Sample records for stockholm heart epidemiology

  1. Work related stressful life events and the risk of myocardial infarction. Case-control and case-crossover analyses within the Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Moller, J.; Theorell, T.; de Faire, U.; Ahlbom, A.; Hallqvist, J.

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: Recent changes in labour market conditions and in the organisation of work in developed societies have increased exposure to work related stress. The question is whether this also implies an increased risk of myocardial infarction, either through the triggering effect of acute stress, or through accumulation of stress over several months. Design: A case-control and a case-crossover study design was applied. Setting: The Stockholm heart epidemiology programme (SHEEP), in Stockholm County during 1992 to 1994. Participants: Patients with a first episode of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, a total of 1381 men and women, responded to questionnaires and participated in interviews and health examinations. Main results: The case-crossover analysis showed triggering effects of sudden, short term situations of increased work load or work competition. Having "had a high pressure deadline at work" entailed a sixfold increase in risk of myocardial infarction (OR = 6.0 95% CI (1.8 to 20.4)) during the next 24 hours. The importance of work related life events as risk factors for myocardial infarction was supported by the case-control analysis. However, no support was found for the hypothesis that an accumulation of stressful life events over a period of 12 months increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Conclusion: Specific work related stressful life events seem to be potential triggers of the onset of myocardial infarction. PMID:15598722

  2. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    PubMed Central

    Kolegard, S; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. Design: A population based case-referent study (SHEEP). Setting: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992–1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45–70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by routine statistics on 21 socioeconomic indicators. A factor analysis of the socioeconomic indicators resulted in three dimensions of socioeconomic deprivation, which were analysed separately as three different contextual exposures. Main results: The main characteristics of the extracted factors were; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the strongest contextual impact. The contextual effects among women showed a different pattern. In comparison with women living the most affluent areas according to the class structure index, women in the rest of Stockholm metropolitan area had nearly 70% higher risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for individual social exposures. Conclusions: The results suggest that the socioeconomic context in area of living increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The increased risk in only partially explained by individual social factors (the compositional effect). PMID:11801617

  3. Heart failure epidemiology: European perspective.

    PubMed

    Guha, K; McDonagh, T

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). PMID:23597298

  4. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Júnior, Valdester Cavalcante; Branco, Klébia Magalhães P. Castello; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Carvalho Junior, Waldemiro; Lima, José Rubens Costa; de Freitas, Sílvia Maria; Fraga, Maria Nazaré de Oliveira; de Souza, Nayana Maria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Congenital heart disease is an abnormality in the structure or cardiocirculatory function, occurring from birth, even if diagnosed later. It can result in intrauterine death in childhood or in adulthood. Accounted for 6% of infant deaths in Brazil in 2007. Objective To estimate underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in Brazil and its subtypes. Methods The calculations of prevalence were performed by applying coefficients, giving them function rates for calculations of health problems. The study makes an approach between the literature and the governmental registries. It was adopted an estimate of 9: 1000 births and prevalence rates for subtypes applied to births of 2010. Estimates of births with congenital heart disease were compared with the reports to the Ministry of Health and were studied by descriptive methods with the use of rates and coefficients represented in tables. Results The incidence in Brazil is 25,757 new cases/year, distributed in: North 2,758; Northeast 7,570; Southeast 10,112; South 3,329; and Midwest 1,987. In 2010, were reported to System of Live Birth Information of Ministry of Health 1,377 cases of babies with congenital heart disease, representing 5.3% of the estimated for Brazil. In the same period, the most common subtypes were: ventricular septal defect (7,498); atrial septal defect (4,693); persistent ductus arteriosus (2,490); pulmonary stenosis (1,431); tetralogy of Fallot (973); coarctation of the aorta (973); transposition of the great arteries (887); and aortic stenosis 630. The prevalence of congenital heart disease, for the year of 2009, was 675,495 children and adolescents and 552,092 adults. Conclusion In Brazil, there is underreporting in the prevalence of congenital heart disease, signaling the need for adjustments in the methodology of registration.

  5. [Epidemiology and prognosis of heart failure].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, F

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major and growing health problem in western communities. Recent data indicate that more than 50% of patients with the clinical syndrome of HF have a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF with preserved ejection fraction, HFpEF). In contrast to the calculated expectations, the observed incidence of HF is rising. Despite the fact that the relative proportion of patients with preserved left ventricular function is also increasing, other factors, such as ageing of the population and the concomitant change of compound risk factors may also contribute to the actual rise in the incidence of HF. Patients with HF suffer from reduced exercise capacity, impaired quality of life and also from recurrent hospitalization due to HF. Over the past decades, an increase of recurrent HF events has been documented. In contrast to earlier reports in which HFpEF was considered to be more benign than HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), recent data suggest that once hospitalized for HF, patients with HFpEF and those with HFrEF have a comparable prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing clinical and economic relevance, no treatment has yet been shown to convincingly reduce mortality in HFpEF. In contrast, strategies for improving survival have now been established for HFrEF. The problem of HF will continue to be major challenge for the healthcare systems in western communities; therefore, consolidated clinical research is necessary to further improve therapeutic strategies for HFrEF and to generally establish treatment options for HFpEF. PMID:25822419

  6. Epidemiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Abhinav; Garg, Aayushi; Kaur, Simrat; Chopra, Saurav; Batra, Jaspreet Singh; Pandey, Ambarish; Chaanine, Antoine H; Agarwal, Sunil K

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) and its subtype, HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is on the rise due to aging of the population. HFpEF is convergence of several pathophysiological processes, which are not yet clearly identified. HFpEF is usually seen in association with systemic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, sleep apnea, renal and pulmonary disease. The proportion of HF patients with HFpEF varies by patient demographics, study settings (cohort vs. clinical trial, outpatient clinics vs. hospitalised patients) and cut points used to define preserved function. There is an expanding body of literature about prevalence and prognostic significance of both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities in HFpEF patients. Current therapeutic approaches are targeted towards alleviating the symptoms, treating the associated comorbid conditions, and reducing recurrent hospital admissions. There is lack of evidence-based therapies that show a reduction in the mortality amongst HFpEF patients; however, an improvement in exercise tolerance and quality of life is seen with few interventions. In this review, we highlight the epidemiology and current treatment options for HFpEF. PMID:25224319

  7. STOCKHOLM FRE STOCKHOLM Kurslitteratur hstterminen 2014

    E-print Network

    stadsmuseum. Stockholm (ss.152) LADDA NER: http://www.stadsmuseum.stockholm.se/kma.php?artikel=40&sprak=svenska. 2004. Det svenska jordbrukets historia Bd 1. Jordbrukets första femtusen år 4000 f. Kr. ­ 1000 e

  8. STOCKHOLM FRE STOCKHOLM Kurslitteratur hstterminen 2012

    E-print Network

    stadsmuseum. Stockholm (ss.152) LADDA NER: http://www.stadsmuseum.stockholm.se/kma.php?artikel=40&sprak=svenska.Kr. Del 1. Welinder, Pedersen & Widgren. 2004. Det svenska jordbrukets historia Bd 1. Jordbrukets

  9. Renal dysfunction in acute heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms and assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Carubelli; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi; Luca Bettari; Silvia Bugatti; Valentina Lazzarini; Livio Dei Cas

    Renal dysfunction is often present and\\/or worsens in patients with heart failure and this is associated with increased costs\\u000a of care, complications and mortality. The cardiorenal syndrome can be defined as the presence or development of renal dysfunction\\u000a in patients with heart failure. Its mechanisms are likely related to low cardiac output, increased venous congestion and renal\\u000a venous pressure, neurohormonal

  10. Heart failure and the emergency department: epidemiology, characteristics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Green, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the impact of heart failure on society is enormous. The research community has responded, resulting in an ongoing period of rapid advancement across a wide range of fields. The pace of progress is perhaps most apparent in the barrage of new and revised terminology appearing in the heart failure literature. Although sometimes confusing, the complexity of nomenclature directly reflects a growing appreciation that the symptom complex previously labeled "heart failure" is actually a spectrum of complex multisystem pathologies. Accordingly, clinicians must adopt a more sophisticated and more effective approach to evaluation and treatment that is increasingly based on objective measurement of outcome-linked physiologic parameters rather than the subjectively described symptom constellations relied on previously. PMID:19026380

  11. Epidemiology and risk factors of cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-08-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  12. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cerebral Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Diseases: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Ernest Palomeras; Ruiz, Virgina Casado

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and ischemic heart diseases, common entities nowadays, are the main manifestation of circulatory diseases. Cardiovascular diseases, followed by stroke, represent the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Both entities share risk factors, pathophisiology and etiologic aspects by means of a main common mechanism, atherosclerosis. However, each entity has its own particularities. Ischemic stroke shows a variety of pathogenic mechanisms not present in ischemic heart disease. An ischemic stroke increases the risk of suffering a coronary heart disease, and viceversa. The aim of this chapter is to review data on epidemiology, pathophisiology and risk factors for both entities, considering the differences and similarities that could be found in between them. We discuss traditional risk factors, obtained from epidemiological data, and also some novel ones, such as hyperhomocisteinemia or sleep apnea. We separate risk factors, as clasically, in two groups: nonmodifiables, which includes age, sex, or ethnicity, and modifiables, including hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetis, in order to discuss the role of each factor in both ischemic events, ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease. PMID:21804773

  13. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: lessons from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi-Makaya, Miyuki; Kinugawa, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF). Compared to those with reduced EF, patients with HFPEF are older, more likely to be women, less likely to have coronary artery disease, and more likely to have hypertension and atrial fibrillation. Patients with HFPEF receive different pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatments from those with reduced EF. Morbidity and mortality in patients with HFPEF are largely similar to those with reduced EF. Although much information has recently been obtained about the clinical characteristics, medications, and outcomes of HFPEF by large-scale clinical and epidemiological studies, effective management strategies need to be established for this type of HF. PMID:20122544

  14. Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

  15. Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

  16. Comparing new onset heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and new onset heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: an epidemiologic perspective.

    PubMed

    Brouwers, Frank P; Hillege, Hans L; van Gilst, Wiek H; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J

    2012-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of heart failure is increasing, especially heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) relative to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). For both HFrEF and HFpEF, there is need to shift our focus from secondary to primary prevention. Detailed epidemiologic data on both HFpEF and HFrEF are needed to allow early identification of at-risk subjects. Current cohorts with new onset heart failure lack uniformity with respect to diagnosis, follow-up, and population characteristics, but most important, fail to distinguish between HFpEF and HFrEF. Studies on prevalent heart failure show ischemic heart disease as the predominant risk factor for HFrEF, while hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes are risk factors for HFpEF. As it becomes increasingly clear that both subtypes of heart failure are different syndromes, new cohorts and trials are necessary to obtain separate data on both subtypes of heart failure. PMID:22968403

  17. STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology

    E-print Network

    Brandenburg, Axel

    STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Department of Meteorology Posted at: Stockholm University 2013-04-02 Refnr: SU FV-4.2.3-xxxx-14 Administrator: Cecilia Törnqvist Stockholm University Department of MeteorologyD student position in XX at the Department of Meteorology Ref.nr SU FV-XXXX-14. Application deadline: 2014

  18. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The Western Denmark Heart Registry

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Morten; Maeng, Michael; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Madsen, Morten; Thuesen, Leif; Nielsen, Per Hostrup; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR) has not previously been described as a research tool in clinical epidemiology. Objectives: We examined the setting, organization, content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR. Method: We collected information from members of the WDHR organization, including the committee of representatives, the board, the data management group, and physicians reporting to the database. We retrieved 2008 data from the WDHR to illustrate database variables. Results: The WDHR is a clinical database within a population-based health care system. It was launched on 1 January 1999 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac intervention in Western Denmark (population: 3.3 million) and to allow for clinical and health-service research. More than 200,000 interventions, with 50–150 variables each, have been registered. The data quality is ensured by automatic validation rules at data entry combined with systematic validation procedures and random spot-checks after entry. Conclusions: The WDHR is a valuable research tool because it provides ongoing longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedural data. The Danish national health care system enables this research because it allows complete follow-up for medical events after cardiac intervention by linkage with multiple medical databases. PMID:20865111

  19. Asymptomatic coronary heart disease detected on epidemiological survey of urban population of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, N; Kaul, U; Chadha, S L; Sood, A K; Bhattacharya, D; Radhakrishnan, S

    1992-01-01

    A community based epidemiological study of coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out in a random sample of 13723 adults in the age group of 25-64 years in the urban population of Delhi. The electrocardiogram (ECG) of all clinically detected CHD cases and of a sample of 5621 persons (selected on the basis of alternate household screened) without clinical manifestations of CHD, was obtained. Out of 5621 persons labelled as asymptomatic, CHD evidence of Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) was present in 80 ECGs (1.4%). Another 296 ECGs had ST & T changes vide Minnesota Code 4-1-1, 4-1-2, 5-1 and 5-2 acceptable as evidence of probable CHD. The overall prevalence rate of asymptomatic CHD was 6.7% (male 5.6%, female 7.6%). Silent MI was more common in the male patients (1.7% vs 1.1%, p < 0.001). However, ST-T changes were more common in female patients (6.5% vs 3.9%, p < 0.001). The ST-T changes showed a steady factor in asymptomatic CHD cases was hypertension in both sexes (male-45.2%, female-43.5%) p = NS. Obesity was present in 24% of male & 46.1% of female patients (p < 0.001). Family history was found in 20% cases of both sexes. Smoking was recorded in 34.9% male and 10.9% female patients with asymptomatic CHD (p < 0.001). PMID:1427939

  20. Stockholm Power Tech review

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the highlights of the 1995 International Symposium of Electric Power Engineering held in Stockholm, Sweden. The topics of the article include development of the European electricity supply market, European electricity system, power system organizations, electricity generation in Europe, low economic development in Europe, new investments in generation, influence of the European Commission, development of electricity supply worldwide, influence on cooperation, and a listing of technical paper sessions.

  1. Patients' perceptions of their heart attack and recovery: the influence of epidemiological “evidence” and personal experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rose Wiles

    1998-01-01

    Secondary prevention of heart disease is widely viewed as likely to be more successful and cost effective than primary prevention. However, people's willingness to adopt lifestyle change is a complex issue in which people's perceptions of disease causation and risk as well as a range of socio-economic factors are important. This paper reports on a qualitative study of people following

  2. Letter from stockholm.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per Magnus

    2015-04-01

    Some of the ideas of Sigmund Freud were preceded in a literary form by the Swedish writer August Strindberg in the late 19th century. Psychoanalysis itself was introduced in Sweden about a decade into the 20th century by two rivalling pioneers, the doctors Emanuel af Geijerstam and Poul Bjerre. After a slow start, the Danish-Norwegian Psychoanalytical Society and the Finnish-Swedish Psychoanalytical Society were formed in 1934 in Stockholm. The same year, Ericastiftelsen [The Erica Foundation], a psychotherapeutic clinic for children, was founded by Hanna Bratt. Five years later, in 1939, also in Stockholm, the organization that was to become St. Lukasstiftelsen [The Saint Luke's Foundation] was founded. It has been, and still is, an association that has trained psychodynamic psychotherapists, with a focus on existential, religious and philosophical questions. Today, St. Luke's tries to be up-dated from an academic standpoint. During the Second World War, several important psychoanalysts came to Sweden, for example René de Monchy, Lajos and Edith Székely, and Stefi Pedersen. Ola Andersson's doctoral dissertation ("Studies in the Prehistory of Psychoanalysis", 1962) and the historian Gunnar Brandell's essay ("Freud, a Man of His Century", 1961) have had an international impact. In the last two decades, an authorized and carefully edited translation of Freud's collected works has been published by Natur och Kultur, and the history of psychoanalysis in Sweden has been written at the University of Gothenburg. As a result of a recent interest in the work of Jacques Lacan, and French psychoanalysis, philosophy and literature, the journal Psykoanalytisk Tid/Skrift was founded in 2002, in Gothenburg. Since 2011 the journal is called Arche. The largest organized group of psychoanalysts in Sweden today is the Swedish Psychoanalytical Association (SPAF), which has around 225 members. Since 2008, it no longer has the right to license psychotherapists, a situation which reflects the position of psychoanalysis outside the mainstream of psychiatric health services and academic psychology. Despite the criticism of Freud's thinking from biologically and cognitively oriented theoretical standpoints, the interest in psychoanalysis endures. PMID:25917651

  3. Epidemiology, etiology, detection, and treatment of autoantibody-associated congenital heart block in neonatal lupus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah M. Friedman; Ann Rupel; Jill P. Buyon

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal lupus syndrome is a model of passively acquired autoimmunity in which the pregnant woman’s serum contains specific\\u000a antibodies to 52 or 60 kd SSA\\/Ro and\\/or 48 kd SSB\\/La, which cross the placenta and are associated with the development of\\u000a congenital heart block in the fetus and\\/or a transient rash or various liver and blood cell abnormalities in the newborn.

  4. RECRUITMENT OF AMERICAN INDIANS IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH: THE STRONG HEART STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha L. Stoddart; Betty Jarvis; Beverly Blake; Richard R. Fabsitz; Barbara V. Howard; Elisa T. Lee; Thomas K. Welty

    This paper describes the methods used to recruit American Indian (AI) populations for the Strong Heart Study (SHS), a community-based study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors in AI men and women. Recruitment strategies included personal contact by recruiters and drivers\\/recruiters in remote areas, SHS staff participation in community activities, and mass media. A total of 4,549 participants

  5. Strategic transformation of population studies: recommendations of the working group on epidemiology and population sciences from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts.

    PubMed

    Roger, Véronique L; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D; Douglas, Pamela S; Epstein, Jonathan A; Granger, Christopher B; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M

    2015-03-15

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  6. Epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in Gujaratis in Delhi (India).

    PubMed

    Chadha, S L; Gopinath, N; Ramachandran, K

    1992-04-01

    A community based survey of coronary heart disease (CHD) was carried out in Gujarati families settled in Delhi. The number of adults surveyed in the age group 25-64 yr was 1317. CHD was diagnosed either on the basis of clinical history supported by documentary evidence of treatment in the hospital or at home or on ECG evidence in accordance with the Minnesota Code. The prevalence rate of CHD on clinical history was 25.1 (28.2 in males and 22.4 in females) per 1000 adults (25-64 yr). The prevalence rates were slightly lower in Gujaratis than the general Delhi urban population. The prevalence rate based on both clinical history and ECG criteria was estimated at 66.8 as compared to 96.8/1000 in general urban Delhi population. The risk factors for CHD such as socio-economic status, family history, obesity, smoking, physical activity and hypertension were studied. The mean and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values of blood lipids were also estimated in CHD patients and compared with the control group. Hypertension ranked the leading risk factor. Prevalence rate of CHD was higher in the upper socioeconomic group. The positive correlation of higher levels of serum lipids e.g., total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride with CHD was confirmed. PMID:1428051

  7. 14 Advokaten Nr 5 2014 Barnrttscentrum vid Stockholms universitet genomfrde

    E-print Network

    Barnrättskonferens Drottning Silvia tillsammans med Astrid Söderbergh Widding, rektor för Stockholms universitet, och milstolpe för barns rättigheter Elisabet Fura. astrid söderbergh wid- ding, rektor för Stockholms

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA. CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN JAPAN AND HAWAII

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...

  9. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  10. Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

  11. A Meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: The cohorts for heart and aging research in genomic epidemiology consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Newman; S. Walter; K. L. Lunetta; M. E. Garcia; P. E. Slagboom; K. Christensen; A. M. Arnold; T. Aspelund; Y. S. Aulchenko; E. J. Benjamin; L. Christiansen; R. B. D'Agostino; A. L. Fitzpatrick; N. Franceschini; N. L. Glazer; V. Gudnason; A. Hofman; R. Kaplan; D. Karasik; M. Kelly-Hayes; D. P. Kiel; L. J. Launer; K. D. Marciante; J. M. Massaro; I. Miljkovic; M. A. Nalls; D. G. Hernandez; B. M. Psaty; F. Rivadeneira Ramirez; J. I. Rotter; S. Seshadri; A. V. Smith; K. D. Taylor; H. Tiemeier; H. W. Uh; A. G. Uitterlinden; J. W. Vaupel; J. Walston; R. G. J. Westendorp; T. B. Harris; T. Lumley; P. Tikka-Kleemola; J. M. Murabito

    2010-01-01

    Background.Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity.Methods.We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene\\/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90

  12. Stockholms universitet Antikens kultur och samhllsliv

    E-print Network

    Houby-Nielsen, Statens museer för världskultur: Den svenska Cypernexpeditionen 1927-1931 kl. 17-19 Besök svenska grävningen i Grekland Tisdag-lördag 22-26/4 Nordic TAG -konferens i Stockholm, se särskilt program

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P...

  14. The Stockholm Educational AirThe Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA)Shower Array (SEASA)

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    The Stockholm Educational AirThe Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array (SEASA)Shower Array (SEASA collaboration. #12;? · Fastest tennis serve (68 g @ 246 km/h) · ~1019 eV / ~5 Joules #12;Cosmic ray air showerCosmic ray air shower Long-lived Stable Short-lived Top of atmosphere Ground ~40km #12;Detecting cosmic ray

  15. ISMB/ECCB 2009 Stockholm

    PubMed Central

    Sagot, Marie-France; McKay, B.J. Morrison; Myers, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org) presents the Seventeenth Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), organized jointly with the Eighth Annual European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB; http://bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/conferences/eccb/eccb.htm), in Stockholm, Sweden, 27 June to 2 July 2009. The organizers are putting the finishing touches on the year's premier computational biology conference, with an expected attendance of 1400 computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, biologists and scientists from other disciplines related to and reliant on this multi-disciplinary science. ISMB/ECCB 2009 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2009/) follows the framework introduced at the ISMB/ECCB 2007 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2007/) in Vienna, and further refined at the ISMB 2008 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2008/) in Toronto; a framework developed to specifically encourage increased participation from often under-represented disciplines at conferences on computational biology. During the main ISMB conference dates of 29 June to 2 July, keynote talks from highly regarded scientists, including ISCB Award winners, are the featured presentations that bring all attendees together twice a day. The remainder of each day offers a carefully balanced selection of parallel sessions to choose from: proceedings papers, special sessions on emerging topics, highlights of the past year's published research, special interest group meetings, technology demonstrations, workshops and several unique sessions of value to the broad audience of students, faculty and industry researchers. Several hundred posters displayed for the duration of the conference has become a standard of the ISMB and ECCB conference series, and an extensive commercial exhibition showcases the latest bioinformatics publications, software, hardware and services available on the market today. The main conference is preceded by 2 days of Special Interest Group (SIG) and Satellite meetings running in parallel to the fifth Student Council Symposium on 27 June, and in parallel to Tutorials on 28 June. All scientific sessions take place at the Stockholmsmässan/Stockholm International Fairs conference and exposition facility. Contact: bj@iscb.org PMID:19447790

  16. Associations of NINJ2 Sequence Variants with Incident Ischemic Stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Bis, Joshua C.; DeStefano, Anita; Liu, Xiaoming; Brody, Jennifer A.; Choi, Seung Hoan; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Debette, Stéphanie; Ikram, M. Arfan; Shahar, Eyal; Butler, Kenneth R.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Muzny, Donna; Kovar, Christie L.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Hofman, Albert; Lumley, Thomas; Gupta, Mayetri; Wolf, Philip A.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Longstreth, W. T.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Seshadri, Sudha; Fornage, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk. Methods and Results We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ? 1%) confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF?=?0.012), most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR?=?1.80, p?=?0.0003). Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF? 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR?=?0.81; p?=?0.026). Conclusion Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24959832

  17. Lessons from the Stockholm congestion charging trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Eliasson

    2008-01-01

    The Stockholm congestion charging trial in 2006 resulted in large effects on traffic volumes and congestion. During the trial, public opinion gradually changed from a large majority opposed to the charges to a small majority in favour of them, and a referendum resulted in the charges being reintroduced in 2007. This paper summarises effects on traffic, travel times, travel patterns

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Stockholm Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment,…

  19. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2010 Contents 1. Introduction 2 and activities at the depart- ment of Mechanics, KTH during the year of 2010. More information may be found basic, interme- diate, advanced-level as well as graduate courses in mechanics, fluid mechanics

  20. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2007 Contents 1. Introduction 2. 3 Publications during 2007 5. 4 Seminars at Mechanics, KTH 1 #12;Preface This report gives a short overview of the structure and activities at the depart- ment of Mechanics, KTH during the year of 2007

  1. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2006 Contents 1. Introduction 2. 3 Publications and conference presentations during 2006 5. 4 Seminars at Mechanics, KTH 1 #12 of Mechanics, KTH during the year of 2006. More information may be found at the department web site http

  2. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2005 Contents 1. Introduction 2. 3 Publications and conference presentations during 2005 5. 4 Seminars at Mechanics, KTH 1 #12 of Mechanics, KTH during the year of 2005. More information may be found at the department web site http

  3. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2009 Contents 1. Introduction 2 a short overview of the structure and activities at the depart- ment of Mechanics, KTH during the year courses in mechanics, fluid mechanics and structural mechanics given for students and programmes from

  4. KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    KTH Mechanics SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2008 Contents 1. Introduction 2 a short overview of the structure and activities at the depart- ment of Mechanics, KTH during the year courses in mechanics, fluid mechanics and structural mechanics given for students and programmes at almost

  5. Heart failure in 2010.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; AlMahmeed, Wael

    2010-09-01

    The Heart Failure Congress 2010 in Berlin presented the latest trials and trends in the medical and mechanical therapy of heart failure in the presence of impaired or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. It covered all aspects of heart failure from epidemiology through basic and translational science to prevention. The congress highlighted new drugs, novel biomarkers, updated trials, the role of imaging in risk stratification and the importance of telecare in the reduction of heart failure readmission. PMID:20828344

  6. Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

  7. Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

  8. Social Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

    Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

  9. Congenital heart malformations in Jutland, Denmark: a three year necropsy study in children aged 0-14 years. Epidemiology and classification according to sequential segmental analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Vesterby, A; Nielsen, K; Borg, L; Paulsen, S; Baandrup, U

    1987-01-01

    The use of sequential segmental analysis for describing congenital heart malformations was the method of assessment used in a prospective necropsy study covering Jutland, a well defined geographical and demographic area of Denmark. The study group was 1,154 children of whom 261 (22.6%) had a congenital heart malformation. The most common malformations were ductus arteriosus and ventricular septal defect and there were 77 cases in which connections between chambers or between chambers and great arteries were anomalous (68 liveborn; 37 male and 31 female: nine stillborn; two male and seven female). No difference in sex distribution or seasonal variation was found between those with congenital heart disease and those without. Extracardiac malformations and chromosomal abnormalities were more often seen in children with congenital heart malformation than those without (30.3% vs 16.6%). The sequential segmental analysis is a logical and precise way of describing congenital heart malformations and it should be routinely used to classify cases of congenital heart malformation. PMID:3426901

  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dara Entekhabi Bacardi and Stockholm Water

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dara Entekhabi Bacardi and Stockholm Water Foundations­253­9698 Email darae@mit.edu http://cee.mit.edu/entekhabi January 1, 2012 Dear colleagues, alumni and friends

  11. Dara Entekhabi Bacardi and Stockholm Water Foundations Professor

    E-print Network

    Polz, Martin

    1 Dara Entekhabi Bacardi and Stockholm Water Foundations Professor Ralph M. Parsons Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Telephone: (617) 253-9698 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 E-Mail: darae

  12. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  13. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.

