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1

Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that rival those of many cancers. HF represents a considerable burden to the health-care system, responsible for costs of more than $39 billion annually in the USA alone, and high rates of hospitalizations, readmissions, and outpatient visits. HF is not a single entity, but a clinical syndrome that may have different characteristics depending on age, sex, race or ethnicity, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status, and HF etiology. Furthermore, pathophysiological differences are observed among patients diagnosed with HF and reduced LVEF compared with HF and preserved LVEF, which are beginning to be better appreciated in epidemiological studies. A number of risk factors, such as ischemic heart disease, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and diabetes, among others, have been identified that both predict the incidence of HF as well as its severity. In this Review, we discuss key features of the epidemiology and risk profile of HF. PMID:21060326

Bui, Anh L.; Horwich, Tamara B.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

2011-01-01

2

Molecular Epidemiology of Norovirus Infections in Stockholm, Sweden, during the Years 2000 to 2003: Association of the GGIIb Genetic Cluster with Infection in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of norovirus-associated gastroenteritis and the molecular epidemiology of norovirus strains were studied during three seasons (2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003) among patients of all ages, mainly from the Stockholm region in Sweden. A total of 3,252 fecal samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- PCR. The incidences of norovirus infection among adults were 23, 26, and 30% during the three

Annika Tiveljung Lindell; Lena Grillner; Lennart Svensson; Benita Zweygberg Wirgart

2005-01-01

3

Depressive symptoms in relation to marital and work stress in women with and without coronary heart disease. The Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marital and job stress on depressive symptoms in middle aged women with coronary heart disease (CHD) and healthy women who were cohabiting and currently working. Method: Data were obtained from the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk (FemCorRisk) Study, a population-based case-control study, comprising all women aged 65 years or

Piroska Balog; Imre Janszky; Constanze Leineweber; May Blom; Sarah P Wamala; Kristina Orth-Gomé

2003-01-01

4

The changing epidemiology of congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns. Advances in cardiovascular medicine and surgery have enabled most patients to reach adulthood. Unfortunately, prolonged survival has been achieved at a cost, as many patients suffer late complications, of which heart failure and arrhythmias are the most prominent. Accordingly, these patients need frequent follow-up by physicians with specific knowledge

Teun van der Bom; A. Carla Zomer; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Folkert J. Meijboom; Berto J. Bouma; Barbara J. M. Mulder

2010-01-01

5

Epidemiology of acquired valvular heart disease.  

PubMed

Population-based studies including systematic echocardiographic examinations are required to assess the prevalence of valvular heart disease. In industrialized countries, the prevalence of valvular heart disease is estimated at 2.5%. Because of the predominance of degenerative etiologies, the prevalence of valvular disease increases markedly after the age of 65 years, in particular with regard to aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation, which accounts for 3 in 4 cases of valvular disease. Rheumatic heart disease still represents 22% of valvular heart disease in Europe. The prevalence of secondary mitral regurgitation cannot be assessed reliably but it seems to be a frequent disease. The incidence of infective endocarditis is approximately 30 cases per million individiuals per year. Its stability is associated with marked changes in its presentation. Patients are getting older and staphylococcus is now becoming the microorganism most frequently responsible. Heath care-associated infections are the most likely explanation of changes in the microbiology of infective endocarditis. In developing countries, rheumatic heart disease remains the leading cause of valvular heart disease. Its prevalence is high, between 20 and 30 cases per 1000 subjects when using systematic echocardiographic screening. In conclusion, the temporal and geographical heterogeneity illustrates the effect of socioeconomic status and changes in life expectancy on the frequency and presentation of valvular heart disease. A decreased burden of valvular disease would require the elaboration of preventive strategies in industrialized countries and an improvement in the socioeconomic environment in developing countries. PMID:24986049

Iung, Bernard; Vahanian, Alec

2014-09-01

6

Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA, and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five. Although promising evidence shows that the age-adjusted incidence of HF may have plateaued, HF still carries substantial morbidity and mortality, with 5-year mortality that

Anh L. Bui; Tamara B. Horwich; Gregg C. Fonarow

2010-01-01

7

Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management  

PubMed Central

Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

2012-01-01

8

Heart-Kidney Interaction: Epidemiology of Cardiorenal Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Cardiac and kidney diseases are common, increasingly encountered, and often coexist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history, and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality, and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid in the design of clinical studies. This paper will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardiorenal syndrome and its subtypes. PMID:21234309

Cruz, Dinna N.; Bagshaw, Sean M.

2011-01-01

9

[Epidemiologic aspects of ischemic heart diseases in diabetic women].  

PubMed

The author discusses the relation of female gender, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease relying upon the "WHO/Europe Health For All" statistical database, data of MEDLINE and the results of Framingham Heart Study. Cardiovascular disease is multifactorial in origin, and it is in connection with increasing prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The mortality caused by ischaemic heart disease is 3-5 times higher if the patients suffer from diabetes mellitus as well. Diabetes mellitus alters the existing difference between males and females in the epidemiological characteristics of ischaemic heart disease. Pathomechanismus (such as metabolic disorders of lipids, hemostasis, endothelial function) are in connection with the changes of estrogen/progesteron balance, have a great role in this change. Diabetes mellitus still has been of significant epidemiological importance from the point of view of cardiovascular's incidence. The prevention of micro-, and macroangiopathy caused by diabetes mellitus beside the genetic factors is one of the most important parts of the epidemiological strategy. PMID:10439637

Orosz, I

1999-06-13

10

Epidemiology of heart failure and scope of the problem.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is typically a chronic disease, with progressive deterioration occurring over a period of years or even decades. HF poses an especially large public health burden. It represents a new epidemic of cardiovascular disease, affecting nearly 5.8 million people in the United States, and over 23 million worldwide. In the present article, our goal is to describe the most up-to-date epidemiology of HF in the United States and worldwide, and challenges facing HF prevention and treatment. PMID:24286574

Liu, Longjian; Eisen, Howard J

2014-02-01

11

Particulate matter and heart disease: Evidence from epidemiological studies  

SciTech Connect

The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM{sub 2.5} exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown.

Peters, Annette [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: peters@gsf.de

2005-09-01

12

Epidemiology of coronary heart disease: the Puerto Rico heart health program revisted.  

PubMed

Coronary heart disease (CHD) remains as the main cause of death in most countries of the world including Puerto Rico. Due to the importance of gathering knowledge regarding the harmful effects and risk factors associated with the development of CHD some basic information is reviewed to stimulate the institution of measures for reduction of the prevalence of clinical CHD and its ultimate consequences. Special attention is given in the manuscript of the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program conducted in men aged 45-64 residing in four rural and three urban areas. The Puerto Rico and the Honolulu Study confirmed the initial publication on the epidemiology of coronary heart disease by the Framingham study. The presentation of some data collected among the three studies strengthen the message of avoiding the development of CHD by installing preventive measures for control and reduction of the risk factors. Concurrent data obtained in the three studies is presented. Although the degree of the involvement of the populations is higher in Framingham than in Puerto Rico and Honolulu, the deleterious effects of specific risk factors are harmful in all the three populations. Difference in the prevalence of risk factors among the urban and rural males in Puerto Rico is also illustrated. It is our hope that more intense measures be instituted in Puerto Rico at all levels in order to control risk factors and reduce the incidence of coronary disease in Puerto Rico. PMID:23767390

García-Palmieri, Mario R

2013-01-01

13

Comparative epidemiologic study of premalignant and malignant epithelial cutaneous lesions developing after kidney and heart transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cutaneous carcinomas are the most frequent cancers in organ transplant recipients.Objective: Our purpose was to compare the epidemiologic data of cutaneous premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions in kidney and heart transplant recipients.Methods: A total of 580 kidney and 150 heart transplant recipients were examined for the presence of premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions.Results: A twofold increase in incidence of

Sylvie Euvrard; Jean Kanitakis; Claire Pouteil-Noble; Georges Dureau; Jean Louis Touraine; Michel Faure; Alain Claudy; Jean Thivolet

1995-01-01

14

Evaluation of the Relationship between Heart Rate and Ventilation for Epidemiologic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of pulmonary exposure and dose in air pollution epidemiology has been impaired by the lack of methods for directly measuring ventilation in ambulatory subjects. Heart-rate monitoring offers an approach to estimate ventilation by using ventilation-on-heart-rate (VE-HR) regressions established during exercise testing to estimate ventilation in the field. Conventional methods and protocols for testing were used to evaluate the relationship

Christine M. Mermier; Jonathan M. Samet; William E. Lambert; Thomas W. Chick

1993-01-01

15

Renal dysfunction in acute heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms and assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal dysfunction is often present and\\/or worsens in patients with heart failure and this is associated with increased costs\\u000a of care, complications and mortality. The cardiorenal syndrome can be defined as the presence or development of renal dysfunction\\u000a in patients with heart failure. Its mechanisms are likely related to low cardiac output, increased venous congestion and renal\\u000a venous pressure, neurohormonal

Valentina Carubelli; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi; Luca Bettari; Silvia Bugatti; Valentina Lazzarini; Livio Dei Cas

16

The Framingham Heart Study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease: a historical perspective.  

PubMed

On Sept 29, 2013, the Framingham Heart Study will celebrate 65 years since the examination of the first volunteer in 1948. During this period, the study has provided substantial insight into the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease. The origins of the study are closely linked to the cardiovascular health of President Franklin D Roosevelt and his premature death from hypertensive heart disease and stroke in 1945. In this Review we describe the events leading to the foundation of the Framingham Heart Study, and provide a brief historical overview of selected contributions from the study. PMID:24084292

Mahmood, Syed S; Levy, Daniel; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J

2014-03-15

17

Coronary heart disease surveillance: field application of an epidemiologic algorithm.  

