Expressway Bridge. Photo taken by USGS personnel on a Civil Air Patrol flight....

125

Trans-Fats and Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of data from epidemiologic, clinical trial, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse consequences of industrially synthesized trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing database of more recent research from virtually all experimental models demonstrates evidence of detrimental consequences of TFAs on the risk of diabetes. Evidence is accumulating about

Penny M. Kris-Etherton

2010-01-01

126

50Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis.

Lennart Tomenius

1986-01-01

127

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se  

E-print Network

/4 SIMSAM Workshop 26/4 15-16:30 Johan Carlsson, Demography Unit, Stockholm University Does parental death affect fertility? A register-based study of the effect of parental death on childbearing in Sweden 3 Cedstrand, Swedish Social Insurance Agency From idea to political reality: Parental leave politics in Sweden

128

Heart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care  

E-print Network

Heart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care Pamela Kostic, RN, CCCC, Chest Pain Coordinator, Stony Risk Factors · EHAC & Prevention #12;Heart disease includes a number of problems affecting the heart and the blood vessels in the heart. #12;Types of heart disease include: · Coronary artery disease (CAD) · Angina

Ohta, Shigemi

129

Broken Heart Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What is Broken Heart Syndrome Broken heart syndrome is a condition in ... disorder and how to diagnose and treat it. Broken Heart Syndrome Versus Heart Attack Symptoms of broken heart ...

130

Wine and heart health  

MedlinePLUS

Health and wine: Wine and heart disease: Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and liver. ...

131

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health Epidemiology Seminar Series, Fall 2014  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health Epidemiology Seminar Series, Fall 2014 SPECIAL DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, BIOSTATISTICS AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, - SEMINAR SERIES IS A SELF-APPROVED GROUP, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Director, McGill Global Health Programs Associate Director, Mc

Shoubridge, Eric

132

Naam: dhr. prof. dr. D.E. Grobbee Leeropdracht Clinical epidemiology  

E-print Network

and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. His experience covers the full range of epidemiologic study designs in children and youngsters, coronary heart disease, women's health, cardiovascular ageing, heart failure in cardiovascular disease he has worked on the theoretical principles and methods of diagnostic and prognostic

Utrecht, Universiteit

133

Epidemiology for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The epidemiological approach, as elaborated to accomodate multiple-causation of chronic disease, is suggested as appropriate for the size and the nature of the failure-to-learn problem faced by educators. The epidemiological approach begins with an examination of the health status of an area's population. Major problems are identified with respect…

Landsberger, Betty H.

134

Introduction to mathematical epidemiology  

E-print Network

, infectious diarrhoea Generally non-linear systems #12;3 Chronic disease epidemiology Risk Factor Health Frequently linear systems, often complex causal relationships Infectious disease e.g. pneumonia, malaria availability Etc. #12;7 Infectious disease epidemiology Infection Health Outcome #12;8 Malaria: transmission

Luchsinger, Christof

135

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

136

Prevalence, incidence, mortality and co-morbidities amongst human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Stockholm County, Sweden - The Greater Stockholm HIV Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Our aim was to study the prevalence and incidence of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the general population in Stockholm, Sweden. We also aimed to study mortality among individuals with HIV and to explore co-morbidities. The study population included all living persons who resided in Stockholm County, Sweden, as of 31 December 2012 (N = 2,212,435). Information on all consultations between 2007 and 2012 was obtained from primary health care, specialist outpatient care and inpatient care. Analyses were done by age and gender. All patients with a recorded diagnosis of HIV were included. The prevalence of HIV was calculated using 2012 data. The prevalence of HIV in Stockholm area as per end of December 2012 was as low as 0.1% in females and 0.2% in males, and the annual incidence of HIV continued to decline over the years. In recent years, cancers, diabetes and hypertension were about as common in individuals with HIV as in the general population. Males with HIV had 3- to 4-fold higher age-adjusted odds of being diagnosed with depression and 3-fold higher odds of anxiety disorders and women had 1.6 to 2-fold higher age-adjusted odds of depression and anxiety disorders, than males and females in the general population, respectively. The relatively good somatic health observed in this study could be attributed to nearly optimal HIV therapy in Sweden. The mental health of HIV patients was significantly worse than that in the general population and needs further attention. PMID:25277328

Jallow, Amadou; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Wändell, Per; Carlsson, Axel C

2015-02-01

137

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

138

Bristol Heart Institute issue broken heart  

E-print Network

Bristol Heart Institute issue Mending a broken heart The energy powerhouse Plaques, cracks and heart attacks re:search University of Bristol · June 2006 #12;BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE ISSUE · JUNE 2006 THE BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE 1 C ardiovascular disease is the UK's single biggest killer of both men and women

Bristol, University of

139

Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by

Urban Ösby; Nestor Correia; Lena Brandt; Anders Ekbom; Pär Sparén

2000-01-01

140

HCH contamination from former pesticide production in Brazil--a challenge for the Stockholm Convention implementation.  

PubMed

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (?-, ?- and ?- HCH [lindane]) were recently added to the list of persistent organic pollutants regulated by the Stockholm Convention, and therefore, the legacy of HCH and lindane production has become an issue of global relevance. The production of lindane with the much larger quantities of associated waste isomers has generated large waste deposits and contaminated sites. This article presents an overview of HCH-polluted sites in Brazil as a basis for further activities related to the Stockholm Convention. The locations of HCH stockpiles and contaminated sites in Brazil arising from production and formulation have been compiled and mapped. This shows that the measures taken over the past 25 years have not resulted in remediation of the HCH pollution. An exposure risk study has been summarised for one major site and is included to demonstrate the contemporary relevance of the contamination. Major site remediation efforts are planned at one site but people live close to several other sites, and there is an urgent need of further assessments and remediation to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention requires a systematic approach and should be adopted for the assessment of all sites and appropriate isolation/remediation measures should be facilitated. The appropriate planning of these activities for the production site in Rio de Janeiro could be a positive contribution for Rio+20 highlighting that green economy and sustainable production also include the appropriate management of legacies of historic production of an industrial sector (here the organochlorine industry). PMID:22825640

Torres, J P M; Fróes-Asmus, C I R; Weber, R; Vijgen, J M H

2013-04-01

141

Molecular epidemiology of human cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenging goal of molecular epidemiology is to identify an individual's risk of cancer. Molecular epidemiology integrates molecular biology, in vitro and in vivo laboratory models, biochemistry, and epidemiology to infer individual cancer risk. Molecular dosimetry of carcinogen exposure is an important facet of molecular epidemiology and cancer risk assessment. Carcinogen macromolecular adduct levels, cytogenetic alterations and somatic cell mutations

S. Perwez Hussain; Curtis C Harris

1998-01-01

142

What Causes Heart Block?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Block? Heart block has many causes. Some people ... others develop it during their lifetimes (acquired). Congenital Heart Block One form of congenital heart block occurs ...

143

Depression and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... see the NIMH booklet on Depression . What is heart disease? Heart disease refers to a number of illnesses ... and save your life. How are depression and heart disease linked? People with heart disease are more likely ...

144

Diabetic Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers to ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD may ...

145

Heart Rhythm Society  

MedlinePLUS

... Quality & Outcomes Reporting Device & Drug Safety Legislation & Advocacy Science & Research Heart Rhythm Journal Heart Rhythm Case Reports Research ... Quality & Outcomes Reporting Device & Drug Safety Legislation & Advocacy Science & Research less Heart Rhythm Journal Heart Rhythm Case Reports ...

146

Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... Red: Eileen's Story 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 ...

147

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

148

Epidemiology of Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of sleep refers to the study of patterns of sleep and sleep disorders across the population. Under the broad\\u000a heading of the epidemiology of sleep, there are numerous specific questions to be asked about sleep hygiene practices, sleep\\u000a architecture, sleep duration, and any one of a set of disorders. This chapter focuses on what is known about patterns

Lauren Hale

149

The Mighty Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through the dissection of sheep hearts. They learn about the different parts of the heart and are able to identify the anatomical structures and compare them to the all of the structural components of the human heart they learned about in the associated lesson, Heart to Heart.

2014-09-18

150

Myocardial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: epidemiology and pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Data from population- and clinic-based epidemiologic studies of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggest that individuals with rheumatoid arthritis are at risk for developing clinically evident congestive heart failure. Many established risk factors for congestive heart failure are over-represented in rheumatoid arthritis and likely account for some of the increased risk observed. In particular, data from animal models of cytokine-induced congestive heart failure have implicated the same inflammatory cytokines produced in abundance by rheumatoid synovium as the driving force behind maladaptive processes in the myocardium leading to congestive heart failure. At present, however, the direct effects of inflammatory cytokines (and rheumatoid arthritis therapies) on the myocardia of rheumatoid arthritis patients are incompletely understood. PMID:16207349

Giles, Jon T; Fernandes, Verônica; Lima, Joao AC; Bathon, Joan M

2005-01-01

151

Anemia in heart failure: an overview of current concepts.  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure is a substantial public health problem. Anemia is an important comorbidity frequently observed in patients with the disease and, in heart failure, anemia has only recently started to attract systematic epidemiological and therapeutical research endeavor. This article describes the many aspects of anemia in chronic heart failure, starting with the ongoing discussion of how to define anemia, which has important consequences for the estimation of its prevalence and incidence. Further, we discuss prognostic implications of anemia in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, the etiology of anemia in heart failure and treatment possibilities. Such therapeutic avenues embrace intravenous iron preparations and subcutaneous administration of erythropoietin and its derivatives, all of which have been extensively studied over the last several years. Finally, this article describes the potential costs incurred by treating anemic patients with heart failure. PMID:21174515

von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

2011-01-01

152

Resting Heart Rate and Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Currently Stand?  

PubMed Central

Background Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggest that the favorable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate–lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure may be, at least in part, due to their heart rate–lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score include admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. Aims This article critically reviews the key epidemiology concerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevated resting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacological reduction in resting heart rate. Conclusions Prospective randomised data from patients with significant coronary heart disease or heart failure suggest that intervention to reduce heart rate in those with a resting heart rate >70 bpm may reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the established observational data and randomised trial evidence, it now appears appropriate to include reduction of elevated resting heart rate by lifestyle +/? pharmacological therapy as part of a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22954325

Menown, Ian BA; Davies, Simon; Gupta, Sandeep; Kalra, Paul R; Lang, Chim C; Morley, Chris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2013-01-01

153

Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

154

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

Weber, David J.

155

Types of Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... heart transplants, and place VADs and TAHs. Off-Pump Heart Surgery Surgeons also use off-pump, or beating heart, surgery to do CABG. This ... heart-lung bypass machine isn't used. Off-pump heart surgery isn't right for all patients. ...

156

Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ... 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 9 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 10 Tachycardia | Fast ...

157

Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ... 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 9 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 10 Tachycardia | Fast ...

158

Depression and Risk of Heart Failure Among the Elderly: A Prospective Community-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although the association between depression and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been established in many studies, the impact of depression on the incidence of heart failure has not been previously investigated. Methods: We examined the effect of depression (assessed by means of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with a cutoff point of 21) on

SETAREH A. WILLIAMS; STANISLAV V. KASL; ASEFEH HEIAT; JEROME L. ABRAMSON; HARLAN M. KRUMHOLZ; VIOLA VACCARINO

2002-01-01

159

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

160

1190 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology  

E-print Network

1190 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Aflatoxin Contamination of Commercial Cottonseed in South Texas-Garcia, R., and Cotty, P. J. 2003. Aflatoxin contamination of com- mercial cottonseed in South Texas. Phytopathology 93:1190-1200. Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites produced by several members of Aspergillus

Cotty, Peter J.

161

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann

2002-01-01

162

Epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2008-01-01

163

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

164

Genetic epidemiology of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic epidemiological methods have played an integral role in the characterisation of the genetic susceptibilities to colorectal cancer. Classic epidemiological approaches, such as case-control and prospective cohort studies, that utilise family history information have laid the foundation for the more specialised family-based genetic methods, segregation analysis and linkage analysis. The genetic epidemiology of colorectal cancer can be characterised by several

G. M Petersen

1995-01-01

165

Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa  

PubMed Central

The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

2013-01-01

166

Stockholm Arlanda Airport as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to water, sediment and fish.  

PubMed

Fire training facilities are potential sources of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the nearby environment due to the usage of PFAS-containing aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFFs). The multimedia distribution of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (FTSA) was investigated near a fire training facility at Stockholm Arlanda Airport in Sweden. The whole body burden of PFASs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) was 334±80?g absolute and was distributed as follows: Gonad>liver?muscle>blood>gill. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and sediment/water partition coefficient (Kd) increased by 0.6-1.7 and 0.2-0.5 log units, respectively, for each additional CF2 moiety for PFCAs and PFSAs. PFAS concentrations in water showed no significant decreasing trend between 2009 and 2013 (p>0.05), which indicates that Stockholm Arlanda Airport may be an important source for long-term contamination of the nearby environment with PFASs. PMID:24821232

Ahrens, Lutz; Norström, Karin; Viktor, Tomas; Cousins, Anna Palm; Josefsson, Sarah

2014-05-01

167

Principles of epidemiological modelling.  

PubMed

Epidemiological modelling can be a powerful tool to assist animal health policy development and disease prevention and control. Models can vary from simple deterministic mathematical models through to complex spatially-explicit stochastic simulations and decision support systems. The approach used will vary depending on the purpose of the study, how well the epidemiology of a disease is understood, the amount and quality of data available, and the background and experience of the modellers. Epidemiological models can be classified into various categories depending on their treatment of variability, chance and uncertainty (deterministic or stochastic), time (continuous or discrete intervals), space (non-spatial or spatial) and the structure of the population (homogenous or heterogeneous mixing). The increasing sophistication of computers, together with greater recognition of the importance of spatial elements in the spread and control of disease, mean that models which incorporate spatial components are becoming more important in epidemiological studies. Multidisciplinary approaches using a range of new technologies make it possible to build more sophisticated models of animal disease. New generation epidemiological models enable disease to be studied in the context of physical, economic, technological, health, media and political infrastructures. To be useful in policy development, models must be fit for purpose and appropriately verified and validated. This involves ensuring that the model is an adequate representation of the system under study and that its outputs are sufficiently accurate and precise for the intended purpose. Finally, models are just one tool for providing technical advice, and should not be considered in isolation from data from experimental and field studies. PMID:21961213

Garner, M G; Hamilton, S A

2011-08-01

168

Heart Disease in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque (plak) ...

169

Coronary heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... al. Effectiveness-Based Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women--2011 Update:a guideline from the ...

170

Congenital Heart Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

171

Living with Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

172

Getting a New Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... Revised December 2006 Revised March 2012 Getting A New Heart Facts About Heart Transplants American Society of ... you stay in good health. How long a new heart lasts depends on many factors. Some of ...

173

Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update  

PubMed Central

Background & Aim. Changing socio-economic conditions generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of urolithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical-physical composition of the calculi. In the latter part of the 20th century the prevalence of upper urinary tract stones was increasing in Western countries whereas endemic infantile bladder stone disease was fairly widespread in huge areas of developing countries. The aim of this paper was to update previous epidemiological reports of urolithiasis by reviewing the more recent literature. Methods. Citations were extracted using PubMed database from January 2003 through December 2007 on the basis of the key words epidemiology AND urinary calculi. Results. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis was described in Germany whereas data from the United States were contradictory with stone disease rates increased only for women with a change of male-to-female ratio. Prevalence figures of stone disease observed in some developing country in tropical regions were similar to rates of Western countries with incidence of renal colic particularly high in warm months. African Americans had a reduced risk of stone disease compared to other racial groups but in renal stone patients all racial groups demonstrated a similarity in the incidence of underlying metabolic abnormalities. Upper urinary tract stones in children were associated more frequently with metabolic disturbances rather than with urinary tract anomalies and infection. Endemic childhood bladder stones are still present in some developing countries. Dietary risk factors for stone disease were shown different by age and sex. In particular in younger women dietary calcium, phytate and fluid intake were associated with a reduced risk of stone formation whereas animal protein and sucrose increased the risk of stone incidence. In older adults there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation whereas magnesium, potassium and fluid intakes decreased and total vitamin C intake increased the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2. Type 2 diabetes and several other coronary heart disease risk factors, including hypertension and obesity are associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:22460989

Trinchieri, Alberto

2008-01-01

174

Pediatric heart surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Congenital heart surgery - discharge; Patent ductus arteriosus ligation - discharge; Hypoplastic left heart repair - discharge; Tetralogy of Fallot repair - discharge; Coarctation of the aorta repair - discharge; ...

175

J Am Geriatr Soc . Author manuscript Disability and incident coronary heart disease in older community-dwelling  

E-print Network

J Am Geriatr Soc . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Disability and incident coronary heart disease & numerical data ; Female ; France ; epidemiology ; Geriatric Assessment ; Hospitalization ; statistics in the elderly J Am Geriatr Soc . Author

176

Do Students Correctly Estimate Their Reading Ability? A Study of Stockholm Students in Grades 3 and 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a survey in Stockholm are used to look at differences between how students' self-concepts and self-efficacy relate to actual reading skills, differences between how boys and girls estimate their reading, and differences between how older and younger students estimate their reading. A quarter of the students made correct self-assessments…

Fredriksson, Ulf; Villalba, Ernesto; Taube, Karin

2011-01-01

177

Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Thick Should their Supports Be?  

E-print Network

5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson,USA. Abstract When twining plants grow they revolve around that twining plants cannot grow on supports that are too wide. Here, mechanical aspects of this problem

Neukirch, Sébastien

178

Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

2010-01-01

179

DEVELOPMENTS AT NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH HELD AT STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN ON JUNE 12-16, 1978  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is an interpretive analysis of formal and informal developments at the Ninth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Stockholm, Sweden, on June 12-14, 1978, and has been prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the U.S.A. National ...

180

Dengue: update on epidemiology.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

2015-01-01

181

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

182

International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.

183

Who Needs a Heart Transplant?  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs a Heart Transplant? Most patients referred to heart transplant centers have ... heart failure. Who Is Eligible for a Heart Transplant? The specialists at the heart transplant center will ...

184

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders

Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen

185

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

186

Epidemiology of cluster headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster headache was first described over 300 years ago, but in the last century our knowledge of the disorder has exploded\\u000a through both clinical observation and epidemiological data. Although some of the data are conflicting and more need to be\\u000a obtained, much is known about the disorder. This article reviews the data to date on the prevalence and incidence of

Susan W. Broner; Joshua M. Cohen

2009-01-01

187

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-print Network

of the heart valve tissue · Years of high blood pressure and/or years of heavy alcohol drinking can cause direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction, but does not let any blood through in the opposite direction #12;Why does a heart valve start leaking

Provancher, William

188

Types of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Types of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 9,2014 Left-sided heart failure The heart's pumping action moves oxygen-rich blood as it ... during their journey. Visit our Support Network today . Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

189

[The resting heart rate].  