  14. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

  15. Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/Ã?stekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

  16. Diastolic Heart Failure in the Elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalane W. Kitzman

    2002-01-01

    It is now clear that diastolic heart failure (DHF) is an important, perhaps even dominant form of heart failure in older Americans. However, our knowledge base regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and therapy of this relatively recently recognized disorder is limited. A number of normal age related changes in the heart and vascular system may predispose to or lower

  17. A Meta-analysis of Four Genome-Wide Association Studies of Survival to Age 90 Years or Older: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M.; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P.; Launer, Lenore J.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaupel, James W.; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Murabito, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. Methods. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. Results. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 × 10?8. Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 × 10?7 for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Conclusion. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings. PMID:20304771

  18. 66 FR 31679 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request The Framingham Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-06-12

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, 6701...

  19. 65 FR 25338 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-05-01

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Submission...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...

  20. 65 FR 78177 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-12-14

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Submission...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...

  1. 66 FR 20820 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-04-25

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed...data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...

  2. 65 FR 50999 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-22

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Proposed...data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Epidemiology and Clinical Applications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. [FR...

  3. Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    Topics Related to Surgery What is a heart transplant? A heart transplant replaces the patient's heart with a donor heart. Doctors remove the patient's heart by transecting the aorta, the main pulmonary ...

  4. The Stockholm EPR Corpus - Characteristics and Some Initial Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hercules Dalianis; Martin Hassel; Sumithra Velupillai

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of the Stockholm Electronic Patient Record Corpus (the SEPR Corpus), an important resource for performing research on clinical data. The whole SEPR corpus contains over one million patient records from over 2 000 clinics. We compare parts of the SEPR corpus with the Swedish PAROLE Corpus and describe the differences and similarities. We also describe

  5. The Stockholm congestion – charging trial 2006: Overview of effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Eliasson; Lars Hultkrantz; Lena Nerhagen; Lena Smidfelt Rosqvist

    2009-01-01

    The Stockholm congestion charging trial in 2006 demonstrated the effects of a full-scale time-differentiated urban road toll scheme. Improvements in travel times were large enough to be perceived by the general public. This was pivotal to the radical change of public attitudes that occurred during the trial and that resulted in a positive outcome of a subsequent referendum on a

  6. Congestion charges in Stockholm: how have they affected retail revenues?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Olov Daunfeldt; Niklas Rudholm; Ulf Rämme

    2011-01-01

    Did the introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm city reduce retail revenues? Data from 20 shopping malls – 8 within the toll area, and 12 outside the toll area – and from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets was analysed using an intervention-control approach. Favourable outcomes, such as reduced traffic, less emissions of carbon-dioxide and

  7. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 87: 331340 (October 2006) 2006The Authors

    E-print Network

    Sever, David M.

    aggregations in the spermatheca of the red back salamander (Plethodon cinereus). -- Acta Zoologica (Stockholm in the spermatheca of the red back salamander (Plethodon cinereus) David M. Sever and Dustin S. Siegel Department, salamander, sperm storage, spermatheca, ultrastructure, urodela Accepted for publication: 28 July 2006

  8. Stockholm Recommendation 96: Viable in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.; Roth, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has taken steps to develop and implement a comprehensive plan (called Plan Sierra) for national natural resources management. The plan (which includes an environmental education component) demonstrates a commitment to Stockholm Recommendation 96 in a way that could become a model for other Latin American nations. (JN)

  9. A foodborne outbreak of Cyclospora infection in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Insulander, Mona; Svenungsson, Bo; Lebbad, Marianne; Karlsson, Lillemor; de Jong, Birgitta

    2010-12-01

    During May and June 2009 an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis infection involving 12 laboratory-confirmed and 6 probable cases was detected in Stockholm County, Sweden. Imported sugar snap peas from Guatemala were the suspected vehicle, based on information obtained from patient questionnaires. This is the first reported outbreak of cyclosporiasis in Sweden and the second in Europe. PMID:20807111

  10. Department of Mechanics KTH, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    . Ian Cohen started part-time retirement (65%). Professor Bengt Enflo reached retirement age in June 2000, but continues on a part-time basis (15%). Jan Str¨oman retired afterDepartment of Mechanics KTH, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Activity Report 2000 Contents 1

  11. Stockholm's Day-Care Centres: 1974-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Nils-Olof; Sellebjerg, Asa

    The intention of this lavishly illustrated brochure is to show how a decade of expansion in day care services in Stockholm was organized and to depict the different types of centers built between 1974 and 1984 in response to a municipal directive to meet the huge need for day care services by building new centers. Introductory material provides a…

  12. Environmental Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

  13. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Boushey

    Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

  14. Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden USING IMAGING AND MODELING TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATION

    E-print Network

    Story, Brad H.

    Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm TO ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS Brad H. Story Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences University of Arizona of the vocal tract as a versatile acoustic device capable of producing a wide range of possible vowel and vowel

  15. Prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in Latin American, Middle Eastern, and North African Regions in the I PREFER study (Identification of Patients With Heart Failure and PREserved Systolic Function: an epidemiological regional study).

    PubMed

    Magaña-Serrano, José A; Almahmeed, Wael; Gomez, Efrain; Al-Shamiri, Mostafa; Adgar, Djamila; Sosner, Philippe; Herpin, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF) in patients with HF and to compare their clinical characteristics with those with reduced ejection fraction in non-Western countries. The left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45% if measured < 1 year before the visit was used to qualify the patients as having HF-PEF. Of the 2,536 consecutive outpatients with HF, 1990 (79%) had the EF values recorded. Of these patients, 1291 had HF-PEF, leading to an overall prevalence of 65% (95% confidence interval 63% to 67%). Compared to the patients with HF and a reduced ejection fraction, those with HF-PEF were more likely to be older (65 vs 62 years, p < 0.001), female (50% vs 28%, p < 0.001), and obese (39% vs 27%, p < 0.001). They more frequently had a history of hypertension (78% vs 53%, p < 0.001) and atrial fibrillation (29% vs 24%, p = 0.03) and less frequently had a history of myocardial infarction (21% vs 44%, p < 0.001). Only 29% of patients with HF-PEF and hypertension had optimal blood pressure control. Left ventricular hypertrophy was less frequent in those with HF-PEF (58% vs 69%, p < 0.001). The prevalence of HF-PEF was lower in the Middle East (41%), where coronary artery disease was more often found than in Latin America (69%) and North Africa (75%), where the rate of hypertension was greater. In conclusion, in the present diverse non-Western study, HF-PEF represented almost 2/3 of all HF cases in outpatients. HF-PEF mostly affects older patients, women, and the obese. Hypertension was the most frequently associated risk factor, highlighting the need for optimal blood pressure control. PMID:22000627

  16. Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ... pressure and the related problems. Changes to Your Heart With Age Aging can cause changes in the ...

  17. Heart to Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. They brainstorm ideas that pertain to various heart conditions and organize these ideas into categories that help them research possible solutions. An expert in the field of cardiac valve research was interviewed for this lesson and shares his ideas with the class. Students conclude by researching various possible heart defects.

  18. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  19. Association of Levels of Fasting Glucose and Insulin with Rare Variants at the Chromosome 11p11.2-MADD Locus: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikpoor, Naghmeh; Morrison, Alanna C.; Chu, Huan; Ahn, Byung Soo; Wang, Shuai; Dauriz, Marco; Barzilay, Joshua I.; Dupuis, Josée; Florez, Jose C.; Coresh, Josef; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Liu, Ching-Ti; McKnight, Barbara; Muzny, Donna; Pankow, James S.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; White, Charles C.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Wong, Tien Y.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David S.; Sladek, Robert; Meigs, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Common variation at the 11p11.2 locus, encompassing MADD, ACP2, NR1H3, MYBPC3 and SPI1, has been associated in genome-wide association studies with fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI). In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Targeted Sequencing Study, we sequenced five gene regions at 11p11.2 to identify rare, potentially functional variants influencing FG or FI levels. Method & Results Sequencing (mean depth 38×) across 16.1kb in 3,566 non-diabetic individuals identified 653 variants, 79.9% of which were rare (MAF <1%) and novel. We analyzed rare variants in five gene regions with FI or FG using the Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT). At NR1H3, 53 rare variants were jointly associated with FI (p=2.73 × 10?3); of these, seven were predicted to have regulatory function and showed association with FI (p=1.28 × 10?3). Conditioning on two previously associated variants at MADD (rs7944584, rs10838687) did not attenuate this association, suggesting that there are more than two independent signals at 11p11.2. One predicted regulatory variant, chr11:47227430 (hg18; MAF 0.00068), contributed 20.6% to the overall SKAT score at NR1H3, lies in intron 2 of NR1H3 and is a predicted binding site for FOXA1, a transcription factor associated with insulin regulation. In human HepG2 hepatoma cells, the rare chr11:47227430 A allele disrupted FOXA1 binding and reduced FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. Conclusion Sequencing at 11p11.2- NR1H3 identified rare variation associated with FI. One variant, chr11:47227430, appears to be functional, with the rare A allele reducing transcription factor FOXA1 binding and FOXA1-dependent transcriptional activity. PMID:24951664

  20. The development of public attitudes towards the Stockholm congestion trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Winslott-Hiselius; Karin Brundell-Freij; Åsa Vagland; Camilla Byström

    2009-01-01

    A full-scale congestion charging trial was carried out in Stockholm the first months of 2006. Almost half of respondents in a county-wide survey stated that they changed their attitudes towards congestion charges during the trial. Most of them became more positive.An analysis of media shows that the attitudinal change in media towards the trial coincides with the attitudinal change of

  1. The Genesis and Evolution of the Stockholm Music Cluster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pontus Braunerhjelm

    \\u000a Why do superstars like and Bon Jovi, Britney Spears, Maddona and Ricky Martin, to an increasing extent choose Swedish composers\\u000a and producers in an industry characterized by extremely fierce international competition? Bergen, Copenhagen, Dublin, London,\\u000a Los Angeles, Manchester, New York, Paris and Seattle are some of the more prominent competitors to the Swedish – particularly\\u000a Stockholm – music clusters. What

  2. Comparison between RFLP and MIRU-VNTR Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated in Stockholm 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Jerker; Hoffner, Sven; Berggren, Ingela; Bruchfeld, Judith; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Groenheit, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze the difference between methods for genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates. We collected genotyping results from Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) in a geographically limited area (Stockholm) during a period of three years. The number and proportion of isolates belonging to clusters was reduced by 45 and 35% respectively when combining the two methods compared with using RFLP or MIRU-VNTR only. The mean size of the clusters was smaller when combining methods and smaller with RFLP compared to MIRU-VNTR. In clusters with confirmed epidemiological links RFLP coincided slightly better than MIRU-VNTR but where there was a difference, the variation in MIRU-VNTR pattern was only in a single locus. In isolates with few IS6110 bands in RFLP, MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates more, dividing the RFLP clusters. Since MIRU-VNTR is faster and less labour-intensive it is the method of choice for routine genotyping. In most cases it will be sufficient for epidemiological purposes but true clustering might still be considered if there are epidemiological links and the MIRU-VNTR results differ in only one of its 24 loci. PMID:24733167

  3. [Heart rate: clinical variable and risk marker].

    PubMed

    Custodis, F; Reil, J-C; Schirmer, S H; Adam, O; Möhlenkamp, S; Laufs, U; Böhm, M

    2014-08-01

    Heart rate is an easily accessible clinical variable with wide-ranging prognostic impact. Elevated resting heart rate predicts an elevated cardiovascular risk. Epidemiological studies demonstrate a relevant association between heart rate and survival in individuals without diagnosed cardiovascular disease and with cardiovascular disease like hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure. Whereas a goal directed pharmacological heart rate reduction is not supported by clinical evidence for primary prevention it plays a prognostic role for patients with CAD? and chronic heart failure. Moreover heart rate can be characterized as an independent risk factor for patients with heart failure and potentially for those with CAD. As a result the common guidelines recommend heart rate reduction as a target of therapy. PMID:25093954

  4. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  5. Lack of Associations of Ten Candidate Coronary Heart Disease Risk Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Four U.S. Populations: the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Franceschini, Nora; Buzkova, Petra; Wassel, Christina L.; Roman, Mary J.; North, Kari E.; Crawford, Dana C.; Boston, Jonathan; Brown-Gentry, Kristin D.; Cole, Shelley A.; Deelman, Ewa; Goodloe, Robert; Heiss, Gerardo; Jenny, Nancy S.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Matise, Tara C.; McClellan, Bob E.; Nato, Alejandro Q.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Wilson, Sarah; Kao, WH Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of genetic variants have been discovered by recent genome-wide association studies for their associations with clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether these variants are also associated with the development of CHD as measured by subclinical atherosclerosis phenotypes, ankle brachial index (ABI), carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque. Methods Ten CHD risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in individuals of European American (EA), African American (AA), American Indian (AI), and Mexican American (MA) ancestry in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. In each individual study, we performed linear or logistic regression to examine population-specific associations between SNPs and ABI, common and internal cIMT, and plaque. The results from individual studies were meta-analyzed using a fixed effect inverse variance weighted model. Results None of the ten SNPs was significantly associated with ABI and common or internal cIMT, after Bonferroni correction. In the sample of 13,337 EA, 3,809 AA, and 5,353 AI individuals with carotid plaque measurement, the GCKR SNP rs780094 was significantly associated with the presence of plaque in AI only (OR = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.49, P = 1.08 × 10?5), but not in the other populations (P = 0.90 in EA and P = 0.99 in AA). A 9p21 region SNP, rs1333049, was nominally associated with plaque in EA (OR = 1.07, P = 0.02) and in AI (OR = 1.10, P = 0.05). Conclusions We identified a significant association between rs780094 and plaque in AI populations, which needs to be replicated in future studies. There was little evidence that the index CHD risk variants identified through genome-wide association studies in EA influence the development of CHD through subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by cIMT and ABI across ancestries. PMID:23587283

  6. Some Relations between the Stockholm and Tartu Observatories during the 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Michael

    This article introduces the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the old Stockholm Observatory. It focuses on the Swedish astronomers Jöns Svanberg and Nils H. Selander, and on their work with the Struve Geodetic Arc. The particular relations to the Tartu Observatory through Oskar Backlund and the contemporary Swedish astronomers in Stockholm are traced.

  7. Comparison of two dynamic transportation models: The case of Stockholm congestion charging

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Comparison of two dynamic transportation models: The case of Stockholm congestion charging Leonid) Abstract This paper reviews the transportation models used for predicting impacts of congestion charging for the Stockholm baseline situation without charges and applied for modeling effects of congestion charging

  8. Congestion charges and retail revenues: Results from the Stockholm road pricing trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Olov Daunfeldt; Niklas Rudholm; Ulf Rämme

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the Stockholm road pricing trial on retail revenues. The analysis is performed using revenue data from 14 shopping malls, 9 within the tool area and 5 outside the tool area. The data also include revenue data from a sample of retail stores located along the main shopping streets in Stockholm. The results show that

  9. The unexpected “yes”: Explanatory factors behind the positive attitudes to congestion charges in Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Eliasson; Lina Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have argued that acceptability for road pricing is likely to increase with familiarity. The experiences in Stockholm, where a trial period with congestion charges changed the public opinion from negative to positive, support this hypothesis. Analysing acceptability and attitudes in Stockholm allows us to study a situation where the population is in fact familiar with congestion charges, and

  10. Framing the role of Decision Support in the case of Stockholm Congestion Charging Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Gudmundsson; Eva Ericsson; Muriel Beser Hugosson; Lena Smidfelt Rosqvist

    2009-01-01

    Congestion charging was – as a trial – introduced in Stockholm from January 3rd to July 31st 2006. After the referendum in September 2006, the charging system was finally introduced as permanent from August 2007 with some adjustments to the Trial design. The idea of congestion charging is unique in a Swedish context, and the introduction of the Stockholm system

  11. Stockholm Environment Institute, Project Report -2013 Global Ageing and Environmental Change

    E-print Network

    #12;Stockholm Environment Institute Kräftriket 2B 106 91 Stockholm Sweden Tel: +46 8 674 7070 Fax: +46 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form of the Third Age. Finally, we would like to thank all the respondents who generously gave of their time

  12. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Attack: What is a Heart Attack? In This Topic What is a Heart Attack? Symptoms Causes and ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Heart Failure High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Pressure ...

  13. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? Español A heart attack happens when the ... it may cause severe or long-lasting problems. Heart With Muscle Damage and a Blocked Artery Figure ...

  14. Heart Failure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  15. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Click here for a Flash version of this illustration. Your heart is located between your lungs in ... valve and into your body. The Heart Valves (illustration) Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart: ...

  16. Stockholm syndrome manifestation of Munchausen: an eye-catching misnomer.

    PubMed

    Spuijbroek, Esther J; Blom, Nicole; Braam, Arjan W; Kahn, David A

    2012-07-01

    A young woman hospitalized herself for a picture resembling Stockholm syndrome (becoming a willing captive in a cult, sympathetic to the leader). After a short period of time, it became clear that she had used a false identity and had invented the story, leading to diagnoses of both Munchausen syndrome and dissociative identity disorder. Despite a long period of treatment, she eventually suicided. The authors examine the coexistence of these two unusual disorders and their possible shared etiologies in this complex case. PMID:22805905

  17. Periodontal diseases: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, P N

    1996-11-01

    1. The interpretation of epidemiological data of periodontal disease is difficult, due to inconsistencies in the methodology used. It is not possible, therefore, to accurately assess if the prevalence of the periodontal diseases shows a world-wide decline. As long as the disease is assessed through accumulated clinical attachment loss, retention of the natural dentition in older ages entails increased prevalence in these cohorts. Contemporary epidemiological studies should ideally employ full-mouth examination of the periodontal tissues. Partial recording estimates are generally biased, especially when the prevalence of the disease is low. 2. Early-onset periodontitis is infrequent in all populations. Adult periodontitis is rather prevalent; however, advanced disease affects limited subfractions of the population (probably less than 10 to 15%). Although prevalence figures vary with race and geographic region, in most cases, the progression pattern of the disease seems compatible with the retention of a functional dentition throughout life. 3. Of a plethora of behavioral and environmental risk markers identified by multi-variate analysis, smoking and presence of certain subgingival microorganisms have been proven to be true risk factors. The same holds true for diabetes mellitus, a systemic condition that confers a risk for periodontal disease which is independent of the effect of other significant factors. 4. In certain cases, periodontal infections appear to have a systemic impact on the host. Most recent data indicate that periodontal disease may confer risk for coronary heart disease and pre-term low birth weight. PMID:9118256

  18. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  19. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

    Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

  20. Treatment of Hypertension in the Prevention and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-25

    This is a scientific statement on treatment of hypertension and management of ischemic heart disease from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention

  1. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  2. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePLUS

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  3. Heart Murmur

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Related Topics Anemia Congenital Heart Defects Heart Valve Disease Holes in the Heart How the Heart Works Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | PRINT | SHARE this page from the NHLBI BOOKMARK & SHARE X Share this page from the NHLBI on Blogger. ...

  4. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  5. 12/01/2011 Article 1 1/23 Influence of blood glucose on heart rate and cardiac autonomic function.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    12/01/2011 Article 1 1/23 Influence of blood glucose on heart rate and cardiac autonomic function population, the effect of dysglycaemia, insulin resistance and metabolic parameters, on heart rate (HR), HR of HRV. Keywords: diabetes, epidemiology, heart rate, heart rate variability, heart rate recovery inserm

  6. Heart Problems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joey

    2008-10-15

    In this section we will review the major heart problems that you may encounter. Objectives -Understand the possible complications related to your heart -Identify resources that are available for Cardiology Cardiac Compromise 1. Chest pain results from ischemia 2. Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart. 3. If blood flow is not restored, the tissue dies. Heart pumping with electrical activity Atherosclerosis 1. Materials build up inside blood vessels. 2. ...

  7. Engineering the Heart: Heart Valves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn how healthy human heart valves function and the different diseases that can affect heart valves. They also learn about devices and procedures that biomedical engineers have designed to help people with damaged or diseased heart valves. Students learn about the pros and cons of different materials and how doctors choose which engineered artificial heart valves are appropriate for certain people.