PubMed

This report describes the performance of a surveillance system and computerized algorithm for the assignment of definite or probable hospitalized cardiac events for large epidemiologic studies. The algorithm, developed by the Coordinating Committee for Community Demonstration Studies (CCCDS), evolved from the Gillum criteria, and included selected ICD-9-CM codes including codes 410 through 414 for discharge record screening, plus creatine kinase. For the small percentage of cases in which enzyme analysis was inconclusive (8%), presence of pain and/or Minnesota-coded electrocardiograms were included to define the outcome. All data items were easily obtained from medical records by trained lay record abstractors and required no interpretation. From January 1980 through December 1991, 21,183 medical records were screened for ICD-9-CM codes 410 through 414. Of all 410 to 411 ICD-9-CM codes (n = 9026), 36.9% (n = 3220) were classified as definite cardiac events and 10.6% (n = 1057) as probable events. Of all 412 through 414 codes (n = 9070), only 1.8% (n = 227) were classified as definite cardiac events and 5.4% (n = 716) as probable events. The epidemiologic diagnostic algorithm presented in this article used computerized data to assign diagnoses in a standard, objective manner, and was a lower cost alternative to classification of cardiac events on the basis of clinical review and/or more complex record abstraction approaches. PMID:10785573

Assaf, A R; Lapane, K L; McKenney, J L; McKinlay, S; Carleton, R A

2000-04-01

18

Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.  

PubMed

Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) in both men and women. The mortality risk of overweight and class I and II obese adults with HF is lower than that of normal weight or underweight adults with HF of comparable severity, a phenomenon referred to as the obesity paradox. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function, which may lead to the development of HF. The presence of systemic hypertension, sleep apnea, and hypoventilation, comorbidities that occur commonly with severe obesity, may contribute to HF in such patients. The resultant syndrome is known as obesity cardiomyopathy. Substantial weight loss in severely obese persons is capable of reversing most obesity-related abnormalities of cardiac performance and morphology and improving the clinical manifestations of obesity cardiomyopathy. PMID:24814682

Alpert, Martin A; Lavie, Carl J; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul B; Kumar, Senthil A

2014-10-01

19

Newborns with congenital heart diseases: epidemiological data from a single reference center in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective to describe the epidemiological data of the population born with the diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease (CHD); to compare diagnoses made using fetal echocardiography with the findings from postnatal echocardiography or anatomopathological examination of the heart; and to evaluate mortality among newborns that underwent surgical treatment. Methods this was a cohort study with information gathered from the medical records of the pregnant women and their newborns diagnosed with CHD during the fetal or postnatal periods, between January 2008 and December 2012. Means, standard deviations and maximum and minimum values were calculated for the quantitative variables. Relative and absolute values were calculated for the qualitative variables. The heart malformations were categorized in four groups: complex lesions, significant lesions, minor lesions and others. Results we detected postnatal incidence of CHD of 1.9% at our service. The mean maternal age was 28.3 years and 10 (21.3%) of the pregnant women were ? 35 years old. The mean gestational age at the time of performing the fetal echocardiogram was 27.8 weeks. Mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks, and the mean weight of the newborns was 2,644.5 grams. Regarding the diagnosis of CHD, there were: 23 complex lesions (39%); 15 significant lesions (26%); 10 minor lesions (17%); 4 other lesions (7%) and 6 normal anatomies (10%). The diagnosis of CHD made on the fetus and postnatally coincided in 77.6% of the cases. A total of 27 patients (60%) underwent surgery, and the outcome was neonatal death in five cases. Conclusion we detected postnatal incidence of CHD of 1.9%, and it was more common among older pregnant women and with late detection in the intrauterine period. Complex heart diseases predominated, thus making it difficult to have a good result regarding neonatal mortality rates. PMID:25332754

Silva, Karina Peres; Rocha, Luciane Alves; Leslie, Ana Teresa Figueiredo Stochero; Guinsburg, Ruth; Silva, Celia Maria Camelo; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Araujo Junior, Edward

2014-01-01

20

Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in France: Therapeutic and prognostic implications of heart failure during the acute phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aim of this study was to assess the 1-year outcome of acute myocardial infarction, in current practice, according to the presence or absence of heart failure. This was an epidemiologic, prospective survey involving 2152 patients recruited in November 1995 from 312 French coronary care units. Methods and Results All consecutive patients admitted within 48 hours for confirmed acute

Laurent Vaur; Nicolas Danchin; Nathalie Genčs; Isabelle Dubroca; Sylvie Etienne; Jean Ferričres; Jean-Pierre Cambou

1999-01-01

21

Patterns of alcohol consumption and ischaemic heart disease in culturally divergent countries: the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the effect of alcohol intake patterns on ischaemic heart disease in two countries with contrasting lifestyles, Northern Ireland and France.Design Cohort data from the Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) were analysed. Weekly alcohol consumption, incidence of binge drinking (alcohol >50 g on at least one day a week), incidence of regular drinking (at least one

Jean-Bernard Ruidavets; Pierre Ducimetičre; Alun Evans; Michčle Montaye; Bernadette Haas; Annie Bingham; John Yarnell; Philippe Amouyel; Dominique Arveiler; Frank Kee; Vanina Bongard; Jean Ferričres

2010-01-01

22

Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2013-08-01

23

Gender differences and disparities in all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality: epidemiological aspects  

PubMed Central

This overview is primarily concerned with large recent prospective cohort studies of adult populations, not patients, because the latter studies are confounded by differences in medical and surgical management for men vs. women. When early papers are uniquely informative they are also included. Because the focus is on epidemiology, details of age, sex, sample size, and source as well as study methods are provided. Usually the primary outcomes were all-cause or coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality using baseline data from midlife or older adults. Fifty years ago few prospective cohort studies of all-cause or CHD mortality included women. Most epidemiologic studies that included community-dwelling adults did not include both sexes and still do not report men and women separately. Few studies consider both sex (biology) and gender (behavior and environment) differences. Lifespan studies describing survival after live birth are not considered here. The important effects of prenatal and early childhood biologic and behavioral factors on adult mortality are beyond the scope of this review. Clinical trials are not discussed. Overall, presumptive evidence for causality was equivalent for psychosocial and biological exposures, and these attributes were often associated with each other. Inconsistencies or gaps were particularly obvious for studies of sex or gender differences in age and optimal measures of body size for CHD outcomes, and in the striking interface of diabetes and people with the metabolic syndrome, most of whom have unrecognized diabetes. PMID:24054926

Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

24

Stockholm sidesteps population issue.  

PubMed

Population policies were discussed during a U.N. Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972. Although it was acknowledged that people in developed countries have a much more detrimental impact on the environment due to their high levels of consumption, various positions were taken on the importance of family planning in developing countries. Both the Chinese delegate and Indira Ghandi of India remarked that one cannot blame overpopulation for ecological problems. Other speakers agreed that technology would solve ecological problems and that population growth rates would take care of themselves when development occurred. Other speakers, such as Dr. Paul Ehrlich believe that worldwide stabilization of population is necessary to maintain life-support systems of this planet. The majority of delegates to the Conference did not consider the reduction of population growth to be a priority, although it was recommended that national governments develop population policies, and that WHO give increased support to family planning activities. It was also recommended that adequate attention be given to the relationship between population and environment at the World Population Conference in 1974. PMID:12256547

1972-08-01

25

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis and contact allergy are common medical conditions. But how common are they? Are they more common in certain\\u000a populations? Are reactions to specific contact allergens more prevalent than to other allergens? This chapter presents some\\u000a basic epidemiologic principles which are important in population-based or clinic-based studies on contact dermatitis. Examples\\u000a of studies on contact allergy as well as

Pieter-Jan Coenraads; Wolfgang Uter; Thomas Diepgen

26

Assessing the global burden of ischemic heart disease, part 2: analytic methods and estimates of the global epidemiology of ischemic heart disease in 2010  

PubMed Central

Background Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors (GBD) 2010 Study estimated IHD mortality and disability burden for 21 world regions for the years 1990 to 2010. Methods Data sources for GBD IHD epidemiology estimates were mortality surveillance, verbal autopsy, and vital registration data (for IHD mortality) and systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature published 1980–2008 (for non-fatal IHD outcomes). An estimation and validation process led to an ensemble model of IHD mortality by country for all 21 world regions, adjusted for country-level covariates. Disease models were developed for the nonfatal sequelae of IHD: myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris, and ischemic heart failure. Results Country level covariates including metabolic and nutritional risk factors, education, war, and annual income per capita contributed to the ensemble model for the analysis of IHD death. In the acute myocardial infarction model, inclusion of troponin in the diagnostic criteria of studies published after the year 2000 was associated with a 50% higher incidence. Self-reported diagnosis of angina significantly overestimated stable angina prevalence compared with “definite” angina elicited by the Rose angina questionnaire. For 2010, Eastern Europe and Central Asia had the highest rates of IHD death and the Asia Pacific High-Income, East Asia, Latin American Andean, and sub-Saharan Africa regions had the lowest. Conclusions Global and regional IHD epidemiology estimates are needed for estimating the worldwide burden of IHD. Using descriptive meta-analysis tools, the GBD 2010 standardized and pooled international data by adjusting for region-level mortality and risk factor data, and study level diagnostic method. Analyses maximized internal consistency, generalizability, and adjustment for known sources of bias. The GBD IHD analysis nonetheless highlights the need for improved IHD epidemiology surveillance in many regions and the need for uniform diagnostic standards. PMID:23505617

Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Moran, Andrew E.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Roth, Gregory; Mensah, George A.; Ezzati, Majid; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J.L.