PubMed

Assessment of resting heart rate is frequently performed and is easy, reliable and inexpensive. Heart rate is used in many algorithms to assess the prognosis of acutely ill patients. Elevated resting heart rate is independently related to the development of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature all-cause mortality. Adding heart rate to cardiovascular prediction models does not lead to improved prediction of vascular events or mortality. Beta blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers decrease heart rate (and blood pressure) and lower the risk of premature mortality in patients with heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. In two recent randomised trials, ivabradine specifically decreased heart rate (but not blood pressure) and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with heart failure or coronary artery disease, decreased left ventricular function and resting heart rate of ? 70 beats/minute. Selective heart rate reduction is a potential treatment option to decrease cardiovascular risk. PMID:24666528

Bemelmans, Remy H H; Visseren, Frank L J

2014-01-01

190

Screening for Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants in the Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzogovina).  

PubMed

The Stockholm Convention, which aspires to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at the international level, was recently ratified in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). Despite this fact, there is in general a paucity of data regarding the levels of POPs in the environment in BiH. In the present study, screening for POPs was conducted in one of the country's major rivers, the Bosna. A two-pronged approach was applied using passive samplers to detect the freely dissolved and bioavailable concentrations in the water phase and sediment analysis to provide an integrated measure of historical contamination. At several places along the river, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were high and exhibited potential for both chronic and acute effects to biota. River water also showed elevated concentrations of PAH, up to 480 ng L(-1) near the city of Doboj, and diagnostic ratios suggested combustion sources for the contamination present in both types of sample. The levels of the other contaminants measured-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers--were generally low in the water phase. However, PCBs and some OCPs were present in river sediments at levels which breach the international criteria and thus suggest potential for ecological damage. Additionally, the levels of heptachlor breached these criteria in many of the sites investigated. This study presents the first screening data for some of these Stockholm Convention relevant compounds in BiH and reveals both low concentrations of some chemical groups, but significant point sources and historic contamination for others. PMID:22580747

Harman, Christopher; Grung, Merete; Djedjibegovic, Jasmina; Marjanovic, Aleksandra; Sober, Miroslav; Sinanovic, Kemo; Fjeld, Eirik; Rognerud, Sigurd; Ranneklev, Sissel Brit; Larssen, Thorjørn

2013-02-01

191

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

PubMed Central

Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies.

ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

2012-01-01

192

Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Pediatric urolithiasis has increased globally in the last few decades. There has been a change in the pattern of stone composition with an increase in the frequency of kidney stones and a decrease in bladder stones. The role of familial predisposition and environmental factors in pediatric urolithiasis is now better understood. Metabolic factors are more common in pediatric urolithiasis than in adult stone disease. This review updates on the epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis with a focus on the changing trends in the stone disease, current spectrum of stone disease encountered in clinical practice, individual predisposition and the role of environmental factors in stone formation. PMID:21369384

Sharma, Ajay P.; Filler, Guido

2010-01-01

193

Epidemiology of cluster headache.  

PubMed

Cluster headache was first described over 300 years ago, but in the last century our knowledge of the disorder has exploded through both clinical observation and epidemiological data. Although some of the data are conflicting and more need to be obtained, much is known about the disorder. This article reviews the data to date on the prevalence and incidence of the disorder, population differences including gender and race, genetics, comorbid conditions, risk factors for development of the disorder, prognosis, and socioeconomic burden. PMID:19272280

Broner, Susan W; Cohen, Joshua M

2009-04-01

194

Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches. PMID:23801009

Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

2013-08-01

195

Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

1990-01-01

196

Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ?3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367

2012-01-01

197

Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.  

PubMed

Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. PMID:25526781

Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

2015-01-01

198

Heart Rate and Function  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to discover and learn about heart rate and the function of the heart. The students will investigate whether their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; develop an understanding of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; use data to develop an explanation of why their hearts beat slower/faster at different times; be aware of the effect of exercise on respiration; and be able to describe the major function of the heart.

Mr. Mike Peterson (Frazer Public School)

1999-07-01

199

Antithrombotics in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

Mili?i?, Davor; Samardži?, Jure; Petri?evi?, Mate

2014-01-01

200

2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.

201

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

Shoubridge, Eric

202

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES Summer 2011 Wacholder Senior investigator in the Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Pine Ave. West, Room 25 ALL ARE WELCOME - Refreshments to follow - #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics

Barthelat, Francois

203

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health 2010-2011 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2010-2011 Student Handbook TABLE

Barthelat, Francois

204

The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination  

E-print Network

The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination Sylvain Gandon1,* and Troy Day2 1 Ge´ne´tique et 3N6, Canada Vaccination leads to dramatic perturbations of the environment of parasite populations for modelling the short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary consequences of vaccination

205

Molecular epidemiology in cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular biomarkers in epidemiological investigations brings clear advantages of economy, speed and precision. Epidemiology – the study of the factors that control the patterns of incidence of disease – normally requires large numbers of subjects and\\/or long periods of time, because what is measured (the occurrence of disease) is a rare event. Biomarkers are measurable biological parameters

Andrew R Collins

1998-01-01

206

Hotline sessions and clinical trial updates presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress in Stockholm 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview on several novel clinical trials in the field of cardiovascular (CV) medicine which were presented\\u000a during the hotline sessions and clinical trial updates at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, held in Stockholm,\\u000a Sweden, from 28th August to 1st September 2010. The data have been presented by leading experts in the accordant field with\\u000a relevant

Matthias Lenski; Felix Mahfoud; Christian Werner; Axel Bauer; Michael Böhm

2010-01-01

207

[Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis A is a rare disease occurring sporadically, which is a consequence of improved sanitation and hygiene, hepatitides B and C are the main causes of viral hepatitis in Croatia. The introduction of universal mandatory hepatitis B vaccination of schoolchildren in 1999 resulted in a decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B, which is most pronounced in adolescents and young adults, and further decrease in the incidence and prevalence is expected as the pool of susceptible individuals decreases through vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis C is decreasing as well. In spite of a relatively favorable epidemiological situation, hepatitis B and C are still a significant public health burden with an estimated 25,000 persons chronically infected with HBV and about 40,000 persons chronically infected with HCV in Croatia. PMID:24984326

Kai?, Bernard; Vilibi?-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipovi?, Sanja Kureci?; Nemeth-Blazi?, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunovi?, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radi?, Ivan; Pavli?, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

2013-10-01

208

The Epidemiology of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

2012-01-01

209

Amazing Heart Facts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the NOVA Cut to the Heart Web site highlights facts about the heart -- including its size and placement -- and will help you to understand the importance of this wondrous organ in our bodies.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2003-09-26

210

Heart-Healthy Exercise  

MedlinePLUS

... G . Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med . 1970 ; 2 : 92 – 98 . OpenURL Medline Google Scholar Previous Section Additional Resources American Heart Association Web site. www.heart.org/ ...

211

Heart PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

212

Working Model Hearts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory syst

Brock, David

2009-12-01

213

Patterns of heart attacks  

E-print Network

Myocardial infarction is a derivative of heart disease that is a growing concern in the United States today. With heart disease becoming increasingly predominant, it is important to not only take steps toward preventing ...

Shenk, Kimberly N

2010-01-01

214

Cholesterol and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Cholesterol and Heart Disease HealthDay February 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cholesterol Heart Diseases Transcript When should you start worrying ...

215

Women's Heart Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... Click for e-News archive The Women's Heart Foundation is a 501c3 dedicated to prevention, survival and ... the spectacular Women's Heart display window at 10 Rockefeller Plaza, gifted by EHE International - Go to our ...

216

Classes of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Dec 17,2014 Doctors usually classify patients' ... is classified: Functional Capacity IV, Objective Assessment A Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

217

Women and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

218

Heart Disease Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

219

Men and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

220

Marriage and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Marriage and Heart Health HealthDay November 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family ... marital quality, underwent lab tests to assess cardiovascular health and provided medical information about heart attacks, strokes ...

221

Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating ... to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime ...

222

How Is Heart Disease Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 All of Our ... 10/14/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 10/14/2014 All of Our ...

223

Epidemiology of gliomas.  

PubMed

Gliomas are the most common type of primary intracranial tumors. Some glioma subtypes cause significant mortality and morbidity that are disproportionate to their relatively rare incidence. A very small proportion of glioma cases can be attributed to inherited genetic disorders. Many potential risk factors for glioma have been studied to date, but few provide explanation for the number of brain tumors identified. The most significant of these factors includes increased risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation, and decreased risk with history of allergy or atopic disease. The potential effect of exposure to cellular phones has been studied extensively, but the results remain inconclusive. Recent genomic analyses, using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have identified several inherited risk variants that are associated with increased glioma risk. The following chapter provides an overview of the current state of research in the epidemiology of intracranial glioma. PMID:25468222

Ostrom, Quinn T; Gittleman, Haley; Stetson, Lindsay; Virk, Selene M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

2015-01-01

224

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2% was determined in male inhabitants of the greater Cologne area. This is much higher than revealed by the data reported up to now, thus rendering the accepted prevalence rates of 0.3% to 1% untenable. The actual prevalence of Peyronie's disease may be even higher, considering many patients' reluctance to report this embarrassing condition to their physicians. Along these lines, most clinicians note that the number of Peyronie's patients has increased since the advent of oral sildenafil. Comparably high prevalences are known for diabetes and urolithiasis, suggesting a greater frequency of this rare disease than formerly believed. PMID:12454689

Sommer, F; Schwarzer, U; Wassmer, G; Bloch, W; Braun, M; Klotz, T; Engelmann, U

2002-10-01

225

Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae invasive infections in France, over the last few years, was modified by two public health measures. A nationwide campaign for the rationalization of antibiotic prescription was implemented in 2001 and vaccination of young children with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine in 2003. These measures led to a decrease in antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae strains, a lower incidence of invasive infections due to vaccine serotypes, but a higher incidence of infections due to non-vaccine serotypes, especially 7F and 19A. Despite the replacement, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections in children less than 2 years of age remains lower than it was before introducing the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. PMID:22819510

Varon, E

2012-08-01

226

Acromegaly: an epidemiological study.  

PubMed

Although morbility and mortality in acromegaly are higher than in the general population, there have been very few previous epidemiological studies. This study tries to answer "why". Seventy-four patients affected by acromegaly in Vizcaya (Spain) between 1970 and 1989 were considered for an epidemiological study. The prevalence of known cases at the end of 1989 was 60 per million inhabitants. The average incidence of newly diagnosed cases was 3.1 per million people per year. Unexpectedly, acromegaly was more frequent in women (n = 48) than in men (n = 26), with a ratio of 1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher in women (46.1 +/- 2.2 yr) than in men (39.5 +/- 2.2 yr) (p < 0.05) There was a positive correlation between age at diagnosis and the estimated duration of the disease (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) and a negative one between age and basal GH serum levels (r = -0.52 p < 0.002). The age at diagnosis was significantly higher in patients with invasive tumors (grade III and IV) than in those with enclosed tumors (grade I and II) (47.7 +/- 1.8 vs 40.1 +/- 3.3 p < 0.05). In general, mortality was higher than the expected for the control population (standardized mortality ratio, SMR = 3.2, 95% confidence interval. Cl = 1.55-5.93). However, mortality was higher in men (SMR = 7, 95% Cl = 2.81-14.4) but not in women (SMR = 1.4 95% Cl = 0.29-4.17).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8514973

Etxabe, J; Gaztambide, S; Latorre, P; Vazquez, J A

1993-03-01

227

Heart 1: Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students use the internet to learn about the workings and anatomy of the heart and new medical techniques that help people live longer, healthier lives. Students then use their knowledge to discuss controversial issues surrounding heart transplants. Students also perform an online heart transplant to get a more realistic idea of what is involved.

Science Netlinks

2002-09-25

228

Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is ... used to bypass the blocked arteries in the heart. The venous graft is sewn to the aorta ...

229

Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

Rogers, John A.

230

Heart failure - palliative care  

MedlinePLUS

Chronic heart failure very often gets worse over time. Many people who have heart failure die of the condition. It can be hard ... whether to continue active or aggressive treatment of heart failure. Then, you may want to discuss the option ...

231

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.; Sullivan, Kevin

2009-02-09

232

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- Information for Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), this website provides a plethora of helpful information and resources for researchers. The site provides abstracts for NHLBI supported research from 1972-present, which also links to the NIH CRISP Database. Online research resources include Programs for Genomic Applications, Available Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Data Sets, as well as links to the NIH Obesity Research Web Site. The site also provides links to other research resources including databases, biologic resources, and training opportunities. In addition, the site links to the NHLBI Population Studies Database, information on the Framingham Heart Study, a section on Workshop and Meeting Summaries, and much more.

233

Management of atrial fibrillation in patients with congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

Due to improved surgical technologies and post-operative care, long-term survival has improved in patients with congenital heart disease. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly observed in this aging population and is associated with morbidity and mortality; however, reports about the pathophysiology and the outcome of different treatment modalities of AF are still scarce in patients with congenital heart disease. In this review, the authors describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and outcome of the different therapies of AF in this specific patient population. PMID:25494876

Teuwen, Christophe P; Ramdjan, Tanwier Ttk; de Groot, Natasja Ms

2015-01-01

234

Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

2011-01-01

235

Crisis communication: learning from the 1998 LPG near miss in Stockholm.  

PubMed

The authors examine current trends in urban risks and resilience in relation to hazardous material transports in general, and crisis communication and the Stockholm liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) near miss in 1998 in particular. The article discusses how current dynamics affecting urban areas, such as the decay in terms of increased condensation and limited expansion alternatives combined with industry site contamination and transports of hazardous materials on old worn-out physical infrastructure, work together to produce high-risk factors and increase urban vulnerability in large parts of the world today. Crisis communication takes a particularly pronounced role in the article as challenges in communication and confidence maintenance under conditions of information uncertainty and limited information control are explored. The LPG near miss case illustrates a Swedish case of urban risk and the tight coupling to hazardous material transports. The case also serves as a current example of Swedish resilience and lack of preparedness in urban crises, with particular observations and lessons learned in regards to crisis communication. PMID:11679196

Castenfors, K; Svedin, L

2001-12-14

236

Optimization of the Stockholm R-EBIT for production and extraction of highly charged ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a refrigerated EBIT (R-EBIT) commissioned at the AlbaNova Research Center at Stockholm University. As an innovative solution, the superconducting magnet and the trapping drift tubes of the R-EBIT are cooled to a temperature of 4 K by a set of two cooling heads connected to helium compressors. This dry, i.e. liquid helium and liquid nitrogen free, system is easily operated and creates highly charged ions at a fraction of the cost of traditional liquid-cooled systems. A pulsed and continuous gas injection system was developed to feed neutral particles into the electron beam in the trap region. This improves significantly the highly charged ion production and R-EBIT performance. Fast extraction of ions from the R-EBIT yields very short ( < 100 ns), charge-separated ion bunches which can be either analysed using a straight time-of-flight section or sent to experimental beam lines following selection in a bending magnet. An emittance meter was used to measure the emittance of the ions extracted from the R-EBIT. The extracted ions were also re-trapped in a cylindrical Penning trap and properties of the re-trapped ions have been measured using the emittance meter. Results of these measurements are reported in this publication.

Hobein, M.; Orban, I.; Böhm, S.; Solders, A.; Suhonen, M.; Fritioff, T.; Tashenov, S.; Schuch, R.

2010-11-01

237

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough  

E-print Network

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough blood to the body to meet the organs demands. Heart muscle dilatation, muscle fibers hypertrophy, and increased heart rate are the clinical markers of disease progression as the heart attempts to compensate

238

Epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and management of childhood cardiorenal syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a new term recently introduced to describe the acute or chronic comorbid state of the heart and kidney that has been long known and frequently managed in very sick individuals. The tight and delicate coordination of physiological functions among organ systems in the human body makes dysfunction in one to lead to malfunction of one or more other organ systems. CRS is a universal very common morbidity in the critically ill, with a high mortality rate that has received very little research attention in children. Simultaneous management of heart and renal failures in CRS is quite challenging; the therapeutic choice made for one organ must not jeopardize the other. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and management of acute and chronic CRS in children. PMID:24175238

Olowu, Wasiu A

2012-01-01

239

Epidemiology of diabetes  

PubMed Central

The disease burden related to diabetes is high and rising in every country, fuelled by the global rise in the prevalence of obesity and unhealthy lifestyles. The latest estimates show a global prevalence of 382 million people with diabetes in 2013, expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. The aetiological classification of diabetes has now been widely accepted. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are the two main types, with type 2 diabetes accounting for the majority (>85%) of total diabetes prevalence. Both forms of diabetes can lead to multisystem complications of microvascular endpoints, including retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular endpoints including ischaemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. The premature morbidity, mortality, reduced life expectancy and financial and other costs of diabetes make it an important public health condition.

Forouhi, Nita Gandhi; Wareham, Nicholas J.

2014-01-01

240

EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

241

On the epidemiology of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, \\

John J Cannell; Michael Zasloff; Cedric F Garland; Robert Scragg; Edward Giovannucci

2008-01-01

242

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)  

Cancer.gov

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.

243

Epidemiology of pancreas cancer (1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This article reviews the epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas, both descriptive and analytical, at all times cognizant of\\u000a the problems of misdiagnosis, particularly underdiagnosis, of this lethal disease that continue to hinder epidemiological\\u000a studies. Pancreas cancer is consistently reported to occur more frequently in men than in women, in blacks than in whites,\\u000a and in urban rather than rural

P. Boyle; C.-C Hsieh; P. Maisonneuve; C. La Vecchia; G. J. Macfarlane; A. M. Walker; D. Trichopoulos

1989-01-01

244

Microtia: Epidemiology & Genetics  

PubMed Central

Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear that ranges in severity from mild structural abnormalities to complete absence of the ear, and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with hearing loss and patients typically require treatment for hearing impairment and surgical ear reconstruction. The reported prevalence varies among regions, from 0.83 to 17.4 per 10,000 births and the prevalence is considered to be higher in Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and Andeans. The etiology of microtia and the cause of this wide variability in prevalence are poorly understood. Strong evidence supports the role of environmental and genetic causes for microtia. Although some studies have identified candidate genetic variants for microtia, no causal genetic mutation has been confirmed. The application of novel strategies in developmental biology and genetics has facilitated elucidation of mechanisms controlling craniofacial development. In this paper we review current knowledge of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia, including potential candidate genes supported by evidence from human syndromes and animal models. We also discuss the possible etiopathogenesis in light of the hypotheses formulated to date: neural crest cells disturbance, vascular disruption and altitude. PMID:22106030

Luquetti, Daniela V.; Heike, Carrie L.; Hing, Anne V.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Cox, Timothy C.