  8. [Tuberculosis epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015. PMID:25131367

  9. Heart Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Laflamme, Michael A.; Murry, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Preface Heart failure plagues industrialized nations, killing more people than any other disease. Heart failure usually results from a deficiency of cardiomyocytes, and a robust therapy to regenerate lost myocardium could help millions of patients a year. Heart regeneration is well documented in lower vertebrates and in developing mammals. After we are born, however, human heart regeneration becomes limited. In this article, Laflamme and Murry review the innate barriers to heart regeneration, the evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans, and current experimental strategies to remuscularize the injured heart using adult and pluripotent stem cells, cellular reprogramming and tissue engineering. PMID:21593865

  10. Freningen Svenska Istanbulinstitutets Vnner SKEPPARGATAN 8, 3TR 114 52 STOCKHOLM PLUSGIRO 997 52-8

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Föreningen Svenska Istanbulinstitutets Vänner SKEPPARGATAN 8, 3TR · 114 52 STOCKHOLM · PLUSGIRO 997 Turkiet, Väst- och Centralasien 2014 Föreningen Svenska Istanbulinstitutets Vänner utlyser härmed ett Svenska Forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul. Projektet kan vara ett led i såväl akademisk forskning som

  11. NORDITA FELLOWSHIPS 2014 -2016 Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in Stockholm, Sweden, invites

    E-print Network

    NORDITA FELLOWSHIPS 2014 - 2016 Nordita, the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in Stockholm, Sweden, invites applications for post-doctoral fellowships in theoretical physics. The deadline. Research at Nordita covers a wide range of modern theoretical physics including astrophysics

  12. Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  13. Heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure remains a major global problem with approximately 6 million individuals suffering from heart failure in the United States alone. The surgical technique of heart transplantation, popularized by Dr. Norman Shumway, has led to its success and currently remains the best treatment options for patients with end-stage. However, with the continued limitation of donor organs and the rapid development of ventricular assist device technology, the number of patients bridged to transplant with mechanical circulatory support has increased significantly. This has created some new technical challenges for heart transplantation. Therefore, it is now important to be familiar with multiple new technical challenges associated with the surgical techniques of heart transplantation with an ultimate goal in reducing donor heart ischemic time, recipient cardiopulmonary bypass time and post-operative complications. In this review, we described our technique of heart transplantation including the timing of the operation, recipient cardiectomy and donor heart implantation. PMID:25132977

  14. Modelling of resource allocation to health care authorities in Stockholm County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-Å. Andersson; E. Varde; F. Diderichsen

    2000-01-01

    Since the Stockholm County Council introduced a system of purchasers and providers there has been a quest for population-based\\u000a resource allocation models to allocate monies to purchasers of health care. In contrast to models used in Britain, Swedish\\u000a models have been based on individual level data. This paper presents recent developments in the model used in Stockholm for\\u000a all care

  15. Green cars sterilize congestion charges: A model analysis of the reduced impact of Stockholm road tolls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Hultkrantz; Xing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Before–after comparisons indicate that the impact of the road toll in Stockholm on traffic volumes was smaller when the system was re-opened in 2007, compared to the effect during the trial in 2006. We calibrate a modal-choice model on data for Stockholm from before and during the trial and use it to simulate the effects of some seemingly subtle changes

  16. Heart regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Laflamme; Charles E. Murry

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure plagues industrialized nations, killing more people than any other disease. It usually results from a deficiency of specialized cardiac muscle cells known as cardiomyocytes, and a robust therapy to regenerate lost myocardium could help millions of patients every year. Heart regeneration is well documented in amphibia and fish and in developing mammals. After birth, however, human heart regeneration

  17. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  18. [Clinical epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ohyashiki, K

    2001-12-01

    Although the exact incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) in Japan is obscure, the occurrence rate of CML is approximately 15% of all leukemia patients in Japan, and thus about 5/100,000 cases appeared per year. This incidence of CML seems to be lower that that of Caucasian, but the incidence of CML patients in Japan may increase gradually. Molecular investigation in CML disclosed the exact mechanism of t(9; 22) anomaly, thus providing appropriate classification for chronic myeloid leukemia. From the etiological aspect, it is well documented that exposure to atomic bomb at Nagasaki and Hiroshima actually induced CML, however, factors other than irradiation are still obscure. Recent spread of annual examination pick up some CML patients at the early phase and the disease severity might be thus different from those of previous CML patients. For example, currently diagnosed CML patients usually lack palpable splenomegaly and some of them had normal karyotypes in addition to Ph-cells in the bone marrow at the time of CML diagnosis. These findings indicate that epidemiological aspect in CML patients might be changing. PMID:11766349

  19. What Causes Heart Murmurs?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Murmurs? Innocent Heart Murmurs Why some people have innocent heart murmurs ... that occur in pregnant women are innocent. Abnormal Heart Murmurs Congenital heart defects or acquired heart valve ...

  20. Stockholm '72. A Bibliography of Selected Post-Conference Articles and Documents on the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, June 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ENVIRO/INFO, Green Bay, WI.

    The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) led to a number of conferences and articles. This bibliography lists a sampling of the articles and documents that followed the conference. Most of the publications are summary in nature, though some are evaluative. Information for each of the 68 entries includes author, title,…

  1. Reciprocity and communication of partner quality Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden (olof.leimar@zool.su.se)

    E-print Network

    Leimar, Olof

    University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden (olof.leimar@zool.su.se) SUMMARY In a cooperative exchange, the size. Reciprocity operates when an initially present inclination to help a part- ner is reduced by the partner individual to the next and over time for a given individual, al- though the characteristics of a potential

  2. Nuts and Berries for Heart Health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Ros; Linda C. Tapsell; Joan Sabaté

    2010-01-01

    Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as\\u000a L-arginine, fiber, minerals, tocopherols, phytosterols, and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely\\u000a to beneficially impact heart health. Epidemiologic studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of coronary\\u000a heart disease in both genders and diabetes in women.

  3. Age at immigration and crime in Stockholm using sibling comparisons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Past Swedish research has shown that immigrants arriving in the receiving country at an older age are less likely to commit crime than immigrants arriving at a younger age. Segmented assimilation theory argues that the family and neighborhood may be important factors affecting how age at immigration and crime are related to one another. This study used population-based register data on foreign-background males from Stockholm to test the effect of age at immigration on crime. Potential confounding from the family and neighborhood was addressed using variables and modeling strategies. Initial results, using variables to control for confounding, showed that people who immigrated around age 4 were the most likely to be suspected of a crime. When controlling for unmeasured family characteristics, it seemed that a later age at immigration was tied to a lower likelihood of crime, which does not corroborate past research findings. The effect of age at immigration, however, was not statistically significant. The results imply that future research on entire families may be a worthwhile endeavor. PMID:26188451

  4. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States Geography Seasonality Persons at risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Anaplasmosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Anaplasmosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  5. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  6. H. EULER. 2014 Vitesse des ractions chimiques (Oefvers. Kongl. Vet.-Akad.Stockholm, t. LIX, n 2, p. 57-65; 1902).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    136 H. EULER. 2014 Vitesse des réactions chimiques (Oefvers. Kongl. Vet.-Akad.Stockholm, t. LIX, n. Kongl. Vet.-Akad. Stockholm, t. LIX, n° 2, p. 53-57; 1902). Dans un précédent travail, l'auteur avait

  7. The prognostic importance of anemia in patients with heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikhail Kosiborod; Grace L Smith; Martha J Radford; JoAnne M Foody; Harlan M Krumholz

    2003-01-01

    PurposePhysiologic studies have suggested that anemia could adversely affect the cardiovascular condition of patients with heart failure. Yet, the prognostic importance of this treatable condition is not well established by epidemiologic studies. We sought to determine the prognostic value of hematocrit level in a cohort of elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure.

  8. The Department of Epidemiology and

    E-print Network

    of Epidemiologic Studies and Clinical Trials 3 EPI 815 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease, or EPI 823 Cancer Nutritional Epidemiology EPI 815 Cardiovascular Epidemiology EPI 816 Perinatal Epidemiology EPI 819 Spatial Epidemiology EPI 820 Evidence-based Medicine (currently offered as Independent Study*) EPI 823 Cancer

  9. Heart failure and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer's disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  10. Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 A biomechanical model for the study of plant morphogenesis

    E-print Network

    Haseloff, Jim

    5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 A biomechanical model and biomechanical model of cell wall expansion have been developed in order to analyses coupled mechanisms for the development and the #12;5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 coupling

  11. Trans-Fats and Coronary Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny M. Kris-Etherton

    2010-01-01

    A large body of data from epidemiologic, clinical trial, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse consequences of industrially synthesized trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing database of more recent research from virtually all experimental models demonstrates evidence of detrimental consequences of TFAs on the risk of diabetes. Evidence is accumulating about

  12. Particle Effects on Heart-Rate Regulation in Senescent Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clarke G. Tankersley; Matthew Campen; Alexis Bierman; Susan E. Flanders; Karl W. Broman; Richard Rabold

    2004-01-01

    Because epidemiology studies consistently identify the elderly at risk for air pollution-related morbidity and mortality, we developed a model of senescent-dependent susceptibility based on indices of physiological aging. In the current study, we hypothesized that heart-rate regulation during particulate matter (PM) exposure differs with senescence-dependent susceptibility owing to variation in autonomic nervous control. Heart rate (HR) and heart-rate variability (HRV)

  13. Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Does depression predict coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Does depression predict coronary heart disease of depression for coronary heart disease (CHD) to that for CBVD within the same population. This study aimed ; epidemiology ; psychology ; Young Adult Author Keywords depression ; coronary heart disease ; cerebrovascular

  14. Unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants in Stockholm County 1998-09.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Andreas; Hansson, Anders

    2014-08-01

    The association between unemployment rates and population mental health has been studied with contradictory results. We examine the association between unemployment and antidepressants in Stockholm County. Age- and sex-specific monthly data on unemployment and dispensed prescribed antidepressants from January 1998 to January 2008 in Stockholm County were used. The association was studied with bivariate cointegration analysis with stationarity check of the residuals. We found that dispensing of antidepressants was inversely associated with unemployment. One interpretation is that antidepressants have not followed decreasing unemployment rates. PMID:25063831

  15. Holes in the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Congenital Heart Defects Endocarditis Heart Failure Heart Murmur How the Heart Works ... treatment of ASDs and VSDs have greatly improved. Children who have simple congenital heart defects can survive ...

  16. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePLUS

    Health and wine: Wine and heart disease: Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  17. Heart Failure Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

  18. Heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    Myocardial infarction; MI; Acute MI; ST-elevation myocardial infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the plaque ...

  19. Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do. Start by doing activities you enjoy —brisk walking, dancing, swimming, bicycling, or playing basketball or tennis. If you smoke, quit. It’s never too late to get some benefit from quitting smoking. Follow a heart healthy diet. ...

  20. Heart Murmurs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ribcage. The heart has four different areas, or chambers. These chambers are connected to each other by valves that control how much blood enters each chamber at any one time. The valves open and ...

  1. Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bad” cholesterol (also called LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) levels and may help increase “good” cholesterol (also called HDL, or high-density lipoprotein). If you have had a heart attack, your ...

  2. Heart Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Webber; Victor O. Morell

    \\u000a Cardiac transplantation offers the only hope for survival and improved quality of life for selected children with end-stage\\u000a heart disease, whether due to cardiomyopathy or congenital defects. The first pediatric transplant was performed by Kantrowitz\\u000a and associates in December, 1967, only a few days after Dr. Christian Barnard’s pioneering operation in an adult. Interest\\u000a in transplantation of the heart declined

  3. Temporal trends of brominated flame retardants in milk from Stockholm mothers, 1980-2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Britta Fängström; Anna Strid; Åke Bergman

    Summary The objective of the present study was to assess the temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including decaBDE, and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) in mothers milk from the Stockholm area. The pooled samples were covering the time period 1980 to 2004, with emphasis on samples from the last ten years. The temporal trend of PBDEs must be expressed on a

  4. Stockholms universitet Besksadress: E-post: Lilla Frescativgen 7 julia.habetzeder@antiken.su.se

    E-print Network

    vändningen i det tidiga 1900-talets svenska arkitektur, Stockholm 2012 (167 sidor. Fulltext tillgänglig via Meddelanden. Svenska forskningsinstitutet i Istanbul 15, 1990, 5­41 (Tillgänglig via Mondo). Signums svenska. Groth, Nyklassicismen i Sverige. Svenska möbelstilar och interiörer 1770­1850, London 1990, 14

  5. Effects of Fish Stocking on Ecosystem Services: An Overview and Case Study Using the Stockholm Archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia M. Holmlund; Monica Hammer

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social

  6. Followup after 11 years – update of mortality results in the Stockholm mammographic screening trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Frisell; Elisabet Lidbrink; Lars Hellström; Lars-Erik Rutqvist

    1997-01-01

    Results from several randomised mammography screening trials haveshown that it is possible to reduce mortalityin breast cancer by mammographic screening at leastfor women above 50 years of age. Thepurpose of this article is to present dataon mortality in breast cancer in study andcontrol groups of the Stockholm trial after 11years of followup, to analyse which age groupbenefits most from screening.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges for Building Alumni Networks in Sweden: A Case Study of Stockholm University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Karin; Axelsson, Leona; Harbor, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Because of the potential value of alumni involvement for student success, for connections to society and as a base for future philanthropy, there is growing interest in developing university alumni relations programmes in countries that do not have a long tradition in this area. This case study of Stockholm University describes the goals,…

  8. The role of public transport for feasibility and acceptability of congestion charging – The case of Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Kottenhoff; Karin Brundell Freij

    2009-01-01

    In the Stockholm Trial, congestion charges and the expansion of public transport services were closely linked together in marketing efforts, as well as in political decisions. In this paper, we analyse the role that public transport may have played in increasing acceptability and feasibility of the scheme. We study four aspects of the relationship between charging and public transport provision:

  9. Perceptions of congestion charging: Lessons for U.S. cities from London and Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marin S. Odioso; Michael C. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation is proposing a new strategy to improve mobility: congestion charging. The goal of this study is to analyze factors influencing public approval of congestion charging. Surveys in London and Stockholm, where congestion charging has been successfully introduced, evaluated the perceived effects of congestion charging on traffic, the environment, and public transport. Additional surveys in Atlanta,

  10. Mobile Technology enabling Congestion charging A multi perspective analysis of the Stockholm Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjorn Rosengren

    2007-01-01

    The population of vehicles in the world increases every year and has now reached almost 1 billion. Most large cities have severe congestion and environment problems. Many cities could benefit from implementation of congestion charging systems. The City of Stockholm has done this in a large-scale trial enabled by mobile technology. The analysis of the trial is based on a

  11. Explaining differences in acceptability before and acceptance after the implementation of a congestion charge in Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geertje Schuitema; Linda Steg; Sonja Forward

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Stockholm where a congestion charge trial was introduced in 2006. Respondents completed a questionnaire before and after the trial. Acceptance of the congestion charge was higher after the trial as opposed to its acceptability judgments before the trial. Respondents believed the charge had more positive consequences (viz., decreasing parking problems, congestion, and pollution) and

  12. The Stockholm congestion charges – five years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Börjesson; Jonas Eliasson; Muriel Hugosson; Karin Brundell-Freij

    2012-01-01

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first five years of operation, until mid-2011. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges has increased slightly over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles

  13. A cost–benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Eliasson

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cost–benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system, based on the observed rather than on the model-forecasted data. The most important data sources are travel time and traffic flow measurements made in the year before the charges were introduced (during April 2005) and during the first spring with the charges (during April 2006, 4 months after

  14. SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM

    E-print Network

    Johannesson, Henrik

    SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION 2014-01-21 GREV TUREGATAN 14, 114 46 STOCKHOLM TEL +46-8-6116873, FAX +46-8-6117344 Org nr 802008-0639 www.swejap.a.se, info@swejap.a.se SWEDEN-JAPAN FOUNDATION STIPENDIER Sweden-Japan Foundation utlyser stipendier för studier, forskning samt examensarbete och praktik på högskolenivå i Japan

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF 2006 PMAPS, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, JUNE 2006 A Global Decomposition Algorithm for

    E-print Network

    1 PROCEEDINGS OF 2006 PMAPS, STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, JUNE 2006 A Global Decomposition Algorithm an algorithm that combines comparison and decomposition phase for better computational efficiency. The best manner are described in [2, 4-6]. This paper develops a comparison algorithm for selecting the best

  16. Bullying in Context: An Analysis of Psychosomatic Complaints among Adolescents in Stockholm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Östberg, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as…

  17. 20% Discount with this flyer -Order online using discount code JRK93* Sustainable Stockholm

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    20% Discount with this flyer - Order online using discount code JRK93* Sustainable Stockholm and planning, in all their entanglements. The book shows how inter- secting fields such as urban planning your order today using discount code: JRK90 Jonathan Metzger is assistant professor of Urban & Regional

  18. Compromise and learning when negotiating sustainabilities: the brownfield development of Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Örjan Svane; Josefin Wangel; Lars A. Engberg; Jenny Palm

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the environmental management of Stockholm's large brownfield development Hammarby Sjöstad through the concept of negotiating sustainabilities. An Environmental Programme injected exceptional aims into an ongoing, ordinary planning process involving developers, consultants, contractors and other stakeholders. In parallel, a project team was established and given the task of realising aims through governing, networking, negotiation and persuasion. Discourse theory

  19. Performance of the First Detector Station for SEASA the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Performance of the First Detector Station for SEASA ­ the Stockholm Educational Air Shower Array ray air shower particles. Each station consists of three plastic scintillator detectors and employs to reconstruct the angle of incidence of the air showers. The timing resolution and detector separations

  20. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN ICED 03 STOCKHOLM, AUGUST 19-21, 2003

    E-print Network

    Kikuchi, Makoto

    but also psychology, philosophy, logic, mathematics, etc. Design is related the very featureINTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN ICED 03 STOCKHOLM, AUGUST 19-21, 2003 SITUATION THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONS FOR A FORMAL THEORY OF DESIGN Makoto Kikuchi Ichiro Nagasaka Abstract

  1. Effect of acid rain on sandstone: The Royal Palace and the Riddarholm church, Stockholm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Nord; K. Tronner

    1995-01-01

    The deterioration of two kinds of sandstone is discussed for two 18:th century buildings in central Stockholm: the Royal Palace, and the Royal Carolean Burial Chapel (Karolinska gravkoret) annexed to the mediaeval Riddarholm church. The facades of calcitic Gotland sandstone show many signs of serious decay, such as gypsum formation, pulverized surface, exfoliation, discolouration, and salt efflorescence. The socles are

  2. 50Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Tomenius

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis.

  3. 1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Spatial Analysis of Phytophthora infestans Genotypes and Late and geographic information systems. Phytopathology 91:1156-1165. Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans

  4. Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Järup, L

    2001-01-01

    A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

  5. INITIAL DIVISION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY REPORT

    E-print Network

    INITIAL DIVISION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY REPORT THROUGH AUGUST 2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Division of Epidemiology: Key Functions and Responsibilities_______________________________________ 2 Epidemiology Data Resource Center: Key Functions and Responsibilities __________________________ 3 Funding

  6. Heart Attack

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses heart attacks including their symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention. It also reviews the anatomy of the heart, the difference between a heart attack and angina, emergency planning, and the need for CPR if cardiac arrest occurs. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  7. Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

  8. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  9. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2660269

  10. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ...

  11. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:May 19,2015 About Valve Stenosis ... was last reviewed on 02/18/13. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart ...

  12. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation Updated:Apr 24,2015 What is valve ... was last reviewed on 02/18/13. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart ...

  13. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  14. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePLUS

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  15. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

  16. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grant Funders Careers Store | Blog | Espanol | Contact Us Heart to Heart Where You Live ACHA and our local partners ... to connect with others with CHD. Register Today Heart to Heart Ambassadors Ambassadors connect ACHA patient and ...

  17. What Causes Heart Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) ... Red: Eileen's Story 04/10/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/06/2014 ...

  18. Total Artificial Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

  19. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... Red: Eileen's Story 04/10/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/06/2014 ...

  20. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  1. Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Isakson BA; Alan Maisel

    Decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome often characterized by elevated left ventricular fi lling pressures (LVEDP). Therapy for decompensated CHF aims at normalizing fi lling pressures and thereby improves both symptoms and outcomes. However, therapy guided by direct measurements of fi lling pressure is not practical in most patients, focusing attention on non-invasive surrogate measures of LVEDP

  2. Pediatric heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... There are many kinds of heart defects. Some are minor, and others are more serious. Defects can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels ...

  3. The Mighty Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through the dissection of sheep hearts. They learn about the different parts of the heart and are able to identify the anatomical structures and compare them to the all of the structural components of the human heart they learned about in the associated lesson, Heart to Heart.

  4. Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marion Fass (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

  5. Randomized study of mammography screening — preliminary report on mortality in the stockholm trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frisell; G. Eklund; L. Hellström; E. Lidbrink; L.-E. Rutqvist; A. Somell

    1991-01-01

    Summary In March 1981, 40,318 women in Stockholm, aged 40–64, entered a randomized trial of breast cancer screening by single-view mammography alone versus no intervention in a control group of 20,000 women. The attendance rate during the first screening round was 81 per cent and the cancer detection rate was 4.0 per 1000 women. The detection the rate fell to

  6. Sulphur Deposition and Damage on Limestone and Sandstone iN Stockholm City Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Nord; K. Holenyi

    1999-01-01

    390 Stockholm city buildings with sculptural decorations, or facades, of limestone or quartzitic sandstone have been investigated. The observed damage has been expressed by digital codes. The chemical analysis was mainly undertaken with SEM\\/EDS. The study has verified that quartzitic sandstone is more resistant towards weathering than limestone. Coarse-grained limestone with pores and cracks are most weathering-prone. Climatic conditions and

  7. Satellite monitoring of urbanization and environmental impacts-A comparison of Stockholm and Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Jan; Furberg, Dorothy; Ban, Yifang

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates urbanization and its potential environmental consequences in Shanghai and Stockholm metropolitan areas over two decades. Changes in land use/land cover are estimated from support vector machine classifications of Landsat mosaics with grey-level co-occurrence matrix features. Landscape metrics are used to investigate changes in landscape composition and configuration and to draw preliminary conclusions about environmental impacts. Speed and magnitude of urbanization is calculated by urbanization indices and the resulting impacts on the environment are quantified by ecosystem services. Growth of urban areas and urban green spaces occurred at the expense of cropland in both regions. Alongside a decrease in natural land cover, urban areas increased by approximately 120% in Shanghai, nearly ten times as much as in Stockholm, where the most significant land cover change was a 12% urban expansion that mostly replaced agricultural areas. From the landscape metrics results, it appears that fragmentation in both study regions occurred mainly due to the growth of high density built-up areas in previously more natural/agricultural environments, while the expansion of low density built-up areas was for the most part in conjunction with pre-existing patches. Urban growth resulted in ecosystem service value losses of approximately 445 million US dollars in Shanghai, mostly due to the decrease in natural coastal wetlands while in Stockholm the value of ecosystem services changed very little. Total urban growth in Shanghai was 1768 km2 and 100 km2 in Stockholm. The developed methodology is considered a straight-forward low-cost globally applicable approach to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate urban growth patterns that could help to address spatial, economic and ecological questions in urban and regional planning.

  8. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  9. 1188 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    1188 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Genetic Structure of Phytophthora infestans from tomato and potato in the Del Fuerte Valley. Phytopathology 90:1188-1195. The temporal

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  11. Modelling of resource allocation to health care authorities in Stockholm county.

    PubMed

    Andersson, P A; Varde, E; Diderichsen, F

    2000-02-01

    Since the Stockholm County Council introduced a system of purchasers and providers there has been a quest for population-based resource allocation models to allocate monies to purchasers of health care. In contrast to models used in Britain, Swedish models have been based on individual level data. This paper presents recent developments in the model used in Stockholm for all care except primary care, testing new statistical methods for compression and clustering of the matrices used and the effect of introducing diagnostic information in addition to the demographic and socio-economic information used before. We also show the effect of using more current data sources by replacing existing census variables with data from annually updated registers. Since the aim is to use the resource allocation models for prospective budgeting we test and evaluate the predictive power of the models one to two years ahead. Moreover, two calibration methods are compared: Cross-sectional modelling, based on data for one year only, versus prospective modelling, using population characteristics for one year and registered health-care costs for a following year. While models including diagnostic information are deemed valuable, the prospective models yield little improvement. Further, although it takes a combination of new variables to replace the census based model, the resulting model now implemented by Stockholm County Council has fewer estimated parameters. PMID:10780282

  12. Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

  13. The San Antonio heart study research information study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongli Shen; Braxton Mitchell; Helen Hazuda; Gary Clark; Michael Stern

    1992-01-01

    The San Antonio heart study research information system was developed to support multiple long-term projects for epidemiological study of heart disease and diabetes in the Mexican-American population. State-of-the-art technology was adopted, including a client-server, a time-sharing local area network, a relational database, the structural query language (SQL), and a fourth generation programming language (4GL), to enable the system to provide

  14. Myocardial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: epidemiology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Jon T; Fernandes, Verônica; Lima, Joao AC; Bathon, Joan M

    2005-01-01

    Data from population- and clinic-based epidemiologic studies of rheumatoid arthritis patients suggest that individuals with rheumatoid arthritis are at risk for developing clinically evident congestive heart failure. Many established risk factors for congestive heart failure are over-represented in rheumatoid arthritis and likely account for some of the increased risk observed. In particular, data from animal models of cytokine-induced congestive heart failure have implicated the same inflammatory cytokines produced in abundance by rheumatoid synovium as the driving force behind maladaptive processes in the myocardium leading to congestive heart failure. At present, however, the direct effects of inflammatory cytokines (and rheumatoid arthritis therapies) on the myocardia of rheumatoid arthritis patients are incompletely understood. PMID:16207349

  15. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In first-degree heart block, the heart's electrical signals are slowed as they move from the atria ... Block In this type of heart block, electrical signals between the atria and ventricles are slowed to ...