2012-01-01

27

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2010 TRITA-ICT-EX-2010:27 E D O A R D O PA O N E OSSIE School of Information and Communication Technology Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden products from different manufacturers. This problem is critical for the military and public safety sectors

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

28

Nobel symposium Stockholm 2010 Graphene: Experimental Overview  

E-print Network

on graphite Suspended graphene #12;Nobel symposium Stockholm 2010 Making Graphene Novoselev et al Science (2004) Exfoliation Scotch tape with graphite flakes Press Si/SiO2 onto flakes on the tape Si;Nobel symposium Stockholm 2010 Graphene on Graphite: STM Graphite ­ Clean ­ Lattice matched ­ Conductor

Andrei, Eva Y.

29

Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiology and Management of an Alarming Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a growing epidemic with a prevalence among patients with heart failure (HF) approaching 30%. Diabetes worsens the prognosis of HF, and the pathophysiology is complex and multifactorial. Early detection of subtle alterations in cardiac function by modern tools, such as Doppler echocardiography or brain natriuretic peptide dosage, is thus important in these patients. All drugs known to

Alain Cohen-Solal; Florence Beauvais; Damien Logeart

2008-01-01

30

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Vlkommen till  

E-print Network

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Välkommen till Avdelningen för teckenspråk vid Institutionen för lingvistik Du är antagen till "Teckenspråk som nybörjarspråk I", GN, 30 hp vid Stockholms universitet. Kursen husen, hus C, Frescati. När de ordinarie antagna till kursen är uppropade fördelas de övriga platserna

31

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Vlkommen till  

E-print Network

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Välkommen till Avdelningen för teckenspråk vid Institutionen för lingvistik Du är antagen till "Teckenspråksgrammatik I", GN, 7,5 hp vid Stockholms universitet. Kursen ges på, Frescati. Jag vill göra dig uppmärksam på att kursen ges på teckenspråk utan tolkning till Svenska. Om du

32

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Vlkommen till  

E-print Network

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Välkommen till Avdelningen för teckenspråk Vid Institutionen för lingvistik Du är antagen till "Analys av teckenspråkstexter I", GN, 7,5 hp vid Stockholms universitet. Jag vill göra dig uppmärksam på att kursen ges på teckenspråk utan tolkning till Svenska. Observera att det

33

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Vlkommen till  

E-print Network

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Välkommen till Avdelningen för teckenspråk Vid Institutionen för lingvistik Du är antagen till" Språk och kultur i teckenspråkssamfundet", GN, 7,5 hp vid Stockholms universitet. Jag vill göra dig uppmärksam på att kursen ges på teckenspråk utan tolkning till Svenska. Det

34

ISMB/ECCB 2009 Stockholm  

PubMed Central

The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB; http://www.iscb.org) presents the Seventeenth Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), organized jointly with the Eighth Annual European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB; http://bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de/conferences/eccb/eccb.htm), in Stockholm, Sweden, 27 June to 2 July 2009. The organizers are putting the finishing touches on the year's premier computational biology conference, with an expected attendance of 1400 computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, biologists and scientists from other disciplines related to and reliant on this multi-disciplinary science. ISMB/ECCB 2009 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2009/) follows the framework introduced at the ISMB/ECCB 2007 (http://www.iscb.org/ismbeccb2007/) in Vienna, and further refined at the ISMB 2008 (http://www.iscb.org/ismb2008/) in Toronto; a framework developed to specifically encourage increased participation from often under-represented disciplines at conferences on computational biology. During the main ISMB conference dates of 29 June to 2 July, keynote talks from highly regarded scientists, including ISCB Award winners, are the featured presentations that bring all attendees together twice a day. The remainder of each day offers a carefully balanced selection of parallel sessions to choose from: proceedings papers, special sessions on emerging topics, highlights of the past year's published research, special interest group meetings, technology demonstrations, workshops and several unique sessions of value to the broad audience of students, faculty and industry researchers. Several hundred posters displayed for the duration of the conference has become a standard of the ISMB and ECCB conference series, and an extensive commercial exhibition showcases the latest bioinformatics publications, software, hardware and services available on the market today. The main conference is preceded by 2 days of Special Interest Group (SIG) and Satellite meetings running in parallel to the fifth Student Council Symposium on 27 June, and in parallel to Tutorials on 28 June. All scientific sessions take place at the Stockholmsmässan/Stockholm International Fairs conference and exposition facility. Contact: bj@iscb.org PMID:19447790

Sagot, Marie-France; McKay, B.J. Morrison; Myers, Gene

2009-01-01

35

Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive Language Learning  

E-print Network

Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, De pt. of Linguistics, Stockholm University Modelling Interactive. of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm 2 Dept. of Speech, Music, Hearing, KTH, Stockholm 3 Dept adult-infant interaction, underlie the infant's ability to progressively derive linguistic struc- ture

Holt, Lori L.

36

Reviews Book: The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Resource: Down2Earth Equipment: Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Book: Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book: Heart of Darkness Book: The Long Road to Stockholm Book: The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Equipment: TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments Dip into this useful and accessible guide to quantum theory Down2Earth Astronomical-science resource enables students to pursue real, hands-on science, whatever the weather Irwin Signal Generator/Power Amplifier Students enjoy the novelty factor of versatile, affordable kit Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy Book of experiments would make good supplementary material Heart of Darkness: Unravelling the Mysteries of the Invisible Universe Accessible and distinctive account of cosmology impresses The Long Road to Stockholm: The Story of MRI—An Autobiography Fascinating book tells personal and scientific stories side by side WORTH A LOOK The Address Book: Our Place in the Scheme of Things Entertaining and well-written essays offer insights and anecdotes TI-Nspire Datalogger/Calculator Challenging interface gives this kit a steep learning curve, but once overcome, results are good WEB WATCH Light-beam app game leaves little impression, while astronomy and astrophysics projects provide much-needed resources

2013-07-01

37

Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online is Heart (formerly the British Heart Journal), "a leading international clinical journal" reporting advances on the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group, online full-text content begins October 1997; online abstracts begin with 1970 issues, and tables of contents go back to 1966. Heart is made available electronically with assistance from Stanford University's HighWire Press.

38

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Vlkommen till  

E-print Network

Stockholm den 9 augusti 2012 Välkommen till Avdelningen för teckenspråk Vid Institutionen för lingvistik Du är antagen till "Teckenspråk I", GN, 30 hp vid Stockholms universitet. Jag vill göra dig uppmärksam på att kursen ges på teckenspråk utan tolkning till Svenska. Det första kurstillfället är måndagen

39

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005  

E-print Network

Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2005 IMIT/LCN 2005-02 YA N Z H A N G Wireless sensor and manufactured this scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) system and Mattias Johansson who me all along my study period in Sweden. #12;v List of Figures Figure 1-1 Ocean optics USB 2000

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

40

Bachelor of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2007  

E-print Network

a n d R I C H A R D S A N D S U N D Implementing a virtual private network KTH Information and Communication Technology #12;Implementing a virtual private network Joakim Samuelsson Richard Sandsund Stockholm., KTH #12;20 december 2007 Implementing a Virtual Private Network Sammanfattning Dagens företag vill ge

Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.

41

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA. CORONARY HEART DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN JAPAN AND HAWAII  

EPA Science Inventory

Various risk factors were evaluated to explain a significantly greater incidence of coronary heart disease in men of Japanese ancestry resident in Hawaii compared with men resident in Japan. The independent predictors of incidence of coronary heart disease in both Japan and Hawai...

42

Apolipoprotein A-1 predicts coronary heart disease only at low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: an epidemiological study of Japanese-Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional epidemiological and clinical studies of apolipoprotein A-1 and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol have demonstrated,\\u000a when examined jointly, that high-density lipoprotein is a better predictor of coronary heart disease. This strategy does not\\u000a take into account known lipid metabolic relationships. A statistical approach that takes into account apoliprotein A-1 being\\u000a a constituent of the high-density lipoprotein particle is more appropriate. Among 1,177

D. S. Sharp; C. M. Burchfiel; B. L. Rodriguez; A. R. Sharrett; P. D. Sorlie; S. M. Marcovina

2000-01-01

43

Associations of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes to heart failure: Epidemiology, potential mechanisms, and clinical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart failure, a common condition in most industrialized nations, is disabling and deadly. Type 2 diabetes, recognized as\\u000a a risk factor for incident heart failure more than three decades ago, consistently has been associated with a twofold to threefold\\u000a increased risk of heart failure and type 2 diabetes often coexist, and several studies have shown that type 2 diabetes in

Erik Ingelsson

2008-01-01

44

Rektors tal vid Stockholms universitets magisterpromotion 2006-10-27 Promotores et promovendi, mina damer och herrar. Vlkomna till Stockholms  

E-print Network

damer och herrar. Välkomna till Stockholms universitets magisterpromotion höstterminen 2006. Stockholms bidragen till starka forskningsmiljöer. Det är glädjande att konstatera att dessa förhoppningar har andraspråksanvändning, ett stort bidrag till Stockholms centrum för kommersiell rätt och till en forskningsprofessur i

45

Can we disentangle life course processes of accumulation, critical period and social mobility? An analysis of disadvantaged socio-economic positions and myocardial infarction in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation hypothesis would propose that the longer the duration of exposure to disadvantaged socio-economic position, the greater the risk of myocardial infarction. However there may be a danger of confounding between accumulation and possibly more complex combinations of critical periods of exposure and social mobility. The objective of this paper is to investigate the possibility of distinguishing between these

Johan Hallqvist; John Lynch; Mel Bartley; Thierry Lang; David Blane

2004-01-01

46

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility  

E-print Network

Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden The Albanova Nano Fabrication Facility Nano technology for basic research and small commercial enterprises Director: Prof. David Haviland #12;Nano Fab Lab, Stockholm Sweden Nano-Lab Philosophy · Nanometer scale patterning and metrology · Broad spectrum of user research

Haviland, David

47

Adult neurogenesis: taking stock in Stockholm.  