2012-01-01

245

The epidemiology of favism  

PubMed Central

Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

Belsey, Mark A.

1973-01-01

246

Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25561199

Green, Adèle C

2015-01-01

247

?-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in aging heart and clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Elderly healthy individuals have a reduced exercise tolerance and a decreased left ventricle inotropic reserve related to increased vascular afterload, arterial-ventricular load mismatching, physical deconditioning and impaired autonomic regulation (the so called “?-adrenergic desensitization”). Adrenergic responsiveness is altered with aging and the age-related changes are limited to the ?-adrenergic receptor density reduction and to the ?-adrenoceptor-G-protein(s)-adenylyl cyclase system abnormalities, while the type and level of abnormalities change with species and tissues. Epidemiological studies have shown an high incidence and prevalence of heart failure in the elderly and a great body of evidence correlate the changes of ?-adrenergic system with heart failure pathogenesis. In particular it is well known that: (a) levels of cathecolamines are directly correlated with mortality and functional status in heart failure, (b) ?1-adrenergic receptor subtype is down-regulated in heart failure, (c) heart failure-dependent cardiac adrenergic responsiveness reduction is related to changes in G proteins activity. In this review we focus on the cardiovascular ?-adrenergic changes involvement in the aging process and on similarities and differences between aging heart and heart failure. PMID:24409150

Ferrara, Nicola; Komici, Klara; Corbi, Graziamaria; Pagano, Gennaro; Furgi, Giuseppe; Rengo, Carlo; Femminella, Grazia D.; Leosco, Dario; Bonaduce, Domenico

2014-01-01

248

Survival Associated with Two Sets of Diagnostic Criteria for Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congestive heart failure (CHF) definitions vary across epidemiologic studies. The Framingham Heart Study criteria include CHF signs and symptoms assessed by a physician panel. In the Cardiovascular Health Study, a committee of physicians adjudicated CHF diagnoses, confirmed by signs, symptoms, clinical tests, and\\/or medical therapy. The authors used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a population-based cohort study of 5,888

Gina D. Schellenbaum; Thomas D. Rea; Susan R. Heckbert; Nicholas L. Smith; Thomas Lumley; Veronique L. Roger; Dalane W. Kitzman; Herman A. Taylor; Daniel Levy; Bruce M. Psaty

249

Asthma, Allergy and Eczema among Adults in Multifamily Houses in Stockholm (3-HE Study) - Associations with Building Characteristics, Home Environment and Energy Use for Heating  

PubMed Central

Risk factors for asthma, allergy and eczema were studied in a stratified random sample of adults in Stockholm. In 2005, 472 multifamily buildings (10,506 dwellings) were invited (one subject/dwelling) and 7,554 participated (73%). Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, country of birth, income and years in the dwelling. In total, 11% had doctor's diagnosed asthma, 22% doctor's diagnosed allergy, 23% pollen allergy and 23% eczema. Doctor's diagnosed asthma was more common in dwellings with humid air (OR?=?1.74) and mould odour (OR?=?1.79). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was more common in buildings with supply exhaust air ventilation as compared to exhaust air only (OR?=?1.45) and was associated with redecoration (OR?=?1.48) and mould odour (OR?=?2.35). Pollen allergy was less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.75) and was associated with humid air (OR?=?1.76) and mould odour (OR?=?2.36). Eczema was more common in larger buildings (OR 1.07) and less common in buildings using more energy for heating (OR?=?0.85) and was associated with water damage (OR?=?1.47), humid air (OR?=?1.73) and mould odour (OR?=?2.01). Doctor's diagnosed allergy was less common in buildings with management accessibility both in the neighbourhood and in larger administrative divisions, as compared to management in the neighbourhood only (OR?=?0.49; 95% CI 0.29–0.82). Pollen allergy was less common if the building maintenance was outsourced (OR?=?0.67; 95% CI 0.51–0.88). Eczema was more common when management accessibility was only at the division level (OR?=?1.49; 95% CI 1.06–2.11). In conclusions, asthma, allergy or eczema were more common in buildings using less energy for heating, in larger buildings and in dwellings with redecorations, mould odour, dampness and humid air. There is a need to reduce indoor chemical emissions and to control dampness. Energy saving may have consequences for allergy and eczema. More epidemiological studies are needed on building management organization. PMID:25479551

Norbäck, Dan; Lampa, Erik; Engvall, Karin

2014-01-01

250

Keep your heart healthy About the British Heart Foundation  

E-print Network

Keep your heart healthy #12;About the British Heart Foundation The British Heart Foundation (BHF) is the nation's heart charity, saving lives through pioneering research, patient care and vital information. You ..........................................................................4 What are coronary heart disease and stroke? ......................5 What increases my risk

Paxton, Anthony T.

251

Exercise for the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eighteenth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. The heart needs continual blood flow, and interruption of that blood flow is called ischemia. Eventually, ischemia can lead to hypertrophy and that can lead to heart attacks. But if the heart could be pre-conditioned, then maybe it could better survive hypertrophy. The work of Dr. Karyn Butler at the University of Cincinnati investigates this possibility.

2008-05-01

252

50-Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county  

SciTech Connect

The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis. An equivalent number of controls was matched to the cases according to church district of birth, age, and sex. Outside each dwelling, the occurrence of visible electrical constructions (6-200-kV high-voltage wires, substations, transformers, electric railroads, and subways) within 150 m of the dwelling was noted. Also, the 50-Hz magnetic field was measured outside the main entrance of the dwelling. Visible 200-kv wires were noted at 45 of 2,098 dwellings and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The magnetic field measured at the dwelling varied between 0.0004 to 1.9 microT (mean value 0.069 microT). The magnetic field was higher (0.22 microT) at dwellings with visible 200-kV wires than at those without such wires. Magnetic fields of 0.3 microT or more were measured at 48 dwellings, and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The difference was most pronounced for dwellings of nervous system tumors and was less for leukemias.

Tomenius, L.

1986-01-01

253

Guidelines for heart transplantation  

PubMed Central

Based on the changes in the field of heart transplantation and the treatment and prognosis of patients with heart failure, these updated guidelines were composed by a committee under the supervision of both the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Association for Cardiothoracic surgery (NVVC and NVT). The indication for heart transplantation is defined as: ‘End-stage heart disease not remediable by more conservative measures’. Contraindications are: irreversible pulmonary hypertension/elevated pulmonary vascular resistance; active systemic infection; active malignancy or history of malignancy with probability of recurrence; inability to comply with complex medical regimen; severe peripheral or cerebrovascular disease and irreversible dysfunction of another organ, including diseases that may limit prognosis after heart transplantation. Considering the difficulties in defining end-stage heart failure, estimating prognosis in the individual patient and the continuing evolution of available therapies, the present criteria are broadly defined. The final acceptance is done by the transplant team which has extensive knowledge of the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure on the one hand and thorough experience with heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support on the other hand. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:79-87.) PMID:18345330

de Jonge, N.; Kirkels, J.H.; Klöpping, C.; Lahpor, J.R.; Caliskan, K.; Maat, A.P.W.M.; Brügemann, J.; Erasmus, M.E.; Klautz, R.J.M.; Verwey, H.F.; Oomen, A.; Peels, C.H.; Golüke, A.E.J.; Nicastia, D.; Koole, M.A.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

2008-01-01

254

Heart Rate Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

1990-01-01

255

Pericarditis - after heart attack  

MedlinePLUS

... shoulder, back, or abdomen Difficulty breathing Dry cough Fast heart rate (tachycardia) Fatigue Fever (more common with the second type of pericarditis) Malaise (general ill feeling) Splinting ...

256

Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Source-diagnostic markers and the isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in surface sediments from the greater Stockholm waterways to deduce the contribution from biomass sources to the environmental PAH load. The summed concentration of 20 PAHs ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 microg/g (dry weight) and exhibited a steep decline with increasing distance from the city center evidencing that sources within the metropolitan area of Stockholm dominate its PAH burden. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated an overwhelming predominance of pyrogenic sources over the petrogenic ones, while retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene were unable to correctly evaluate the contribution from biomass combustion. The stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of individual PAHs ranged from -24.8 to -27.0% but also was proved inefficient to discriminate between different types of fuels due to the overlapping signals in various sources. The delta14C values of PAHs ranged between -550.4 and -934.1%, indicating a clear predominance of fossil fuel sources. By using an isotopic mass balance approach, we estimated that on average 17+/-9% of PAHs derived from biomass combustion. This radiocarbon apportionment, in conjunction with detailed energy statistics for the Stockholm region, revealed that the ambient PAH burden is roughly similar, per unit energy produced, from fossil fuels and biofuels. Societies' shifting energy policies toward a larger reliance on biofuels may thus not lead to further deterioration of air quality and respiratory ailments for the urban population. PMID:15543735

Mandalakis, Manolis; Gustafsson, Orjan; Reddy, Christopher M; Xu, Li

2004-10-15

257

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes  

E-print Network

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes 1 Did you know that type 2 diabetes is a serious problem

Bandettini, Peter A.

258

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01

259

Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

1987-01-01

260

Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 83: 193202 (July 2002) 2002The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 193  

E-print Network

Abstract Wirkner, C. S. and Pass, G. 2002.The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology of haemolymph flow. In Scutigera coleoptrata, the heart ultrastructure was studied. The circulatory system descriptions in this group have been only superficial. In all investigated species, the circulatory system

Pass, Günther

261

Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society.

Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

2015-01-01

262

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-09-01

263

Heart murmurs and other sounds  

MedlinePLUS

Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... classified ("graded") depending on how loud the murmur sounds with a stethoscope. The grading is on a ...

264

Life After a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart ... improves your chances for a better quality of life after a heart attack. Medical Followup After a ...

265

Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Dec 17,2014 The ejection ... was last reviewed on 07/09/2013. Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? How Can ...

266

Living with Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious ... any new symptoms or if your symptoms worsen. Heart Attack Warning Signs CHD raises your risk for ...

267

Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

268

Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team  

MedlinePLUS

Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Sep 2,2014 Patients with heart failure may work with multiple healthcare professionals. It's ... during their journey. Visit our Support Network today . Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

269

Reprogramming a broken heart.  

PubMed

Fibrosis resulting from cardiac injury presents a major challenge to restoring heart function after myocardial infarction. Two recent papers in Nature report successful in vivo reprogramming of fibroblasts to cardiomyocytes in injured mouse hearts (Qian et al., 2012; Song et al., 2012), resulting in improved cardiac function and reduced scar formation. PMID:22770235

Hansson, Emil M; Chien, Kenneth R

2012-07-01

270

Model Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use provided materials to design and build prototype artificial heart valves. Their functioning is demonstrated using water to simulate the flow of blood through the heart. Upon completion, teams demonstrate their fully functional prototypes to the rest of the class, along with a pamphlet that describes the device and how it works.

2014-09-18

271

Nuclear Heart Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... to make your heart work hard and beat fast. If you can't exercise, you might be given medicine to increase your heart rate. This is called a pharmacological (FAR-ma-ko-LOJ-ih-kal) stress test. The second set of pictures is taken later, while your ...

272

Cyanotic heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

... blood to and from the heart. These valves open up enough for blood to flow through. Then they close, keeping blood from flowing backward. Heart valve defects that can cause cyanosis include: ... to open wide enough. Pulmonary valve (the valve between the ...

273

Theory of heart  

SciTech Connect

In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

Glass, L. (ed.) (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. (ed.) (Auckland Univ., Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. (ed.) (California Univ., San Diego (United States))

1991-01-01

274

Cardiogenic Effects of Trichloroethylene and Trichloroacetic Acid Following Exposure during Heart Specification of Avian Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolite trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are common drinking water contaminants in the United States. Both chemicals have been implicated in causing congenital heart defects (CHD) in human epidemiological and animal model studies. However, the latter studies have primarily focused on assessment of cardiac morphology at late embryonic stages. Here, we tested whether treating avian embryos with TCE

Victoria J. Drake; Stacy L. Koprowski; Norman Hu; Susan M. Smith; John Lough

2006-01-01

275

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Vitamin E (?-tocopherol) is thought to have a role in prevention of atherosclerosis, through inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between high dietary intake or high serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol and lower rates of ischaemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a high dose of ?-tocopherol would reduce subsequent

N. G Stephens; A Parsons; M. J Brown; P. M Schofield; F Kelly; K Cheeseman; Mj Mitchinson

1996-01-01

276

Differences in the risk factor patterns for coronary heart disease in China, Japan, and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Asia coronary heart disease mortality is almost 10 fold less frequent than in European countries. These findings attract interest to search for different risk factor patterns. From 1982 to 1985 epidemiologic surveys were carried out in China (n=2047), Japan (n=7580) and Germany (n=6052). Healthy, male subjects, aged 30 to 59 years were enrolled. The prevalence rate of hypertension

G. Stehle; S. Hinohara; P. Cremer; Z. Feng; R. Bernhardt; Y. Goto; D. Seidel; D. L. Heene; G. Schettler

1991-01-01

277

Incidence of optic neuritis in Stockholm, Sweden 1990-1995: I. Age, sex, birth and ethnic-group related patterns.  

PubMed

We studied the incidence of monosymptomatic optic neuritis (MON) in Stockholm county, Sweden and its variation with person-related factors. Patients with suspected or diagnosed MON between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1995 were referred from ophthalmologists and neurologists to a research registry. The diagnosis was based on accepted clinical criteria only, and verified by an ophthalmologist who examined all the patients. Data were collected by interview using a structured questionnaire. The crude mean annual incidence, based on 147 patients, 118 females and 29 males, diagnosed with MON, was 1.46 per 100,000 person-years, 2.28 for females and 0.59 for males. The corresponding age-adjusted incidences were 1.40, 2.28 and 0.53. The age-specific incidence curve for both sexes suggested a bimodal distribution with peaks at 30-34 years and 45-49 years. The smoothed cumulative incidences in 1 year birth cohorts showed a notchy profile, related to bimodality. The incidence among residents born out of the Nordic countries was low, 0.28 per 100,000. Patients with onset of MON before 40 years of age had a significantly higher frequency of mononuclear pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid and shorter duration to conversion to multiple sclerosis. In summary, MON occurred in Stockholm at a relatively low frequency, particularly among males. The presence of particular birth date and birth place related patterns might be etiologically relevant. PMID:9700712

Jin, Y P; de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Söderström, M; Stawiarz, L; Link, H

1998-07-15

278

14C-Based source assessment of soot aerosols in Stockholm and the Swedish EMEP-Aspvreten regional background site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion-derived soot or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In order to propose effective mitigation strategies for BC emissions it is of importance to investigate geographical distributions and seasonal variations of BC emission sources. Here, a radiocarbon methodology is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of soot carbon (SC). SC is isolated for subsequent off-line 14C quantification with the chemothermal oxidation method at 375 °C (CTO-375 method), which reflects a recalcitrant portion of the BC continuum known to minimize inadvertent inclusion of any non-pyrogenic organic matter. Monitored wind directions largely excluded impact from the Stockholm metropolitan region at the EMEP-Aspvreten rural station 70 km to the south-west. Nevertheless, the Stockholm city and the rural stations yielded similar relative source contributions with fraction biomass ( fbiomass) for fall and winter periods in the range of one-third to half. Large temporal variations in 14C-based source apportionment was noted for both the 6 week fall and the 4 month winter observations. The fbiomass appeared to be related to the SC concentration suggesting that periods of elevated BC levels may be caused by increased wood fuel combustion. These results for the largest metropolitan area in Scandinavia combine with other recent 14C-based studies of combustion-derived aerosol fractions to suggest that biofuel combustion is contributing a large portion of the BC load to the northern European atmosphere.

Andersson, August; Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Kruså, Martin; Johansson, Christer; Gustafsson, Örjan

2011-01-01

279

Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations  

Cancer.gov

In May 2014, NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) hosted Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., the founding Director of

280

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

281

NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), was held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.

282

Prevalence of Heart Disease Demonstrated in 60 Years of the Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia  

PubMed Central

Considering the historical and academic relevance of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology (ABC), as its MEDLINE indexing began in 1950, it was assumed as a hypothesis that the analysis of the publications over the last 60 years could reflect the changing trends of heart disease in Brazil. The study data were collected using a program developed for this purpose, allowing the automatic extraction of information from the MEDLINE database. The study information were collected by searching "Brazilian Archives of Cardiology AND selected parameter in English". Four observational groups were determined: (1) major groups of heart diseases (coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, congenital heart disease and cardiomyopathies); (2) relevant diseases in clinical practice (cardiac arrhythmias, cor pulmonale, myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure); (3) cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis); and (4) group determined due to the growing trend of publications on congestive heart failure seen in previous groups (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, rheumatic heart disease and Chagasic heart disease) All publications within the established groups were described, highlighting the increasing importance of heart failure and diabetes as risk factors. A relatively easy search was carried out, using the computer program developed for literature search covering six decades. Emphasizing the limitations of the study, we suggest the existence of an epidemiological link between cardiac diseases that are prevalent in Brazil and the publications of the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology. PMID:24652088

Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa; Nather, Julio Cesar; Rodrigues, Alfredo José

2014-01-01

283

Design of a centre for biologically optimised light ion therapy in Stockholm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy is today in a state of very rapid development with new intensity-modulated treatment techniques continuously being developed. This has made intensity modulated electron and photon beams almost as powerful as conventional uniform beam proton therapy. To be able to cure also the most advanced hypoxic and radiation resistant tumours of complex local spread, intensity modulated light ion beams are really the ultimate tool and only slightly more expensive than proton therapy. The aim of the new centre for ion therapy and tumour diagnostics in Stockholm is to develop radiobiologically optimised three-dimensional (3D)-pencil beam scanning techniques. Beside the `classical' approaches using low ionisation density hydrogen ions (protons, but also deuterons and tritium nuclei) and high ionisation density carbon ions, two new approaches will be developed. In the first one lithium or beryllium ions, that induce the least detrimental biological effect to normal tissues for a given biological effect in a small volume of the tumour, will be key particles. In the second approach, referred patients will be given a high-dose high-precision `boost' treatment with carbon or oxygen ions during one week preceding the final treatment with conventional radiations in the referring hospital. The rationale behind these approaches is to reduce the high ionisation density dose to the normal tissue stroma inside the tumour and to ensure a microscopically uniform dose delivery. The principal idea of the centre is to closely integrate ion therapy into the clinical routine and research of a large radiotherapy department. The light ion therapy centre will therefore be combined with advanced tumour diagnostics including MR and PET-CT imaging to facilitate efficient high-precision high-dose boost treatment of remitted patients. The possibility to do 3D tumour diagnostics and 3D dose delivery verification with the same PET camera will be the ultimate step in high quality adaptive radiation therapy where alterations in the delivered dose can be performed by subsequent treatments. The increased knowledge in tumour and molecular biology will hopefully further improve the efficiency of this very unique new treatment modality that will be planned and delivered by radiobiologically optimised 3D-pencil beam scanning techniques to maximise the complication-free tumour cure and minimise normal tissue side effects. Finally, the design, cost, time scale and treatment capacity of the centre are reviewed. After a few years of running, the centre will be capable of treating 1000 patients/year with light ions and almost 3000 patients/year with the high-precision boost techniques.