  16. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association - www.americanheart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/

  17. Heart Transplant Procedure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of heart transplantation, but in all honesty, the art of heart transplant lies in the immunosuppression management ... reject their own heart. So that's truly an art that requires usually a cocktail of three medications ...

  18. Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Valve Disease? Heart valve disease occurs if one or ... ability to pump blood. Overview How the Heart Valves Work At the start of each heartbeat, blood ...

  19. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

  20. Getting a New Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... March 2012 Getting A New Heart Facts About Heart Transplants American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, Suite ... views of the Society. ____________________________ When you have a heart transplant, there is a lot to do before and ...

  1. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agaston ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will lie on your back with ...

  2. Left heart catheterization

    MedlinePLUS

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  3. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePLUS

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  4. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? Español In the United States, ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

  5. Living with Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart disease (CHD), ... it harder for you to make lifestyle changes. Heart Attack Warning Signs If you have CHD, learn ...

  6. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Cardiovascular Nursing; American Heart Association Council on Clinical ... Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, ...

  7. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Cardiovascular Nursing; American Heart Association Council on Clinical ... Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, ...

  8. Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  9. Examining the Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Z. Tharp

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about the heart (on page 22 of the PDF), learners examine sheep or chicken hearts to learn about the heart's structure and the flow of blood through the heart. Learners will note various components of the heart (atria, auricles, aorta, etc.) as well as discover how blood circulates through the heart to the body. This activity can be conducted as a demonstration. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and handouts.

  10. Sick Leave and Work Participation Among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: A Register Linkage Study in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    McEvilly, Miranda; Wicks, Susanne; Dalman, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This population-based register study explored the association between having a child with/without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and parental sick leave and work participation. Parents of children with ASD living in Stockholm, Sweden in 2006 were more likely to be on sick leave, not in the labor force, or earning low income when compared to parents who did not have a child with ASD and these results remained after adjusting for familial socioeconomic factors and parental psychiatric care. Sick leave among parents was associated with having a child with ASD without intellectual disability (ID) but not ASD with ID. Although Sweden has policies helping families with children with ASD this study suggests that there exist unmet needs among these parents. PMID:25697737

  11. Heart failure and mechanical circulatory support.

    PubMed

    Esper, Stephen Andrew; Subramaniam, Kathirvel

    2012-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is defined as one of the following: hypertension, congestive heart failure (HF), stroke, coronary heart disease and congenital heart defects. CVD is the main cause of the disease burden (illness and death) in Europe (23% of all the disease burdens) and the second main cause of the disease burden in those European Union (EU) countries with very low child and adult mortality (17%).(1) Heart disease is a common health problem worldwide. According to the most recent Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2011 update,(2) greater than 82 000 000 adults living in the United States of America (USA) have one or more types of CVD. Many resources have been invested in attempting to understand and curtail the progression of congestive HF. This article attempts to address the growing concern over HF by looking at the epidemiology, pathophysiology and available therapies as anaesthesiologists encounter these patients more often nowadays in the operating room and intensive care units. Mechanical circulatory assistance and heart transplantation are two established treatment methods for end-stage HF. In this review, we also address the indications and contraindications for mechanical circulatory assistance, types and spectrum of available ventricular assist devices, efficacy, safety and cost analysis of circulatory support therapy. PMID:22910083

  12. Structure of the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Cardiovascular System » Heart » Structure of the Heart ...

  13. The Impact of Population Growth on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey P. Garnett; James J. C. Lewis

    It is generally expected that in developing countries the epidemiological transition, with improved health and lower mortality\\u000a rates, will eventually lead to a demographic transition with lower fertility rates. The reductions in mortality characterising\\u000a the epidemiological transition are often associated with controlling the infectious diseases within populations, which leaves\\u000a the chronic diseases associated with old age, cancer and heart disease

  14. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    ...........................................................................................................................31 STUDENT PRINTING REIMBURSEMENT POLICY..........................................................................................32 STUDENT LIFE EPIDEMIOLOGY, BIO

  15. Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm InP-based HBTs

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm Applications: #12;Rodwell, short course, 2002 IEEE/OSA Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, May, Stockholm Applications

  16. IPM | Gustav Adolfs Torg 18 SE-111 52 Stockholm Sweden | +46 (0)8 20 19 29 | www.ipm.se Strategy Review No. 5 -September 2007

    E-print Network

    Djehiche, Boualem

    IPM IPM | Gustav Adolfs Torg 18 SE-111 52 Stockholm Sweden | +46 (0)8 20 19 29 | www.ipm and liability mismatch, while also improving returns. 1 Department of Mathematics, KTH, Stockholm and IPM Informed Portfolio Management AB, E-mail: boualem.djehiche@ipm.se and boualem@math.kth.se 2 IPM Informed

  17. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

  18. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  19. J Am Geriatr Soc . Author manuscript Disability and incident coronary heart disease in older community-dwelling

    E-print Network

    J Am Geriatr Soc . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Disability and incident coronary heart disease & numerical data ; Female ; France ; epidemiology ; Geriatric Assessment ; Hospitalization ; statistics in the elderly J Am Geriatr Soc . Author

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

  1. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  2. Epidemiology of Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Mas; M. Zuber

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide major clues to etiology and therapeutic programs in stroke. Recent studies concerning secular trends in incidence and mortality, identification of well-defined independent risk factors and natural history of stroke are reviewed. While there has been a dramatic decline in stroke mortality (in relation to both declining incidence and improving survival following stroke) in most industrialized countries during

  3. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Margraf; U ZETSCHE

    2007-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the most important recent epidemiological studies examining anxiety disorders in the general population. Results demonstrate that anxiety disorders are widespread, with lifetime prevalence rates ranging between 13.6% and 28.8% in Western countries. Comorbidity among individuals with an anxiety disorder is high: three out of four people with a lifetime anxiety disorder experience at least

  4. Heart murmurs and other sounds

    MedlinePLUS

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  5. Types of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Congenital Heart Defects With congenital heart defects, some part of ... how the heart develops. Examples of Simple Congenital Heart Defects Holes in the Heart (Septal Defects) The ...

  6. Ischemic heart disease and heart weight.

    PubMed

    Romppanen, T; Seppä, A; Roilas, H

    1983-01-01

    Separate weights for heart ventricle walls and interventricular septa were analyzed in 110 hearts with autopsy findings of ischemic heart disease (coronary atherosclerosis, recent or old myocardial infarcts) and with no other cardiac or systemic causes of cardiac enlargement. In hearts with coronary atherosclerosis alone (without old or recent myocardial infarcts) no weight increase was observed in the left ventricle when compared to 29 controls. Patients having infarcts associated with nonstenosing atherosclerosis (less than 50% of the luminal diameter narrowed) of the coronaries had normal heart weights as well. On the contrary, infarcts associated with stenosing coronary sclerosis (narrowing more than 50%) showed significant signs of left ventricular weight increase, which is interpreted as compensatory heart hypertrophy. The greatest degree of hypertrophy was observed in hearts with left ventricular aneurysms. PMID:6640561

  7. Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum)

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    Epidemiology 3 PHC 6194 Spatial Epidemiology 3 PHC 7038 Psychiatric Epidemiology 3 PHC 6711 Measurement in Epidemiology & Outcomes Research 3 PHC 6937 Cancer Epidemiology 3 Course Statistics & Data Management (All 3Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum) Course

  8. Target Heart Rate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Peterson

    2011-09-18

    Students will practice how to calculate their Target Heart Rate to use during exercise routines. This will help students monitor the intensity of their workouts, and ultimately help them achieve results from their workout. Standard 2: Objective 2: a,b,c Before we discuss what the Target Heart Range is and how we can us it, we must first have some basic knowledge of the heart and it's functions. Click the "habits of the heart" to learn the basics of the heart and how it circulates blood throughout the body. Habits of the Heart The hearts ...

  9. Emerging flame retardants, PBDEs, and HBCDDs in indoor and outdoor media in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Newton, Seth; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2015-03-01

    Dust, indoor air, outgoing air from ventilation systems, outdoor air, and soil were sampled in and around Stockholm, Sweden during the winter and spring 2012. The concentrations of several emerging flame retardants (EFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were measured. The most commonly found EFR was 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2 dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH or DBE-DBCH), which was found in nearly all indoor, ventilation, and outdoor air samples, most dust samples, but not in soil samples. Other frequently detected EFRs included pentabromotoluene (PBT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-ethylhexylbenzoate (EHTBB), 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEH-TEBP), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). PBDE concentrations were significantly lower in air and dust samples compared to a previous study in Stockholm. In outdoor air, DBE-DBCH, PBT, EHTBB, DBDPE, and PBDEs showed an "urban pulse" with concentrations increasing as samples were taken in more urban areas compared to rural areas. These EFRs show similar environmental behavior as PBDEs. Higher brominated BDEs showed this same urban pulse in soil but lower brominated BDEs did not. Air-soil fugacity fractions were calculated, and these indicated that most compounds are undergoing net deposition from atmosphere to soil, with the higher brominated PBDEs furthest from equilibrium. PMID:25668286

  10. Heart Rate and Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Z. Tharp

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about heart health (on page 27 of the PDF), learners measure their heart rates after a variety of physical activities and compare the results with their resting heart rates, and with the heart rates of other learners in their groups. Learners also make predictions about their pulse rates. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extension ideas, information about the heart in space and a handout.

  11. BOX 50005, SE-104 05 STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN, RECEPTION +46 8 673 95 00, FAX +46 8 15 56 70 BESK/VISIT: LILLA FRESCATIVGEN 4A, STOCKHOLM, INFO@KVA.SE HTTP://KVA.SE

    E-print Network

    Jakobsson, Martin

    of Sciences, Lilla Frescativägen 4A, Stockholm Life expectancy has been growing in the modern world, but this development is unequally shared. Health inequalities, measured as differences in life expectancy between, where life expectancy differences between educational groups have been growing for more than three

  12. [Heart arrest].

    PubMed

    Chiarella, F; Giovannini, E; Bozzano, A; Caristo, G; Delise, P; Fedele, F; Fera, M S; Lavalle, C; Roghi, A; Valagussa, F

    2001-03-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries and is mainly due to ischemic heart disease. According to ISTAT estimates, approximately 45,000 sudden deaths occur annually in Italy whereas according to the World Health Organization, its incidence is 1 per 1000 persons. The most common cause of cardiac arrest is ventricular fibrillation due to an acute ischemic episode. During acute ischemia the onset of a ventricular tachyarrhythmia is sudden, unpredictable and often irreversible and lethal. Each minute that passes, the probability that the patient survives decreases by 10%. For this reason, the first 10 min are considered to be priceless for an efficacious first aid. The possibility of survival depends on the presence of witnesses, on the heart rhythm and on the resolution of the arrhythmia. In the majority of cases, the latter is possible by means of electrical defibrillation followed by the reestablishment of systolic function. An increase in equipment alone does not suffice for efficacious handling of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital premises. Above all, an adequate intervention strategy is required. Ambulance personnel must be well trained and capable of intervening rapidly, possibly within the first 5 min. The key to success lies in the diffusion and proper use of defibrillators. The availability of new generation instruments, the external automatic defibrillators, encourages their widespread use. On the territory, these emergencies are the responsibility of the 118 organization based, according to the characteristics specific to each country, on the regulated coordination between the operative command, the crews and the first-aid means. Strategies for the handling of these emergencies within hospitals have been proposed by the Conference of Bethesda and tend to guarantee an efficacious resuscitation with a maximum latency of 2 min between cardiac arrest and the first electric shock. The diffusion of external automatic defibrillators is a preventive measure. Such equipment has permitted early defibrillation by non-medical first-aid personnel. These instruments contain software capable of recognizing an arrhythmia which may be defibrillated and of instructing the operator whether and when to press the defibrillation button. The latest instruments deliver the shock by means of a biphasic wave necessitating a lesser amount of energy which can be provided by lighter condensers. Thus such equipment weighs just a couple of kilograms. As suggested by ILCOR, for reasons of priority, such instruments should not only be available within hospitals and in ambulances but also on the territory, in particular in more crowded places. The availability of external automatic defibrillators in such places should reduce the time latency before intervention and thus increase survival. The ILCOR guidelines have suggested the constitution of an itinerary team well equipped for defibrillation and composed of trained personnel of State Institutions such as the Municipal Police, Traffic Police and the Fire Brigades. With regard to the majority of arrhythmias amenable to defibrillation which occur at home or in less crowded places, other strategies, such as primary prevention and training programs for categories at increased risk, must be employed. Antiarrhythmic drugs have long been considered the best solution for the prevention and treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, the approach to these pathologies has drastically changed during the last few years owing to accumulating evidence in favor of defibrillators which may be implanted for the primary and secondary prevention of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. For patients with previous cardiac arrest, randomized studies have proven the advantages of such an approach compared to medical therapy. On the basis of the above, the guidelines for the use of antiarrhythmic implants have been modified. In most western countries, the laws regarding this aspect of medicine have recently been renewed. In the United States, where there is

  13. [Epidemiology of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Davy, A

    1983-01-01

    Having recalled the classic works on epidemiology, and having mentioned recent research, the author then considers: 1) Fundamental epidemiological facts. He shows that there is a zone of great varicose occurrence (Western Europe, North America); a zone of mild occurrence (Black Africa, the Far East, the Third World in general); and zones showing discrepancies, (South America, the Mediterranean Basin, India). 2) Explanatory hypotheses concerning the upright posture of Man; prolonged standing; heredity, both clinical (work done by Merlen) and biological (work by Nièbes), affecting the biochemical structure of the venous wall producing degradation of the conjunctive tissue; our way of dressing; the seated position. The terms of a plausible hypothesis must include all the elements defined by Burkitt. 3) Research axes: the role of abdominal hyper-pressure proved by Doppler examination (Folse), provoked by constipation (Cleave) and the idea of an alimentary factor. PMID:6601280

  14. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

  15. Epidemiology of Lyme Borreliosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Hubálek

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent ixodid tick-borne human disease in the world, with an estimated 85,500 patients annually (underlying data presented in this review: Europe 65,500, North America 16,500, Asia 3,500, North Africa 10; approximate figures). This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the epidemiology of LB all over the world. Individual sections

  16. VZV Molecular Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Breuer

    \\u000a The molecular epidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) has led to an understanding of virus evolution, spread, and pathogenesis.\\u000a The availability of over 20 full length genomes has confirmed the existence of at least five virus clades and generated estimates\\u000a of VZV evolution, with evidence of recombination both past and ongoing. Genotyping by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and\\u000a single nucleotide

  17. Informatics for Healthcare Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bala Hota

    \\u000a A major effort in healthcare epidemiology is the surveillance of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Increasingly, HAIs\\u000a are viewed as preventable and as a marker of healthcare quality. The automation of the surveillance of HAIs could have several\\u000a benefits: for institutions, it could allow infection control programs to focus on the prevention, not simply the measurement,\\u000a of infection. For policy makers,

  18. Epidemiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in understanding the epidemiology of EoE over the past two decades. Initial research focused on case description and characterization of the burden of disease. Research is now shifting to risk factor ascertainment, resulting in new and intriguing etiologic hypotheses. This paper will review the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of EoE. Demographic features and natural history will be described, data summarizing the prevalence and incidence of EoE throughout the world will be highlighted, and risk factors for EoE will be discussed. EoE can occur at any age, there is a male predominance, it is more common in Whites, and there is a strong association with atopic diseases. EoE is chronic, relapses are frequent, and persistent inflammation increases the risk of fibrostenotic complications. The prevalence is currently estimated at 0.5–1 in 1000, and EoE is now the most common cause of food impaction. EoE can be seen in 2–7% of patients undergoing endoscopy for any reason, and 12–23% undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia. The incidence of EoE is approximately 1/10,000 new cases per year, and the rise in incidence is outpacing increases in recognition and endoscopy volume. The reasons for this evolving epidemiology are not yet fully delineated, but possibilities include changes in food allergens, increasing aeroallergens and other environmental factors, the decrease of H. pyloriand early life exposures. PMID:24813510

  19. Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep Johan Nilsson, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden.

    E-print Network

    Nilsson, Johan

    Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep water? Johan Nilsson, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden. Background The Atlantic Ocean stands out as the most saline. As a consequence, the Atlantic Ocean forms all deep water in the northern hemisphere and therefore carries

  20. DEVELOPMENTS AT NINTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH HELD AT STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN ON JUNE 12-16, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is an interpretive analysis of formal and informal developments at the Ninth International Conference on Water Pollution Research held in Stockholm, Sweden, on June 12-14, 1978, and has been prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the U.S.A. National ...

  1. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  2. Heart Failure in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. ?-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

  3. Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

    2006-01-09

    Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

  4. Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease: National heart, lung, and blood institute working group report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina W. Davidson; David J. Kupfer; J. Thomas Bigger; Robert M. Califf; Robert M. Carney; James C. Coyne; Susan M. Czajkowski; Ellen Frank; Nancy Frasure-Smith; Kenneth E. Freedland; Erika S. Froelicher; Alexander H. Glassman; Wayne J. Katon; Peter G. Kaufmann; Ronald C. Kessler; Helena C. Kraemer; K. Ranga R. Krishnan; François Lespérance; Nina Rieckmann; David S. Sheps; Jerry M. Suls

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened an interdisciplinary working group of experts to develop recommendations for the assessment and treatment of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method: Consensus of experts. Results: Our current recommendations are that the Beck Depression Inventory-I be employed for epidemiological studies of depression and CHD, that the Patient Health Questionnaire

  5. ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: LABORATORY, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL TRIAL DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. MARCHIOLI

    1999-01-01

    Naturally occurring antioxidants like vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C can inhibit the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. This action could positively influence the atherosclerotic process and, as a consequence, the progression of coronary heart disease. A wealth of experimental studies provide a sound biological rationale for the mechanisms of action of antioxidants, whereas epidemiological studies strongly sustain the `antioxidant

  6. Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dinner menu 1 3 ounces salmon Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas American Diabetes Association? ? 1–800– ... Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 12: Protect Your Heart: Heart-Healthy Menu Ideas continued Provided By Where ...

  7. 1052 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Ecology and Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    1052 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Ecology and Epidemiology Phytophthora Community Structure Analyses in Oregon to disease management. Phytopathology 104:1052-1062. Nursery plants are important vectors for plant pathogens

  8. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Down syndrome Marfan syndrome Noonan syndrome Trisomy 13 Turner syndrome Often, no cause for the heart disease ... good control over their blood sugar levels. Certain genes may play a role in congenital heart disease. ...

  9. Protein and Heart Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rosett said. Learn more: How to Eat Healthy Nutrition Center • Home • Healthy Eating AHA Diet and Lifestyle ... Heart-Healthy Grocery Shopping National Eating Healthy Day Nutrition Basics Seasonal Eating • Heart-Check Mark Certification • Simple ...

  10. Heart Attack Risk Assessment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ...

  11. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heart disease , also called coronary artery disease. Myocarditis (MI-o-kar-DI-tis), or inflammation of the ... roo-MAT-ik) fever. Cardiomyopathy (KAR-de-o-mi-OP-a-the), or heart muscle diseases. Other ...

  12. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatment for congenital heart disease 07/30/2013 Google+ Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing ... treatment for congenital heart disease 07/30/2013 Google+ Hangout on the first large-scale gene sequencing ...

  13. Texas Heart Institute

    MedlinePLUS

    ... THI Careers & Human Resources Clinical services for the Texas Heart Institute are provided by CHI St. Luke's Health. ... Houston. James T. Willerson MD Cardiovascular Seminar Series Texas Heart Institute Journal Resources for Physicians Continuing Medical Education ...

  14. Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  15. How the Heart Works

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your heart is at the center of your circulatory system. This system consists of a network of blood ... the walls contract, blood is pumped into your circulatory system. Inlet and outlet valves in your heart chambers ...

  16. Working Model Hearts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Brock

    2009-12-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory syst

  17. Heart attack - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ( ... Infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: ...

  18. Men and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  19. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  20. Women and Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ...

  1. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Sudden infant deaths: from epidemiology to physiology.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Sawaguchi, T; Sawaguchi, A; Groswasser, J; Franco, P; Scaillet, S; Kelmanson, I; Dan, B

    2002-09-14

    The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dropped significantly in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of risk factors for SIDS. However, questions have been raised about the physiological mechanism responsible for the effects of these environmental risk factors. Since 1985, a series of prospective, multicentric studies have been developed to address these questions; over 20,000 infants were recorded during one night in a sleep laboratory and among these, 40 infants eventually died of SIDS. In this review, the following methods were employed: sleep recordings and analysis, monitoring procedure, data analysis of sleep stages, cardiorespiratory and oxygen saturation, scoring of arousals, spectral analysis of the heart rate and the determination of arousal thresholds, and statistical analysis and the results including sleep apneas, arousals and heart rate and autonomic controls in both future SIDS victims and normal infants were introduced separately. In addition, the physiological effect of prenatal risk factors (maternal smoking during gestation) and postnatal risk factors (administration of sedative drugs, prone sleeping position, ambient temperature, sleeping with the face covered by a bed sheet, pacifiers and breastfeeding) in normal infants were analyzed. In conclusion, the physiological studies undertaken on the basis of epidemiological findings provide some clues about the physiological mechanisms linked with SIDS. Although the description of the mechanisms responsible for SIDS is still far from complete, it appears to involve both arousal responses and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep-wake processes. PMID:12350296

  3. [Epidemiological approach to mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Brochard, P

    1997-06-15

    Mesothelioma, the primitive cancer of pleura, peritoneum or pericardium, is a tumor for which many etiologic studies have been conducted, because of close relations with environment. If asbestos remains the essential risk factor, many uncertainties persist on extent of phenomena in next decades. Furthermore, emergence of new etiologies, confirmed on human (erionite, ionizing radiations) or only suspected in experimentation (some biopersistent synthetic fibers, some virus as the SV40), ask new questions which are susceptible to modify our view of mesothelioma epidemiology. PMID:9248100

  4. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  5. Heart Truth for Women: If You Have Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ® THE HEART TRUTH FoR WoMEN: iF You HAVE HEART DisEAsE If you have heart disease, or think you do, ... take charge of your heart health. WHAT is HEART DisEAsE? Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most ...

  6. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and any related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ... affect its ability to function properly. Continue Common Heart Defects Common types of congenital heart defects, which ...

  7. Life After a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart attacks and live ... a few weeks. Anxiety and Depression After a Heart Attack After a heart attack, many people worry ...

  8. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...

  9. Death in infancy from unrecognised congenital heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Harb, M; Hey, E; Wren, C

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify all congenital heart disease in infancy, including deaths before diagnosis, to provide a truer picture of the spectrum of congenital heart disease and to assess the 'treatability' of those dying before diagnosis. All births, infant deaths, and surviving babies with congenital heart disease in one health region in 1985-90 were identified and were classified as 'complex', 'significant', or 'minor'. Of the 1074 infants diagnosed in infancy, 185 died and 56 of these (30%) died undiagnosed. Severe non-cardiac malformations were present in 29 of the 56 while 27 were otherwise normal. Cardiovascular abnormalities in the latter group were complex in 13/27 and significant in 14/27. Identification of undiagnosed cardiovascular anomalies will improve epidemiological evaluation of congenital heart disease and, more importantly, earlier recognition of treatable abnormalities may reduce mortality. PMID:8067789

  10. The spectrum of epidemiology underlying sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15%-20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who experience a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly because of inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. During the past 3 decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of coronary heart disease deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to coronary heart disease and ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition before death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low-risk and known high-risk populations, will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  11. The Heart of Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docheff, Dennis M.; Gerdes, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges coaches to address the more personal, human elements of coaching--the HEART of coaching. While there is much research on numerous aspects of coaching, this article provides ideas that make a lasting impact on the hearts of athletes. Using HEART as an acronym, five elements of effective coaching are presented: Humility,…

  12. Heart 1: Transplant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-25

    In this Science NetLinks lesson, students use the internet to learn about the workings and anatomy of the heart and new medical techniques that help people live longer, healthier lives. Students then use their knowledge to discuss controversial issues surrounding heart transplants. Students also perform an online heart transplant to get a more realistic idea of what is involved.