PubMed

In May this year, Stockholm hosted a Keystone Symposium on Adult Neurogenesis, attracting scientists from around the world despite the lack of customary snow. The symposium offered an extraordinary program, covering diverse topics that ranged from the neural stem cell lineage and regulation of neurogenesis to functional aspects of neurogenesis in homeostasis and disease, and even computational modeling. This Meeting Review describes some of the exciting presentations and emerging themes from the symposium, which reveal how much this young field has matured. PMID:25249455

Govindarajan, Nambirajan; Kempermann, Gerd

2014-10-01

48

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE AND STROKE IN JAPANESE MEN LIVING IN JAPAN, HAWAII AND CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The incidence of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease was studied in defined samples of 45 to 68 year old Japanese men in Japan, Hawaii and California. The incidence rate was lowest in Japan where it was half that observed in Hawaii (P...

49

Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

2011-01-01

50

Ethnic Profile of Patients Undergoing Aesthetic Rhinoplasty in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   During 1985–1995 we performed 640 rhinoplasties in 578 patients. Five hundred eighteen of them were inhabitants of the Province\\u000a of Stockholm, with a population of 1,708,502. The patients from the Stockholm area were analyzed and divided into subgroups\\u000a depending on their ethnic origin. It was found that 272 (52%) of them were of Nordic descent, while 248 (48%) were

Igor Niechajev; Per-Olle Haraldsson

1997-01-01

51

Epidemiology of Noncomplex Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Malformations (Aortic Valve Stenosis, Coarctation of the Aorta, Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome) in Texas, 1999 -2001  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) contribute significantly to infant mortality due to birth defects. Previous epidemiology data showed rate differences between male and female and white and black ethnic groups. The Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program, enables study in a large, diverse population including Hispanics. METHODS Records of children up to 1 year old with AVS, CoA, and HLHS born in Texas from 1999 to 2001, were collected from the registry. Those including additional heart defects or a chromosomal anomaly were excluded. Multivariate analysis included: infant sex; United States–Mexico border county residence; and maternal age, race/ethnicity, birthplace, and education. RESULTS There were 910 cases among 1.08 million live births, of which 499 met inclusion criteria. Multivariate modeling of all LVOT malformations combined demonstrated lower prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) for black males (0.26) and Hispanic males (0.70). Similar results were found for CoA but not AVS or HLHS. Higher PRRs were noted for increased maternal age for LVOT (1.3 for 24–34 years; 1.7 for >34 years), AVS, and HLHS, but not CoA, and higher PRRs across all diagnoses for males (LVOT PRR, 2.4) were noted. CoA PRRs were higher in border county vs. non–border county residents (PRR, 2.1). Maternal education and birthplace were not significant factors. CONCLUSIONS There are rate differences for males among all 3 ethnic groups. Sex and ethnic differences suggest genetic etiologies, where the ethnic differences could be used to find susceptibility loci with mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium. Increased CoA rates along the U.S.–Mexico border suggest environmental causes that will require further monitoring. PMID:16007587

McBride, Kim L.; Marengo, Lisa; Canfield, Mark; Langlois, Peter; Fixler, David; Belmont, John W.

2006-01-01

52

Charlies nglar sker barnvakter till familjer inom Stor Stockholm. Vi r Stockholms trevligaste barnpassnings frmedling och arbetar med  

E-print Network

Charlies �nglar söker barnvakter till familjer inom Stor Stockholm. Vi är Stockholms trevligaste och trygg person. I arbetet ingår hämtning och lämning till skola, matlagning, lek och pyssel. Hos oss genom att skicka din ansökan till info@charliesanglar.se. Charlies Bästa �nglar grundades år 2008 och är

53

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Officially established in 1966, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) was first proposed by Prime Minister Tage Erlander of Sweden in 1964 who thought such an organization would be an appropriate way to commemorate the country's 150 years of continuous peace. The primary task of the Institute is to conduct "scientific research on questions of conflict and cooperation of importance for international peace and security with the aim of contributing to an understanding of the conditions for peaceful solution of international conflicts and for a stable peace." With this in mind, this site provides access to many of their documents, including working papers, press releases, speeches, and lectures. Some of the most recent publications available for download on the site include Sizing and Shaping European Armed Forces:Lessons and Considerations from the Nordic Countries, as well as Security Challenges for the EU. Finally, the site also contains a nice set of databases, including one that contains country profiles that relate facts on international relations and security trends.

54

Sequence Analysis of Six Blood Pressure Candidate Regions in 4,178 Individuals: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified multiple loci for blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. Six genes – ATP2B1, CACNB2, CYP17A1, JAG1, PLEKHA7, and SH2B3 – were evaluated for sequence variation with large effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP). Methods and Results Targeted genomic sequence was determined in 4,178 European ancestry participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Common variants (?50 minor allele copies) were evaluated individually and rare variants (minor allele frequency, MAF?1%) were aggregated by locus. 464 common variants were identified across the 6 genes. An upstream CYP17A1 variant, rs11191416 (MAF?=?0.09), was the most significant association for SBP (P?=?0.0005); however the association was attenuated (P?=?0.0469) after conditioning on the GWAS index single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). A PLEKHA7 intronic variant was the strongest DBP association (rs12806040, MAF?=?0.007, P?=?0.0006) and was not in LD (r2?=?0.01) with the GWAS SNP. A CACNB2 intronic SNP, rs1571787, was the most significant association with PP (MAF?=?0.27, P?=?0.0003), but was not independent from the GWAS SNP (r2?=?0.34). Three variants (rs6163 and rs743572 in the CYP17A1 region and rs112467382 in PLEKHA7) were associated with BP traits (P<0.001). Rare variation, aggregately assessed in the 6 regions, was not significantly associated with BP measures. Conclusion Six targeted gene regions, previously identified by GWAS, did not harbor novel variation with large effects on BP in this sample. PMID:25275628

Ehret, Georg B.; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Levy, Daniel

2014-01-01

55

Maternal Parity and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal parity and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a meta-analysis of the association between maternal parity and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and March 8, 2014; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal parity and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. From the 11272 references, a total of 16 case-control studies and 3 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The overall relative risk of CHD in parous versus nulliparous women was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.97–1.06; Q?=?32.34; P?=?0.006; I2?=?53.6%). Furthermore, we observed a significant association between the highest versus lowest parity number, with an overall RR?=?1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31; (Q?=?74.61, P<0.001, I2?=?82.6%). A dose–response analysis also indicated a positive effect of maternal parity on CHD risk, and the overall increase in relative risk per one live birth was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.02–1.09); Q?=?68.09; P<0.001; I2?=?80.9%). We conducted stratified and meta-regression analyses to identify the origin of the heterogeneity among studies. A Galbraith plot was created to graphically assess the sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis provided a robust estimate of the positive association between maternal parity and risk of CHD. PMID:25295723

Chen, Tao; Liu, Jin; Tong, Xing; Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Shen, Shutong; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

2014-01-01

56

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se  

E-print Network

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se Last updated: April 27 and Denmark 23/2 B244 Linda Kridahl, Demography Unit, Stockholm University Start-up seminar 1/3 Maarten Buis Sociological Association 22/3 Charlotta Hedberg, Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University Grapes

57

Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics and East European Economies (SITE/ĂÂstekonomiska Institutet) is an independent research institute at the Stockholm School of Economics. SITE is concerned with the transition from planned to market economies in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Academic research on-site includes a bibliography of recent working papers (1990-present), with most papers from 1998 available for download [.pdf]. Monthly updates of key indicators discussed in the quarterly SITE publication Russian Economic Trends (RET) are also available [.pdf] in addition to RET subscription information and other discussion channels.

58

Department of Literature and History of Ideas Stockholm University  

E-print Network

Department of Literature and History of Ideas Stockholm University Guest Lecture by Marie in the Digital Age Maps have a long history of being connected to narrative: as sources of inspiration is the author of Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory (1991), Narrative as Virtual

59

THE STOCKHOLM EDUCATIONAL AIR SHOWER ARRAY Mark Pearce(1)  

E-print Network

rays are charged subatomic particles from space which continuously bombard the Earth's atmosphereNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. Email: pearce@particle.kth.se ABSTRACT The primary goal of secondary particles. These showers can be detected by a network of ground-based cosmic ray detector stations

Haviland, David

60

4ECM Stockholm 2004 c 2005 European Mathematical Society  

E-print Network

4ECM Stockholm 2004 c 2005 European Mathematical Society Proof Complexity Jan Kraj´icek Abstract. This note, based on my 4ECM lecture, exposes few basic points of proof complexity in a way accessible to any complexity. This is chiefly because of a lack of space (and time in the 4ECM lecture) as one needs

Krajíèek, Jan

61

Meddelanden frn Stockholms universitets institution fr geologiska vetenskaper No 341  

E-print Network

Southern Ocean 0910 OSO 0910 Cruise Report John Anderson, Martin Jakobsson and OSO 0910 Scientific Party #12;#12;Oden Southern Ocean 0910 3 Oden Southern Ocean 0910 OSO 0910 Cruise Report John Anderson, Martin Jakobsson and OSO 0910 Scientific Party MEDDELANDEN från STOCKHOLMS UNIVERSITETS INSTITUTION för

Jakobsson, Martin

62

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

63

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden USING IMAGING AND MODELING TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND THE RELATION  

E-print Network

Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm TO ACOUSTIC CHARACTERISTICS Brad H. Story Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences University of Arizona of the vocal tract as a versatile acoustic device capable of producing a wide range of possible vowel and vowel

Story, Brad H.