Brahme, A.; Lewensohn, R.; Ringborg, U.; Amaldi, U.; Gerardi, F.; Rossi, S.

2001-12-01

284

Epidemiology and Natural History of Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and natural history of nephrolithiasis comprise its incidence and prevalence; role of age, gender, and race;\\u000a risk factors, comorbidities, and course. As such, epidemiology verges into clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and\\u000a prognosis. Although it is well known that associations derived from epidemiological studies do not prove causal relationships,\\u000a lessons from epidemiology and natural history have been readily applied

Alan G. Wasserstein

285

Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ... 2012 Heart Attack • Home • About Heart Attacks • Warning Signs of a Heart Attack • Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack • Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

286

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

287

Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

2009-01-01

288

Epidemiological studies in human radiobiology*  

PubMed Central

A meeting on the contribution of epidemiological studies to the better understanding of the effects of radiation on human health was held in Washington, D.C., from 13 to 17 December 1965. This meeting was organized and sponsored by the World Health Organization, with the co-operation of the Division of Radiological Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The main emphasis of the meeting was on obtaining representative views on the epidemiological studies now in progress and on the possibilities for further studies, but past work was also briefly reviewed under such headings as leukaemia, lung and other tumours, congenital malformations and cytogenetic effects. In addition, information was presented on current concepts of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and life-shortening derived from experimental and theoretical work. Against this background an attempt was made to identify the most essential needs for epidemiological data at present and to consider how such data might be obtained. The text presented below was prepared by Professor L. F. Lamerton of the Department of Biophysics, Institute of Cancer Research (Surrey Branch), Sutton, Surrey, England, and Professor B. MacMahon of the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. It is a précis of some of the views expressed and of the information and the suggestions made. PMID:20604319

1967-01-01

289

Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDLittle is known of the epidemiology of pneumothorax. Routinely available data on pneumothorax in England are described.METHODSPatients consulting in primary care with a diagnosis of pneumothorax in each year from 1991 to 1995 inclusive were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Emergency hospital admissions for pneumothorax were identified for the years 1991–4 from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)

Dheeraj Gupta; Anna Hansell; Tom Nichols; Trinh Duong; Jon G Ayres; David Strachan

2000-01-01

290

Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group  

Cancer.gov

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

291

Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

292

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2006-01-01

293

Spatiotemporal Reasoning about Epidemiological Data  

E-print Network

in Medicine #12;1 INTRODUCTION Infectious disease outbreaks are critical threats to public health and national security [5]. With greatly expanded travel and trade, infectious diseases can quickly spread across large epidemiological data based on recursive and non- recursive SQL queries. Results. We implement a particular

Revesz, Peter

294

Radiation epidemiology: Past and present  

SciTech Connect

Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

Boice, J.D. Jr. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

1997-03-01

295

Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators and their organizations agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) post excerpts of their grant applications online. The applications in the table below are excellent examples of grantsmanship.

296

Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models  

SciTech Connect

Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

2012-01-01

297

2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

298

About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

299

Toxoplasmosis in heart and heart and lung transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the first 250 heart and 35 heart and lung transplant recipients at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, who survived for more than one month after transplantation, 217 heart and 33 heart and lung patients were investigated serologically for evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Six patients acquired primary T gondii infection, most probably from the donor organ. Five patients experienced T gondii

T G Wreghitt; M Hakim; J J Gray; A H Balfour; P G Stovin; S Stewart; J Scott; T A English; J Wallwork

1989-01-01

300

Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation techniques: review  

E-print Network

Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation techniques: review Dongwoo Kang Jonghye Woo Piotr J://electronicimaging.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 01/15/2014 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation this problem. Recent studies employ sophisticated techniques using available cues from cardiac anatomy

Kuo, C.-C. "Jay"

301

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

302

Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Around 1500 BC large areas of southern Britain are laid out as fields, through the  

E-print Network

Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Fields Around 1500 BC large areas Gosden is Professor of European Archaeology, University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and a Trustee of the Art Fund. He has carried out archaeological and ethnographic work in Britain, central

303

Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

2013-01-01

304

16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 7 -9 Jun 2010 in Stockholm, Sweden On the Perfectly Matched Layer for the Boltzmann-  

E-print Network

2010-3935 16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 7 - 9 Jun 2010 in Stockholm, Sweden and Statistics, Norfolk, Virginia, AIAA associate fellow Copyright c 2010 by E. Craig and F. Q. Hu. Published of Aeronautics and Astronautics Paper 2010-3935 16th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference AIAA 2010-3935 Copyright

Hu, Fang Q.

305

Trip report to Stockholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 2008 Background. Sweden has a rich tradition of military and technological (for instance, one  

E-print Network

Trip report to Stockholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 2008 Background. Sweden has a rich tradition and execution of peacekeeping and other non classified operations (indeed, Sweden has troops in Afghanistan and The Congo today; they lead the Baltic MDA effort). Sweden's relatively small size makes them forward leaning

306

Hibernation and Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common cause of heart failure is coronary artery disease, and whilst intensive treatment of acute coronary syndromes and myocardial infarction continue to reduce the mortality associated with these conditions, many survivors develop heart failure. In general, heart failure secondary to ischaemic heart disease results from: (i) irreversible myocyte loss due to infarction with scar formation; (ii) chronic left

David P. Dutka; Paolo G. Camici

2003-01-01

307

Pumping heart of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The heart is located within our chests and is central to the function of the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The heart also pumps blood to the organs of the body. The rate that the heart beats depends on the needs of the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF; )

2007-08-18

308

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART  

E-print Network

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;#12;CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME 4 VICE: INNOVATIVE AND WORLD-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

Müller, Jens-Dominik

309

Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... blood. This is called ischemic heart disease, or coronary artery disease (CAD). It can cause chest pain ( angina ). Coronary artery ... exercise and diet changes, or angioplasty with stenting. Coronary artery disease is different from person to person. The way ...

310

Heart and Athlete  

PubMed Central

Regular participation in intensive physical exercise is associated with electro-morphological changes in the heart. This benign process is called athlete’s heart. Athlete’s heart resembles few pathologic conditions in some aspects. So differentiation of these conditions is very important which otherwise may lead to a catastrophic event such as sudden death. The most common causes of sudden death in young athletes are cardiomyopathies, congenital coronary anomalies, and ion channelopathies. The appropriate screening strategy to prevent sudden cardiac death in athletes remains a challenging issue. The purpose of this review is to describe the characteristics of athlete’s heart and demonstrate how to differentiate it from pathologic conditions that can cause sudden death. PMID:23074560

Alasti, Mohammad; Omidvar, Bita; Jadbabaei, Mohammad Hossein

2010-01-01

311

Heart failure - medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... blockers used for heart failure include carvedilol (Coreg), bisoprolol (Zebeta), and metoprolol (Toprol). Do not abruptly stop ... are: Thiazides. Chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Hygroton), ... HydroDiuril), and metolazone (Mykrox, Zaroxolyn) Loop diuretics. ...

312

Artificial Heart Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

2014-09-18

313

Keeping Hearts Pumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

2002-01-01

314

Sarcoid heart disease  

PubMed Central

To this day the aetiology of sarcoidosis continues to elude definition. Partially as a consequence of this, little in the way of new therapies has evolved. The enigma of this condition is that, unusually for a disease with the potential for devastating consequences, many patients show spontaneous resolution and recover. Cardiac involvement can affect individuals of any age, gender or race and has a predilection for the conduction system of the heart. Heart involvement can also cause a dilated cardiomyopathy with consequent progressive heart failure. The most common presentation of this systemic disease is with pulmonary infiltration, but many cases will be asymptomatic and are detected on routine chest radiography revealing lymphadenopathy. Current advances lie in the newer methods of imaging and diagnosing this unusual heart disease. This review describes the pathology and diagnosis of this condition and the newer imaging techniques that have developed for determining cardiac involvement. PMID:17916869

Dubrey, Simon W; Bell, Alex; Mittal, Tarun K

2007-01-01

315

Heart disease and women  

MedlinePLUS

... not consider heart disease a woman's disease.Yet cardiovascular disease is the leading killer of women over age ... al. Effectiveness-based guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in women--2011 update: A guideline from the ...

316

Aldosterone in heart disease.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have now shown that sustained elevation of aldosterone levels induces cardiovascular damage independent from its effects on regulation of renal sodium and blood pressure. Increased aldosterone and cortisol levels in patients with heart failure independently predict the risk of mortality. Over the past decade, there has been increased interest in identifying the role of the receptor for aldosterone, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), following the results from the large clinical heart failure trials that showed low doses of MR antagonists reduced morbidity and mortality in heart failure and myocardial infarction, even though plasma levels of aldosterone were in the physiologic range. The mechanism for this cardioprotective action remains to be defined, although changes in the redox state have been shown to play a key role in MR-mediated cardiac damage. This review will highlight some of these studies and provide an update on the action of aldosterone in heart disease. PMID:22311652

Mihailidou, Anastasia S

2012-04-01

317

Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... and-circulation, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Women Coronary Heart Disease Sexual Health Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) donate en -- Last Chance ...

318

Congenital heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

... for acne, chemicals, alcohol, and infections (such as rubella ) during pregnancy can contribute to some congenital heart ... pregnancy to see if you are immune to rubella. If you are not immune, avoid any possible ...

319

Texas Heart Institute  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors . James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Series Texas Heart Institute Journal Resources for Physicians Continuing Medical Education 14th Texas Update in Cardiovascular Advancements December 12, 2014 Fifth ...

320

Anatomy of the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is intended as a concise description of the external and internal topographical anatomy of the heart, and those aspects of cardiac functional anatomy that are essential to clinical cardiac examination.

Vishy Mahadevan

321

Anatomy of the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution is intended as a concise description of the external and internal topographical anatomy of the heart, and those aspects of cardiac functional anatomy that are essential to clinical cardiac examination.

Vishy Mahadevan

2008-01-01

322

Types of Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

323

Heart Health for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... lower your cholesterol . 3. Get the facts about aspirin. Daily use of aspirin to prevent heart attacks or a stroke is ... Ask your healthcare provider if you should use aspirin. If aspirin is right for you, find out: ...

324

Heart valve surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... through. They then close, keeping blood from flowing backward. There are four valves in your heart: Aortic ... all the way will allow blood to leak backwards. This is called regurgitation. A valve that does ...

325

Overview of Heart Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... more at MerckManuals.com Sections in Patients & Caregivers Blood Disorders Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, ... and Throat Disorders Eye Disorders Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries ...

326

Lycopene, tomatoes, and coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

Tomato and its major antioxidant component lycopene have recently been focused as important antioxidant nutrients because of their ability to reduce reactive oxygen species and to provide health benefits. Most of the studies were undertaken to determine the usefulness of lycopene against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies, however, yielded conflicting results. This study was undertaken to compare cardioprotective abilities of tomato juice and lycopene. Rats were gavaged either tomato juice or lycopene for 3 weeks. At the end of 3 weeks, isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both tomato juice and lycopene reduced the extent of lipid peroxidation; but only tomato juice, but not lycopene, improved post-ischemic ventricular function, and reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The results indicated for the first time that tomato juice, but not lycopene, possesses cardioprotective ability. PMID:16032783

Das, Samarjit; Otani, Hajime; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

2005-04-01

327

Heart Function and Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

Bioengineering, Climb: C.

328

Processing of the Explanted Heart  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the explanted hearts from heart transplant recipients provides valuable clinical samples, which can be used to study the anatomy and pathology of the heart. PubMed database was employed as the article source of this review. This article summarized the processing methods of the explanted heart, including dissection, histopathologic examination, cryopreservation, and genetic testing. A standard processing of explanted hearts ensures the quality and reliability of samples. Analysis of explanted hearts facilitates the diagnostic assessment and therapy strategy of heart diseases. PMID:25599048

Song, Jiangping; Xing, Yong; Chen, Xiao; Song, Zhizhao; Teng, Xiao; Wang, Mangyuan; Zheng, Zhe; Hu, Shengshou

2014-01-01

329

The Emerging Epidemic of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction  

PubMed Central

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which currently represents approximately 50 % of heart failure (HF) cases, is common and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology of HFpEF has been difficult due to the challenges in HFpEF diagnosis and the heterogeneous etiologies and pathophysiologies that underlie HFpEF. Nevertheless, several high-quality epidemiology and observational registry studies of HFpEF demonstrate that an increasing prevalence of HFpEF in both the outpatient and inpatient settings, coupled with a lack of evidence-based effective treatments for HFpEF, is resulting in an emerging epidemic of HFpEF. In this review, we discuss the emerging HFpEF epidemic, focusing on: (1) reasons for the rising prevalence of HFpEF; (2) the abnormalities in cardiac structure and function that dictate the transition from risk factors to HFpEF; (3) novel HFpEF mechanisms that may underlie the increase in HFpEF prevalence; (4) prognosis of HFpEF; and (5) risk prediction in HFpEF. We conclude with 10 unanswered questions on HFpEF epidemiology that will be important areas for future investigation. PMID:24078336

Oktay, A. Af?in; Rich, Jonathan D.

2013-01-01

330

Devices in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Congestive heart failure has long been one of the most serious medical conditions in the United States; in fact, in the United States alone, heart failure accounts for 6.5 million days of hospitalization each year. One important goal of heart-failure therapy is to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure through pharmacologic and device-based therapies. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop device-based therapies aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing pump function to meet metabolic requirements. The course of congestive heart failure is often worsened by other conditions, including new-onset arrhythmias, ischemia and infarction, valvulopathy, decompensation, end-organ damage, and therapeutic refractoriness, that have an impact on outcomes. The onset of such conditions is sometimes heralded by subtle pathophysiologic changes, and the timely identification of these changes may promote the use of preventive measures. Consequently, device-based methods could in the future have an important role in the timely identification of the subtle pathophysiologic changes associated with congestive heart failure. PMID:18612451

Munir, Shahzeb M.; Bogaev, Roberta C.; Sobash, Ed; Shankar, K. J.; Gondi, Sreedevi; Stupin, Igor V.; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, M. Alan; Casscells, S. Ward; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Ahmed, Amany

2008-01-01

331

Total artificial heart.  

PubMed

End-stage heart failure represents a highly morbid condition for the patient with limited treatment options. From a surgical perspective, the treatment options for effective long-term survival are usually limited to heart transplantation, heart-lung transplantation or implantation of a destination mechanical circulatory support device. Assuming an advanced heart-failure patient is indeed deemed a candidate for transplantation, the patient is subject to shortages in donor organ availability and thus possible further decompensation and potential death while awaiting transplantation. Various extracorporeal and implantable ventricular-assist devices (VADs) may be able to provide temporary or long-term circulatory support for many end-stage heart-failure patients but mechanical circulatory support options for patients requiring long-term biventricular support remain limited. Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) currently represents one, if not the best, long-term surgical treatment option for patients requiring biventricular mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplant. The clinical applicability of available versions of positive displacement pumps is limited by their size and complications. Application of continuous-flow technology can help in solving some of these issues and is currently being applied in the research towards a new generation of smaller and more effective TAHs. In this review, we discuss the history of the TAH, its development and clinical application, implications for anaesthetic management, published outcomes and the future outlook for TAHs. PMID:22910087

Sale, Shiva M; Smedira, Nicholas G

2012-06-01

332

[Obesity and heart].  

PubMed

Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.Key words: adipokines - complications of obesity - epicaridal fatty tissue - myokines - obesity paradox - pericardial fatty tissue. PMID:25692834

Sva?ina, Št?pán

2014-12-01

333

Mutagenic effect of extracts from particulate matter collected with sediment traps in the archipelago of Stockholm and the open northern Baltic  

SciTech Connect

The load of various hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) on the Baltic Sea aquatic environment is considerable. This investigation samples the water area around Stockholm, of special concern since it is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the Baltic region. Stockholm also houses several power plants, municipal waste incinerators, waste water treatment plants, ports and oil terminals. The runoff from a large lake also passes through the estuarine-like archipelago of Stockholm. Due to the high particulate-water partition coefficients (K[sub p]) of most ecotoxicologically relevant HOCs, particulate matter (PM) becomes very important for occurrence and distribution in the aquatic environment. This PM is the basic food source for important organisms in the benthic, pelagic and littoral parts of the aquatic ecosystem. The load of various HOCs such as petrogenic hydrocarbons (PHCs), various polynuclear aromatic compounds (PACs), and chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in association with PM in the aquatic environment of the Stockholm area is well documented. However, the ecotoxicological relevance of organic extracts of PM, including the above identified compounds and various unidentified HOCs, is not fully evaluated. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of extracts of PM, collected with sediment traps in the Stockholm water area and in the open northern Baltic, we used the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100, with and without a metabolizing system. After extraction and before the mutagenicity tests all PM samples were fractionated on an HPLC-system into three fractions containing aliphatic/monoaromatic-, diaromatic, (containing, e.g., PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and polyaromatic compounds (containing various PACs). The relative mutagenic potential of these fractions at the different sediment trap sampling stations are discussed and evaluated. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Broman, D.; Naef, C.; Rannug, U. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden))

1994-11-01

334

Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?  

SciTech Connect

The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

Schultz-Hector, Susanne [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof. [Gray Cancer Institute, Northwood (United Kingdom)

2007-01-01

335

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

336

Sarcopenia: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed. PMID:24524049

Kim, Tae Nyun

2013-01-01

337

[The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

2015-01-01

338

Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

339

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

2012-01-01

340

Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.  

PubMed

Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. CONCLUSIONS THE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT JOINT PHYSICAL CUSTODY IS ASSOCIATED WITH A HIGHER INCLINATION TO USE PARENTS AS A SOURCE OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT AND BETTER SUBJECTIVE HEALTH THAN OTHER POST-DIVORCE FAMILY TYPES: PMID:24662307

Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

2014-03-24

341

Heart-lung transplantation  

PubMed Central

Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination and planning as well as adhering to some fundamental principles. One of the major pitfalls encountered is bleeding related to the explant procedure. Another is graft failure related to harvest and/or the implant procedure. The third is injury to either the phrenic nerve(s) or the left recurrent laryngeal nerve related to the explant procedure. Heart-lung transplantation is a major investment in resources of all sorts including financial, personnel, as well as the organs themselves. It is absolutely imperative that this procedure be performed only by experienced surgeons in centers with established expertise. PMID:25132983

Richey, Samuel R.