  13. Heart Disease in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  14. Heart Valve Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

  15. Assemble the Human Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2000-01-01

    In this online activity about anatomy, learners will drag and drop pieces of the heart into their proper positions and explore what function each part of the heart has. This activity is part of a rather extensive collection of activities and information surrounding the wonder of the human heart.

  16. Working Model Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

  17. Anatomy of the Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arrhythmia Congenital Heart Defects Coronary Heart Disease Heart Valve Disease How the Lungs Work Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | PRINT | SHARE this page from the NHLBI BOOKMARK & SHARE X Share this page from the NHLBI on Blogger. ...

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  19. A global perspective on the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Thienemann, Friedrich; Sliwa, Karen

    2015-04-01

    The epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is not fully determined worldwide but is believed to vary in different regions of the world, with differences determined by genetic, geographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, as well as sex-related practices and inequities in access to health care. This article reviews the global epidemiology of PH, with emphasis on the prevalence, causes, forms, and underlying factors in the developing world. Left ventricular heart disease is the most common cause worldwide, but the main contributors in developing countries are chronic infectious diseases, hypertensive heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and rheumatic heart disease. Despite data suggesting a high prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa, the available literature is very limited. International registries like the Pan African Pulmonary Hypertension Cohort are essential to provide information about the causes, comorbidities, and diagnostic classification, therapeutic management, and the natural course of PH worldwide. Moreover, there is a need to track diagnostic and management practices and challenges to identify the gaps and gradients between different regions of the world. The information gained will pinpoint areas for improvement, aiming at bridging the current divide between low-income and high-income countries. PMID:25840090

  20. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

  1. Quantitative epidemiology: Progress and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. Dohoo

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript is derived from a presentation at the 2006 AVEPM – Schwabe Symposium which honoured the 2006 recipient of the Calvin Schwabe Award – Dr. S. Wayne Martin. Throughout his career, Dr. Martin was instrumental in furthering the development of quantitative epidemiology. This manuscript highlights some of the recent advances in quantitative methods used in veterinary epidemiology and identifies

  2. The New Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  3. Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interested parties who care about their own heart, or the heart of a loved one, will find that the Texas Heart Institute website has a wealth of information in the "For Patients and Consumers" section on the homepage. Researchers and doctors will also find much to love about the Texas Heart Institute website, with its "For Medical Professionals" section, also on its homepage. Patients interested in enrolling in the Stem Cell Center's clinical trials, can click on the "Enrolling Patients" tab near the top of the page on the left hand side. Patients interested in finding out if they have the ten classic risk factors that lead to an unhealthy heart, can click "How healthy is your heart?", near the bottom of the page, to take the quiz. Doctors can read a guide to the website by clicking on the link "Resources for Physicians" at the top of the section of the homepage designated "For Medical Professionals". Information on Continuing Medical Education (CME) is available on the left hand side of the page, as well as the upcoming Texas Heart Institute "symposia" topics. Clicking on one of the topics will take the medical professional to an online registration form for the symposia, along with a synopsis of the topic that will be discussed.

  4. Health effects of waste incineration: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, S W; Shy, C M

    2001-07-01

    There is an increasing trend toward using incineration to solve the problem of waste management; thus, there are concerns about the potential health impact of waste incineration. A critical review of epidemiologic studies will enhance understanding of the potential health effects of waste incineration and will provide important information regarding what needs to be investigated further. This study reviews the epidemiologic research on the potential health impact of waste incineration. Previous studies are discussed and presented according to their study population, incinerator workers or community residents, and health end points. Several studies showed significant associations between waste incineration and lower male-to-female ratio, twinning, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, ischemic heart disease, urinary mutagens and promutagens, or blood levels of certain organic compounds and heavy metals. Other studies found no significant effects on respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, twinning, cleft lip and palate, lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, or esophageal cancer. In conclusion, these epidemiologic studies consistently observed higher body levels of some organic chemicals and heavy metals, and no effects on respiratory symptoms or pulmonary function. The findings for cancer and reproductive outcomes were inconsistent. More hypothesis-testing epidemiologic studies are needed to investigate the potential health effects of waste incineration on incinerator workers and community residents. PMID:15658227

  5. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

  6. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of atrial fibrillation in women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Daniela; Antonucci, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and has become a serious public health problem. Moreover, epidemiological data demonstrate that incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing. Several differences in epidemiological patterns, clinical manifestations, and incidence of stroke have been reported between AF in women and in men, particularly in elderly women. Elderly women have higher blood pressure than men and a higher prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, both independent risk factors for stroke. On the basis of the evidence on the higher stroke risk among AF in women, recently, female sex has been accepted as a risk factor for stroke and adopted to stratify patients, especially if they are not at high risk for stroke. This review focuses on available evidence on sex differences in AF patients, and examines factors contributing to different stroke risk, diagnosis, and prognosis of arrhythmia in women, with the aim to provide an analysis of the available evidence.

  7. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  8. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder. PMID:2691513

  9. Epidemiology of Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

    2012-10-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

  10. Epidemiology of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Osann, K E

    1998-07-01

    Lung cancer incidence is now decreasing in US men. Although rates continue to increase in women, the rate of increase is declining. Most lung cancer in men and women is attributable to cigarette smoking. Histologic patterns are consistent with smoking trends for gender, race, and age. Trends in adenocarcinoma may be related to an increase in exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines from low-tar cigarettes. Other risk factors, including exposure to residential radon, occupational exposures, diet, and family history, have been shown to increase risk of lung cancer independent of cigarette smoking. Recent research in molecular epidemiology has greatly increased our understanding of the mechanism of lung carcinogenesis and the interactions between exposure to lung carcinogens (smoking, occupational exposures, radon), diet, and heritable variations in susceptibility. PMID:10813232

  11. Changes in Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in 2001-2011: Findings from the Stockholm Youth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idring, Selma; Lundberg, Michael; Sturm, Harald; Dalman, Christina; Gumpert, Clara; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    In a record-linkage study in Stockholm, Sweden, the year 2011 prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was found to be 0.40, 1.74, 2.46, and 1.76 % among 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, and 18-27 year olds, respectively. The corresponding proportion of cases with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability was 17.4, 22.1, 26.1 and 29.4 %.…

  12. Heart rate and heart rate variability in subjectively reported insomnia.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Fuchs, Lena; Ladwig, Johannes; Kyle, Simon D; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    According to epidemiological studies, insomnia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, it is yet to be determined whether this link is mediated by known cardiovascular risk factors. The current study aimed at investigating the association between primary insomnia, defined as subjectively reported sleep disturbance in the absence of any other pathology or substance intake, and alterations in polysomnographically determined nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 4,581 nocturnal short-term electrocardiographic recordings (5 min each) from 104 participants (58 with primary insomnia, 46 healthy controls) were evaluated for HR as well as for time and frequency domain measures of HRV. In the primary insomnia group, we found a lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and a lower standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) compared to healthy controls. However, between-group differences in resting HR were not found, and previous results of an increase in sympathovagal balance and a decrease in parasympathetic nocturnal activity in objectively determined insomnia could not be confirmed in our sample of self-report insomnia patients. When restricting our analyses to insomnia patients with objectively determined short sleep duration, we found reduced parasympathetic activity as indicated by decreased high frequency power of HRV, as well as decreased root mean square of successive RRI differences (RMSSD) and percentage of successive RRIs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) values. A lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and alterations in HRV variables might, at least partially, mediate the increased rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in insomnia patients. PMID:20626615

  13. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Padmavati, S.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence and other epidemiological features of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and pilot prophylactic programmes have been carried out in India for the past 12 years or more. The results of these, together with data from other developing countries, have been taken into account in discussing the problems of these diseases in the developing world. Suggestions for their control, to be modified according to local conditions, are made. PMID:310360

  14. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  15. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass concentrations (MLAC) were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean and standard deviation MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36 (rural) to 5.39 ?g m-3 (street canyon) and from 0.50 to 3.60 ?g m-3, respectively. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

  16. Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

    2011-11-01

    Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean (± standard deviation) MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36±0.50 at the rural site to 5.39±3.60 ?g m-3 at the street canyon site. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

  17. [20 years of cardiovascular epidemiology. The epidemiologist's viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Kornitzer, M

    1996-11-01

    The author reviews the evolution of cardiovascular epidemiology during the twenty last years. The mortality from cardiovascular diseases with atherosclerosis as their pathological basis grew rapidly in the industrialised countries after World War II. This led to epidemiological research which started in 1950 with respectively the studies of Framingham in the United States and the Seven Countries Study, essentially in Europe. The concept of multifactorial origin of coronary heart disease was proposed during the 60s. Three major coronary risk factors besides age and gender, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and cigarette smoking emerged systematically in epidemiological studies before 1975. The last twenty years have confirmed the importance of these three modifiable coronary risk factors which are long-term predictors in different ethnic groups, both in males and females. Other risk factors appeared in this period. Some polymorphisms of several genes as well as their phenotypic expression have been found to be related to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Uni- and multifactorial primary and secondary prevention trials have confirmed the observations of analytical epidemiology. Moreover, the crucial role of nutrition within a metabolic hypothesis has been confirmed by experimental research. The concept of the strategy of prevention in higher risk subjects as well as in the whole population was proposed by international bodies following the publications by the English epidemiologist G. Rose. Both France and Belgium contributed to the development of cardiovascular epidemiology during the last twenty years. France is doing cutting-edge research on genetic predictors of cardiovascular diseases. Although the multifactorial causal model of cardiovascular diseases is robust, it is still a probabilistic one; it predicts however relative risks of about 15 to 1 according to the decile of the multilogistic function distribution. Environmental factors essentially related to lifestyles explain a great part of these differences. At the individual level, genetic factors most probably modulate these environmental influences and one can foresee in the future a more predictive model. In most medical schools, teaching of cardiovascular epidemiology and prevention has a low priority with clinicians putting the accent on the risk factors rather than on the risk profile of the individual. Secondary prevention is more in the realm of clinical medicine due to a large publicity given to the results of the large randomised trials. Consequently, in hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction is decreasing as well as long-term mortality. Finally, prevention at the population level is connected to political decisions in public health which could have a major impact on the economy at the country level. Consequently, these political decisions are very slow to be taken both at the national and European Union level. PMID:9005492

  18. The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on Body Mass Index: a population-based case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eleonor Fransson; Ulf de Faire; Anders Ahlbom; Christina Reuterwall; Johan Hallqvist; Lars Alfredsson

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) and lack of physical activity have been recognized as important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leisure-time physical activity compensates for the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with overweight and obesity. METHODS: Data from the SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program) study were

  19. Hearts and Worms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-10-11

    A number of potentially useful drugs have been banned from the market because of a mysterious and deadly heart reaction. A worm that has no heart may help scientists figure out why. This Science Update focuses on experiments involving the worm C. elegans and using its pharynx, an organ similar in function and histology to the human heart, to test the effects of certain therapeutic drugs.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  1. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics Translational Medicine. The emerging technology holds promise for a new generation of flexible, implantable

  2. Guidelines for heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, N.; Kirkels, J.H.; Klöpping, C.; Lahpor, J.R.; Caliskan, K.; Maat, A.P.W.M.; Brügemann, J.; Erasmus, M.E.; Klautz, R.J.M.; Verwey, H.F.; Oomen, A.; Peels, C.H.; Golüke, A.E.J.; Nicastia, D.; Koole, M.A.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the changes in the field of heart transplantation and the treatment and prognosis of patients with heart failure, these updated guidelines were composed by a committee under the supervision of both the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Association for Cardiothoracic surgery (NVVC and NVT). The indication for heart transplantation is defined as: ‘End-stage heart disease not remediable by more conservative measures’. Contraindications are: irreversible pulmonary hypertension/elevated pulmonary vascular resistance; active systemic infection; active malignancy or history of malignancy with probability of recurrence; inability to comply with complex medical regimen; severe peripheral or cerebrovascular disease and irreversible dysfunction of another organ, including diseases that may limit prognosis after heart transplantation. Considering the difficulties in defining end-stage heart failure, estimating prognosis in the individual patient and the continuing evolution of available therapies, the present criteria are broadly defined. The final acceptance is done by the transplant team which has extensive knowledge of the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure on the one hand and thorough experience with heart transplantation and mechanical circulatory support on the other hand. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:79-87.) PMID:18345330

  3. Heart Rate Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

  4. Aging Heart Valves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program,

    In this unit, students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. Following the steps of the Legacy Cycle, students brainstorm, research, design and present viable solutions to various heart conditions as presented through a unit challenge. Additionally, students study how heart valves work and investigate how faulty valves can be replaced with new ones through advancements in engineering and technology. This unit demonstrates to students how and why the heart is such a powerful organ in our bodies

  5. Heart failure and depression.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Amy; Jiang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    Depression frequently accompanies heart failure and has been linked with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients with heart failure who have depression have more somatic symptoms, hospitalizations, increased financial burden, and poorer quality of life. Furthermore, depression has been shown to be an independent predictor of future cardiac events in patients with heart failure, regardless of disease severity, making it worthwhile to consider among other cardiac risk factors, such as diabetes and smoking. This article summarizes the trials assessing the treatment of depression in heart failure and provides an algorithm for approaching these patients. PMID:24656106

  6. EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  7. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

  9. Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes 1 Did you know that type 2 diabetes is a serious problem

  10. Epidemiology of binge eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become,the focus of epidemiologic,studies. This article provides a comprehen- sive review,of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined,and summarized,in the form of a narrative review. Results: Similar to the early studies of bulimia nervosa (BN), the first generation of epidemiologic,studies of BED is limited in

  11. A Grateful Heart May Be a Healthy Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151989.html A Grateful Heart May Be a Healthy Heart Keeping a gratitude journal seems to reduce cardiac ... for the good things in life may benefit heart failure patients, a new study suggests. The research ...

  12. [Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Mahr, A; Maldini, C

    2014-02-01

    With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

  13. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  14. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

  15. Environmentally Reformed Travel Habits During the 2006 Congestion Charge Trial in Stockholm—A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Greger; Hagman, Olle; Andréasson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour. PMID:21909301

  16. Effects of fish stocking on ecosystem services: an overview and case study using the Stockholm Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Cecilia M; Hammer, Monica

    2004-06-01

    In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social context of releasing fish. The results show that enhancements of four native species (Salmo S. trutta, Salmo salar, Stizostedion lucioperca, and Anguilla anguilla) have dominated over new introductions of one nonnative species. (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The major objective has been to increase fish catches for local resource users. Involved stakeholders include three management agencies, one hydropower company, and several local sport fishing associations. Documented effects focus on recapture and production rates. However, our analysis suggests that additional positive or negative effects on biodiversity, food web dynamics, mobile links, or ecological information may also result, with possible consequences for the long-term provision of food, game, and aesthetic values. We conclude that a more adaptive and cooperative management approach could benefit from a deeper analysis of where, when, and what species is released, by whom, which stakeholders that use the fish and those ecosystem services the fish generate, and of the role of formal and informal institutions for monitoring and evaluating the success of releasing fish. PMID:15156349

  17. Distributions of new Stockholm Convention POPs in soils across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Yu-Mi; Park, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we monitored the newly added Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POPs) HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs in industrial, urban, and agricultural soils in South Korea, in order to evaluate their distributions and potential sources. These POPs were widely distributed throughout South Korea, and their concentrations and distributions were affected by land use, reflecting their sources. The overall concentrations of HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, PBDEs, and PFCs in soils were in the range of ND (non-detectable)-0.358 ng/g (average±standard deviation: 0.060±0.080 ng/g), ND-0.531 ng/g (0.083±0.133 ng/g), 0.058-8.42 ng/g (2.19±2.43 ng/g), 0.004-4.78 ng/g (0.68±1.06 ng/g), and ND-1.62 ng/g (0.50±0.46 ng/g), respectively. Agricultural soils showed the highest concentration of endosulfan, which was the most recently used pesticide monitored in this study. On the other hand, industrial soils contained the highest concentrations of PeCBz, PBDEs, and PFCs, which were mainly introduced to environment via the industrial activities. PMID:24476973

  18. HONOLULU HEART PROGRAM (HHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HHP is a prospective epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease conducted in Honolulu, HI. There were 8006 men who participated in repeated examinations and were followed for cardiovascular disease and cancer....

  19. Association Between Extent of Periodontal Attachment Loss and Self-reported History of Heart Attack: An Analysis of NHANES III Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Arbes; G. D. Slade; J. D. Beck

    1999-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is responsible for one of every five deaths in the United States. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to verify this association using data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Data for 5564 people 40 years of

  20. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  1. Signs of a Heart Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

  2. What Happens After Heart Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ... for several days, depending on the type of heart surgery and the time you need to recover. Then ...

  3. Women and Heart Health Awareness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Women and Heart Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... in women. Get Informed: Facts on Women and Heart Disease Heart disease is the leading cause of ...

  4. How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose coronary heart ... the artery walls. Tests Used To Diagnose Broken Heart Syndrome If your doctor thinks you have broken ...

  5. Heart-respiratory monitor - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

  6. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HF with preserved ejection fraction. Preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) – also referred to as diastolic heart failure. The ... fraction reading and still have heart failure (called HFpEF or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction). If ...

  7. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  8. Habits of the Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Learning Technologies Center

    2000-01-01

    This site is a resource for students and teachers interested in learning about the cardiovascular and circulatory systems. Included are lesson plans, classroom activities, online interactive activities, videos, and links to sites about the heart. Students can also investigate X-rays and build a heart rate monitor.

  9. Mapping the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  10. Living with Heart Block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may interfere with it. Avoid close or prolonged contact with electrical devices and devices that have strong magnetic fields. ... download or order the NHLBI's new heart attack materials: “Don’t Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the ... Feels Like—It Could Save Your Life”

  11. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Alonso, M A; Moro Moro, M; Múgica García, M V

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the epidemiology of anaphylaxis is based on data from various sources: clinical practice, large secondary clinical and administrative databases of primary care or hospitalized patients, and recent surveys with representative samples of the general population. As several similar results are often reported in several publications and populations, such findings are highly like to be robust. One such finding is that the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis are higher than previously thought. Publications from the last 5 years reveal an incidence of between 50 and 112 episodes per 100 000 person-years; estimated prevalence is 0.3-5.1% depending on the rigour of the definitions used. Figures are higher in children, especially those aged 0-4 years. Publications from various geographical areas based on clinical and administrative data on hospitalized patients suggest that the frequency of admissions due to anaphylaxis has increased (5-7-fold in the last 10-15 years). Other publications point to a geographic gradient in the incidence of anaphylaxis, with higher frequencies recorded in areas with few hours of sunlight. However, these trends could be the result of factors other than a real change in the incidence of anaphylaxis, such as changes in disease coding and in the care provided. Based on data from the records of voluntary declarations of death by physicians and from large national databases, death from anaphylaxis remains very infrequent and stands at 0.35-1.06 deaths per million people per year, with no increases observed in the last 10-15 years. Although anaphylaxis can be fatal, recurrence of anaphylaxis - especially that associated with atopic diseases and hymenoptera stings - affects 26.5-54% of patients. PMID:25495512

  12. Epidemiology of Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, Carmen; van Tubergen, Astrid; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27. Figures on the incidence and prevalence of diseases vary highly dependent on methodological differences between studies, the case definition used to classify disease and on the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the population studied. When summarizing the available literature, incidence rates of SpA are mainly based on the ESSG criteria and range between 0.48 and 63/100.000 while prevalence rates vary between 0.01 and 2.5%. For ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the most widely recognized representative of the SpA group of diseases, incidence rates of 0.44-7.3/100.000 and prevalence rates of 0.007-1.7% have been described in studies that were based on the (modified) New York criteria to classify cases. The incidence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) varied from 3.6 up to 23.1/100.000 in different studies and prevalence between <0.1% and 0.4%, using a variety of classification criteria. The incidence of ReA has been estimated between 0.6 up to 28/100.000 in studies based on different source populations and different case definitions. The newly proposed criteria for axial SpA and peripheral SpA present an attractive new approach to facilitate classification of the SpA into two main subtypes and the axial SpA criteria allow earlier detection of patents with inflammatory back pain. It should be emphasized that these criteria were developed for use in a (specialized) clinical setting and not for large epidemiological studies. PMID:23083748

  13. HyperHeart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-27

    The University of Utah's Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library has worked to create everything from mobile applications to digitized slide collections for medical professionals. One of their most interesting applications is this interactive rendering of the human heart that can be used to understand blood flow and the operations of the heart. The site includes a set of controls that gives visitors the ability to look at the heart in motion, complete with a stop, play, rewind, and fast-forward button. The rendering is accompanied by an electrocardiogram and heart sounds chart to give interested parties a bit more detail about each motion of the heart. The site also includes seven "Tutorials" that provide detailed graphics and text that explain atrial systole, rapid ejection, rapid ventricular filling, and more.

  14. Theory of heart

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, L. (ed.) (McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Dept. of Physiology); Hunter, P. (ed.) (Auckland Univ., Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Engineering Science); McCulloch, A. (ed.) (California Univ., San Diego (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in interest in studying the heart from the perspective of the physical sciences: mechanics, fluid flow, electromechanics. This volume is the result of a workshop held in July 1989 at the Institute for Nonlinear Sciences at the University of California at San Diego that brought together scientists and clinicians with graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who share an interest in the heart. The chapters were prepared by the invited speakers as didactic reviews of their subjects but also include up-to-date results in their fields. Topics covered include the structure, mechanical properties, and function of the heart and the myocardium, electrical activity of the heart and myocardium, and mathematical models of heart function. Individual chapters are abstracted separately.

  15. [Obesity and the heart].

    PubMed

    Barzizza, F

    2001-12-01

    Obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure. Although congestive heart failure can be secondary to coronary heart disease, in morbid obesity these conditions can be independent. Cardiac structure and function can be altered even in the absence of systemic hypertension and underlying organic heart disease. In obese patients total blood volume increases and creates a high cardiac output state that may cause ventricular dilatation and ultimately eccentric hypertrophy of the left (and possibly the right) ventricle. Eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy produces diastolic dysfunction. Systolic dysfunction may ensue due to excessive wall stress if wall thickening fails to keep pace with dilatation. This disorder is referred to as obesity cardiomyopathy. The frequent coexistence of systemic hypertension in obese individuals facilitates development of left ventricular dilatation and hypertrophy. Congestive heart failure may occur and may be attributable to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction or to combined diastolic and systolic dysfunction. The risk of coronary heart disease seems to be more strictly correlated to central obesity than to increased body mass index. Insulin resistance seems to be the key factor that links obesity and ischaemic heart disease. In such a condition the so called Syndrome X appears. It is characterized by: obesity, systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridaemia and reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Considering that left ventricular hypertrophy is often present, many risk factors coexist in obese patients. Weight loss is very useful in obese patients. It may reduce mortality and morbidity for coronary heart disease and delay or avoid the appearance of congestive heart failure. It is proved that after weight loss, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and left ventricular mass decrease. PMID:16493382

  16. Angioplasty and stent placement - heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...

  17. Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Patients with Heart Failure: An Often Neglected Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Imberti; Matteo Giorgi Pierfranceschi; Michela Falciani; Domenico Prisco

    2009-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications in patients with acute heart failure; in addition, the level of risk associated with this disease is notable, ranging from 15 to 30%. Three large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the efficacy and safety of pharmacological prophylaxis in internal medicine patients hospitalized for an acute medical disease;

  18. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S Yudkin; Meena Kumari; Steve E Humphries; Vidya Mohamed-Ali

    2000-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Observations have been made linking the presence of infections in the vessel wall with atherosclerosis, and epidemiological data also implicate infection in remote sites in the aetiology of CHD. In this article we propose a key role for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)

  19. Heart 2: Changing Lifestyles and Heart Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-26

    In this Science NetLinks lesson, students examine and evaluate changes in diet and lifestyle from prehistoric to modern times and how these differences have spurred the development (and better treatment) of heart disease. They then use their knowledge in a debate between students representing hunter-gatherers and modern students. Students also critically examine their own diets.