64

Urban Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40 -75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950 -1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primar- ily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (.85%) resulted in 1,042 cases

Fredrik Nyberg; Per Gustavsson; Lars Jarup; Tom Bellander; Niklas Berglind; Robert Jakobsson; Goran Pershagen

65

Primary Prevention of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed. PMID:22957272

Butler, Javed

2012-01-01

66

Congenital heart defects and medical imaging.  

PubMed

Radiologic technologists perform imaging studies that are useful in the diagnosis of congenital heart defects in infants and adults. These studies also help to monitor congenital heart defect repairs in adults. This article describes the development and functional anatomy of the heart, along with the epidemiology and anatomy of congenital heart defects. It also discusses the increasing population of adults who have congenital heart defects and the most effective modalities for diagnosing, evaluating, and monitoring congenital heart defects. PMID:24255141

Gehin, Connie; Ragsdale, Lisa

2013-01-01

67

Evolutionary epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is a science of disease which specifies rates (illness prevalences, incidences, distributions, etc.). Evolution is a science of life which specifies changes (gene frequencies, generations, forms, function, etc.). ‘Evolutionary Epidemiology’ is a synthesis of these two sciences which combines the empirical power of classical methods in genetical epidemiology with the interpretive capacities of neo-darwinian evolutionary genetics. In particular, prevalence

Daniel R. Wilson

1993-01-01

68

Ethnic profile of patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty in Stockholm.  

PubMed

During 1985-1995 we performed 640 rhinoplasties in 578 patients. Five hundred eighteen of them were inhabitants of the Province of Stockholm, with a population of 1,708,502. The patients from the Stockholm area were analyzed and divided into subgroups depending on their ethnic origin. It was found that 272 (52%) of them were of Nordic descent, while 248 (48%) were born in and immigrated from non-Scandinavian countries. Among the latter, the largest group were 166 people of Middle Eastern extraction, who generally strived to reduce the size of their noses to the size similar to the average nose of the native Swedes. Middle Easterners were 17 times more prone to undergo aesthetic rhinoplasty than the ethnic Swedes (p < 0.001), whereas immigrants from the other Scandinavian countries had the same rhinoplasty frequency pattern as the natives. In the Slavic group females outnumbered males by the ratio 17:1. The large prevalence of patients of foreign extraction desiring alteration of their noses may reflect the assimilation difficulties and low tolerance of the society in accepting people with a foreign look or name, both in the private sector and in the job market. Psychological aspects of decision making by patients and medico-ethical aspects of decision making by surgeons are discussed. PMID:9204171

Niechajev, I; Haraldsson, P O

1997-01-01

69

Chronic Chagas’ heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening\\u000a complications, and with a latency of 10–30 years, mostly Chagas’ heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients’ social and labor

Silvia Gilka Muńoz-Saravia; Annekathrin Haberland; Gerd Wallukat; Ingolf Schimke

70

Heart Health - Brave Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

71

Clinical profile and management of heart failure: rural community hospital vs. metropolitan heart center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Knowledge on clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with heart failure originates from studies of selected populations in clinical trials or from epidemiological observations. Reports on the large numbers of patients with heart failure treated in community hospitals are sparse. Objectie: Are there differences in patient characteristics and heart Ž. Ž . failure management between a metropolitan heart center

G. Taubert; C. Bergmeier; H. Andresenb; J. Potratz

2001-01-01

72

Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... heart with a healthy heart from a donor Traditional heart surgery, often called open-heart surgery, is ... off-pump, or beating heart, surgery. It's like traditional open-heart surgery because the chest bone is ...

73

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump ... the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The Heart's Pumping Action In normal hearts, blood vessels called ...

74

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

75

Indications of recovery from hypoxia in the inner Stockholm archipelago.  

PubMed

Improved benthic conditions compared to the 1990s were found during benthic investigations, including sediment and benthic macrofauna in the inner Stockholm archipelago during 2008. In the 1990s, these areas were dominated by black and laminated surface sediments and very sparse fauna. A clear relationship was found when comparing sediment status with the benthic macrofauna. Reduced surface sediment and impoverished macroinvertebrate community was only found at one sampling station representing an enclosed part of the inner archipelago, whereas the other seven stations, with depths ranging from 20 to 50 m, had oxidized surface sediments and considerable biomasses of benthic macrofauna (6-65 g m(-2)) dominated by the invading polychaete Marenzelleria neglecta. An extrapolation of the results shows that, within the investigated area, the coverage of reduced surface sediments had decreased from approximately 17% in the late 1990s to 4% in 2008. PMID:21090003

Karlsson, O Magnus; Jonsson, Per O; Lindgren, Dan; Malmaeus, J Mikael; Stehn, Anders

2010-11-01

76

20% Discount with this flyer -Order online using discount code JRK93* Sustainable Stockholm  

E-print Network

and architecture, traffic planning, land-use regulation, building, waste man- agement, regional development, water/Royal Institute of Tech- nology in Stockholm, Sweden. She has a background as a consultant in Swedish

Haviland, David

77

Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Topics Related to Surgery What is a heart transplant? A heart transplant replaces the patient's heart with a donor heart. Doctors remove the patient's heart by transecting the aorta, the main pulmonary ...

78

Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... chest pain, heart attacks, and strokes . What Is Heart Disease? The heart is the center of the ... burst blood vessel. Continue How Do You Get Heart Disease? Heart disease isn't contagious — you can' ...

79

Environmental Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

80

Descriptive Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

81

Epidemiological Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the principles of study design and related methodological issues in the epidemiology of congenital\\u000a anomalies, with specific regard to environmental factors. We present the major types of experimental and observational designs\\u000a used in environmental epidemiology, namely the basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis and the ecological\\u000a designs, which involve groups or geographical areas

A. Rosano; E. Robert-Gnansia

82

Endodontic epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

83

Environmental epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F. (eds.)

1986-01-01

84

Urban air pollution and lung cancer in Stockholm.  

PubMed

We conducted a population-based case-control study among men 40-75 years of age encompassing all cases of lung cancer 1985-1990 among stable residents of Stockholm County 1950-1990. Questionnaires to subjects or next-of-kin (primarily wives or children) elicited information regarding smoking and other risk factors, including occupational and residential histories. A high response rate (>85%) resulted in 1,042 cases and 2,364 controls. We created retrospective emission databases for NOx/NO2 and SO2 as indicators of air pollution from road traffic and heating, respectively. We estimated local annual source-specific air pollution levels using validated dispersion models and we linked these levels to residential addresses using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. Average traffic-related NO2 exposure over 30 years was associated with a relative risk (RR) of 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6) for the top decile of exposure, adjusted for tobacco smoking, socioeconomic status, residential radon, and occupational exposures. The data suggested a considerable latency period; the RR for the top decile of average traffic-related NO2 exposure 20 years previously was 1.4 (1.0-2.0). Little association was observed for SO2. Occupational exposure to asbestos, diesel exhaust, and other combustion products also increased the risk of lung cancer. Our results indicate that urban air pollution increases lung cancer risk and that vehicle emissions may be particularly important. PMID:10955399

Nyberg, F; Gustavsson, P; Järup, L; Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Jakobsson, R; Pershagen, G

2000-09-01

85

Heart to Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through lecture, research and dissection. They brainstorm ideas that pertain to various heart conditions and organize these ideas into categories that help them research possible solutions. An expert in the field of cardiac valve research was interviewed for this lesson and shares his ideas with the class. Students conclude by researching various possible heart defects.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

86

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Attack? A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood ... the section of heart muscle begins to die. Heart attacks are a leading killer of both men and ...

87

Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Heart Transplant? A heart transplant is surgery to remove a ... return to work for many different reasons. The Heart Transplant Process The heart transplant process starts when doctors ...

88

Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ... pressure and the related problems. Changes to Your Heart With Age Aging can cause changes in the ...

89

Heart transplant  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart ... the new heart on top of it (heterotopic transplant). ... A heart transplant may be done to treat: Severe angina that can no longer be treated with medications or other surgeries ...

90

Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 A biomechanical model for the study of plant morphogenesis  

E-print Network

5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 A biomechanical model and biomechanical model of cell wall expansion have been developed in order to analyses coupled mechanisms for the development and the #12;5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 coupling

Haseloff, Jim

91

A naturalistic study of commuter cyclists in the greater Stockholm area.  