2014-01-01

342

Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. METHODS The disease model of IHD for the GBD 2010 Study included IHD death and 3 sequelae: myocardial infarction, heart failure, and angina pectoris. Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched for IHD epidemiology studies in GBD high-income and low- and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008 using a systematic protocol validated by regional IHD experts. Data from included studies were supplemented with unpublished data from selected high-quality surveillance and survey studies. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were incidence, prevalence, case fatality, and mortality. RESULTS Literature searches yielded 40,205 unique papers, of which 1,801 met initial screening criteria. Upon detailed review of full text papers, 137 published studies were included. Unpublished data were obtained from 24 additional studies. Data were sufficient for high-income regions, but missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS A systematic review for the GBD 2010 Study provided IHD epidemiology estimates for most world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IHD will require improved IHD surveillance programs in all world regions. PMID:23682350

Moran, Andrew E.; Oliver, John T.; Mirzaie, Masoud; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Chilov, Marina; Anderson, Laurie; Morrison, Janina L.; Khan, Aayla; Zhang, Nasen; Haynes, Norrisa; Tran, Jackie; Murphy, Adrianna; DeGennaro, Vincent; Roth, Gregory; Zhao, Dong; Peer, Nasheeta; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Pogosova, Nana; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Mensah, George A.

2012-01-01

343

Epidemiology: Disease Associations and Modulators of HDL-Related Biomarkers.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and risk of ischemic heart disease. In addition, a low level of HDL-C has been shown to be a risk factor for other diseases not related to atherosclerosis. However, recent studies have not supported a causal effect of HDL-C in the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, new drugs markedly elevating HDL-C levels have been disappointing with respect to clinical endpoints. Earlier, most studies have focused almost exclusively on the total HDL-C without regard to the chemical composition or multiple subclasses of HDL particles. Recently, there have been efforts to dissect the HDL fraction into as many well-defined subfractions and individual molecules of HDL particles as possible. On the other hand, the focus is shifting from the structure and composition to the function of HDL particles. Biomarkers and mechanisms that could potentially explain the beneficial characteristics of HDL particles unrelated to their cholesterol content have been sought with sophisticated methods such as proteomics, lipidomics, metabonomics, and function studies including efflux capacity. These new approaches have been used in order to resolve the complex effects of diseases, conditions, environmental factors, and genes in relation to the protective role of HDL but high-throughput methods are still needed for large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:25522991

Savolainen, Markku J

2015-01-01

344

Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information. PMID:22514570

Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

2011-11-14

345

The heart sound preprocessor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developed for signal and data processing was applied to diagnostic techniques in the area of phonocardiography (pcg), the graphic recording of the sounds of the heart generated by the functioning of the aortic and ventricular valves. The relatively broad bandwidth of the PCG signal (20 to 2000 Hz) was reduced to less than 100 Hz by the use of a heart sound envelope. The process involves full-wave rectification of the PCG signal, envelope detection of the rectified wave, and low pass filtering of the resultant envelope.

Chen, W. T.

1972-01-01

346

[Blunt heart injuries].  

PubMed

Cardiac injuries were present in 16% of our patients suffering from blunt chest trauma. 25% of these cases had no concomitant rib fractures. Sonography is extremely important for evaluation. In myocardial contusion the electrocardiogram reveals mainly disturbances in repolarisation (66 out of 108 patients) and rhythm disturbances (59 patients). A ratio of CK-MB isoenzyme/total CK of over 8% is highly suggestive of myocardial injury. Continuous monitoring in ICU is mandatory. Prognosis is mainly based on additional injuries. Heart wall rupture and luxation of the heart require operative treatment. Lesions of the aortic valves are the most frequent valve injuries. PMID:3807506

Glinz, W; Turina, M

1986-01-01

347

Faculty Profiles PhD Program in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

, health disparities and social determinants of health, chronic disease epidemiology, obesity prevention at Fudan University) in Shanghai, China. He obtained a Ph.D. in epidemiology and a MS in statistics from epidemiology, obesity and physical activity, and cancer epidemiology. He has worked on large epidemiology

Dasgupta, Dipankar

348

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

349

Heart disease in women.  

PubMed

In every year since 1984, cardiovascular disease has claimed the lives of more females than males. More than 450,000 women succumb to heart disease annually, and 250,000 die of coronary artery disease. Despite the proportions, most women believe they will die of breast cancer. The perception that heart disease is a man's disease and that women are more likely to die of breast cancer is alarming. Although women develop heart disease about 10 years later than men, they are likely to fare worse after a heart attack. The poorer outcomes are due, in part, to the failure to identify heart attack symptoms. Approximately 35% of heart attacks in women are believed to go unnoticed or unreported. However, because of increased age, women are more likely to have co-morbid diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. In women, not only is "tightness" or discomfort in the chest a warning sign, but in addition, nausea and dizziness are common indicators of myocardial ischemia. Other symptoms include breathlessness, perspiration, a sensation of fluttering in the heart, and fullness in the chest. In comparison to men, women are less likely to undergo tertiary care interventions such as cardiac catheterization, angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, and bypass surgery; to participate in cardiac rehabilitation; and to return to work full-time after myocardial infarction. In the past, most research about treatments for heart disease focused on men, and gender differences have been ignored. Recent studies are enrolling enough women to test if there are differences between men and women in outcomes. One of the major areas of research relates to estrogen and hormonal replacement therapy to reduce the relative risk of heart attack and stroke. The Women's Health Initiative is a major NIH-sponsored trial that addresses the issue of primary prevention of cardiac disease by hormonal replacement therapy. The results will be available in 2004. The Heart Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS), disappointingly, did not show a significant reduction of coronary events in women taking hormonal replacement therapy, nor did the Estrogen Replacement and Atherosclerosis (ERA) trial of 309 postmenopausal women who underwent coronary angiography. New insight into the role of vitamins, phytoestrogens and other natural sources, and selective estrogen receptor modulators may provide other options for management. Until then, modification of risk factors and healthy life style choices are recommended for reducing the risk of cardiac disease. In fact, the key to a healthy heart in the year 2000 appears closely tied to life style choices. Prevention of disease is the key, and current recommendations are simply to stop smoking, or do not start; treat and control blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg; manage elevated lipids by diet, exercise, and cholesterol-lowering medications (if necessary); treat diabetes; lose weight so that BMI is <25; walk for 20-30 minutes at least three times a week; and take an aspirin tablet daily. PMID:11140544

Giardina, E G

2000-01-01

350

Risk factors and comorbidities in a community-wide sample of patients hospitalized with acute systolic or diastolic heart failure: the Worcester Heart Failure Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have examined differences in the prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities in patients with systolic heart failure (HF), as compared with those with diastolic HF.\\u000aMETHODS: We analyzed data from 1426 residents of the Worcester (MA) metropolitan area hospitalized at all 11 greater Worcester medical centers for acute HF during 1995 and 2000 who had data

Marcello Chinali; Samuel W. Joffe; Gerard P. Aurigemma; Raghavendra Makam; Theo E. Meyer; Robert J. Goldberg

2010-01-01

351

Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... drink coffee or tea or eat chocolate. Red wine and eating too much can bring about symptoms ... Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High Blood Pressure , cardiomyopathy (weak heart muscle), heart failure ...

352

Impact of Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... other learning difficulties. What is the social/financial impact of congenital heart defects? Successful treatment requires highly ... resources to achieve optimum functioning. What is the impact of congenital heart disease on families?

353

Cocaine Can Cause Heart Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine Can Cause Heart Problems: Study Subtle blood flow ... Preidt Tuesday, November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cocaine Heart Diseases TUESDAY, Nov. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

354

Infant open heart surgery (image)  

MedlinePLUS

During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

355

Adults with Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

356

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate  

MedlinePLUS

Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate Updated:Sep 4,2014 Blood pressure and heart rate are not the same. Learn ... last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

357

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

358

The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

359

Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

1995-01-01

360

What Are the Risks of Heart Transplant?  

MedlinePLUS

... Twitter. What Are the Risks of a Heart Transplant? Although heart transplant surgery is a life-saving measure, it has ... these risks. The risks of having a heart transplant include: Failure of the donor heart Complications from ...

361

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What To Expect During a Heart Transplant Just before heart transplant surgery, the patient will ... not replaced as part of the surgery. Heart Transplant Figure A shows where the diseased heart is ...

362

What Are Heart Disease and Stroke?  

MedlinePLUS

... stroke include: High blood pressure Smoking Diabetes High cholesterol Heart disease Atrial fibrillation (Abnormal heart rhythm) Call 9-1- ... How can I reduce my risk of heart disease and stroke? What medicines may help me? ©2012, American Heart Association

363

The Heart of the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how the circulatory system works, including the heart, blood vessels and blood. Students learn about the chambers and valves of the heart, the difference between veins and arteries, and the different components of blood. This lesson also covers the technology engineers have developed to repair the heart if it is damaged. Students also understand how the circulatory system is affected during spaceflight (e.g., astronauts lose muscle in their heart during space travel).

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

364

Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

White, Heather

2010-01-01

365

Left heart ventricular angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... your heart. When the tube is in place, dye is injected through it. The dye flows through the blood vessels, making them easier to see. X-rays are taken as the dye moves through the blood vessels. These x-ray ...

366

Anthocyanins and heart disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

367

Anatomy of the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite centuries of writings and research into cardiac anatomy and function, the topic is still advancing, particularly in reference to clinical applications and embryological significance. This article presents the heart with reference to the classical anatomical position and attempts to clarify the nomenclature that is most commonly used by anatomists. We encourage clinicians to use the same terminology. The references

Robert H. Whitaker

2010-01-01

368

Anatomy of the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart is a midline, valvular, muscular pump in the middle mediastinum. It has inferior, left (left ventricle) and right (right atrium) surfaces and a base (facing posteriorly). The intraventricular septum bulges to the left in almost a coronal plane. A figure of eight shaped fibrous skeleton is attached to muscle and valves of the chambers and divides and electrically

Robert H Whitaker

2006-01-01

369

Anatomy of the Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart is a midline, valvular, muscular pump that is cone-shaped and the size of a fist. It weighs 300 g in adults and lies in the middle mediastinum of the thorax.The inferior (diaphragmatic) surface sits on the central tendon of the diaphragm, and the base faces posteriorly and lies immediately anterior to the oesophagus and descending aorta. The base

Robert H Whitaker

2002-01-01

370

Be Still My Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

371

Heart transplant - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... common (corneas and kidneys are the most common) transplant operations in the U.S. (over 1,500 cases per year). A healthy heart is obtained from a donor who has suffered brain death but remains on life-support. The healthy ...

372

Stress and your heart  

MedlinePLUS

... Everson-Rose SA, Lewis TT. Psychosocial Factors and Cardiovascular Diseases. Annu Rev Public Health . 2005;26:469-500. Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta- ...

373

Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Vollmer-Buhl, Brian

2011-09-15

374

Periodontal Disease and Heart Health  

E-print Network

Periodontal Disease and Heart Health Deaf HealthTalks Presenter: Christopher Lehfeldt, DDS Elmwood #12;X-ray showing bone loss rickwilsondmd.typepad.com Thursday, March 15, 12 #12;5. What is heart disease? · The medical name for heart disease is cardiovascular disease (CVD) · An American dies from CVD

Goldman, Steven A.

375

Taking Care of Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... can clog your blood vessels and lead to heart disease. • HDL cholesterol, also called “good” cholesterol, helps protect your heart. • Triglycerides, another kind of blood fat, raise your risk for heart disease. ADA Targets for the A1C My Result My ...

376

HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR  

E-print Network

HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS CARDIOVASCULARCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMSYSTEM SYSTEM COMPONENTS · Heart pumps blood though blood vessels where exchanges can take place with the interstitial fluid (between cells) · Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow according to the needs of the body

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

377

Heart failure - fluids and diuretics  

MedlinePLUS

When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ... the amount of fluids you drink: When your heart failure is not very bad, you may not have ...

378

The Brain in Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

After atrial fibrillation, heart failure is the second most frequent cardiac association of stroke. Deteriorating left ventricular systolic function appears to increase the risk of cardioembolic stroke in heart failure. Age, hypertension and prior stroke are also risk factors for stroke in heart failure. Since these are risk factors for cerebral and other vascular disease rather than for cardioembolism, embolism

Patrick Pullicino

2004-01-01

379

Species richness, extinction and immigration rates of vascular plants on islands in the Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, during a century of ceasing management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey of eighteen islands in the Stockholm archipelago from 1884–1908 was re-examined during 1996–1998 to investigate how\\u000a island size, degree of isolation and human impact affect the species number, extinction and immigration rates of terrestrial\\u000a vascular plants. Cattle grazing and haymaking was widely and commonly in practice on the islands, but became less intensive\\u000a since the 1920s and ceased during

Anders Liifgren; Lenn Jerling

2002-01-01

380

The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L

2014-01-01

381

Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

2014-01-01

382

Compositional epistasis: an epidemiologic perspective.  

PubMed

Under Bateson's original conception, the term "epistasis" is used to describe the situation in which the effect of a genetic factor at one locus is masked by a variant at another locus. Epistasis in the sense of masking has been termed "compositional epistasis." In general, statistical tests for interaction are of limited use in detecting compositional epistasis. Using recently developed epidemiological methods, however, it has been shown that there are relations between empirical data patterns and compositional epistasis. These relations can sometimes be exploited to empirically test for certain forms of compositional epistasis, by using alternative nonstandard tests for interaction.Using the counterfactual framework, we show conditions that can be empirically tested to determine whether there are individuals whose phenotype response patterns manifest epistasis in the sense of masking. Only under some very strong assumptions would tests for standard statistical interactions correspond to compositional epistasis. Even without such strong assumptions, however, one can still test whether there are individuals of phenotype response type representing compositional epistasis. The empirical conditions are quite strong, but the conclusions which tests of these conditions allow may be of interest in a wide range of studies. This chapter highlights that epidemiologic perspectives can be used to shed light on underlying mechanisms at the genetic, molecular, and cellular levels. PMID:25403534

Suzuki, Etsuji; VanderWeele, Tyler J

2015-01-01

383

Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

2014-12-01

384

MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

385

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...

386

Increased heteroscedasticity of heart rate in fatal heart failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Healthy human heart rate is known to fluctuate in a highly complex manner, displaying complexity characteristics such as those shared by physical systems at a critical state. It is, however, widely believed that chronic heart failure reduces this complexity and that heart rate data from chronic-heart-failure patients can be used for the validation of complexity measures and paradigms applicable both to heart rate and more generally to assess any system's complexity. Here, we counter the above belief, showing an increase in fluctuations and in complexity of heart rate in chronic-heart-failure patients, in particular those at risk of death. This is supported by evidence of increased non-Gaussianity and heteroscedasticity resulting from the emergence of a characteristic correlation scale in the magnitude correlation landscape.

Struzik, Z. R.; Kiyono, K.; Hayano, J.; Watanabe, E.; Yamamoto, Y.

2008-04-01

387

Worldwide risk factors for heart failure: a systematic review and pooled analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure risk factors are diverse and likely to vary among world regions. Systematic review and pooled analysis were used describe contributions of major underlying risk factors for heart failure in six world regions. Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched, and 37 clinic-based studies representing 40 countries published 1980–2008 and reporting underlying risk factors for heart failure were included. Risk factors were classified as ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertension, rheumatic/other valvular heart disease, cardiopulmonary disease, cardiomyopathy, and “other”. Crude and age- and sex-adjusted risk factor prevalence were estimated for each region using regression analysis, under specifications of overlapping as well as additive contributions. Results Many heart failure cases were assigned multiple underlying risk factors, leading to considerable overlap. Crude IHD prevalence among heart failure patients was >50% in Europe and North America, approximately 30–40% in East Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean, and <10% in sub-Saharan Africa. Age and sex adjustment attenuated regional differences in IHD-as-risk factor but IHD remained rare in sub-Saharan Africa. Hypertension prevalence was high in heart failure patients of all regions but highest in Eastern and Central Europe and sub-Saharan Africa (age- and sex-adjusted, 35.0% and 32.6%, respectively). Cardiomyopathy was most common in Latin American and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa (age- and sex-adjusted, 19.8% and 25.7%). Conclusions Heart failure risk factors vary substantially among world regions. More detailed regional heart failure epidemiology studies are needed in order to quantify the global burden of heart failure and identify regional prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:23201083

Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Farzadfar, Farshad; Oliver, John; Ezzati, Majid; Moran, Andrew

2012-01-01

388

Diastolic heart failure: progress, treatment challenges, and prevention.  

PubMed

Diastolic heart failure (DHF) is an important entity, the significance of which is increasingly recognized. This report examines the available evidence regarding the role, significance, and mechanisms of DHF. Epidemiologic studies have documented the rising burden of DHF, and experimental data are revealing the unique mechanisms distinguishing it from systolic heart failure. Despite controversies on the definition of DHF, or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, standardized clinical criteria with supplementary imaging and structural data have identified DHF as a distinct pathophysiological entity. The mechanisms underlying DHF include abnormal matrix dynamics, altered myocyte cytoskeleton, and impaired active relaxation. The commonly held belief that survival of patients with DHF is better than that of patients with systolic heart failure has been challenged by updated data. The heterogeneous etiologies or risk factors for the condition include aging, diabetes, hypertension, and ischemia, making a common diagnostic or treatment pathway difficult. Novel therapeutic targets that address the pathophysiology of this disease are under consideration, although there are no proven therapies for DHF to date. Exacerbating factors include volume and sodium indiscretion, arrhythmias, ischemia, and comorbidities. Strategies to ameliorate or to obviate these precipitating factors are most effective in preventing DHF and its exacerbations. Meanwhile, prevention of DHF through appropriate and aggressive risk factor identification and management must remain the cornerstone of clinical intervention. PMID:21601770

Wood, Philip; Piran, Sanaz; Liu, Peter P

2011-01-01

389

Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

2003-01-01

390

[Work and sterility. State of epidemiological research].  