  20. Time for a new budget allocation model for hospital care in Stockholm?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Per-Åke; Bruce, Daniel; Walander, Anders; Viberg, Inga

    2011-03-01

    In Stockholm County Council (SLL), budgets for hospital care have been allocated to geographically responsible authorities for a long time. This hospital care includes all publicly financed specialist care, also privately owned hospitals, except private practitioner care. The old needs-index model, a 6D capitation matrix based on demography and socio-economy, was generated on linked individual data for 1994-96. In this paper the power of the old allocation model is evaluated by the use of new data for 2006. The analysis shows that most of the socioeconomic variables have lost their descriptive power in 10 years. Using a methodical search we also find an improved need-based allocation model for hospital care using the new data for 2006. By focusing on costly diagnoses, where the descriptive power has increased between 1996 and 2006, and by using some new socioeconomic variables, and by relying on birth and death prognoses, we are able to generate a matrix model with much higher coefficients-of-determinations in 1 year predictions. In addition, a more careful modelling of multi-morbidity, part-of-the-year inhabitants, episode definition and cost transformation is developed. The area-level cost residuals of registered versus predicted costs show stable signs over the years, indicating unexplained systematics. For the reduction of the residuals, accepting proven inpatient diagnoses but not the full costs, a mixed capitation/fee-for-service strategy is discussed. Once equivalent (e.g. full-year) observations are determined, the link between background and consumption is not on individual-level but on cell-level, as in current resource allocation studies in the United Kingdom. PMID:20945101

  1. Caudate volumes in public transportation workers exposed to trauma in the Stockholm train system.

    PubMed

    Looi, Jeffrey Chee Leong; Maller, Jerome Joseph; Pagani, Marco; Högberg, Göran; Lindberg, Olof; Liberg, Benny; Botes, Lisa; Engman, Eva-Lena; Zhang, Yi; Svensson, Leif; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2009-02-28

    The caudate nucleus is a structure implicated in the neural circuitry of psychological responses to trauma. This study aimed to quantify the volume of the caudate in persons exposed to trauma. Thirty-six subjects under 65 were recruited from transport workers in Stockholm who reported having been unintentionally responsible for a person-under-the-train accident or among employees having experienced an assault in their work (1999-2001) between 3 months and 6 years before MRI scanning. In those exposed to the trauma, a DSM-IV diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was made by an independent psychiatrist, with subjects being classified as PTSD or no PTSD. MRI data were analyzed blindly to all clinical information by an experienced rater using a standardized manual tracing protocol to quantify the volume of the caudate. Within-group comparisons of PTSD (n=19) and no PTSD (n=17) found the right caudate nucleus to be significantly (9%) larger than the left: a right hemisphere baseline asymmetry. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was conducted to assess the volume of the caudate nucleus (right and left) in relation to the diagnosis of no PTSD (n=17) or PTSD (n=19). After adjustment for the covariates (age, sex, intracranial volume, years since trauma, and number of trauma episodes), there was a significant difference in raw right caudate nucleus volume between subjects with PTSD compared with those without PTSD. Volume of the left caudate nucleus was not significantly different between the PTSD and no PTSD groups. The right caudate volume in the PTSD group was 9% greater compared with the no PTSD group. There is a larger right hemisphere volume of the caudate within those exposed to trauma with active PTSD compared with those without PTSD, superimposed upon a baseline caudate asymmetry. PMID:19176278

  2. 50-Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county

    SciTech Connect

    Tomenius, L.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis. An equivalent number of controls was matched to the cases according to church district of birth, age, and sex. Outside each dwelling, the occurrence of visible electrical constructions (6-200-kV high-voltage wires, substations, transformers, electric railroads, and subways) within 150 m of the dwelling was noted. Also, the 50-Hz magnetic field was measured outside the main entrance of the dwelling. Visible 200-kv wires were noted at 45 of 2,098 dwellings and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The magnetic field measured at the dwelling varied between 0.0004 to 1.9 microT (mean value 0.069 microT). The magnetic field was higher (0.22 microT) at dwellings with visible 200-kV wires than at those without such wires. Magnetic fields of 0.3 microT or more were measured at 48 dwellings, and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The difference was most pronounced for dwellings of nervous system tumors and was less for leukemias.

  3. The isolated working heart model in infarcted rat hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Itter; W Jung; B A Schoelkens; W Linz

    2005-01-01

    Summary Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common causes of death in western countries. The aim of this study was to establish and validate the working heart model in rat hearts with CHF. In the rat model the animals show parameters and symptoms that can be extrapolated to the clinical situation of patients with end-stage heart failure.

  4. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  5. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 19,2015 Many heart valve problems are first identified by the ... Congenital Heart Defect See all of our brochures Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...

  6. Microbial molecular epidemiology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, I stress one more time the urgency to better connect molecular epidemiology and evolutionary biology. I show how much population genetics and phylogenetic analyses can confer a considerable added value to all attempts to characterize strains and species of pathogens. The problems dealing with the mere definition of basic concepts, such as species, subspecies, or strains, are briefly summarized. Last, I show the important contribution of molecular epidemiology to our knowledge of the basic biology of pathogens and insist on the necessity not to separate the studies dealing with pathogens from those that concern the hosts and the vectors, in the case of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19521862

  7. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 83: 193202 (July 2002) 2002The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 193

    E-print Network

    Pass, Günther

    Abstract Wirkner, C. S. and Pass, G. 2002.The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology of haemolymph flow. In Scutigera coleoptrata, the heart ultrastructure was studied. The circulatory system descriptions in this group have been only superficial. In all investigated species, the circulatory system

  8. HeartTalk-L: Heart Patients Mailing List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HeartTalk-L is a discussion list for people with heart disease and their family and friends. HeartTalk-L is an unmoderated mailing list for discussions of all aspects of life affected by heart disease. Any topic concerning heart disease is welcome on this list. Note that this list is meant as a support group and not as a replacement for proper medical attention.

  9. Variable Effects of Physical Training of Heart Rate Variability, Heart Rate Recovery, and Heart Rate Turbulence in Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EWA PIOTROWICZ; RAFA? BARANOWSKI; MA?GORZATA PIOTROWSKA; TOMASZ ZIELI?SKI; RYSZARD PIOTROWICZ

    2009-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate turbulence (HRT), and heart rate recovery (HRR), indices that reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, are outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). It is not clear, however, whether they reflect the same components of ANS activity. No study has examined the effects of physical training (PT) training on HRV, HRT,

  10. Pumping heart of the Daphnia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (CSUF; )

    2007-08-18

    The heart is located within our chests and is central to the function of the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The heart also pumps blood to the organs of the body. The rate that the heart beats depends on the needs of the body.

  11. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    Valve replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... place. The main types of new valves are: Mechanical -- made of man-made materials, such as metal ( ...

  12. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletter Our digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  13. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

  14. Heart bypass surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 60. Morrow DA, Boden WE. Stable ischemic heart disease. In: Bonow ... pub2. Moller CH, Penninga L, Wettersley J, Steinbruchel DA, Gluud C. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary ...

  15. Artificial Heart Design Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

  16. Heart, front view (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen ... carbon dioxide. The vessels colored red indicate the transport of blood with relatively high content of oxygen ...

  17. Heart-Healthy Exercise

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Institution: NIH Library User Name Password Sign In Cardiology Patient Page Heart-Healthy Exercise Lauren Healey Mellett , ... Section Footnotes The information contained in this Circulation Cardiology Patient Page is not a substitute for medical ...

  18. Broken Heart Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the Asian population in 1990 and named takotsubo cardiomyopathy (KAR-de-o-mi-OP-ah-thee). In ... The condition also is commonly called stress-induced cardiomyopathy. The cause of broken heart syndrome is not ...

  19. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery. The twisting involved in turning the steering wheel may pull on your incision. Ask your provider ... You have problems taking any of your heart medicines. Your weight goes up by more than 2 ...

  20. Sex, the heart, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kiowski, Wolfgang; Brunner, Hanspeter; Schalcher, Christoph

    2006-09-01

    In the modern era of pharmacologic treatment of erectile dysfunction, men with heart disease increasingly approach their physicians regarding the possibility of restoring sexual activity. At the same time, patients are also frequently aware of public figures that have reportedly died during coitus, often in the arms of their mistresses or prostitutes. Added to this is the perception of patients, and oftentimes their physicians, that coitus and orgasm are associated with a near maximal or even "supermaximal" cardiac workload and therefore may be hazardous for a diseased heart. Accordingly, knowledge of the cardiovascular effects of sexual activity, the risks of triggering a cardiovascular event, and the potential risks inherent in the use of drug therapy of male impotence is important to properly advise patients and their spouses regarding this sensitive issue. PMID:16959762

  1. Connexins in the heart.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Pier D; Tinker, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Connexins are essential in the propagation of electrical activity throughout the heart and are an important determinant of conduction velocity. Their dysfunction is an important factor in the genesis of abnormal cardiac rhythm and is relevant to the pathogenesis of a wide variety of cardiac pathologies. Here, we review the basic biology of connexins in the heart but particularly focus on their abnormal function in cardiac disease. PMID:25358402

  2. Heart Function and Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CLIMB: Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering

    In this module, developed as part of Cornell's Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB), students will learn the basic process of heart development, along with the anatomy and function of the heart. Students will also learn about embryonic development and be introduced to observational tools used by biomedical researchers. This module includes a teacher's guide with learning objectives outlined, classroom activities, and supporting image files. CLIMB is part of the NSF GK-12 program.

  3. Valvular Heart Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vignendra Ariyarajah; Raymond Y. Kwong

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can accurately assess cardiac structure and physiology vital in evaluating\\u000a regurgitant or stenotic valvular heart disease. Its versatility in providing comprehensive anatomical and functional assessment\\u000a in valvular heart disease stems from its ability to qualitatively and quantitatively measure flow volumes, velocities, and\\u000a flow fractions in any oblique cardiac plane.

  4. The Emerging Epidemic of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, A. Af?in; Rich, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which currently represents approximately 50 % of heart failure (HF) cases, is common and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Understanding the epidemiology of HFpEF has been difficult due to the challenges in HFpEF diagnosis and the heterogeneous etiologies and pathophysiologies that underlie HFpEF. Nevertheless, several high-quality epidemiology and observational registry studies of HFpEF demonstrate that an increasing prevalence of HFpEF in both the outpatient and inpatient settings, coupled with a lack of evidence-based effective treatments for HFpEF, is resulting in an emerging epidemic of HFpEF. In this review, we discuss the emerging HFpEF epidemic, focusing on: (1) reasons for the rising prevalence of HFpEF; (2) the abnormalities in cardiac structure and function that dictate the transition from risk factors to HFpEF; (3) novel HFpEF mechanisms that may underlie the increase in HFpEF prevalence; (4) prognosis of HFpEF; and (5) risk prediction in HFpEF. We conclude with 10 unanswered questions on HFpEF epidemiology that will be important areas for future investigation. PMID:24078336

  5. Exposure variables in ergonomic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, M

    1992-01-01

    The ergonomic field is rather new to epidemiology and ergonomists are usually without knowledge in epidemiology. This review presents exposure variables used in ergonomic epidemiology, especially those that concern mechanical trauma to the musculoskeletal system at the workplace and suggests how to approach exposure definition, exposure assessment, and exposure evaluation. The exposure variables that define the exposure can be divided into five main categories: posture, motion/repetition, material handling, work organization, and external factors. There is no consensus on how different exposure variables should be pooled and interpreted as single estimates of cumulative exposure. For future ergonomic epidemiology, it is suggested that exposure be described by different exposure variables giving an exposure profile and not by a single estimate of the exposure. The possibly short time-response relationship for many work-related musculoskeletal disorders provides a challenge in evaluating different cumulative exposure measures. These measures could easily turn into effective hazard surveillance tools. Large etiological fractions found for some musculoskeletal diseases indicate a great potential for ergonomic interventions. PMID:1553989

  6. Huanglongbing Epidemiology: An international perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the discovery of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The main issue is the perennial nature of the dise...

  7. Epidemiologic Aspects of Toilet Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence B. Berk; Patrick C. Friman

    1990-01-01

    Toilet training is becoming an increasingly important child care issue as child raising becomes an institutional enterprise. This paper reviews the literature of the last 40 years, focusing on the epidemiology of the development of day and night bladder control. The studies indicate that bladder control is usually obtained between 24 months and 48 months of age. Many variations exist

  8. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  9. Epidemiological Trends in Pancreatic Neoplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babette Simon; Hartmut Printz

    2001-01-01

    Primary prevention is the most effective approach to reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies have contributed to the identification of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, suggesting an association with age, various medical conditions, environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and occupational and genetic conditions. Age is the strongest risk factor. The most consistently identified environmental risk factor is smoking,

  10. Unsolved Problems in Genetic Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Newton E. Morton

    2000-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology faces six critical issues: its scope, genetic mapping, complex inheritance, population structure, nonmendelian genetics, and the internationalization of genetics. To solve these problems the scope must be broadened to include normal variation, although much of descriptive genetics will be lost to related sciences. Genetic mapping continues to play an essential role for positional cloning and chromosome architecture, which

  11. Epidemiological studies in human radiobiology*

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    A meeting on the contribution of epidemiological studies to the better understanding of the effects of radiation on human health was held in Washington, D.C., from 13 to 17 December 1965. This meeting was organized and sponsored by the World Health Organization, with the co-operation of the Division of Radiological Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The main emphasis of the meeting was on obtaining representative views on the epidemiological studies now in progress and on the possibilities for further studies, but past work was also briefly reviewed under such headings as leukaemia, lung and other tumours, congenital malformations and cytogenetic effects. In addition, information was presented on current concepts of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and life-shortening derived from experimental and theoretical work. Against this background an attempt was made to identify the most essential needs for epidemiological data at present and to consider how such data might be obtained. The text presented below was prepared by Professor L. F. Lamerton of the Department of Biophysics, Institute of Cancer Research (Surrey Branch), Sutton, Surrey, England, and Professor B. MacMahon of the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. It is a précis of some of the views expressed and of the information and the suggestions made. PMID:20604319

  12. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  13. Social network visualization in epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Christakis; James H. Fowler

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks

  14. Urban Economies Resource Productivity and Decoupling: Metabolism Trends of 1996-2011 in Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Rosado, Leonardo; Patrício, João

    2015-07-21

    Resource productivity and evidence of economic decoupling were investigated on the basis of the time series in 1996-2011 of material flow analysis for Sweden, Stockholm, and Gothenburg. In the three cases, absolute reductions in CO2 emissions by about 20% were observed, energy consumption per capita decreased, while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita grew. The energy consumption of the residential and public sectors decreased drastically, while the transport energy consumption is still growing steadily. Decoupling of the economy as a whole (i.e., including materials) is not yet happening at any scale. The domestic material consumption (DMC) continues to increase, in parallel with the GDP. The rate of increase for DMC is slower than that for GDP in both Stockholm and Sweden as a whole (i.e., relative decoupling). The metabolism of the cities does not replicate the national metabolism, and the two cities each have their own distinct metabolism profiles. As a consequence, policy implications for each of the case studies were suggested. In general, because of the necessarily different roles of the two cities in the national economy, generic resource productivity benchmarks, such as CO2 per capita, should be avoided in favor of sectorial benchmarks, such as industry, transport, or residential CO2 per capita. In addition, the share of the city impacts caused by the provision of a service for the rest of the country, such as a port, could be allocated to the national economy. PMID:26065831

  15. Validation of Patient Recall of Doctor-diagno sed Heart Attack and Stroke: A Postal Questionnaire and Record Review Comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Walker; Peter H. Whincup; A. Gerald Shaper; Lucy T. Lennon; Andrew G. Thomson

    Few studies have assessed the accuracy of patient recall of doctor-diagnosed heart attack and stroke on postal questionnaire, yet such data are widely used in epidemiologic studies. In the national prospective British Regional Heart Study of 7,735 men aged 40-59 years, based in general practice and followed up for a mean 13.8 years, a mailed questionnaire was sent to all

  16. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roberta G; Pearson, Gail D; Barst, Robyn J; Child, John S; del Nido, Pedro; Gersony, Welton M; Kuehl, Karen S; Landzberg, Michael J; Myerson, Merle; Neish, Steven R; Sahn, David J; Verstappen, Amy; Warnes, Carole A; Webb, Catherine L

    2006-02-21

    The Working Group on research in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) was convened in September 2004 under the sponsorship of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the Office of Rare Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, to make recommendations on research needs. The purpose of the Working Group was to advise the NHLBI on the current state of the science in ACHD and barriers to optimal clinical care, and to make specific recommendations for overcoming those barriers. The members of the Working Group were chosen to provide expert input on a broad range of research issues from both scientific and lay perspectives. The Working Group reviewed data on the epidemiology of ACHD, long-term outcomes of complex cardiovascular malformations, issues in assessing morphology and function with current imaging techniques, surgical and catheter-based interventions, management of related conditions including pregnancy and arrhythmias, quality of life, and informatics. After research and training barriers were discussed, the Working Group recommended outreach and educational programs for adults with congenital heart disease, a network of specialized adult congenital heart disease regional centers, technology development to support advances in imaging and modeling of abnormal structure and function, and a consensus on appropriate training for physicians to provide care for adults with congenital heart disease. PMID:16487831

  17. Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Hector, Susanne [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof. [Gray Cancer Institute, Northwood (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

  18. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  19. Psycholinguistics and Foreign Language Learning. Papers from a Conference (Stockholm, Sweden and Abo, Finland, October 25-26, 1982). Meddelanden fran Stiftelsens for Abo Akademi Forskningsinstitut Nr.86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan, Ed.

    At irregular intervals, beginning in 1977, Swedish-Finnish conferences on contrastive and applied linguistics have been arranged in Stockholm and Turko/Abo. This volume presents most of the papers given at the 1982 conference. Papers include: "Free Recall of Mixed Language Lists. Error Patterns in Bilingual Memory" (Karin Aronsson, Anja Metsola,…

  20. Epidemiology and outcomes of patients with invasive mould infections: a retrospective observational study from a single centre (2005-2009).

    PubMed

    Klingspor, Lena; Saaedi, Baharak; Ljungman, Per; Szakos, Attila

    2015-08-01

    Invasive mould infection (IMI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. However, Swedish epidemiology data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and outcome of IMI. Cases of proven/probable IMI at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, from 2005 to 2009, were included. A total of 100 patients with 104 episodes of IMI were enrolled. Identified isolates included 101 mould isolates. The majority of the isolates were Aspergillus spp. (74.3%), followed by Mucorales spp. (13.9%), Fusarium spp. (4.9%) and other mould spp. (6.9%). In 13% of the episodes, more than one mould caused the IMI. The lung was most often affected (88.5%). The most frequent underlying disease was haematological malignancies (70%). Following diagnosis, 83.7% initially received antifungal monotherapy, 9.6% received combination therapy and 6.7% no treatment. The overall 90-day and 1-year overall survival was 49% and 46% respectively. Survival at 90 days post diagnosis was 71.4% in the solid tumour cohort, 62.5% in patients with solid organ transplants, 43.5% in haematological malignancy (HMs) and 37% in those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Overall survival was poor in the studied cohort, but is variable among different host categories, with particular opportunities for improvement in patients with underlying HMs and allogeneic HSCT. PMID:26152371

  1. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  2. Chronic Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Holley; Michael W. Rich

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in the Medicare age group. The prognosis for established heart failure\\u000a in persons over age 65 is poor, with 5-year survival rates of less than 50% in both men and women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The pharmacotherapy of systolic heart failure is well established, with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers\\u000a having the most proven

  3. [Nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Ferrières, J

    2003-09-01

    The nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease is complex because nutrition is composed of a large number of factors which are susceptible to interfere with each other and to affect the coronary risk after a long period of exposure. The methodology of nutritional studies relies on known and validated enquiry techniques, but they are difficult to perform in the general population. The lipid nutritional hypothesis of coronary disease was centred on cholesterol and the saturated fatty acids. This lipid theory has allowed great advances in the pathophysiological and therapeutic areas. The concepts of a French paradox and global diet have allowed research in nutritional epidemiology to be refocused on other nutrients (lipids and non-lipids) and on alimentary fashions and lifestyle in general. The success of proposed diets at the population level depends strictly on correctly validated scientific data, and on the cultural and social context of where the prevention messages warrant dissemination. PMID:14655545

  4. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  5. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  6. The heart sound preprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    Technology developed for signal and data processing was applied to diagnostic techniques in the area of phonocardiography (pcg), the graphic recording of the sounds of the heart generated by the functioning of the aortic and ventricular valves. The relatively broad bandwidth of the PCG signal (20 to 2000 Hz) was reduced to less than 100 Hz by the use of a heart sound envelope. The process involves full-wave rectification of the PCG signal, envelope detection of the rectified wave, and low pass filtering of the resultant envelope.

  7. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  8. Healthy Heart Experiment I: What Does the Heart Do?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

    2010-11-01

    This is an online simulation to allow children to do a simple physiology experiment on heart function. Children gather data as Sam the Dog rests, walks, and runs to learn how the heart helps him to exercise and play. A physiologist explains (written and audio) how the heart helps us to exercise and how exercise benefits the heart. This is one of the Phizzy the Physiology Bear online activities.

  9. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Department of Energy (DOE) maintains the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program to provide public access to "health and exposure data concerning DOE installations" (generally, exposure data on industrial workers). The CEDR Website maintains over 300 data files for public access, as well as publications based on those data sets. Users interested in accessing data will find a variety of selection options on the homepage, including Health & Mortality Data Sets, Classic Radiation Data Sets, and others.

  10. Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

    \\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

  11. Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Andrew E.; Oliver, John T.; Mirzaie, Masoud; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Chilov, Marina; Anderson, Laurie; Morrison, Janina L.; Khan, Aayla; Zhang, Nasen; Haynes, Norrisa; Tran, Jackie; Murphy, Adrianna; DeGennaro, Vincent; Roth, Gregory; Zhao, Dong; Peer, Nasheeta; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Pogosova, Nana; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Mensah, George A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. METHODS The disease model of IHD for the GBD 2010 Study included IHD death and 3 sequelae: myocardial infarction, heart failure, and angina pectoris. Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched for IHD epidemiology studies in GBD high-income and low- and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008 using a systematic protocol validated by regional IHD experts. Data from included studies were supplemented with unpublished data from selected high-quality surveillance and survey studies. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were incidence, prevalence, case fatality, and mortality. RESULTS Literature searches yielded 40,205 unique papers, of which 1,801 met initial screening criteria. Upon detailed review of full text papers, 137 published studies were included. Unpublished data were obtained from 24 additional studies. Data were sufficient for high-income regions, but missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS A systematic review for the GBD 2010 Study provided IHD epidemiology estimates for most world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IHD will require improved IHD surveillance programs in all world regions. PMID:23682350

  12. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  13. Engineered heart tissue for regeneration of diseased hearts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann; Ivan Melnychenko; Thomas Eschenhagen

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering aims at providing contractile heart muscle constructs for replacement therapy in vivo. At present, most cardiac tissue engineering attempts utilize heart cells from embryonic chicken and neonatal rats and scaffold materials. Over the past years our group has developed a novel technique to engineer collagen\\/matrigel-based cardiac muscle constructs, which we termed engineered heart tissue (EHT). EHT display

  14. Epidemiology of dyslipidemia among schoolchildren in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, I; Ghannem, H; Gaha, R; Hochlaf, M; Limam, K; Essoussi, A S

    2005-06-01

    In Tunisia, there is no available data on the CVD risk profile in the children population, although it is well known that risk factor development takes place during childhood. We undertook an epidemiological survey based on a representative sample of 1569 urban school children of Sousse in Tunisia to assess the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and other lipid disorders. Prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (8.1%), high level of LDL-cholesterol (3.9%), high level of Lp(a) (14.5%), hypertriglyceridemia (1.3%) and hyper Apo B (3.4%) were found. These informations will be useful to set up a regional program of Heart Health promotion in schools. PMID:16142019

  15. Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

  16. Preparing Children for Heart Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... give support. Join now - it's free and easy. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

  17. Healthy Heart Handbook for Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to prolong people’s lives after a heart attack. Religious or spiritual beliefs and activity are also linked ... down-to-earth ideas for making heart healthy practices part of your daily life. If you already ...