PubMed

Few naturalistic studies have been carried out with commuter cyclists to discover the types of problems they encounter on a daily basis. The study presented here has been commissioned by the City of Stockholm municipality and focuses specifically on commuter cyclists in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim of the study was to describe and pinpoint accessibility and safety problems, but also to generate an accessible geographical interface that could serve as a traffic planning tool for cycle network improvement. Statistical surveys in the Stockholm area have shown a rapid growth in the number of cyclists as well as an increase in problems associated with an overburdened cycle infrastructure. Given the heightened emphasis on transport system sustainability, the City of Stockholm is faced with the challenging task of trying to maintain and encourage the upward trend in commuter cycling through a process that involves problem identification, classification, prioritisation and resolution. An innovative methodology involving the use of GPS logging devices and small video cameras was developed and supported with analysis software designed specifically for the purposes of this study. Experienced commuter cyclists were recruited to cycle 17 different major cycle routes to and from the suburbs and inner city area during morning and afternoon peak traffic hours during the main cycle season. Over 500 safety and accessibility/mobility problems were identified and recorded from the data collected from 16 commuter cyclists. The method and representation of data proved successful for strategic traffic planning work at City of Stockholm and has since provided invaluable input for and the development of a new cycle plan for Greater Stockholm. Indirectly, the results of this work have also contributed to longer term safety and environmental targets. PMID:22795396

Gustafsson, Louise; Archer, Jeffery

2013-09-01

92

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

93

Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

2009-01-01

94

Scandinavian Corrosion Congress NKM 10. Proceedings of Congress Held in Stockholm, Sweden in June 2, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The congress was arranged by the Swedish Corrosion Institute, 2-4 June 1986, in Stockholm. 48 lectures and 35 poster presentations were given. The number of attendees was approximately 270. 75 of the presentations have been published in proceedings in Eng...

E. Mattsson

1986-01-01

95

The emergence of a post-industrial music economy? Music and ICT synergies in Stockholm, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into the music industry has for a long time been almost exclusively dominated by a focus on the production of albums and songs. In recent years, however, cities such as Stockholm have seen the growth of a profitable and varied music services industry producing everything from remixes to music marketing strategies. Standing at the forefront of this growth industry

Dominic Power; Johan Jansson

2004-01-01

96

Profiting from creativity? The music industry in Stockholm, Sweden and Kingston, Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the results of detailed case-study work on two important music production centres: Stockholm (Sweden) and Kingston (Jamaica). It is shown that both are dynamic innovation and production centres for populate music. In both cases local characteristics of the organisational and firm structure in the industry are claimed to be crucial for understanding innovation processes and

Dominic Power; Daniel Hallencreutz

2002-01-01

97

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se  

E-print Network

STOCKHOLM UNIVERSITY Dept of Sociology, Demography Unit / www.suda.su.se Linnaeus Center for Social otherwise noted, 13:00-14:30 in Södra Huset B900 25/8 Show & Tell 1/9 8/9 Thomas Lindh, Linnaeus Universitet

98

50Hz electromagnetic environment and the incidence of childhood tumors in Stockholm county  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis.

Lennart Tomenius

1986-01-01

99

Environment, United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, June 5-16, 1972).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, Sweden, June, 1972, are presented in this news brochure. Four sections are defined: Resolutions, Reports, Statements, and Speeches. The first, Resolutions, states the declaration of principles, recommendations for action, the action plan, and institutional and…

United Nations, Geneva (Switzerland). Centre for Economic and Social Information.

100

Daily Air Temperature and Pressure Series for Stockholm (1756–1998)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily meteorological observations have been made at the old astronomical observatory in Stockholm since 1754. Complete daily mean series of air temperature and sea level pressure are reconstructed from the observational data for 1756–1998. The temperature and pressure series arereconstructed and homogenized with the aid of metadata, statistical tests and comparisons with data from other stations. Comparisons with independently reconstructed

Anders Moberg; Hans Bergström; Josefin Ruiz Krigsman; Ola Svanered

2002-01-01

101

Behavior of Sheet Pile Walls at Deep Excavations in Soft Soils Overlying Hard Rock in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deformation of retained soil is of importance for the design of a deep excavation in soft soil. The influence of bedrock underlying the soils on the behavior of the retaining wall needs proper evaluation. This contribution shows a case study on deep excavation in soft soil overlying bedrock at the South Link Infrastructure Project in Stockholm. The behavior of

J. Q. Ma; B. S. Berggren; P. E. Bengtsson; H. Stille; S. Hintze

102

Effects of Fish Stocking on Ecosystem Services: An Overview and Case Study Using the Stockholm Archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on documented and possible effects of fish stocking in terms of ecosystem services. The increasing use of fish stocking between 1970 and 2000 in the semiurban setting of Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, is used as case study. The objective is to analyze this management practice from an ecosystem perspective, accounting for both the ecological and social

Cecilia M. Holmlund; Monica Hammer

2004-01-01

103

Epidemiology Exemption Exam  

E-print Network

. Epidemiology and epidemiologic methods are central to public health, being used to describe and explain, among other uses. While epidemiology and epidemiologists rely on biostatistical theory and methods for meeting this requirement: PH 250A (Epidemiologic Methods I), PH 250B (Epidemiologic Methods II

Doudna, Jennifer A.

104

Heart palpitations  

MedlinePLUS

... Heart disease Abnormal heart valve, such as mitral valve prolapse Abnormal blood level of potassium Certain medicines, including those used to treat asthma, high blood pressure, or heart problems Overactive thyroid Low level of oxygen in your blood

105

Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... a heart attack? Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack? Does taking birth control ... Return to top Should I take a daily aspirin to prevent heart attack? Aspirin may be helpful ...

106

STRONG HEART STUDY DATA BOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease in American Indians. Examination on the prevalence of major risk factors of CVD in American Indian men and women ages 45-74 in the American Indian communities from the three centers that participate in the Strong Heart Study....

107

Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Injury Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiologic studies show that increased levels of air pollutants are positively associated with cardio- vascular morbidity and mortality. Inhalation of air pollutants affects heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pres- sure, vascular tone, blood coagulability, and the progression of atherosclerosis. Several categories within the general population (i.e., people with pre-existing cardiovascular disease and diabetic and elderly individuals) are considered

Boris Z. Simkhovich; Michael T. Kleinman; Robert A. Kloner

108

From Stockholm to Malawi: recent developments in studying human polyomaviruses.  

PubMed

Until a few years ago the polyomavirus family (Polyomaviridae) included a dozen viruses identified in avian and mammalian hosts. Two of these, the JC and BK-polyomaviruses isolated a long time ago, are known to infect humans and cause severe illness in immunocompromised hosts. Since 2007 an unprecedented number of eight novel polyomaviruses were discovered in humans. Among them are the KI- and WU-polyomaviruses identified in respiratory samples, the Merkel cell polyomavirus found in skin carcinomas and the polyomavirus associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a skin disease of transplant patients. Another four novel human polyomaviruses were identified, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and the Malawi polyomavirus, so far not associated with any disease. In the same period several novel mammalian polyomaviruses were described. This review summarizes the recent developments in studying the novel human polyomaviruses, and touches upon several aspects of polyomavirus virology, pathogenicity, epidemiology and phylogeny. PMID:23255626

Feltkamp, Mariet C W; Kazem, Siamaque; van der Meijden, Els; Lauber, Chris; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

2013-03-01

109

Using geographic information systems to assess individual historical exposure to air pollution from traffic and house heating in Stockholm.  

PubMed Central

A specific aim of a population-based case-control study of lung cancer in Stockholm, Sweden, was to use emission data, dispersion models, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess historical exposure to several components of ambient air pollution. Data collected for 1,042 lung cancer cases and 2,364 population controls included information on residence from 1955 to the end of follow-up for each individual, 1990-1995. We assessed ambient air concentrations of pollutants from road traffic and heating throughout the study area for three points in time (1960, 1970, and 1980) using reconstructed emission data for the index pollutants nitrogen oxides (NO(x)/NO(2)) and sulfur dioxide together with dispersion modeling. NO(2) estimates for 1980 compared well with actual measurements, but no independently measured (study-external) data were available for SO(2), precluding similar validation. Subsequently, we used linear intra- and extrapolation to obtain estimates for all other years 1955-1990. Eleven thousand individual addresses were transformed into geographic coordinates through automatic and manual procedures, with an estimated error of < 100 m for 90% of the addresses. Finally, we linked annual air pollution estimates to annual residence coordinates, yielding long-term residential exposure indices for each individual. There was a wide range of individual long-term average exposure, with an 11-fold interindividual difference in NO(2) and an 18-fold difference in SO(2). The 30-year average for all study subjects was 20 microg/m(3) NO(2) from traffic and 53 microg/m(3) SO(2) from heating. The results indicate that GIS can be useful for exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology studies, provided that detailed geographically related exposure data are available for relevant time periods. PMID:11445519

Bellander, T; Berglind, N; Gustavsson, P; Jonson, T; Nyberg, F; Pershagen, G; Jarup, L

2001-01-01

110

Heart Transplantation  

MedlinePLUS

A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

111

Heart Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

112

Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... failure" simply means that your heart isn't pumping blood as well as it should. Heart failure does not mean ... your heart. The pictures show your doctor how well your heart is pumping. Radionuclide ventriculography involves injecting a very small amount ...

113

Treatment of Hypertension in the Prevention and Management of Ischemic Heart Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on treatment of hypertension and management of ischemic heart disease from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology and Epidemiology and Prevention

2008-06-25

114

Heart failure in North America.  

PubMed

Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

2013-05-01

115

Heart Failure in North America  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

2013-01-01

116

Heart Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this section we will review the major heart problems that you may encounter. Objectives -Understand the possible complications related to your heart -Identify resources that are available for Cardiology Cardiac Compromise 1. Chest pain results from ischemia 2. Ischemic heart disease involves decreased blood flow to the heart. 3. If blood flow is not restored, the tissue dies. Heart pumping with electrical activity Atherosclerosis 1. Materials build up inside blood vessels. 2. ...

Joey

2008-10-15

117

‘Concrete bodies’: young Latina women transgressing the boundaries of race and class in white inner-city Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines young Latina women's interactions in the urban landscape of Stockholm, with a particular focus on white, middle-class areas, and how social difference and racial positioning are produced in and through the processes of urban segregation. Although Stockholm consists of different multiethnic and middle-class white suburbs, a discourse of sharp division between ‘the suburb’ and the inner-city is

Catrin Lundström

2010-01-01

118

12/01/2011 Article 1 1/23 Influence of blood glucose on heart rate and cardiac autonomic function.  