PubMed

Among the factors of man or woman sterility some of them may be due to occupation. The identification of these factors may be performed through epidemiological studies; the fertility indices taken into account and the epidemiological strategies used are briefly described. As examples the results of studies on man hypofertility induced by dibromochloropropane and ionising radiations are presented. PMID:8261012

Mur, J M; Martin, C

1993-09-01

391

Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly trans- ferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent

Hamish I. McCallum; Armand Kuris; C. Drew Harvell; Kevin. D. Lafferty; Garriet W. Smith; James Porter

2004-01-01

392

Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2)  

Cancer.gov

October 18, 2012 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker TBD Topic Genetic Epidemiology Branch Research Presentations (Part 2 of 2) Location EPN C - F Print This Page Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2) News & Events

393

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

394

Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285

Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

395

What Are My Risks for Getting Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ... Heart Attack Prevention & Treatment of Heart Attack Heart Attack Tools & Resources ... About Heart Failure Warning Signs for Heart Failure Understand Your Risk for Heart ...

396

The Heart of Matter  

E-print Network

In this article I trace the development of the human understanding of the "Heart of Matter" from early concepts of "elements" (or alternatively "Panchmahabhootas") to the current status of "quarks" and "leptons" as the fundamental constituents of matter, interacting together via exchange of the various force carrier particles called "gauge bosons" such as the photon, W/Z-boson etc. I would like to show how our understanding of the fundamental constituents of matter has gone hand in hand with our understanding of the fundamental forces in nature. I will also outline how the knowledge of particle physics at the "micro" scale of less than a Fermi(one millionth of a nanometer), enables us to offer explanations of Cosmological observations at the "macro" scale. Consequently these observations, may in turn, help us address some very fundamental questions of the Physics at the "Heart of the Matter".

Rohini M. Godbole

2010-06-30

397

Straight from the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every adult who reads to a child has seen what happens when a book speaks. For a time, the book becomes the child's beloved friend. It is asked for repeatedly and learned by heart. But books do more than speak to a child. Children use books to speak to adults. If one wants to understand a child's deepest emotions, take a look at the books they…

Jonell, Lynne

2010-01-01

398

Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries.  

PubMed

The oral region comprises 1% of the total body area, yet it accounts for 5% of all bodily injuries. In preschool children, oral injuries make up as much as 17% of all bodily injuries. The incidence of traumatic dental injuries is 1%-3%, and the prevalence is steady at 20%-30%. The annual cost of treatment is US $2-$5 million per 1 million inhabitants. Etiologic factors vary between countries and with age groups. Important public health implications such as how to best organize emergency dental care and how to prevent dental injuries, decrease cost, and increase lay knowledge are important factors needed to change epidemiologic data toward more favorable figures in the future. PMID:23635975

Andersson, Lars

2013-01-01

399

Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries.  

PubMed

The oral region comprises 1% of the total body area, yet it accounts for 5% of all bodily injuries. In preschool children, oral injuries make up as much as 17% of all bodily injuries. The incidence of traumatic dental injuries is 1%-3%, and the prevalence is steady at 20%-30%. The annual cost of treatment is US $2-$5 million per 1 million inhabitants. Etiologic factors vary between countries and with age groups. Important public health implications such as how to best organize emergency dental care and how to prevent dental injuries, decrease cost, and increase lay knowledge are important factors needed to change epidemiologic data toward more favorable figures in the future. PMID:23439040

Andersson, Lars

2013-03-01

400

Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2010-01-01

401

[Bayesian statistics in spatial epidemiology].  

PubMed

Through the multi-stage hierarchical Bayesian model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, Bayesian statistics can be used in dependent spatial data analysis, including disease mapping in small areas, disease clustering, and geographical correlation studies. Recently, Bayesian spatial models have been developed with many types, which have made considerable progress in data analysis. This paper introduces several approaches that have been fully developed and applied, such as BYM model,joint model, semi-parameter model, moving average model and so on. Recently,many studies focused on the comparison work through Deviance Information criterion. Those results show that BYM model and MIX model of semi-parameter model could obtain better results. As more research going on, Bayesian statistics will have more space in applications of spatial epidemiology. PMID:19084965

Zheng, Wei-jun; Li, Xiu-yang; Chen, Kun

2008-11-01

402

The Sacred Heart Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A few years ago, an enterprising librarian at the Boston College Libraries noticed a number of dusty folios in the Theology and Ministry Library. As it turned out, these folios contained the Sacred Heart Review, which was published from 1888 to 1916. This newspaper was edited by the Revered John O'Brien, pastor of the Sacred Heart Church in East Cambridge. Most certainly not a church bulletin, this publication was a full-fledged newspaper devoted to local, national, and international news. The true heart of the journal was reporting on events within the Catholic Church in the Archdiocese of Boston, as well as greater New England. The articles here include pieces on encyclicals from Pope Benedict XV, the loyalty of German Americans in World War I, and a number of advertisements for local products, including patent medicines and various services. Visitors can search all 1547 issues of the Review, and they are also encouraged to look over each edition for items of interest.

403

On the epidemiology of influenza  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1) Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2) Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3) Why do they end so abruptly? (4) What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5) Why is the serial interval obscure? (6) Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7) Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8) Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9) Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza. PMID:18298852

Cannell, John J; Zasloff, Michael; Garland, Cedric F; Scragg, Robert; Giovannucci, Edward

2008-01-01

404

Schizophrenia: from Epidemiology to Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerability-stress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments. PMID:22962559

Mura, Gioia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Bhat, Krishna M; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

2012-01-01

405

Patterns of Suicide and Other Trespassing Fatalities on State-Owned Railways in Greater Stockholm; Implications for Prevention  

PubMed Central

Each year, approximately 80–100 people are killed on state-owned railways due to train-person collisions in Sweden. Underlying causes are suicide and accidents; suicide constituting a vast majority. Earlier Swedish studies at a national level revealed a relation between population density and incident frequency, however, with places of occurrence often located to the outskirts of cities some distance away from station areas where victims can await approaching trains in seclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this national pattern also applies to larger urban areas such as greater Stockholm, and to discuss preventative implications based on these observations. All registered incidents (N = 41) where people were hit or run-over by trains with a fatal outcome over the four-year period 2005–2008 were investigated. Results deviating from the national pattern include that most incidents occur at station areas, and that most victims enter the tracks from platforms. Passing express trains appear to be overrepresented, compared to commuter trains. Due to a low number of cases, our observations must be interpreted with caution. However, they imply that preventative measures in this type of area should focus on platform safety foremost, especially protection against rapid trains passing by station areas. PMID:22690162

Rådbo, Helena; Andersson, Ragnar

2012-01-01

406

Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23140073

Shah, Sachil

2012-01-01

407

Resting heart rate: its correlations and potential for screening metabolic dysfunctions in adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background In pediatric populations, the use of resting heart rate as a health index remains unclear, mainly in epidemiological settings. The aims of this study were to analyze the impact of resting heart rate on screening dyslipidemia and high blood glucose and also to identify its significance in pediatric populations. Methods The sample was composed of 971 randomly selected adolescents aged 11 to 17 years (410 boys and 561 girls). Resting heart rate was measured with oscillometric devices using two types of cuffs according to the arm circumference. Biochemical parameters triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose were measured. Body fatness, sleep, smoking, alcohol consumption and cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed. Results Resting heart rate was positively related to higher sleep quality (??=?0.005, p?=?0.039) and negatively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (??=??0.207, p?=?0.001). The receiver operating characteristic curve indicated significant potential for resting heart rate in the screening of adolescents at increased values of fasting glucose (area under curve?=?0.611?±?0.039 [0.534 – 0.688]) and triglycerides (area under curve?=?0.618?±?0.044 [0.531 – 0.705]). Conclusion High resting heart rate constitutes a significant and independent risk related to dyslipidemia and high blood glucose in pediatric populations. Sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness are two important determinants of the resting heart rate. PMID:23560541

2013-01-01

408

C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: All Said—Is Not It?  

PubMed Central

C-reactive protein (CRP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been the subject of intensive investigations over the last decades. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between moderately elevated CRP levels and incident CHD whereas genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms associated with elevated CRP levels do not increase the risk of ischemic vascular disease, suggesting that CRP might be a bystander rather than a causal factor in the progress of atherosclerosis. Beside all those epidemiological and genetic studies, the experimental investigations also try to reveal the role of CRP in the progress of atherosclerosis. This review will highlight the complex results of genomic, epidemiological, and experimental studies on CRP and will show why further studies investigating the relationship between CRP and atherosclerosis might be needed. PMID:24808639

Strang, Frederik; Schunkert, Heribert

2014-01-01

409

Do Neonatal Mouse Hearts Regenerate following Heart Apex Resection?  

PubMed Central

Summary The mammalian heart has generally been considered nonregenerative, but recent progress suggests that neonatal mouse hearts have a genuine capacity to regenerate following apex resection (AR). However, in this study, we performed AR or sham surgery on 400 neonatal mice from inbred and outbred strains and found no evidence of complete regeneration. Ideally, new functional cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells should be formed in the necrotic area of the damaged heart. Here, damaged hearts were 9.8% shorter and weighed 14% less than sham controls. In addition, the resection border contained a massive fibrotic scar mainly composed of nonmyocytes and collagen disposition. Furthermore, there was a substantial reduction in the number of proliferating cardiomyocytes in AR hearts. Our results thus question the usefulness of the AR model for identifying molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration of the adult heart after damage. PMID:24749066

Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Ganesalingam, Suganya; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

2014-01-01

410

FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times/wk), which had mercury exposures (mean hair content of 3.9 ppm) much higher than those seen in the United States. As an adjunct to this cursory review, we also present some new ''ecological'' analyses based on international statistics on hair Hg, fish consumption, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and selected cardiovascular health endpoints. We searched for consistent differences between primarily fish-consuming nations, like Japan or the Seychelles, and others who traditionally eat much less fish , such as in central Europe, for example. We use data on cigarette sales, smoking prevalence surveys, and national lung cancer mortality rates to control for the effects of smoking on heart disease. These ecological analyses do not find significant adverse associations of either fish consumption or hair Hg with cardiovascular health; instead, there is a consistent trend towards beneficial effects, some of which are statistically significant. However, such ecological studies cannot distinguish differences due to variations in individual rates of fish consumption. We conclude that the extant epidemiological evidence does not support the existence of significant heart disease risks associated with mercury in fish, for the United States. The most prudent advice would continue to be that of maintaining a well-balanced diet, including fish or shellfish at least once per week. There may be additional benefits from fatty fish.

LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

2005-09-21

411

Biogeographic ancestry, self-identified race, and admixture-phenotype associations in the Heart SCORE Study.  

PubMed

Large epidemiologic studies examining differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles between European Americans and African Americans have exclusively used self-identified race (SIR) to classify individuals. Recent genetic epidemiology studies of some CVD risk factors have suggested that biogeographic ancestry (BGA) may be a better predictor of CVD risk than SIR. This hypothesis was investigated in 464 African Americans and 771 European Americans enrolled in the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) Study in March and April 2010. Individual West African and European BGA were ascertained by means of a panel of 1,595 genetic ancestry informative markers. Individual BGA varied significantly among African Americans and to a lesser extent among European Americans. In the total cohort, BGA was not found to be a better predictor of CVD risk factors than SIR. Both measures predicted differences in the presence of the metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, triglycerides, body mass index, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein A, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between European Americans and African Americans. These results suggest that for most nongenetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies, SIR is sufficient for predicting CVD risk factor differences between European Americans and African Americans. However, higher body mass index and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with West African BGA among African Americans, suggesting that BGA should be considered in genetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies carried out among African Americans. PMID:22771727

Halder, Indrani; Kip, Kevin E; Mulukutla, Suresh R; Aiyer, Aryan N; Marroquin, Oscar C; Huggins, Gordon S; Reis, Steven E

2012-07-15

412

Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs  

SciTech Connect

The Committee on DoE Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs was originally established in response to the needs of the Office of Health and Envirorunental Research, Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DoE). Following a reorganization of DoE health related programs in 1990, the committee now advises the Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance which is under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. These administrative changes have not altered the committee concerns but have served to focus the committee's attention on helping DoE plan for an effective system of worker health surveillance as well as an epidemiologic research program.

Mahlum, D.D.

1992-06-01

413

Hypertension and diastolic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with hypertension, pressure overload leads to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), myocardial fibrosis, and impaired\\u000a diastolic filling without systolic dysfunction. Presently, diastolic heart failure accounts for about 50% of the heart failure\\u000a population. Fatigue, dyspnea, reduced exercise tolerance, and peripheral edema are common presenting complaints. As a group,\\u000a patients with diastolic heart failure are older and predominantly female. Diuretics

Alan H. Gradman; J. Travis Wilson

2009-01-01

414

Radiology of congenital heart disease  

SciTech Connect

This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

Amplatz, K.

1986-01-01

415

Heart rate variability: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the\\u000a heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous\\u000a systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions.\\u000a Heart rate (HR) is

U. Rajendra Acharya; Paul K. Joseph; N. Kannathal; Choo Min Lim; Jasjit S. Suri

2006-01-01

416

Pediatric Plastic Bronchitis: Case Report and Retrospective Comparative Analysis of Epidemiology and Pathology  

PubMed Central

Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n = 8) occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8), pneumonia (3), and asthma (2). Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%. PMID:23662235

Kunder, Christian; Sun, Heather Y.; Berry, Gerald; Messner, Anna; Frankovich, Jennifer; Mark, John

2013-01-01

417

Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Little is known of the epidemiology of pneumothorax. Routinely available data on pneumothorax in England are described.?METHODS—Patients consulting in primary care with a diagnosis of pneumothorax in each year from 1991 to 1995 inclusive were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Emergency hospital admissions for pneumothorax were identified for the years 1991-4 from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. Mortality data for England & Wales were obtained for 1950-97. Analyses of pneumothorax rates by age and sex were performed for all data sources. Seasonal and geographical analyses were carried out for the HES data.?RESULTS—The overall person consulting rate for pneumothorax (primary and secondary combined) in the GPRD was 24.0/100 000 each year for men and 9.8/100 000 each year for women. Hospital admissions for pneumothorax as a primary diagnosis occurred at an overall incidence of 16.7/100 000 per year and 5.8/100 000 per year for men and women, respectively. Mortality rates were 1.26/million per year for men and 0.62/million per year for women. The age distribution in both men and women showed a biphasic distribution for both GP consultations and hospital admissions. Deaths showed a single peak with highest rates in the elderly. There was an urban-rural trend observed for hospital admissions in the older age group (55+ years) with admission rates in the conurbations significantly higher than in the rural areas. Analysis for trends in mortality data for 1950-97 showed a striking increase in the death rate for pneumothorax in those aged 55+ years between 1960and 1990, with a steep decline in the 1990s. Mortality in the younger age group (15-34 years) remained low and constant.?CONCLUSION—There is evidence of two epidemiologically distinct forms of spontaneous pneumothorax in England. The explanation for the rise and fall in mortality for secondary pneumothorax is obscure.?? PMID:10899243

Gupta, D.; Hansell, A.; Nichols, T.; Duong, T.; Ayres, J.; Strachan, D.

2000-01-01

418

Keeps on Pumpin': Your Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the great pump in their chests--the human heart! Learners will determine the amount of blood their heart will beat in their lifetime, their cardiac output (blood pumped per minute) and cardiac index (blood pumped per minute per square meter of body surface area). Extensions in this activity explore correlations between the heart rates of different animals and their body sizes or their longevity. Included are two links to live videos titled "Heart Transplant" and "The Implantation of a Heartmate."

Science Museum of Minnesota

2000-01-01

419

Adiposity of the Heart, Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology in Medicine review article. Obesity is a major risk factor for heart disease. In the face of obesityÃÂs growing prevalence, it is important for physicians to be aware of emerging research of novel mechanisms through which adiposity adversely affects the heart. Conventional wisdom suggests that either hemodynamic (that is, increased cardiac output and hypertension) or metabolic (that is, dyslipidemic) derangements associated with obesity may predispose individuals to coronary artery disease and heart failure. The purpose of this review is to highlight a novel mechanism for heart disease in obesity whereby excessive lipid accumulation within the myocardium is directly cardiotoxic and causes left ventricular remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy.

PhD Jonathan M. McGavock (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Department of Internal Medicine); MD Ronald G. Victor (Univ of Texas Southwestern Dept of Internal Medicine); MD Roger H. Unger (VA Hospital Internal Medicine); PhD Lidia S. Szczepaniak (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Dept. of Internal Medicine)

2006-04-04

420

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

421

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Board of Directors  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

422

The epidemiology of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine dermatophilosis (Senkobo disease) has been reported annually in Zambia for many years. However, its epidemiology under Zambian conditions had never been adequately studied. Officially the disease has never been recognized as being of any economic consequence.

K. L. Samui; M. E. Hugh-Jones

1990-01-01

423

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB) focuses on etiologic and genomic factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development among individuals with underlying diseases and conditions.

424

Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans  

PubMed Central

A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives. PMID:23091702

Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua

2012-01-01

425

Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

426

2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposure–particularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.

427

Culturally Safe Epidemiology: Oxymoron or Scientific Imperative.  

PubMed

Since the early 20th Century, epidemiological research has brought benefits and burdens to Aboriginal communities in Canada. Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit continue to view Western research with distrust; quantitative methods are perceived as especially inconsistent with indigenous ways of knowing. There is increasing recognition, however, that rigorous epidemiological research can produce evidence that draws attention and resources to pressing health issues in Aboriginal communities. We present a framework for culturally safe epidemiology, from the identification of research priorities, through fieldwork and analysis, to communication and use of evidence. Modern epidemiology and indigenous knowledge are not inherently discordant; many public health opportunities arise at this interface and good science must begin here too. PMID:20975852

Cameron, Mary; Andersson, Neil; McDowell, Ian; Ledogar, Robert J

2010-01-01

428

DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

429

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Advisory Board  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

430

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Annual Meetings  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

431

What to Expect during Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... you're able to breathe without it. Off-Pump Heart Surgery Off-pump heart surgery is like traditional open-heart surgery ... work on it. Your heart will continue to pump blood to your body. Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery ...

432

American Heart Month National High Blood  

E-print Network

FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart Health Heart Health - Lesson 1 Contents: Lesson - Heart Health Power Point # P1-1 Eat Smart for Heart

433

Care and Treatment for Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools & Resources Heart Attack About Heart Attacks Warning Signs of a Heart Attack Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack Symptoms & Diagnosis ... 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 9 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 10 Tachycardia | Fast ...

434

Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations  

Cancer.gov

The symposium honored the visionary leadership of Dr. Fraumeni, the founding director of the NCI Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. The conference provided an opportunity for scientific exchange by the leading experts in cancer epidemiology. Speakers highlighted critical findings made over the past 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research that have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the causes of cancer.

435

Epidemiology and Genomics Research Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) provides funding support for research in human populations to understand the causes of cancer and related outcomes. EGRP is the largest funder of cancer epidemiology grants nationally and worldwide. In addition to supporting investigator-initiated research grants, EGRP sponsors or co-sponsors a variety of targeted funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). Here we provide a listing of funding opportunities that are currently accepting applications.