  18. Prevention of heart disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease may be prevented by recommended healthy diet, regular exercise and to stop smoking if you are a smoker. Follow your health care provider's recommendations for treatment and prevention of heart disease.

  19. Improved Artificial Heart Valve Approved

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_153138.html Improved Artificial Heart Valve Approved Changes designed to minimize leaks To use ... newest version of the Sapien 3 Transcatheter Heart Valve has been approved by the U.S. Food and ...

  20. Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... one cause of death among women. And the risk of having a heart attack increases with age, especially after menopause. So it's essential that women become more aware of their heart health. JOAN HAMILTON: When we go to parties, we ...

  1. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used when a person is waiting for a heart transplant . You may need a left ventricular assist device ( ... may be on a waiting list for a heart transplant. Some patients who get a VAD are very ...

  2. Living with Heart Valve Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Endocarditis Heart Murmur How the Heart Works Mitral Valve Prolapse Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | PRINT | SHARE this page from the NHLBI BOOKMARK & SHARE X Share this page from the NHLBI on Blogger. ...

  3. Thrombolytic drugs for heart attack

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Update) A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines ( ...

  4. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ...

  5. Lifestyle and Heart Failure Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Lifestyle and Heart Failure Risk URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Life_Style_070715.html Lifestyle and Heart Failure ...

  6. What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Article Body If your child needs surgery ... heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical doctors ...

  7. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Heart and Circulatory System If Your Child Has a Heart Defect Coarctation ... Heart Disease Getting an EKG (Video) Your Heart & Circulatory System What Happens in the Operating Room? EKG (Video) ...

  8. The Heart of the Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    This lesson describes how the circulatory system works, including the heart, blood vessels and blood. Students learn about the chambers and valves of the heart, the difference between veins and arteries, and the different components of blood. This lesson also covers the technology engineers have developed to repair the heart if it is damaged. Students also understand how the circulatory system is affected during spaceflight (e.g., astronauts lose muscle in their heart during space travel).

  9. Determinants of heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisako Tsuji; Ferdinand J. Venditti; Emily S. Manders; Jane C. Evans; Martin G. Larson; Charles L. Feldman; Daniel Levy

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to examine clinical determinants of heart rate variability and to report normative reference values for eight heart rate variability measures.Background. Although the clinical implications of heart rate variability have been described, clinical determinants and normative values of heart rate variability measures have not been studied systematically in a large community-based population.Methods. The first 2 h of

  10. Ventricular Remodeling in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amil M.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common, increasing in prevalence, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. HFpEF has commonly been viewed as an expression of advanced hypertensive heart disease, with a cardiac phenotype characterized by an increase in wall thickness-to-chamber radius ratio (concentric hypertrophy). However, marked clinical heterogeneity within this syndrome is now well appreciated, and is mirrored in the variability in left ventricular structure. A review of larger imaging studies from epidemiology and clinical trial cohorts demonstrate that while concentric LV remodeling is common, it is by no means universal and many patients demonstrate normal LV geometry or even an eccentric pattern. More detailed assessment of cardiac structure and function in broader HFpEF populations will be necessary to better define the prevalence, determinants, and prognostic relevance of these measures, which may in turn serve as a foundation to identify pathophysiologically relevant sub-phenotypes within this diverse syndrome. PMID:24097113

  11. Update on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Scott L.; Kitzman, Dalane W.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is the most common form of heart failure (HF) in older adults, and is increasing in prevalence as the population ages. Morbidity and long-term mortality in HFPEF are substantial and can be similar to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF), yet HFPEF therapy remains empirical and treatment guidelines are based primarily on expert consensus. Neurohormonal blockade has revolutionized the management of HFREF, but trials in HFPEF based on this strategy have been disappointing to date. However, many recent studies have increased knowledge about HFPEF. The concept of HFPEF has evolved from a ‘cardio-centric’ model to a syndrome that may involve multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mechanisms. Emerging data highlight the importance of non-pharmacological management strategies and assessment of non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Animal models, epidemiological cohorts, and small human studies suggest that oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to HFPEF, potentially leading to development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:24860638

  12. Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease. Issues of etiology and validity.

    PubMed

    Fratiglioni, L

    1993-01-01

    This thesis concerns the epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and some aspects of the validity of such studies. AD is a common and chronic dementing disorder among elderly people. Due to the lack of treatment and to the invalidating nature, the social impact of this disease is high in all the societies in which the proportion of elderly is increasing. Three studies on AD etiology have been performed. The first is a case-control study on early-onset AD and a wide range of putative risk factors. The cases were gathered from a clinical study on AD carried out in Italy. The information on the exposure obtained from a next-of-kin of 116 cases was compared with the information similarly collected from the next-of-kin of 116 hospital and 97 population controls. The other two etiological studies deal with late-onset AD and are a prevalence study on sociodemographic variables and a case-control study on selected putative risk factors. These two studies were performed within a population-based study on ageing and dementia that is ongoing in Stockholm, Sweden. The study on sociodemographic variables included 116 AD cases among 1810 people. The case-control study compared the information obtained by the informants of 98 AD cases and 266 controls. The main results of these three investigations are: (1) The prevalence of AD increases with age, even in advanced ages. (2) The prevalence of AD does not vary by gender and education. (3) The main risk factor for both early- and late-onset AD is the familial aggregation of dementia (relative risk of 2.6 and 3.2, respectively). (4) A second risk factor for early-onset AD may be the advanced age of the mother at index delivery, but this result needs confirmation. No other risk factors reported by others emerged in our study. (5) High relative risks were found for alcohol consumption and manual work in late-onset AD. Manual work could be an indicator of occupational exposures as well as life conditions or life habits. Although both these results may be affected by bias, the results are provocative for future research. Three validation studies were carried out on three different aspects: diagnosis, case ascertainment, and exposure assessment. The first study investigated the reproducibility of AD diagnosis according to the DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. The diagnoses made by the examining physicians were compared with the diagnosis made independently by another clinician on the subjects' clinical records.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8333250

  13. Effect of Spironolactone on ventricular arrhythmias in congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated or to ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix J. A Ramires; Antonio Mansur; Otavio Coelho; Mario Maranhão; Cesar J Gruppi; Charles Mady; José A. F Ramires

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown an important increase in the high mortality of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) despite optimal medical management. Ventricular arrhythmia was recognized as the most common cause of death in this population. Electrolyte imbalance, myocardial fibrosis, left ventricular dysfunction, and inappropriate neurohumoral activation are presumed responsible for sudden cardiac death. In this study, we focused on

  14. Exercise and Your Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  15. Heart muscle disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siân E Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Primary cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases intrinsic to the myocardium. This group includes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ARVC), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and unclassified cardiomyopathy. The cardiomyopathies may be classified pathophysiologically and display unique pathological and clinical features. ARVC is characterized by fibroadipose substitution of right ventricular myocardium and a high risk of sudden cardiac death. HCM

  16. Anthocyanins and heart disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are red, blue, and purple pigments distributed throughout nature, and in our diet. One potential health benefit of dietary anthocyanins is protection against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence for beneficial effects of anthocyanins with respect to heart disease comes from epidemio...

  17. Heart transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common (corneas and kidneys are the most common) transplant operations in the U.S. (over 1,500 cases per year). A healthy heart is obtained from a donor who has suffered brain death but remains on life-support. The healthy ...

  18. Angiosarcoma of the heart.

    PubMed

    Shackell, M; Mitko, A; Williams, P L; Sutton, G C

    1979-04-01

    Two cases of angiosarcomas of the heart are described. In one the tumour, which arose from the right atrium, was demonstrated during life by angiography. In the other, diagnosed only at necropsy, the tumour arose from the right ventricle. Both cases illustrate many of the typical features of this rare tumour and the difficulties of antemortem diagnosis. PMID:572693

  19. Angiosarcoma of the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Shackell, M; Mitko, A; Williams, P L; Sutton, G C

    1979-01-01

    Two cases of angiosarcomas of the heart are described. In one the tumour, which arose from the right atrium, was demonstrated during life by angiography. In the other, diagnosed only at necropsy, the tumour arose from the right ventricle. Both cases illustrate many of the typical features of this rare tumour and the difficulties of antemortem diagnosis. Images PMID:572693

  20. Angiosarcoma of the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Shackell; A Mitko; P L Williams; G C Sutton

    1979-01-01

    Two cases of angiosarcomas of the heart are described. In one the tumour, which arose from the right atrium, was demonstrated during life by angiography. In the other, diagnosed only at necropsy, the tumour arose from the right ventricle. Both cases illustrate many of the typical features of this rare tumour and the difficulties of antemortem diagnosis.

  1. FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke....

  2. Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

  3. Be Still My Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

    This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

  4. Gum and Heart Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2005-04-25

    Scientists have long noticed a connection between gum disease and heart disease. Now, they've found a key piece of the puzzle. This science update examines what scientists have found linking the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery.

  5. Anatomy of the heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H Whitaker

    2006-01-01

    The heart is a midline, valvular, muscular pump in the middle mediastinum. It has inferior, left (left ventricle) and right (right atrium) surfaces and a base (facing posteriorly). The intraventricular septum bulges to the left in almost a coronal plane. A figure of eight shaped fibrous skeleton is attached to muscle and valves of the chambers and divides and electrically

  6. Changes in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 2001-2011: findings from the stockholm youth cohort.

    PubMed

    Idring, Selma; Lundberg, Michael; Sturm, Harald; Dalman, Christina; Gumpert, Clara; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    In a record-linkage study in Stockholm, Sweden, the year 2011 prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was found to be 0.40, 1.74, 2.46, and 1.76 % among 0-5, 6-12, 13-17, and 18-27 year olds, respectively. The corresponding proportion of cases with a recorded diagnosis of intellectual disability was 17.4, 22.1, 26.1 and 29.4 %. Between 2001 and 2011, ASD prevalence increased almost 3.5 fold among children aged 2-17 years. The increase was mainly accounted for by an eightfold increase of ASD without intellectual disability (from 0.14 to 1.10 %), while the prevalence of ASD with intellectual disability increased only slightly (from 0.28 to 0.34 %). The increase in ASD prevalence is likely contributed to by extrinsic factors such as increased awareness and diagnostics. PMID:25475364

  7. Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices for Occupational and Environmental Epidemiologic Research. The Chemical Manufacturers Association's Epidemiology Task Group.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices (GEPs) for Occupational and Environmental Epidemiologic Research address the conduct of studies generally undertaken to answer questions about human health in relationship to the work place or the environment. The GEPs propose minimum practices and procedures that should be considered to help ensure the quality and integrity of data used in epidemiologic research and to provide adequate documentation of the research methods. The GEPs address the process of conducting individual epidemiologic studies and do not prescribe specific research methods. The Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices propose minimum practices and procedures in the following areas: I. Organization and Personnel II. Facilities, Resource Commitment, and Contractors III. Protocol IV. Review and Approval V. Study Conduct VI. Communication VII. Archiving VIII. Quality Assurance Although the Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices will not guarantee good epidemiology, they do provide a useful framework for ensuring that all research issues are adequately addressed. This framework is proposed as a first step in improving epidemiologic research practices through adherence to sound scientific research principles. Appendices provide an overview of standard operating procedures, a glossary of terms used in the Guidelines, and suggested references on occupational epidemiology methods. PMID:1800677

  8. What Is Heart Valve Surgery?

    MedlinePLUS

    (continued) What do heart valves do? The four valves in your heart are made of thin (but strong) flaps of tissue that open and close ... through your heart in the right direction. Your valves work hard as they stretch back and forth ...

  9. Heart Disease: Know Your Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... risk factors Return to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime of ... Fact Sheet - This fact sheet on women and heart disease includes information about risk factors, prevention, and treatment of heart disease. Stroke Fact Sheet - ...

  10. Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your heart healthy. Sign up today! Email:* State: Zip Code: By clicking submit below you agree to the Terms and Conditions Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Target Heart Rates 3 All About Heart Rate ( ...

  11. HEART OF MYTH – HEART OF SCIENCE Part I

    PubMed Central

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the history and meanings of the heart and its diseases as aspects of the histories of science and emotion. Analyzing the twofold meanings of the heart as both bodily object and cultural symbol, it explores the reasons for the apparent conflict in meanings of the heart of science and the heart of emotion in Western medical culture since the 19th century. In Part I, a case study of the writer, economist, and philosopher Harriet Martineau is used to demonstrate and trace that conflict, while Part II highlights the manifold meanings of the heart both in the past and in the present.

  12. Non-Heart-Beating Donor Heart Transplantation: Breaking the Taboo.

    PubMed

    Fatullayev, Javid; Samak, Mostafa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Weymann, Alexander; Mohite, Prashant N; García-Sáez, Diana; Patil, Nikhil P; Dohmen, Pascal M; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Simon, Andre R; Zeriouh, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Roughly 60% of hearts offered for transplantation are rejected because of organ dysfunction. Moreover, hearts from circulatory-dead patients have long been thought to be non-amenable for transplantation, unlike other organs. However, tentative surgical attempts inspired by the knowledge obtained from preclinical research to recover those hearts have been performed, finally culminating in clinically successful transplants. In this review we sought to address the major concerns in non-heart-beating donor heart transplantation and highlight recently introduced developments to overcome them. PMID:26174972

  13. Reverse epidemiology: a spurious hypothesis or a hardcore reality?

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kilpatrick, Ryan D; Kuwae, Noriko; Wu, Dennis Y

    2005-01-01

    In maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, associations between demographic, clinical and laboratory values and mortality, including cardiovascular death, are significantly different and, in some cases, in the opposite direction of those derived from the general population. This phenomenon, termed 'reverse epidemiology', is not limited to MHD patients but is also observed in populations that encompass an estimated 20 million Americans including those with an advanced age, heart failure, malignancies, and AIDS. A significant portion of this reversal may be due to the overwhelming effect of the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS). Since two thirds of MHD patients die within 5 years of initiation of dialysis treatment, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension cannot exert a long-term deleterious impact, and instead, their short-term beneficial effects on MICS provides a survival advantage. In order to improve survival and quality of life in MHD patients, extrapolated ideal norms derived from the general population should be substituted with novel norms obtained from outcome-oriented epidemiologic analyses while accounting for the differential effect of MICS in different case-mix subgroups. PMID:15627738

  14. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jean Anne; Thiagarajan, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS) refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch). Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision relative to treatment, and long-term prognosis as information on long-term survival and quality of life for those born with the syndrome is limited. PMID:17498282

  15. Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing.

    PubMed

    Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Bossaert, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Major European institutions report cardiovascular disease (CVD) as the first cause of death in adults, with cardiac arrest and sudden death due to coronary ischaemia as the primary single cause. Global incidence of CVD is decreasing in most European countries, due to prevention, lifestyle and treatment. Mortality of acute coronary events inside the hospital decreases more rapidly than outside the hospital. To improve the mortality of cardiac arrest outside the hospital, reliable epidemiological and process figures are essential: "we can only manage what we can measure". Europe is a patchwork of 47 countries (total population of 830 million), with a 10-fold difference in incidence of coronary heart disease between North and South, East and West, and a 5-fold difference in number of EMS-treated cardiac arrest (range 17-53/1000,000/year). Epidemiology of cardiac arrest should not be calculated as a European average, but it is appropriate to describe the incidence of cardiac arrest, the resuscitation process, and the outcome in each of the European regions, for benchmarking and quality management. Epidemiological reports of cardiac arrest should specify definitions, nominator (number of cases) and denominator (study population). Recently some regional registries in North America, Japan and Europe fulfilled these conditions. The European Registry of Cardiac Arrest (EuReCa) has the potential to achieve these objectives on a pan-European scale. For operational applications, the Utstein definition of "Cardiac arrest" is used which includes the potential of survival. For application in community health, the WHO definition of "sudden death" is frequently used, describing the mode of death. There is considerable overlap between both definitions. But this explains that no single method can provide all information. Integrating data from multiple sources (local, national, multinational registries and surveys, death certificates, post-mortem reports, community statistics, medical records) may create a holistic picture of cardiac arrest in the community. PMID:24054508

  16. Case-based information systems in Swedish health care. General aspects and experiences from the Stockholm County Council.

    PubMed

    Paulson, E M

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of some national case-based information systems in Swedish health care together with an application from the Stockholm County Council. A background section on the Swedish health care system is also included. Several case-based information systems have been developed within Swedish health care. They have different purposes and operate on different levels. General national registries include: discharge registry, medical birth registry, cancer registry and cause of death registry. They have been used mainly for research and planning of health services. Another type of national registries are related to specific patient groups. Such registries include information on results and complications of treatment. The initiative to these registries have come mainly from groups of consultants. The Stockholm County Council has replaced the traditionally global budgets of clinical departments with an activity based income. An evaluation project on health care utilization in five surgical specialties are presented. Preliminary results were: no division of in-patient care into multiple hospital stays and an increase in the number of discharges among the elderly. The Swedish health care system of today is characterized by organizational changes. Case-based information systems give the opportunity to study the developments of equity, quality and resource management in the new health care models. There is today an increased interest to use case-based information systems for quality assessment and continuous quality improvement. An increasing number of analyses are made at the local level. However, national case-based data are still very valuable to make regional comparisons possible and to produce relevant reference data in local applications. PMID:10163694

  17. Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

    2014-03-24

    Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. CONCLUSIONS THE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT JOINT PHYSICAL CUSTODY IS ASSOCIATED WITH A HIGHER INCLINATION TO USE PARENTS AS A SOURCE OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT AND BETTER SUBJECTIVE HEALTH THAN OTHER POST-DIVORCE FAMILY TYPES: PMID:24662307

  18. A Genome Scan for Linkage With Aortic Root Diameter in Hypertensive African Americans and Whites in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy I. Lynch; Donna K. Arnett; Larry D. Atwood; Richard B. Devereux; Dalane W. Kitzman; Paul N. Hopkins; Albert Oberman; Dabeeru C. Rao

    2005-01-01

    Background: Aortic root dilation is a prominent feature in several cardiovascular diseases. This study seeks to identify genomic regions linked to variation in the aortic root diameter (ARD) in hypertensive African American and white individuals.Methods: We performed a genome scan for ARD in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Study, one of four networks in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

  19. Genetic epidemiological study of schizophrenia: reproduction behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, M; Sherina, O; Ginath, Y

    1992-06-01

    Data from the Tomsk Epidemiological Register and epidemiological family sample were used to study the relationship between schizophrenics' reproductive behaviour (marital status and fertility rate), severity of ICD-9 schizophrenia and risk of illness among relatives of probands. The results are interpreted in terms of multifactorial threshold and single monolocus models. Their importance for the interpretation of epidemiological data (a change of prevalence rate, cohort effect and clinical polymorphism) is discussed. PMID:1642123

  20. [Ischemic heart disease and depression: an underestimated clinical association].

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Carmine; Santarella, Luigi; Manfrini, Olivia; Chiavaroli, Martina; Agushi, Erjon; Cordioli, Elvira; Costa, Grazia Maria; Bugiardini, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acute or chronic ischemic heart disease have a high incidence of depression, and a variable proportion of patients (ranging from 14% to 47%) suffer from major or subclinical depression. In addition, chronic depression has been shown to be associated with the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Besides a poor quality of life, depressive symptoms in patients with ischemic heart disease result in a poor prognosis, as cardiovascular event rates are 2-2.5 times higher than in their counterparts without depressive symptoms. A variety of pathogenetic mechanisms may play a role, including pathophysiological (dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, platelet hyperaggregability, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and genetic predisposition) and behavioral mechanisms (inadequate therapy adherence, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle). However, in patients with ischemic heart disease, depression often goes undiagnosed or untreated. Several screening procedures including questionnaires for patients with heart disease, along with the help of a psychiatrist, may facilitate not only the diagnosis of depressive symptoms but also the pharmacological and/or physiotherapeutic management. The use of tricyclic antidepressant agents should be avoided in patients with heart disease, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to be safe in this patient population. However, no evidence is available to support that use of these drugs is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular events at follow-up. Psychotherapy proved to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms but ineffective in improving prognosis. In this review, epidemiology and pathophysiology of depression in patients with ischemic heart disease are described, with a focus on stratification of depressive symptoms and potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:23877550

  1. Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285

  2. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological transition witnessed by the developed nations, with similar matrices for India. PMID:24848651

  3. [Epidemiology and prevention of influenza].

    PubMed

    Demicheli, Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes information on the epidemiology of influenza and on the impact on main preventive measures. Data show as the incidence of Influenza Like Illness has been declining in the last ten years and also the seriousness of the disease, in terms of mortality and social disruption, is limited. Among preventive intervention the use of modern antiviral drugs appears to have no effect on incidence and minimal impact on duration of disease, and the overall effectiveness of vaccination with inactivated vaccine in just around 25% while higher effects are shown by public health intervention aimed to interrupt transmission of respiratory viruses like frequent handwashing and wearing mask, gloves and gown. PMID:21061710

  4. Diabetes and Coronary Heart Disease: A Risk Factor for the Global Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Chiha, Maguy; Njeim, Mario; Chedrawy, Edgar G.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in the United States and the world. In this we will paper focus on type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, review the mechanisms of atherogenesis in diabetics, the impact of hypertension and the treatment goals in diabetics, the guidelines for screening, and review the epidemiologic consequences of diabetes and heart disease on a global scale. The underlying premise to consider diabetes a cardiovascular disease equivalent will be explored as well as the recommendations for screening and cardiac testing for asymptomatic diabetic patients. PMID:23119148

  5. Acute Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Unique Patient Characteristics and Targets for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bishu, Kalkidan

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are 1.0 million annual hospital discharges for acute heart failure (AHF). The total cost of heart failure (HF) care in the United States is projected to increase to $53 billion in 2030, with the majority of costs (80 %) related to AHF hospitalizations. Approximately 50 % of AHF episodes occur in patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines for the management of AHF in HFpEF patients. Here, we briefly review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of AHF patients with HFpEF. PMID:23868335

  6. Epidemiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vollmer-Buhl, Brian

    Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  7. [Heart failure and cachexia].

    PubMed

    Tabet, J Y; Meurin, P; Ben Driss, A; Logeart, D; Héliès-Toussaint, C; Tartière, J M; Cohen-Solal, A; Grynberg, A; Bourdel-Marchasson, I

    2006-12-01

    Cachexia is related to a malnutrition state related to hypercatabolism. Initially described in cancer, it is also related to several chronic diseases including heart failure. Defined by an unintentional weight loss exceeding 7.5% of body mass during more than 6 months, it is presented by the association of nutritional deficiencies, digestive and/or urinary losses as well as metabolic abnormalities causing fat and lean mass loss and is associated to a poor prognosis. The pathophysiology of cachexia and heart failure presented some similarities associating especially neuro-hormonal activation, a cortisol/DHEA ratio imbalance, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines activation. Currently the treatment of cachexia is mainly preventive, based on ACE-inhibitors and beta-blockers therapy and physical reconditioning. The benefits of hormonal and nutritional substitutes remains to be evidenced. PMID:18942522

  8. Heart Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center's device to test astronauts' heart function in microgravity has led to the MultiWire Gamma Camera, which images heart conditions six times faster than conventional devices. Dr. Jeffrey Lacy, who developed the technology as a NASA researcher, later formed Proportional Technologies, Inc. to develop a commercially viable process that would enable use of Tantalum-178 (Ta-178), a radio-pharmaceutical. His company supplies the generator for the radioactive Ta-178 to Xenos Medical Systems, which markets the camera. Ta-178 can only be optimally imaged with the camera. Because the body is subjected to it for only nine minutes, the radiation dose is significantly reduced and the technique can be used more frequently. Ta-178 also enables the camera to be used on pediatric patients who are rarely studied with conventional isotopes because of the high radiation dosage.