E-print Network

12/01/2011 Article 1 1/23 Influence of blood glucose on heart rate and cardiac autonomic function population, the effect of dysglycaemia, insulin resistance and metabolic parameters, on heart rate (HR), HR of HRV. Keywords: diabetes, epidemiology, heart rate, heart rate variability, heart rate recovery inserm

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

Engineering the Heart: Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how healthy human heart valves function and the different diseases that can affect heart valves. They also learn about devices and procedures that biomedical engineers have designed to help people with damaged or diseased heart valves. Students learn about the pros and cons of different materials and how doctors choose which engineered artificial heart valves are appropriate for certain people.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

120

Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by

Urban Ösby; Nestor Correia; Lena Brandt; Anders Ekbom; Pär Sparén

2000-01-01

121

Tale of two cities: environmental life cycle assessment for telecommunications systems: Stockholm, Sweden and Sacramento, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the findings of a lifecycle impact assessment study consistent with the ISO 14041\\/ISO 14042 DIS standards. This study involved teams from key suppliers and telecom partners and describes the telecommunications systems in two cities: Stockholm, Sweden and Sacramento, CA, USA. The study is the first application of a system-life-cycle impact assessment (S-LCIA) in the telecom industry and

M. Blazek; S. Rhodes; F. Kommonen; E. Weidman

1999-01-01

122

HCH contamination from former pesticide production in Brazil--a challenge for the Stockholm Convention implementation.  

PubMed

Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (?-, ?- and ?- HCH [lindane]) were recently added to the list of persistent organic pollutants regulated by the Stockholm Convention, and therefore, the legacy of HCH and lindane production has become an issue of global relevance. The production of lindane with the much larger quantities of associated waste isomers has generated large waste deposits and contaminated sites. This article presents an overview of HCH-polluted sites in Brazil as a basis for further activities related to the Stockholm Convention. The locations of HCH stockpiles and contaminated sites in Brazil arising from production and formulation have been compiled and mapped. This shows that the measures taken over the past 25 years have not resulted in remediation of the HCH pollution. An exposure risk study has been summarised for one major site and is included to demonstrate the contemporary relevance of the contamination. Major site remediation efforts are planned at one site but people live close to several other sites, and there is an urgent need of further assessments and remediation to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention requires a systematic approach and should be adopted for the assessment of all sites and appropriate isolation/remediation measures should be facilitated. The appropriate planning of these activities for the production site in Rio de Janeiro could be a positive contribution for Rio+20 highlighting that green economy and sustainable production also include the appropriate management of legacies of historic production of an industrial sector (here the organochlorine industry). PMID:22825640

Torres, J P M; Fróes-Asmus, C I R; Weber, R; Vijgen, J M H

2013-04-01

123

Heart Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Preface Heart failure plagues industrialized nations, killing more people than any other disease. Heart failure usually results from a deficiency of cardiomyocytes, and a robust therapy to regenerate lost myocardium could help millions of patients a year. Heart regeneration is well documented in lower vertebrates and in developing mammals. After we are born, however, human heart regeneration becomes limited. In this article, Laflamme and Murry review the innate barriers to heart regeneration, the evidence for cardiomyocyte turnover in humans, and current experimental strategies to remuscularize the injured heart using adult and pluripotent stem cells, cellular reprogramming and tissue engineering. PMID:21593865

Laflamme, Michael A.; Murry, Charles E.

2014-01-01

124

Clinical Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective. We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6. Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis. We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy. PMID:17422801

Martin, S. Wayne; Bonnett, Brenda

1987-01-01

125

Heart Failure in South Asia  

PubMed Central

South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

2013-01-01

126

Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

127

Heart rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have shown that high heart rate is prospectively related to the development of atherosclerosis and of cardiovascular events. This relationship has been observed in the general population, in elderly subjects, in hypertensive cohorts, and in patients with myocardial infarction or heart failure. There is still debate over whether the association between fast heart rate and cardiovascular mortality is

P. Palatini

2000-01-01

128

Epidemiology of prostatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

2008-01-01

129

Heart attack.  

PubMed

Essential facts Each year, 175,000 people in the UK experience a myocardial infarction, or heart attack. This happens when the heart muscle is starved of oxygen-rich blood, causing damage to the muscle. Most heart attacks are caused by coronary heart disease (CHD), when the coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls. If a piece of this fatty material, called an atheroma, breaks offit may cause a blood clot that can block the coronary artery, cutting off the blood supply to the heart muscle. PMID:25388712

2014-11-12

130

What Causes Heart Murmurs?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Murmurs? Innocent Heart Murmurs Why some people have innocent heart murmurs ... that occur in pregnant women are innocent. Abnormal Heart Murmurs Congenital heart defects or acquired heart valve ...

131

Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes in Stockholm County 1990-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes is on the rise in the western world, but data from Scandinavia are inconsistent with indications of stable or even reverse trends. To shed new light on this issue, we investigated diabetes trends in Stockholm County 1990–2010, taking into account trends in risk factors and mortality. Methods We used data from a large population-based quadrennial public health survey conducted between 1990 and 2010 in Stockholm County (?2.1 million inhabitants), supplemented with data from national registers. The age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of diabetes and related risk factors 1990–2010 were estimated in adult inhabitants. We also modelled the influence of potential risk factors on the diabetes trends and estimated the life time risk of diabetes. Results The prevalence of diabetes was 4.6% (95% confidence interval (CI); 4.5–4.8%) in 2010 compared to 2.8% (95% CI; 2.3–3.5%) in 1990. Between 1990 and 2002 the prevalence rose annually by 3.8% (95% CI; 2.1–5.5). Incidence rates showed a similar pattern and rose by 3.0% (95% CI; 0.3–5.7%) annually 1990–2002. The rising incidence was mainly attributable to increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity, which rose by 46% during the observation period. In 2010, the lifetime risk of adult onset diabetes was 28% (95% CI; 26–31%) in men and 19% (95% CI; 17–21%) in women. Conclusions Diabetes rates have been increasing in Stockholm over the last decades, both in terms of incidence and prevalence, and this development is most likely the result of increasing overweight and obesity in the population. PMID:25121976

Andersson, Tomas; Ahlbom, Anders; Magnusson, Cecilia; Carlsson, Sofia

2014-01-01

132

Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: Design, Prevalence and Validity  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), along with their profound personal and societal burden, emphasize the need of methodologically sound studies to explore their causes and consequences. We here present the design of a large intergenerational resource for ASD research, along with population-based prevalence estimates of ASD and their diagnostic validity. Method The Stockholm Youth Cohort is a record-linkage study comprising all individuals aged 0–17 years, ever resident in Stockholm County in 2001–2007 (N?=?589,114). ASD cases (N?=?5,100) were identified using a multisource approach, involving registers covering all pathways to ASD diagnosis and care, and categorized according to co-morbid intellectual disability. Prospectively recorded information on potential determinants and consequences of ASD were retrieved from national and regional health and administrative registers. Case ascertainment was validated through case-note review, and cross validation with co-existing cases in a national twin study. Results The 2007 year prevalence of ASD in all children and young people was 11.5 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval 11.2–11.8), with a co-morbid intellectual disability recorded in 42.6% (41.0–44.2) of cases. We found 96.0% (92.0–98.4) of reviewed case-notes being consistent with a diagnosis of ASD, and confirmed ASD in 85.2% (66.2–95.8) of affected twins. Conclusions Findings from this contemporary study accords with recently reported prevalence estimates from Western countries at around 1%, based on valid case ascertainment. The Stockholm Youth Cohort, in light of the availability of extensive information from Sweden's registers, constitutes an important resource for ASD research. On-going work, including collection of biological samples, will enrich the study further. PMID:22911770

Idring, Selma; Rai, Dheeraj; Dal, Henrik; Dalman, Christina; Sturm, Harald; Zander, Eric; Lee, Brian K.; Serlachius, Eva; Magnusson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

133

Cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a chronically polluted gradient in the Stockholm recipient (Sweden).  

PubMed

By measuring a battery of cytological and biochemical biomarkers in adult female perch (Perca fluviatilis), the city of Stockholm (Sweden) was investigated as a point source of anthropogenic aquatic pollution. The investigation included both an upstream gradient, 46 km westwards through Lake Mälaren, and a downstream gradient, 84 km eastwards through the Stockholm archipelago. Indeed, there was a graded response for most of the biomarkers and for the muscle concentrations of ?PBDE, four organotin compounds and PFOS in the perch. The results indicated severe pollution in central Stockholm, with poor health of the perch, characterised by increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, altered liver apoptosis, increased liver catalase activity, decreased brain aromatase activity, and decreased liver lysosomal membrane stability. Some biomarker responses were lowest in the middle archipelago and increased again eastwards, indicating a second, partly overlapping, gradient of toxic effects from the Baltic Sea. PMID:24655945

Hansson, Tomas; Baršien?, Janina; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Ĺkerman, Gun; Linderoth, Maria; Zebühr, Yngve; Sternbeck, John; Järnberg, Ulf; Balk, Lennart

2014-04-15

134

Heart rate variability associated with particulate air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Epidemiologic studies have linked fine particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary mortality, yet underlying biologic mechanisms remain unknown. Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect changes in cardiac autonomic function and risk of sudden cardiac death. This study evaluated changes in mean heart rate and HRV in human beings associated with changes in exposure to particulate air pollution. Methods:

C. Arden Pope; Richard L. Verrier; Eric G. Lovett; Andrew C. Larson; Mark E. Raizenne; Richard E. Kanner; Joel Schwartz; G. Martin Villegas; Diane R. Gold; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

135

[Heart failure].  