436

Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers  

Cancer.gov

EGRP and NIH's Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) cosponsored a workshop to stimulate epidemiologic research on rare cancers in May on the NIH Campus in Bethesda, MD. Many current and former EGRP grantees expert in epidemiologic research on rare cancers attended along with scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other components of NIH, survivors of rare cancers, and representatives of foundations devoted to supporting research and education on these cancers. View meeting agenda.

437

Epidemiology and Genomics Research Funding & Grants  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) provides funding support for research in human populations to understand the causes of cancer and related outcomes. EGRP is the largest funder of cancer epidemiology grants nationally and worldwide. In addition to supporting investigator-initiated research grants, EGRP sponsors or co-sponsors a variety of targeted funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). EGRP also offers grantsmanship advice to individual investigators from the pre-submission phase through the end of NCI grants.

438

Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication  

PubMed Central

As knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Greenland has increased, it has become evident that the majority of cases develop long after the primary infection and that it would therefore be valuable from the public health point of view if the disease rate among naturally infected persons could be reduced. To examine the possibility of achieving this, a double-blind drug trial with isoniazid and a placebo was conducted among some 70% of the adult population of western Greenland. The results show that throughout the six years of the study the incidence of tuberculosis was lower in the group treated with isoniazid and that this reduction occurred whether the initial X-rays pictures were normal or showed suspicious or healed lesions. It is concluded that chemoprophylaxis programmes should probably be administered only to selected groups of the population. The delimitation of such groups is discussed on the basis of their tuberculosis risk and of the expected yield in terms of reduction in tuberculosis prevalence. PMID:5335457

Horwitz, Ole; Payne, Penelope G.; Wilbek, Erik

1966-01-01

439

Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

2000-01-01

440

Global epidemiology of atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major public health burden worldwide, and its prevalence is set to increase owing to widespread population ageing, especially in rapidly developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Indonesia. Despite the availability of epidemiological data on the prevalence of AF in North America and Western Europe, corresponding data are limited in Africa, Asia, and South America. Moreover, other observations suggest that the prevalence of AF might be underestimated-not only in low-income and middle-income countries, but also in their high-income counterparts. Future studies are required to provide precise estimations of the global AF burden, identify important risk factors in various regions worldwide, and take into consideration regional and ethnic variations in AF. Furthermore, in response to the increasing prevalence of AF, additional resources will need to be allocated globally for prevention and treatment of AF and its associated complications. In this Review, we discuss the available data on the global prevalence, risk factors, management, financial costs, and clinical burden of AF, and highlight the current worldwide inadequacy of its treatment. PMID:25113750

Rahman, Faisal; Kwan, Gene F; Benjamin, Emelia J

2014-11-01

441

Epidemiology of neurologically disabling disorders.  

PubMed

Neurological disorders place a considerable burden upon individuals, their families, and society. Some like stroke are common, while others like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are much rarer. Some conditions such as multiple sclerosis are reported to vary by latitude, while others such as traumatic brain injury can vary considerably by locality. Depending upon the nature of the lesion, and factors such as time since onset, the consequences to the individual may also vary considerably, not just among different disorders, but within a given disorder. Consequently the patterns of disease incidence, its prevalence, and its consequences are complex and may vary not just because of the condition itself, but also because, for example, case ascertainment may vary from study to study. The cumulative annual incidence of disabling neurological disorders is likely to exceed 1000 per 100000, or 1% of the population. The incidence is characterized by significant variation, which is mediated by genetic, geographical, demographic, and environmental factors. While useful comparisons can be made through standardization techniques, planning for local services should be based upon local epidemiology, whenever available. PMID:23312632

Tennant, Alan

2013-01-01

442

Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.  

PubMed

The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics. PMID:25037178

Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

2015-02-01

443

Epidemiology of cancer in children  

SciTech Connect

The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals.

Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

1985-01-01

444

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

445

PAHs in Stockholm window films: Evaluation of the utility of window film content as indicator of PAHs in urban air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thin organic film that builds up on the exterior surface of windows has been proposed as a ubiquitously available passive sampler for semi-volatile organic contaminants (SOCs) in urban air. Readily available school windows were sampled in Stockholm city centre and suburban locations in both winter and summer season to evaluate the putative usefulness of this matrix for assessing the integrated load of urban air pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The window-area normalised concentrations indicated more PAH contamination in the winter than in the summer in both the city centre and suburban locations, with highest concentrations in the city centre in the winter (?PAH 43 451-467 ng m -2). However, normalising the PAH load to the amount of fatty window film, as measured by extractable organic matter (EOM), gave a more homogeneous picture with the EOM-normalised PAH load being inseparable both between summer and winter and between city centre and suburban locations. To evaluate the possibility of quantitatively employing urban window films as a means to provide predicted environmental concentrations of PAHs in air (PEC air), window film-air partition coefficients of PAHs were estimated using a set of coupled linear free energy relationships and physico-chemical properties of PAHs. Assuming dynamic equilibria between PAHs in air and dissolved in the window film, the obtained PEC air from the window films were consistently overestimating the urban vapour-phase PAH concentrations by factors 4-135. This discrepancy is quantitatively consistent with a strong and overwhelming association with black carbon aerosol particles accumulated in the window film. For SOCs that have a lower tendency to associate with black carbon, bulk window film concentrations may work better than for PAHs to estimate their vapour-phase concentrations in urban air.

Unger, Maria; Gustafsson, Örjan

446

Developing a Heatwave Early Warning System for Sweden: Evaluating Sensitivity of Different Epidemiological Modelling Approaches to Forecast Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Over the last two decades a number of heatwaves have brought the need for heatwave early warning systems (HEWS) to the attention of many European governments. The HEWS in Europe are operating under the assumption that there is a high correlation between observed and forecasted temperatures. We investigated the sensitivity of different temperature mortality relationships when using forecast temperatures. We modelled mortality in Stockholm using observed temperatures and made predictions using forecast temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts to assess the sensitivity. We found that the forecast will alter the expected future risk differently for different temperature mortality relationships. The more complex models seemed more sensitive to inaccurate forecasts. Despite the difference between models, there was a high agreement between models when identifying risk-days. We find that considerations of the accuracy in temperature forecasts should be part of the design of a HEWS. Currently operating HEWS do evaluate their predictive performance; this information should also be part of the evaluation of the epidemiological models that are the foundation in the HEWS. The most accurate description of the relationship between high temperature and mortality might not be the most suitable or practical when incorporated into a HEWS. PMID:25546283

Åström, Christofer; Ebi, Kristie L.; Langner, Joakim; Forsberg, Bertil

2014-01-01

447

Developing a heatwave early warning system for sweden: evaluating sensitivity of different epidemiological modelling approaches to forecast temperatures.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades a number of heatwaves have brought the need for heatwave early warning systems (HEWS) to the attention of many European governments. The HEWS in Europe are operating under the assumption that there is a high correlation between observed and forecasted temperatures. We investigated the sensitivity of different temperature mortality relationships when using forecast temperatures. We modelled mortality in Stockholm using observed temperatures and made predictions using forecast temperatures from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts to assess the sensitivity. We found that the forecast will alter the expected future risk differently for different temperature mortality relationships. The more complex models seemed more sensitive to inaccurate forecasts. Despite the difference between models, there was a high agreement between models when identifying risk-days. We find that considerations of the accuracy in temperature forecasts should be part of the design of a HEWS. Currently operating HEWS do evaluate their predictive performance; this information should also be part of the evaluation of the epidemiological models that are the foundation in the HEWS. The most accurate description of the relationship between high temperature and mortality might not be the most suitable or practical when incorporated into a HEWS. PMID:25546283

Åström, Christofer; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Forsberg, Bertil

2014-01-01

448

What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 10/14/2014 Heart Disease Risk Factors 10/14/2014 All of Our ...

449

Minimally Invasive Heart Procedure: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... invest our interest, time and money into preventative care. 00:27:35 NARRATOR: SMDC's Heart to Heart ... NARRATOR: In addition to their award winning cardiac care, St. Mary's Duluth Clinic Heart Center offers comprehensive ...

450

Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents  

MedlinePLUS

... like a battery and internal wires. What Is Heart Failure? For a child to grow and develop, the ... a child may not function normally. The term “heart failure” describes a heart that's not functioning properly. It ...

451

Heart failure - what to ask your doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ... often, fluid collects in your lungs and legs. Heart failure usually occurs because the muscles of your heart ...

452

Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Apr 2, ... was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Downloadable Heart Failure Resources What is Heart Failure? (PDF) How Can ...

453

Who Is at Risk for Heart Failure?  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Heart Failure? About 5.8 million people in the United ... underway for Heart Failure, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Heart Failure in the News April 9, 2014 Drug does ...

454

On Two Hearts and Other Coronary Reflections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speculates as to how understanding of heart disease has developed and provides insight into how medical science makes progress. Summarizes the state of knowledge on arteriosclerosis, heart attacks, and exercising the heart. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

Flannery, Maura C.

1998-01-01

455

Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Jan 8,2015 When a child is born with a congenital heart ... with congenital heart disease considers having children. Genetic counseling can help answer these questions and address your ...

456

Obesity Can Cause 'Silent' Damage to Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Can Cause 'Silent' Damage to Heart Study shows ... December 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Failure Obesity FRIDAY, Dec. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Heart damage ...

457

Heart period variability in sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of heart period variability is a dynamic noninvasive technique to quantify the autonomic control over the heart period. We recorded electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, electromyographic and electrocardiographic data from 10 normal subjects during sleep using an ambulatory polysomnographic monitor. R-R intervals were determined for 10 min segments of electrocardiographic data from wakefulness, stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep and REM sleep.

B. V. Vaughn; S. R. Quint; J. A. Messenheimer; K. R. Robertson

1995-01-01

458

opening : A Openin Minds, Hearts,  

E-print Network

& graduates 24 : soul 26 : BYU EXPERIENCE 31 : CHURCH SPONSORSHIP, HONOR CODE, ETHICS MBA.BYU.EDU CONTENTS Our YOUR MIND, HEART, SOUL, AND DOOR TO YOUR CAREER. #12;since 1875. Many of the graduates from the MBA and supportive faculty, make up the heart of the MBA program. SOUL Nurturing the soul, students are taught

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

459

HEART SMART NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE = POWER  

E-print Network

cholesterol is one of the three major risk factors for heart disease that you can change. The other two risk factors are cigarette smoking and high blood pressure. A risk factor increases the chance of getting the disease. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. In 2008, over 16

460

EAT SMART Sources: Heart Health  

E-print Network

of Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Publication No. 01-3526, November 2001. Take Steps ­ Prevent High Blood Pressure! U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ­ National Institute of Health, NIH and Human Services: National Institutes of Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH Publication No. 01

461

Pumping heart of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Daphnia contains a heart, but no blood vessels. The Daphnia has an open circulatory system, meaning blood moves freely in the body. Use these examples to understand that organ systems can be simple or very complex, but their functions are the same. Blood is moved through the body of the Daphnia by the pumping heart.

Katie Hale (CSUF; Biological Sciences)

2007-06-19

462

How Big is Your Heart?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students measure the dimensions of their own fist plus the fists of some other people who are older to approximate the size of each person's heart. Next they use construction paper to make a model of their own heart.

Illuminations National Council of Teachers of Math

2009-03-09

463

Regulation of Human Heart Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how to measure heart rate accurately. Then students design and carry out an experiment to test the effects of an activity or stimulus on heart rate, analyze and interpret the data, and present their experiments in a poster session. In this activity students learn about both cardiac physiology and experimental method.

Ingrid Waldron

464

Epidemiology of childhood peanut allergy.  

PubMed

Although peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies, no study has comprehensively described the epidemiology of the condition among the general pediatric population. Our objective was to better characterize peanut allergy prevalence, diagnosis trends, and reaction history among affected children identified from a representative sample of United States households with children. A randomized, cross sectional survey was administered to parents from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents were collected and analyzed in regard to demographics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods of food allergy diagnosis. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these characteristics with odds of peanut allergy. Of the 3218 children identified with food allergy, 754 (24.8%) were reported to have a peanut allergy. Peanut allergy was reported most often among 6- to 10-year-old children (25.5%), white children (47.7%), and children from households with an annual income of $50,000-$99,999 (41.7%). Although peanut allergy was diagnosed by a physician in 76% of cases, significantly more peanut allergy reactions were severe as compared with reactions to other foods (53.7% versus 41.0%, p < 0.001). Parents were significantly less likely to report tolerance to peanut as compared with the odds of tolerance reported for other foods (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9). Childhood peanut allergy, which represents nearly a quarter of all food allergy, presents more severe reactions and is least likely to be outgrown. Although it is diagnosed by a physician in nearly three-fourths of all cases, socioeconomic disparities in regard to diagnosis persist. PMID:25562557

Dyer, Ashley A; Rivkina, Victoria; Perumal, Dhivya; Smeltzer, Brandon M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

2015-01-01

465

HOMOCYSTEINE AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND STROKE: 6,000 EVENTS AMONG 17,000 ADULTS IN 30 OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Homocysteine Studies Collaboration has brought together and re-analyzed the world-wide epidemiological evidence on the relation of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke risk with blood total homocysteine concentrations. The objective of this study was to assess the importance of elevated homoc...

466

The influence of heart disease on characteristics, quality of life, use of health resources, and costs of COPD in primary care settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the influence of heart disease on clinical characteristics, quality of life, use of health resources, and costs of patients with COPD followed at primary care settings under common clinical practice conditions. METHODS: Epidemiologic, observational, and descriptive study (EPIDEPOC study). Patients ? 40 years of age with stable COPD attending primary care settings were included. Demographic, clinical characteristics,

Javier de Miguel-Díez; Pilar Carrasco-Garrido; Javier Rejas-Gutierrez; Antonio Martín-Centeno; Elena Gobartt-Vázquez; Valentín Hernandez-Barrera; Angel Gil de Miguel; Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia

2010-01-01

467

The pathophysiology of heart failure.  

PubMed

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic requirements or accommodate systemic venous return. This common condition affects over 5 million people in the United States at a cost of $10-38 billion per year. Heart failure results from injury to the myocardium from a variety of causes including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Less common etiologies include cardiomyopathies, valvular disease, myocarditis, infections, systemic toxins, and cardiotoxic drugs. As the heart fails, patients develop symptoms which include dyspnea from pulmonary congestion, and peripheral edema and ascites from impaired venous return. Constitutional symptoms such as nausea, lack of appetite, and fatigue are also common. There are several compensatory mechanisms that occur as the failing heart attempts to maintain adequate function. These include increasing cardiac output via the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing ventricular volume and wall thickness through ventricular remodeling, and maintaining tissue perfusion with augmented mean arterial pressure through activation of neurohormonal systems. Although initially beneficial in the early stages of heart failure, all of these compensatory mechanisms eventually lead to a vicious cycle of worsening heart failure. Treatment strategies have been developed based upon the understanding of these compensatory mechanisms. Medical therapy includes diuresis, suppression of the overactive neurohormonal systems, and augmentation of contractility. Surgical options include ventricular resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular remodeling, ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. Despite significant understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure, this disease causes significant morbidity and carries a 50% 5-year mortality. PMID:22227365

Kemp, Clinton D; Conte, John V

2012-01-01

468

HEART Aerothermodynamic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an assessment of the aerothermodynamic environment around an 8.3 meter High Energy Atmospheric Reentry Test (HEART) vehicle. This study generated twelve nose shape configurations and compared their responses at the peak heating trajectory point against the baseline nose shape. The heat flux sensitivity to the angle of attack variations are also discussed. The possibility of a two-piece Thermal Protection System (TPS) design at the nose is also considered, as are the surface catalytic affects of the aeroheating environment of such configuration. Based on these analyses, an optimum nose shape is proposed to minimize the surface heating. A recommendation is also made for a two-piece TPS design, for which the surface catalytic uncertainty associated with the jump in heating at the nose-IAD juncture is reduced by a minimum of 93%. In this paper, the aeroshell is assumed to be rigid and the inflatable fluid interaction effect is left for future investigations.

Mazaheri, Alireza

2012-01-01

469

A pomegranate heart  

PubMed Central

Sacrococcygeal teratomas are common in infants while a buttock terotoma is extremely rare in adults. Herein we report a 30-year-old female complaining of left hip swelling and pain for 2 weeks. Ultrasonography demonstrated a subcutaneous cystic mass with multiple dense echo spots inside. MR showed a heart-shaped mass in the left buttock, with multiple “pomegranate seeds” inside, which showed hyperintensity on diffusion weighted imaging. The mass was resected and a buttock terotoma containing yellow sebum-like materials and hairs was confirmed pathologically. A thick walled cystic mass on CT or MR images, which contains multiple small solid nodules or fat, indicates the diagnosis of a terotoma. Timely diagnosis and complete resection bring good prognosis. Adequate follow-up is necessary. PMID:23256061

He, Jian; Zhou, Kefeng; Qin, Guochu; Zhang, Shizheng; Zhu, Bin

2012-01-01

470

Mitophagy and heart failure.  

PubMed

Cardiac mitochondria are responsible for generating energy in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and are crucial for cardiac function. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to loss of myocytes and development of heart failure. Myocytes have quality control mechanisms in place to ensure a network of functional mitochondria. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by a process called mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, where the organelle is engulfed by an autophagosome and subsequently delivered to a lysosome for degradation. Evidence suggests that mitophagy is important for cellular homeostasis, and reduced mitophagy leads to inadequate removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. In this review, we discuss the regulation of mitophagy and the emerging evidence of the cardioprotective role of mitophagy. We also address the prospect of therapeutically targeting mitophagy to treat patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:25609139

Shires, Sarah E; Gustafsson, Åsa B

2015-03-01

471

Anthocyanins and heart health.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom and belong to the family of compounds known as flavonoids. Major sources of anthocyanins are blueberries, cherries, raspberries, strawberries, black currants, purple grapes and red wine. In recent years several studies have shown that anthocyanins display a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-carcinogenic activities. In addition they display a variety of effects on blood vessels, platelets and lipoproteins able to reduce the risk of coronary heart diseases. However, until the absorption and metabolic fate of anthocyanins in vivo is unravelled, it would be unwise to conclude that a high consumption of them will reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Long-term intervention trials must be properly designed and carried out to provide definite proof. In the meantime a more complete knowledge of the identity of anthocyanin metabolites and their tissue distribution should be reached. PMID:18209270

Mazza, Giuseppe Joe

2007-01-01

472

Virtual Open Heart Surgery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does open heart surgery work? Without taking the time to get a formal medical degree, it can be quite hard to find out first-hand. Fortunately, this site from the Australian Broadcasting Company (ABC) takes you inside a virtual operating room to try your hand at performing this procedure. Visitors can look over the interactive Menu to first learn about the anatomy of this region of the body. It's a good place to start and users can proceed to look through the ten (simplified) steps to performing such a complicated operation. Along the way, visitors are given the opportunity to learn about the science behind each step and it's all quite fascinating. It's a great resource for budding scientists, medical professionals, and those who are generally curious about the human body.