  9. A comparison of perceived health, attitudes to work, leisure time, and social welfare systems among people in a rural area in the north of Sweden and among people in the city of Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Selander, John; Akerström, Bengt; Asplund, Ragnar; Dahl, Annika

    2007-01-01

    A problem attracting considerable attention in Sweden today is the substantial regional differences in sickness absence. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare how people, from a random sample of the population in both a rural area in the north of Sweden and the Swedish capital Stockholm, perceive their health, and what their attitudes are to work, leisure time and social welfare systems. Results showed that a larger proportion of those answering in Stockholm considered their health status to be "very good", compared with those in the rural area (p<0.0001). A majority in the rural area compared to the city of Stockholm reported a high or very high level of aches/pain (p<0.0001) and that work causes them physical problems p<0.0001). The population in both Stockholm and the rural area is of the opinion that the increase in sickness absence is mainly due to deterioration in the work environment. Almost half of the individuals in both the rural area and in Stockholm are of the opinion that many of those sick-listed are not actually ill. It may be that in the rural area in north Sweden people are more inclined to put their opinions to practice than those in Stockholm are. PMID:17312347

  10. Straight from the Heart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonell, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Every adult who reads to a child has seen what happens when a book speaks. For a time, the book becomes the child's beloved friend. It is asked for repeatedly and learned by heart. But books do more than speak to a child. Children use books to speak to adults. If one wants to understand a child's deepest emotions, take a look at the books they…

  11. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  12. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    DePestel, Daryl D.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. The increased incidence and severity associated with CDI has coincided with the emergence and rapid spread of a previously rare strain, ribotype 027. Recent data from the U.S. and Europe suggest the incidence of CDI may have reached a crescendo in recent years and is perhaps beginning to plateau. The acute-care direct costs of CDI were estimated to be $4.8 billion in 2008. However, nearly all the published studies have focused on CDI diagnosed and treated in acute-care hospital setting and fail to measure the burden outside the hospital, including recently discharged patients, outpatients, and those in long-term care facilities. Enhanced surveillance methods are needed to monitor the incidence, identify populations at risk, and characterize the molecular epidemiology of strains causing CDI. PMID:24064435

  13. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  14. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  15. Epidemiology of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Laura E

    2005-05-15

    The epidemiological investigation of the common open neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephaly, and spina bifida, has a long history. The most significant finding from these past studies of NTDs was the identification of the protective effect of maternal, periconceptional supplementation with folic acid. Fortuitously, the association between folic acid and NTDs became widely accepted in the early 1990s, at a time when genetic association studies of complex traits were becoming increasingly feasible. The confluence of these events has had a major impact on the direction of epidemiological, NTD research. Association studies to evaluate genes that may influence the risk of NTDs through their role in folate-related processes, or through other metabolic or developmental pathways are now commonplace. Moreover, the study of genetic as well as non-genetic, factors that may influence NTD risk through effects on the nutrient status of the mother or embryo has emerged as a major research focus. Research efforts over the past decade indicate that gene-gene, gene-environment, and higher-order interactions, as well as maternal genetic effects influence NTD risk, highlighting the complexity of the factors that underlie these conditions. The challenge for the future is to design studies that address these complexities, and are adequately powered to detect the factors or combination of factors that influence the development of NTDs. PMID:15800877

  16. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  17. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...

  18. Review: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachil

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5,700 000 people in the United States, with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) being responsible for between 30%-50% of acute admissions. Epidemiological studies and HF registries have found HFPEF patients to be older, hypertensive and to have a history of atrial fibrillation. These findings, however, may not be fully applicable to African Americans, as they have been poorly studied making up only a minority of the test subjects. This review article is intended to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of HFPEF within African Americans, highlight the differences compared to Caucasian populations and review current treatment guidelines. Studies looking at African Americans in particular have shown them to be younger, female and have worse diastolic dysfunction compared to Caucasian populations. African Americans also have been shown to have a worse mortality outcome especially in patients without coronary artery disease. The treatment of HFPEF is primarily symptomatic with no survival benefit seen in randomized controlled trials. Mechanisms postulated for the worse prognosis in African Americans with HFPEF include: greater incidence of hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, undefined race-driven genetic predispositions or relative resistance to medications that treat HF in general. The biological predispositions may also be compounded by inequality of healthcare access; something still felt to exist today. Prospective studies and randomized controlled trials need to be conducted with particular emphasis on African American populations to fully elucidate this disease and to formulate race specific treatment outcomes for the future. PMID:23140073

  19. Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

  20. Applied epidemiology and environmental health: Emerging controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Needleman

    1997-01-01

    This review article assesses the state of the science in environmental epidemiology, not by summarizing current scientific findings but rather by examining conceptual controversies in the study of how environmental factors influence human health. This approach seems necessary because environmental epidemiology presently stands at a crossroads—in fact, at a number of overlapping crossroads. The field teems with epistemologic debates concerning

  1. GEOVISUALIZATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: A GENERAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    E-print Network

    Klippel, Alexander

    GEOVISUALIZATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: A GENERAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK Anthony C. Robinson GeoVISTA Center design framework for a geovisualization toolkit to support epidemiological work. The framework is based with practicing epidemiologists from the National Cancer Institute and the Penn State Hershey Medical School

  2. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

  3. Molecular epidemiology of enzootic rabies in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leta K. Crawford-Miksza; Debra A. Wadford; David P. Schnurr

    1999-01-01

    Background: Molecular characterization of rabies virus has been used to trace spillover transmission from reservoir species to non-reservoir animals and humans (molecular epidemiology), and to monitor emergence of specific strains of the virus into new species and geographic areas (molecular surveillance). Objectives: To characterize the enzootic strains of rabies virus in California wildlife for epidemiological investigation of transmission to non-reservoir

  4. The medical aspects of soccer injury epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary S. Keller; Frank R. Noyes; C. Ralph Buncher

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the six major studies of soccer injury epidemiology are reviewed. Strengths and weaknesses of each epidemiologic design are critiqued and the crucial importance of the definition of injury is empha sized. The effect of age, sex, and intensity of play on injury rates is discussed. Our present knowledge of injury rate by anatomical site, player position, and

  5. Reconciling the Evidence on Serum Homocysteine and Ischaemic Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Wald; Joan K. Morris; Nicholas J. Wald; Adrian Hernandez

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundResults from genetic epidemiological studies suggest that raised serum homocysteine is a cause of ischaemic heart disease, but the results of randomised trials suggest otherwise. We aimed to update meta-analyses on each type of study using the latest published data and test a hypothesis based on antiplatelet therapy use in the trials to explain the discrepancy.Methods and FindingsMeta-analyses of ischaemic

  6. Relationship Between C-Reactive Protein and Subclinical Atherosclerosis The Dallas Heart Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amit Khera; James A. de Lemos; Ronald M. Peshock; Hao S. Lo; Harold G. Stanek; Sabina A. Murphy; Frank H. Wians; Scott M. Grundy; Darren K. McGuire

    2011-01-01

    Background—Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with increased risk for incident cardiovascular events on the basis of observations from several prospective epidemiological studies. However, less is known regarding the relationship between CRP levels and atherosclerotic burden. Methods and Results—We measured CRP in 3373 subjects 30 to 65 years of age who were participating in the Dallas Heart Study,

  7. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  8. C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: All Said—Is Not It?

    PubMed Central

    Strang, Frederik; Schunkert, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have been the subject of intensive investigations over the last decades. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between moderately elevated CRP levels and incident CHD whereas genetic studies have shown that polymorphisms associated with elevated CRP levels do not increase the risk of ischemic vascular disease, suggesting that CRP might be a bystander rather than a causal factor in the progress of atherosclerosis. Beside all those epidemiological and genetic studies, the experimental investigations also try to reveal the role of CRP in the progress of atherosclerosis. This review will highlight the complex results of genomic, epidemiological, and experimental studies on CRP and will show why further studies investigating the relationship between CRP and atherosclerosis might be needed. PMID:24808639

  9. Heart Disease Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González S., A.; Acosta P., J. L.; Sandoval M., M.

    2004-09-01

    We develop a wavelet based method to obtain standardized gray-scale chart of both healthy hearts and of hearts suffering left ventricular hypertrophy. The hypothesis that early bad functioning of heart can be detected must be tested by comparing the wavelet analysis of the corresponding ECD with the limit cases. Several important parameters shall be taken into account such as age, sex and electrolytic changes.

  10. Thyroid hormone and heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Maria Schmidt-Ott; Deborah Davis Ascheim

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolic disarray has been identified as a risk factor for the progression of heart disease and the development\\u000a of heart failure (HF). Both hyper-and hypothyroidism have been associated with a failing myocardium. Poor cardiac contractility\\u000a and low cardiac output due to hyperthyroidism is a rare occurrence and is mostly seen in patients with preexisting heart disease.\\u000a Referred to

  11. Imaging Heart Failure in 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto E. Salcedo; Jamaluddin Moloo; Robert Quaife; Eugene Wolfel

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure is a common and serious public health problem in industrialized countries. The epidemics of diabetes, obesity,\\u000a hypertension, and coronary disease are contributing to the increasing prevalence of heart failure. The diagnosis of heart\\u000a failure is based on a detailed history and a thorough physical examination. Echocardiography plays a central role in aiding\\u000a in the diagnosis and characterization of

  12. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  13. Nuclear cardiology and heart failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaele Giubbini; Elisa Milan; Francesco Bertagna; Fernando Mut; Marco Metra; Carlo Rodella; Maurizio Dondi

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure in the adult population is increasing. It varies between 1% and 2%, although it mainly affects\\u000a elderly people (6–10% of people over the age of 65 years will develop heart failure). The syndrome of heart failure arises\\u000a as a consequence of an abnormality in cardiac structure, function, rhythm, or conduction. Coronary artery disease is the leading

  14. Heart rate variability: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Rajendra Acharya; Paul K. Joseph; N. Kannathal; Choo Min Lim; Jasjit S. Suri

    2006-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the\\u000a heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous\\u000a systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions.\\u000a Heart rate (HR) is

  15. Open Heart: Disease and Diagnosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2000-01-01

    In this online activity about heart disease, learners will pick one of three patients (based on actual patient histories) and help a cardiologist diagnose and prescribe treatments for him or her. Before doing this activity, it is helpful to read the sections "Diagnostic Tools" and "Heart Problems" linked to on the same page. This activity is part of a rather extensive collection of activities and information surrounding the wonder of the human heart.

  16. Construct a Heart Circulation Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2000-01-01

    In this online activity about anatomy, learners will correctly order the path blood takes through the heart in order to absorb oxygen to deliver to the rest of the body. When they have completed the task, they will see an animation of a heart doing what it does best: pumping blood. This activity is part of a rather extensive collection of activities and information surrounding the wonder of the human heart.

  17. Epidemiological basis of malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, G.

    1956-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria is discussed with special reference to the pattern observed in equatorial Africa, where the disease is very stable and where certain features, such as severe epidemic tendencies and ready amenability to control, commonly found in other malarious regions, are lacking. The particular conditions giving rise to stability are described in detail, and the ways in which they can be modified to bring about control of the disease in its stable form are outlined. The importance of measuring certain rates—for example, the basic reproduction rate, the index of stability, and the actual reproduction rate—when making any major malaria survey is emphasized, and formulae by means of which such rates can be readily calculated are included in an annex. PMID:13404439

  18. [Epidemiology and prevention in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Cherubini, C; Barbera, G; Petrosillo, N; Di Giulio, S

    2003-01-01

    During the last years, prevention of hospital infections assumed the role of primary objective for active interventions and dedicated laws for safety in work areas and for facilities accreditation defined responsibilities and preventive measures to reduce the biological risk. Dialysis centers are areas where the infective risk is high but the strict application of the Universal Measures and of specific recommendations are sufficient to reduce the risk of diffusion and transmission of pathogens. The late referral of the ESRD patient, with or without infectious comorbidity, shows an intervention field, in which a local epidemiological survey gives useful data and stimulates the data management at hospital level (Epidemiologists and nefrologists) and family doctors, to improve the disease management of very complex and high cost patients. PMID:12851920

  19. Microwave radiation: an epidemiologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, R M; Landau, E

    1979-01-01

    Microwave radiation is coming into increasing use in many countries; it is in use in communications, in industry, for ovens in the home and in commercial establishments and for diathermy. The power output is increasing steadily and community exposure is already a fact. East European countries claim that adverse effects can result from exposure substantially lower than levels permitted in Western countries. Also some of the effects claimed are frequent and disabling. Prolonged and cumulative exposure is especially suspect. While studies in animals are necessary, studies in man cannot be dispensed with. Extrapolation from on species of animal to another, and even more, to man, is hazardous. Moreover, epidemiologic studies are needed to uncover the potentially wide variety of subtle effects, especially mental. Fortunately, there are indices of exposure which can be used in field studies and dosimetry is reaching the point where it can be applied to field studies. PMID:395588

  20. Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the area of environmental epidemiology involving measurement of exposure and dose, health outcomes, and important confounding and modifying variables (including genotype and psychosocial factors). Using examples, we illustrate strategies for increasing the accuracy of exposure and dose measurement that include dosimetry algorithms, pharmacokinetic models, biologic markers, and use of multiple measures. Some limitations of these methods are described and suggestions are made about where formal evaluation might be helpful. We go on to discuss methods for assessing the inaccuracies in exposure or dose measurements, including sensitivity analysis and validation studies. In relation to measurement of health outcomes, we discuss some definitional issues and cover, among other topics, biologic effect markers and other early indicators of disease. Because measurement error in covariates is also important, we consider the problems in measurement of common confounders and effect modifiers. Finally, we cite some general methodologic research needs. PMID:8206042

  1. Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

  2. Heart weight and running ability.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, H M

    1989-01-01

    The weight of the heart as determined by dissection techniques was compared with liveweight and total muscle weight in different types of horses and dogs as adults and during growth. With increasing body size both within and between species, heart weight forms a lesser proportion of liveweight and of total muscle weight. Heart weight forms a greater proportion of liveweight in Thoroughbreds and Greyhounds (breeds noted for high speed running) than in other less fleet members of their species and Greyhounds have greater heart weights relative to total muscle weight than other dogs. PMID:2630537

  3. Keeps on Pumpin': Your Heart

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    2000-01-01

    In this activity, learners explore the great pump in their chests--the human heart! Learners will determine the amount of blood their heart will beat in their lifetime, their cardiac output (blood pumped per minute) and cardiac index (blood pumped per minute per square meter of body surface area). Extensions in this activity explore correlations between the heart rates of different animals and their body sizes or their longevity. Included are two links to live videos titled "Heart Transplant" and "The Implantation of a Heartmate."

  4. Adiposity of the Heart, Revisited

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Jonathan M. McGavock (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Department of Internal Medicine)

    2006-04-04

    Physiology in Medicine review article. Obesity is a major risk factor for heart disease. In the face of obesityÂ?s growing prevalence, it is important for physicians to be aware of emerging research of novel mechanisms through which adiposity adversely affects the heart. Conventional wisdom suggests that either hemodynamic (that is, increased cardiac output and hypertension) or metabolic (that is, dyslipidemic) derangements associated with obesity may predispose individuals to coronary artery disease and heart failure. The purpose of this review is to highlight a novel mechanism for heart disease in obesity whereby excessive lipid accumulation within the myocardium is directly cardiotoxic and causes left ventricular remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy.

  5. Put Your Heart into Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Techtronics Program,

    Students learn all about the body's essential mighty organ, the heart, as well as the powerful blood vascular system. This includes information on the many different sizes and pervasiveness of capillaries, veins and arteries, and how they affect blood flow through the system. Then students focus on heart valves, how they work and what might cause them to fail, coming to realize the value of prosthetic heart valves, a life-saving biomedical invention. Students are asked to evaluate the different options for heart valve replacements based on performance criteria, and provide an summary of their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Heart Valve Lesson Plan Biomedical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    of a leaking heart valve include fatigue, dizziness, swollen feet or ankles, and shortness of breath. Leaking leaking human heart valves. Biomedical engineers must create a heart valve that can open and close human heart valves, or some engineers have designed artificial heart valves to work like some water

  7. Heart Valve Replacement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program reviews the symptoms and treatments of heart valve defects, in particular, the benefits and risks of surgery. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  8. Gum and Heart Disease

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-04-25

    Over the past ten years, there have been many studies linking gum disease and hardening of the arteries. At first, there were observations that people with poor oral health were more prone to heart disease. More recently, scientists have found clear links between the total amount of periodontal bacteria in the mouth and blockages in the carotid artery. This study proves that at least some of the bacteria manage to escape that fate. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to the findings presented and offers links to other sources for further inquiry.

  9. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  10. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Scott B

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.). These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers). Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance. PMID:17559663

  11. Cilia: Organelles at the Heart of Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vijay; Roy, Sudipto

    2015-06-29

    Genetic disorders, such as heterotaxy, first provided a link between cilia and developmental heart defects. Now, a genetic screen in mice shows that ciliary dysfunction may indeed be the major contributing factor in the etiology of congenital heart disease. PMID:26126281

  12. Pediatric heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stiasny, Brian; Dave, Hitendu; Cavigelli-Brunner, Anna; Balmer, Christian; Kretschmar, Oliver; Bürki, Christoph; Klauwer, Dietrich; Hübler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric heart transplantation (pHTx) represents a small (14%) but very important and particular part in the field of cardiac transplantation. This treatment has lifelong impact on children. To achieve the best short and especially long-term survival with adequate quality of life, which is of crucial importance for this young patient population, one has to realize and understand the differences with adult HTx. Indication for transplantation, waitlist management including ABO incompatible (ABOi) transplantation and immunosuppression differ. Although young transplant recipients are ultimately likely to be considered for re-transplantation. One has to distinguish between myopathy and complex congenital heart disease (CHD). The differences in anatomy and physiology make the surgical procedure much more complex and create unique challenges. These recipients need a well-organized and educated team with pediatric cardiologists and intensivists, including a high skilled surgeon, which is dedicated to pHTx. Therefore, these types of transplants are best concentrated in specialized centers to achieve promising outcome. PMID:25922739

  13. [Heart myxoma. Surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Miralles, A; Bracamonte, L; Rábago, G; Bors, V; Petrie, J; Pavie, A; Gandjbakhch, I; Cabrol, C

    1989-12-01

    We reviewed all the patients who underwent surgical excision of cardiac myxomas at La Pitié during the last fifteen years. Fifty-one cases were found (32 female and 19 male) aging from 16 to 75 years (mean 51). Congestive heart failure was the primary symptom present in 28 patients. Thirteen patients presented peripheral embolization, four with syncope and 11 with tachyarrhythmias. The diagnosis was made either by echocardiography or angiography. All of them had correct preoperative diagnoses, and no tumors were found incidentally at operation. Forty-six myxomas were localized in the left atrium, four in the right atrium and one in the right ventricle. All the patients underwent open-heart operation and myxomas were successfully removed with excision of a portion of normal atrial septum or wall. Path reconstruction of the atrial septum was required thirty-six times. Mortality after surgical excision is very low. Only one death (1.96%) occurred as a result of a postoperative low output syndrome. Late recurrences have been reported in other series, but no recurrences were diagnosed in our patients up to the present. Although the recurrence rate is low, long-term clinical and echocardiographic follow-up is recommended. PMID:2623302

  14. The heart beads program.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Kate Alexa; Scarfe, Gabbie; Redshaw, Sarah; Wilson, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    From July 2008 through June 2009, 760 infants and children with cardiac conditions were admitted to a pediatric hospital in Australia with approximately 360 cardiac surgical procedures performed.This was the first experience in hospital for many of these children, with diagnoses signaling the beginning of a long and arduous journey. These children undergo multiple treatments and procedures,as well as multiple admissions for further surgeries. Procedures in any regard can cause stress and anxiety, especially in children who often have limited understanding and so little control over what happens to them (Lau, 2002).A heart center for children exists at the hospital with the aim of providing a consistent experience for children with cardiac conditions as they move through the different hospital environments, from preadmission clinic to operating theaters to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and then on to the cardiac ward. The Heart Beads Program was developed within a context of person-centered care to enrich the experience of children with cardiac conditions by providing them with distinctive beads specific to each procedure, treatment, or event in recognition of their experiences and endurance (McCormack et al., 2008). This column focuses on the process of starting the program and on preliminary responses from staff, children, and families. PMID:21294839

  15. Heart failure in women.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne L

    2015-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is increasing in incidence globally, and approximately half of all HF patients are women. When women and men with HF are compared, there are significant differences in disease etiology, expression, outcomes, and perhaps, response to therapy. Hypertension rather than coronary artery disease is a more important etiology of HF in women, and HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) is more common in women. Regardless of its etiology, women have better survival and less sudden cardiac death, but poorer quality of life with equivalent degrees of left ventricular dysfunction. Animal studies of myocardial response to stressors resulting in heart failure corroborate sex differences in ventricular remodeling, cellular morphology, and function. Despite the fact that women make up nearly 50 % of HF patients, their inclusion in randomized clinical trials has remained at about 20 %, with no trials including women as a prespecified subgroup for statistical analysis. Thus, the evidence base for treatment of HF in women is not robustly supported by sex-specific data. PMID:25633565

  16. Pain thresholds during standardized psychological stress in relation to perceived psychosocial work situation. Stockholm Music I Study Group.

    PubMed

    Theorell, T; Nordemar, R; Michélsen, H

    1993-04-01

    The hypothesis that perceived psychosocial work situation is associated with pain threshold was tested on a sample of 103 men and women aged 19-65 yr in Stockholm. Half of the studied sample was a random sample of men (N = 26) and women (N = 31), while the remaining subjects were medical secretaries (women, N = 28) and furniture movers (N = 31). Pain thresholds were measured by means of an algometer before, during and after a standardized colour word test. The measurements were made on six different points in the neck and shoulder region. Before psychological stress in the laboratory, perceived psychological demands were significantly associated with pain threshold--the higher the demands the higher the pain threshold. During stress those who reported low decision latitude and high degree of sleep disturbance were shown to have a low pain threshold. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that subjects with high demand levels have an elevated pain threshold when they are not under excessive psychological stress. During psychological stress, on the other hand, those with low decision latitude are more pain sensitive than others, and this is aggravated in those who also report a high degree of sleep disturbance. PMID:8478825

  17. Coronary heart disease: dietary links and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Renaud, S; Lanzmann-Petithory, D

    2001-04-01

    For decades it has been postulated that the main environmental factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) was the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Nevertheless, confirmation of the role of SFA in CHD through intervention trials has been disappointing. It was only when the diet was enriched in n-3 fatty acids that CHD was significantly prevented, especially cardiac death. In addition to n-3 fatty acids, many other foodstuffs or nutrients such as fibers, antioxidants, folic acid, calcium and even alcohol contribute to prevent CHD. Thus the relationship between diet and CHD morbidity and mortality appears to be much more complex than formerly suspected considering as key factors only SFA, linoleic acid, cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Some of the mechanisms are briefly described, but many additional nutrients (or non nutrients) may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHD. Finally, as a result of the most recent epidemiologic studies the ideal diet may comprise: 8% energy from SFA, 5% from polyunsaturated fatty acids with a ratio 5/1 of linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid+longer chains n-3, oleic acid as desired, large intake of cereals, vegetables, legumes and fruits, fish twice a week, cheese and yogurt as dairy products, rapeseed and olive oils as edible fat. Without side effects, such a diet can be highly palatable, easily enjoyed by many populations and may prevent effectively and rapidly (within a few weeks or months) CHD. PMID:11683541

  18. Survivorship Analysis of Heart Transplant Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce W. Turnbull; Byron Wm. Brown Jr; Marie Hu

    1974-01-01

    This article presents a number of parametric and nonparametric approaches to the analysis of nonexperimental heart transplant data from the Stanford Heart Transplantation Program, and attempts to come to some conclusion regarding whether heart transplantation is life-extending.

  19. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... well the heart’s chambers and valves are working. Health Insurance and Employment Adults who have congenital heart defects ... carefully consider how changing jobs will affect their health insurance coverage. Some health plans have waiting periods or ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Progressive familial heart block

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Progressive familial heart block On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed April 2015 What is progressive familial heart block? Progressive familial heart block is a genetic ...