473

Biomarkers and heart disease.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) results from the impaired ability of heart to fill or pump out blood. HF is a common health problem with a multitude of causes and affects ~30 million people worldwide. Since ageing is a major risk factor for HF and as several treatment options are currently available to prolong the patients' survival, the number of affected patients is expected to grow. Even though traditional methods of assessment have been in use for managing HF, these are limited by time consuming and costly subjective interpretation and also by their invasive nature. Comparatively, biomarkers offer an objective and biologically relevant information that in conjunction with the patients' clinical findings provides optimal picture regarding the status of the HF patient and thus helps in diagnosis and prognosis. The current gold standard biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of HF are B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP). Additional novel biomarkers (e.g., mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), mid-regional pro adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), troponins, soluble ST2 (sST2), growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 and galectin-3) can potentially identify different pathophysiological processes such as myocardial insult, inflammation and remodeling as the causes for the development and progression of HF. Different biomarkers of HF not only reflect the underlying mechanisms/pathways of HF and also its progression and also point specific therapy options. A multi-biomarker approach for personalized medical care is not too far fetched and such approach can greatly enhance diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy guidance for HF. In this review we describe the current status of HF biomarkers in clinical use and in laboratory research and the efforts aimed at the identification of novel biomarkers for HF. PMID:25339488

Sun, R-R; Lu, L; Liu, M; Cao, Y; Li, X-C; Liu, H; Wang, J; Zhang, P-Y

2014-10-01

474

The origins of American psychiatric epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric epidemiology developed relatively late (as compared with epidemiology generally). Nineteenth century psychiatrists, although avid collectors of statistics, did not use such data in any systematic manner. The impetus for the creation of an epidemiology of mental illness came from the work of late nineteenth century social scientists concerned with understanding individual and social behavior and applying their findings to social problems. Initially they helped to create the modern census, which represented a radical faith that quantitative research, when merged with administrative rationality, could replace politics. During and after the 1920s, the demographic analysis of the institutionalized mentally ill population expanded sharply; by the late 1930s and 1940s psychiatric epidemiologists had begun to study the role of socioenvironmental variables and the incidence of mental illness in the community. Twentieth century psychiatric epidemiologists, however, faced a severe intellectual problem; their work rested on a descriptive rather than an etiological nosology. Consequently, the results of epidemiological studies in psychiatry often differed precisely because of variations in the design of studies and classification systems as well as the subjective observations of the investigators themselves. The ensuing disagreements among those involved in the epidemiologic study of mental illness were a natural consequence. Images p230-a p231-a p231-b p232-a p233-a p233-b p234-a PMID:3883818

Grob, G N

1985-01-01

475

Aging, telomeres and heart failure  

PubMed Central

During normal aging, the heart undergoes functional, morphological and cellular changes. Although aging per se does not lead to the expression of heart failure, it is likely that age-associated changes lower the threshold for the manifestation of signs and symptoms of heart failure. In patients, the susceptibility, age of onset and pace of progression of heart failure are highly variable. The presence of conventional risk factors cannot completely explain this variability. Accumulation of DNA damage and telomere attrition results in an increase in cellular senescence and apoptosis, resulting in a decrease in the number and function of cells, contributing to the overall tissue and organ dysfunction. Biological aging, characterized by reduced telomere length, provides an explanation for the highly interindividual variable threshold to express the clinical syndrome of heart failure at some stage during life. In this review, we will elaborate on the current knowledge of aging of the heart, telomere biology and its potential role in the development of heart failure. PMID:20532978

Wong, Liza S. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Huzen, Jardi; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.

2010-01-01

476

Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome.  

PubMed

Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities - inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588

Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

2014-01-01

477

Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis, where the animal reservoir plays a key role, the interruption of the disease’s transmission is not deemed feasible. PMID:25125985

Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

2014-01-01

478

Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome  

PubMed Central

Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588

Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

2014-01-01

479

The epidemiology of serum sex hormones in postmenopausal women  

SciTech Connect

Serum sex hormones may be related to the risk of several diseases including osteoporosis, heart disease, and breast and endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women. In the current report, the authors examined the epidemiology of serum sex hormones in 176 healthy, white postmenopausal women (mean age 58 years) recruited from the metropolitan Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. The data were collected during 1982-1983; none of the women were on estrogen replacement therapy. Serum concentrations of estrone, estradiol, testosterone, and androstenedione were measured by a combination of extraction, column chromatography, and radioimmunoassay. Neither age nor time since menopause was a significant predictor of sex hormones. The degree of obesity was a major determinant of estrone and estradiol. The estrone levels of obese women were about 40% higher than the levels of nonobese women. There was a weak relation between obesity and the androgens. Cigarette smokers had significantly higher levels of androstenedione than nonsmokers, with little difference in serum estrogens between smokers and nonsmokers. Both estrone and estradiol levels tended to decline with increasing alcohol consumption. Physical activity was an independent predictor of serum estrone. More active women had lower levels of estrone. There was a positive relation of muscle strength with estrogen levels. The data suggest interesting relations between environmental and lifestyle factors and serum sex hormones. These environmental and lifestyle factors are potentially modifiable and, hence, if associations between sex hormones and disease exist, modification of these factors could affect disease risks.

Cauley, J.A.; Kuller, L.H.; LeDonne, D. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Gutai, J.P. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA)); Powell, J.G. (East Carolina School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (USA))

1989-06-01

480

Depression and Cardiac Disease: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression is common, persistent, and associated with worse health-related quality of life, recurrent cardiac events, and mortality. Both physiological and behavioral factors—including endothelial dysfunction, platelet abnormalities, inflammation, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and reduced engagement in health-promoting activities—may link depression with adverse cardiac outcomes. Because of the potential impact of depression on quality of life and cardiac outcomes, the American Heart Association has recommended routine depression screening of all cardiac patients with the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaires. However, despite the availability of these easy-to-use screening tools and effective treatments, depression is underrecognized and undertreated in patients with CVD. In this paper, we review the literature on epidemiology, phenomenology, comorbid conditions, and risk factors for depression in cardiac disease. We outline the associations between depression and cardiac outcomes, as well as the mechanisms that may mediate these links. Finally, we discuss the evidence for and against routine depression screening in patients with CVD and make specific recommendations for when and how to assess for depression in this high-risk population. PMID:23653854

Huffman, Jeff C.; Celano, Christopher M.; Beach, Scott R.; Motiwala, Shweta R.; Januzzi, James L.

2013-01-01

481

Epidemiological studies of CHD and the evolution of preventive cardiology.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. Coronary heart disease (CHD) accounts for the greatest proportion of CVDs, and risk factors such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus or elevated glucose level, elevated cholesterol levels, and obesity or being overweight are the top six causes of death globally. Ecological and population-based longitudinal studies, conducted globally or within individual countries, have established the role of traditional and novel risk factors and measures of subclinical disease in the prediction of CHD. Risk assessment with short-term or long-term risk prediction algorithms can help to identify individuals who would benefit most from risk-factor interventions. Evaluation of novel risk factors and screening for subclinical atherosclerosis can also help to identify individuals at highest cardiovascular risk. Prevention of CHD focuses on identifying and managing risk factors at both the population and individual levels through primordial, primary, and secondary prevention. Epidemiological studies have provided the hypotheses for subsequent clinical trials that have documented the efficacy of risk-factor interventions, which are the basis of preventive cardiology. Future research efforts will determine the screening and intervention strategies that have the greatest effect on CHD prevention. PMID:24663092

Wong, Nathan D

2014-05-01

482

(European aerosol conference and workshop on aerosol deposition to natural surfaces, Lund, Goteborg, and Stockholm, Sweden, and Oslo, Norway, August 29--September 17, 1988): Foreign trip report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this trip was to (1) present a paper and chair a session on gas/particle interactions at the European Aerosol Conference (EAC) at the University of Lund, Sweden; (2) chair a working group and present a plenary lecture at the workshop of the Nordic Society for Aerosol Research (NOSA) on Aerosol Deposition to Natural Surfaces; (3) present seminars at the University of Stockholm and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute; (4) analyze data from the Integrated Forest Study research site at Nordmoen, Norway; and (5) present a plenary lecture at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Heavy Metals in the Atmosphere at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research. At the EAC, the traveler presented a paper titled ''Aerosol Dry Deposition Estimates from a Throughfall Model.'' At the NOSA workshop, the traveler described a summary of recent applications of surface analysis methods to aerosol deposition in complex terrain. At the University of Stockholm and the Swedish Environmental Research Institute, the traveler presented seminars on recent results of the EPRI Integrated Forest Study on the Effects of Atmospheric Deposition. At the NATO workshop, the traveler presented a lecture titled ''Behavior of Trace Metals in Forest Systems.'' 19 refs.

Lindberg, S.E.

1988-09-28

483

My Tell-Tale Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will read Poe's famous short story The Tell-Tale Heart, take notes, and complete one response assignment pertaining to the story. Be prepared to share your notes and response with the class. Have fun! 1. To begin, please click on the following link.Begin My Tell-Tale Heart 2. Follow along with Mrs. Devitry as we read together about this activity. When you are ready to begin, select "Begin My Tell-Tale Heart." 3. Experiment with the icons on the right hand side of the page. ...

Mrs. Devitry

2010-02-25

484

Anatomy & Physiology of the heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will have the oppourtunity to view simulations and text on how the heart function. This information will supply a base which will help students understand the importance of using the heart as a guide for intensity levels during a workout. Home Work Assignment Many people who exercise get very frustrated when they don't see the result they were hoping for. One reason that this happens is that people don't exercise at a high enough intensity level during a workout. We will soon learn how to use our heart rate as a ...

Mr. Peterson

2011-09-11

485

Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the biliary epithelium, arising either within the liver (intrahepatic, ICC) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic ECC). Globally, CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence and mortality rates of ICC are increasing. This review of the literature on the international epidemiological rates of CCA, both intra- and extrahepatic, explores possible explanations for the trends found. The possible role of epidemiological artifact in the findings is discussed and the known risk factors for CCA are summarized. These include primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, congenital fibropolycystic liver, bile duct adenomas, and biliary papillomatosis, hepatolithiasis, chemical carcinogens such as nitrosamines, Thorotrast, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease and obesity. Potential pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of CCA are also summarized. PMID:18773060

Toledano, M. B.; Taylor-Robinson, S. D.

2008-01-01

486

Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the biliary epithelium, arising either within the liver (intrahepatic, ICC) or in the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic ECC). Globally, CCA is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. Several recent epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence and mortality rates of ICC are increasing. This review of the literature on the international epidemiological rates of CCA, both intra- and extrahepatic, explores possible explanations for the trends found. The possible role of epidemiological artifact in the findings is discussed and the known risk factors for CCA are summarized. These include primary sclerosing cholangitis, liver fluke infestation, congenital fibropolycystic liver, bile duct adenomas, and biliary papillomatosis, hepatolithiasis, chemical carcinogens such as nitrosamines, Thorotrast, chronic viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease and obesity. Potential pathways involved in the molecular pathogenesis of CCA are also summarized. PMID:18773060

Khan, S A; Toledano, M B; Taylor-Robinson, S D

2008-01-01

487

[From molecular to genomic and metagenomic epidemiology].  

PubMed

The notion "molecular epidemiology" was introduced into scientific literature by Kilburn E. et al. in 1973. The first period of development of infectious diseases molecular epidemiology may be called "genotypic" (1980-1990s). During this period methodology of molecular marking of pathogens for purposes of monitoring of their spread and outbreak detection (novel nomenclature of diphtheria corynebacteria based on ribotyping; international network PulseNet for monitoring food source infections; international database of tuberculosis mycobacteria spoligotypes) was created. The second--"genomic" period started in the 2000s. Molecular epidemiology rapidly went through single markers (genotypes or single genes) to deciphering the whole genome of pathoge "mobileome", "resistome", "virulome" etc. took an important place in the studies of emerging and pandemic infections. Knowledge on genetic mechanisms leading to emergence and global dissemination of novel pathogens give molecular epidemiology its own scientific content and transforms it from a methodical approach to an independent field of epidemiology. The third--"metagenomic" period starts nowadays based on meta-genomic approach that allows to determine the whole set ofgenomes in the studied sample without the cultivation procedure. In the short-term this would lead to a change of a century-long paradigm of diagnostics and control of infections: instead of search of separate (key) pathogens--characteristics of the full specter of microorganisms in the material from patients and environmental samples with its identification up to any taxonomic depth. In the systems of regional and global epidemiologic control a universal monitoring of all known and re-emerging pathogens with construction and maintenance of metagenomic passports of human habitats will be realized. PMID:25286516

Zhebrun, A B

2014-01-01

488

Indications for Heart Transplantation in Congenital Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

In this review we have looked at indications for cardiac transplantation in congenital heart disease. An outline of the general principles of the use of transplant as a management strategy both as a first line treatment and following other surgical interventions is discussed. We explore the importance of the timing of patient referral and the evaluations undertaken, and how the results of these may vary between patients with congenital heart disease and patients with other causes of end-stage heart failure. The potential complications associated with patients with congenital heart disease need to be both anticipated and managed appropriately by an experienced team. Timing of transplantation in congenital heart disease is difficult to standardize as the group of patients is heterogeneous. We discuss the role and limitations of investigations such as BNP, 6 minute walk, metabolic exercise testing and self estimated physical functioning. We also discuss the suitability for listing. It is clear that congenital heart patients should not be considered to be at uniform high risk of death at transplant. Morbidity varies greatly in the congenital patient population with the failing Fontan circulation having a far higher risk than a failing Mustard circulation. However the underlying issue of imbalance between donor organ supply and demand needs to be addressed as transplant teams are finding themselves in the increasingly difficult situation of supporting growing numbers of patients with a diverse range of pathologies with declining numbers of donor organs. PMID:22548027

Siân Pincott, E; Burch, M

2011-01-01

489

2013 update on congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, heart failure, and heart transplant.  

PubMed

This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices. PMID:24774396

Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel

2014-03-01

490

Epidemiology of Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC)1  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer with unknown etiology and generally poor outcome. It is characterized by diffuse edema (peau d'orange) and redness (erythema), although either the disease itself or case definitions have varied over time and place, confounding temporal trends and geographic variations. In this review, we discuss case definitions for IBC and its clinical characteristics; describe its geographic variation, age and racial distribution, incidence and survival patterns, and summarize the very limited information on its epidemiologic risk factors. We also incorporate emerging data from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. PMID:16735783

Anderson, William F.; Schairer, Catherine; Chen, Bingshu E.; Hance, Kenneth W.; Levine, Paul H.

2010-01-01

491

Navigating the future of bacterial molecular epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Technological advances in high-throughput genome sequencing have led to an enhanced appreciation of the genetic diversity found within populations of pathogenic bacteria. Methods based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (indels) build upon the framework established by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and permit a detailed, targeted analysis of variation within related organisms. Robust phylogenetics, when combined with epidemiologically informative data, can be applied to study ongoing temporal and geographical fluctuations in bacterial pathogens. As genome sequencing, SNP detection and geospatial information become more accessible these methods will continue to transform the way molecular epidemiology is used to study populations of bacterial pathogens. PMID:20846899

Baker, Stephen; Hanage, William P; Holt, Kathryn E

2010-01-01

492

Epidemiologic Approaches to Injury and Violence  

PubMed Central

This volume of Epidemiologic Reviews features 13 articles covering a variety of injury problems and research topics. In this commentary, the authors highlight the remarkable achievements in injury control and the important role the Haddon Matrix has played in understanding injury causation and developing preventive strategies; comment on the individual articles included in this volume in the broad categories of research methods, childhood injury, motor-vehicle-related injury, alcohol-related injury, intentional injury, and occupational injury; and outline research gaps and future directions in injury epidemiology and prevention. PMID:22180470

Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

2012-01-01

493

The Heart of Our Cardiovascular System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the heart and its role at the center of the human cardiovascular system. In the associated activity, students play out a scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. They learn about the path of blood flow through the heart and use that knowledge to evaluate designs of artificial hearts on the market.

2014-09-18

494

Ventricular Reconstruction Surgery for Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant increase in the prevalence of heart failure in the United States has made this disease a major health problem. The continued shortage of donor organs has prevented heart transplantation from becoming an effective solution for the treatment of end-stage heart failure, and as a result, surgical treatments for heart failure have been reexamined. Surgical therapies represent the evolution

Richard Lee; Katherine J. Hoercher; Patrick M. McCarthy

2004-01-01

495

Innovators at Heart A publication for  

E-print Network

Innovators at Heart A publication for those who support heart-related research, education, and care colleagues do for a living and he's likely to reply, "We're in the business of fixing hearts." If his research findings are any indication, business should soon be thriving. "Fixing hearts is what I think

Minnesota, University of

496

Innovators at Heart A publication for  

E-print Network

Innovators at Heart A publication for those who support heart-related research, education, and care at the University of Minnesota Help improve heart health for future generations with a charitable bequest page 2's health was deteriorating quickly. Within days of suffering a highly damaging heart attack, she learned

Minnesota, University of

497

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute  

E-print Network

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute A T - A - G L A N C E : Physical Activity and Your Heart, is that even modest amounts of physi- cal activity are good for your health, especially your heart health activity is the type of physical activity that benefits your heart the most. This type of activity moves

Bandettini, Peter A.

498

Heart Valve Lesson Plan Biomedical Engineering  

E-print Network

Heart Valve Lesson Plan Biomedical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to biomedical Learning Outcomes · Students will understand the role and function of heart valves. · Students will learn does a heart valve work? · Why do we need to replace heart valves? Time Required (Itemized) · Lecture

Provancher, William

499

Coronary Heart Disease, Hypertension, Stroke, and  

E-print Network

Coronary Heart Disease, Hypertension, Stroke, and Diabetes #12;Coronary Heart Disease: Overview to illnesses caused by atherosclerosis ­ Narrowing of coronary arteries, the vessels that supply the heart that radiates across the chest and arms � Myocardial infarction - heart attack, ischemia - local blood supply

Meagher, Mary

500

Innovators at Heart A publication for  

E-print Network

Innovators at Heart A publication for those who support heart-related research, education, and care heart transplant page 4 Summer 2010 For nearly all of her life, 22-year-old Shannon Beestman has received care at the University of Minnesota to treat her congenital heart defect. Having been under

Minnesota, University of