PubMed

It seems that the causes of the insomnia are dyspnea and an orthopnea in the heart failure patient. But, only such a fit is not the cause of the insomnia because it complains about the insomnia even if heart failure is slight. An obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the risk of the heart failure. A heart failure patient often complicates a central sleep apnea (CSA) and a Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR), and has much sleep fragmentation and difficulty maintaining sleep. And sleep disorders are sometimes started by the medications such as the cardiovascular system agent thing; beta blocker and the statins. Sleep disorders represent a major challenge in terms of differential diagnosis in heart failure patients. This is particularly relevant to insomnia and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) such as OSA, CSA and CSR. Thus, expending the knowledge on both insomnia and SDB may contribute to improve medical quality among physician. PMID:19768933

Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Shiomi, Toshiaki

2009-08-01

136

Selected environmental risk factors and congenital heart defects.  

PubMed

The aim of the article is to review the published scientific literature and epidemiological studies about the effect of selected environmental risk factors on congenital heart defects in infants. According to recent reports, the prevalence of congenital heart defects is around 1% of live births. Congenital heart malformations are the leading cause of infant mortality. Unfortunately, the majority of the causes of heart defects remain unknown. These malformations are caused by interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The article reviews selected environmental risk factors: maternal illnesses and conditions associated with metabolic disorder (maternal diabetes, obesity, phenylketonuria), maternal lifestyle factors (alcohol use, smoking), which may increase the risk of congenital heart defects. PMID:19124958

Kuciene, Renata; Dulskiene, Virginija

2008-01-01

137

Oral health and health behavior in patients referred for open-heart surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Little is known about the dental health and health behavior of patients referred for open-heart surgery because of severe heart disease. Yet, coronary atherosclerosis has been suggested to be an inflammatory disease in which chronic dental infections may trigger pathogenic mechanisms in the walls of arteries. In epidemiological studies periodontal disease in particular has been linked with coronary heart

Jukka H. Meurman; Markku Qvarnström; Sok-Ja Janket; Pekka Nuutinen

2003-01-01

138

Elevated heart rate and atherosclerosis: An overview of the pathogenetic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies have reported that an elevated heart rate is associated with coronary atherosclerosis independently of other risk factors. In this review we explore the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in the pro-atherosclerotic effect of elevated heart rate, apart from its association with sympathetic tone. An elevated heart rate enhances the magnitude and frequency of the tensile stress imposed on the

George D. Giannoglou; Yiannis S. Chatzizisis; Chrysanthos Zamboulis; George E. Parcharidis; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; George E. Louridas

2008-01-01

139

Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Does depression predict coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular  

E-print Network

Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Page /1 9 Does depression predict coronary heart disease of depression for coronary heart disease (CHD) to that for CBVD within the same population. This study aimed ; epidemiology ; psychology ; Young Adult Author Keywords depression ; coronary heart disease ; cerebrovascular

Boyer, Edmond

140

Interaction Domains and Suicide: A Population-Based Panel Study of Suicides in Stockholm, 1991-1999  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how suicides influence suicide risks of others within two interaction domains: the family and the workplace. A distinction is made between dyad-based social-interaction effects and degree-based exposure effects. A unique database including all individuals who ever lived in Stockholm during the 1990s is analyzed. For about 5.6…

Hedstrom, Peter; Liu, Ka-Yuet; Nordvik, Monica K.

2008-01-01

141

Scale-space: A framework for handling image structures at multiple scales Tony Lindeberg KTH, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden  

E-print Network

44 Stockholm, Sweden Abstract This article gives a tutorial overview of essential components of scale and quantum mechanics at fine scales, through solid mechanics and thermodynamics dealing with everyday not be obvious at all to determine in advance what are the proper scales. One such example is a vision system

Lindeberg, Tony

142

Plant Biomechanics Conference Stockholm, August 28 September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Thick Should their Supports Be?  

E-print Network

5th Plant Biomechanics Conference ­ Stockholm, August 28 ­ September 1 2006 Twining Plants: How Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson,USA. Abstract When twining plants grow they revolve around that twining plants cannot grow on supports that are too wide. Here, mechanical aspects of this problem

Neukirch, SĂ©bastien

143

Can I Have a Beer, Please? A Study of Alcohol Service to Young Adults on Licensed Premises in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effects of a community alcohol prevention program on the frequency of alcohol service to young adults at licensed premises in Stockholm, Sweden. We used a pretest (1996)-posttests (1998 and 2001) design with intervention and control areas. The multicomponent intervention combines training of serving staff in responsible beverage service, policy initiatives, and enforcement of existing alcohol regulations.

Eva Wallin; Sven Andreásson

2004-01-01

144

Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep Johan Nilsson, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden.  

E-print Network

Why does the Atlantic Ocean form the northern hemisphere deep water? Johan Nilsson, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden. Background The Atlantic Ocean stands out as the most saline. As a consequence, the Atlantic Ocean forms all deep water in the northern hemisphere and therefore carries

Nilsson, Johan

145

Heart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care  

E-print Network

Heart Disease and Early Heart Attack Care Pamela Kostic, RN, CCCC, Chest Pain Coordinator, Stony Risk Factors · EHAC & Prevention #12;Heart disease includes a number of problems affecting the heart and the blood vessels in the heart. #12;Types of heart disease include: · Coronary artery disease (CAD) · Angina

Ohta, Shigemi

146

The Department of Epidemiology and  

E-print Network

) EPI 808 Biostatistics I 3 EPI 809 Biostatistics II 3 EPI 826 Research Methods in Epidemiology 3 Epidemiology EPI 920 Advanced Methods in Epidemiology and Applied Statistics EPI 945 Molecular Epidemiology EPIThe Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics GRADUATE HANDBOOK #12;Fall 2013 (Aug. 14) Page1 I

147

Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, principles and concepts of modern infectious disease epidemiology Epidemiology are presented. We delineate\\u000a the role of epidemiology for public health and discuss the characteristics of infectious disease epidemiology. This chapter\\u000a also includes definitions of important terms used in infectious disease epidemiology.

Alexander Krämer; Manas Akmatov; Mirjam Kretzschmar

148

Population exposure to atmospheric particles (PM) caused by emissions in Stockholm - local and regional/European scale modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and regional-scale model calculations have been performed to estimate the effects of emissions in Stockholm on the population exposure to particulate matter (PM) within the city, in surrounding areas, and in the rest of Europe. The impacts of five different emission sources were investigated: Road traffic exhaust, split into Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV), Sea Traffic, Power Plants and Residential Heating. The emissions from non-exhaust (mainly road wear due to use of studded tyres) were also treated, in addition to combustion sources. The calculated impact of the Stockholm emissions on atmospheric concentrations of particles were weighted by the population distribution and the calculated yearly average total European population exposures for the different sources are summarised below (unit: person ?g/m3). Wear particles: Road Traffic 2 520 000 Directly emitted PM: LDV-exhaust 150 000, HDV-exhaust 55 000, Sea Traffic 17 000, Power Plants 87 000, Residential Heating 178 000 - 886 000 Secondarily formed inorganic particles (nitrate, sulphate, ammonium): LDV 315 000, HDV 117 000, Sea Traffic 70 000, Power Plants 193 000, Residential Heating 26 000 - 70 000 Non-exhaust (road wear) particles dominate the total impact on PM10 exposure, contributing about 60-70% to the total exposure, due to all the studied sources in Stockholm. The calculated population exposure to the wear particles is to a very large extent (87%) occurring within the Stockholm area. The uncertainties in the emission estimates for Residential Heating using biomass (wood) are very large but it seems to be an important PM source in Stockholm. Two different estimates of the emissions were used; in the lowest estimate, which seems more realistic, the contribution to population exposure of directly emitted combustion particles from residential heating is of similar magnitude (178 000 person ?g/m3) as the contribution from road traffic exhaust (205 000 person ?g/m3). For all sources, except Sea Traffic, the total population exposure to combustion PM is much larger within Stockholm than outside; for shipping the total exposure is about as large outside the city as within. For all sources, except residential heating, the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) exposure is higher than the combustion particle exposure. Most of the SIA exposure occurs outside the Stockholm area.

Bergström, R.; Johansson, C.

2009-04-01

149

Heart Failure Overview  

MedlinePLUS

CHF; Congestive heart failure; Left-sided heart failure; Right-sided heart failure - Cor pulmonale; Cardiomyopathy - heart failure ... Heart failure is often a long-term (chronic) condition, but it may come on suddenly. It can ...

150

Contemporary Definitions and Classification of the Cardiomyopathies An American Heart Association Scientific Statement From the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classifications of heart muscle diseases have proved to be exceedingly complex and in many respects contradictory. Indeed, the precise language used to describe these diseases is profoundly important. A new contemporary and rigorous classification of cardiomyopathies (with definitions) is proposed here. This reference document affords an important framework and measure of clarity to this heterogeneous group of diseases. Of particular

Barry J. Maron; Jeffrey A. Towbin; Gaetano Thiene; Charles Antzelevitch; Domenico Corrado; Donna Arnett; Arthur J. Moss; Christine E. Seidman; James B. Young

2010-01-01

151

Molecular epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human cryptosporidiosis in Sweden.  

PubMed

This study describes the epidemiology and symptoms in 271 cryptosporidiosis patients in Stockholm County, Sweden. Species/genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S rRNA genes. Species were C. parvum (n=111), C. hominis (n=65), C. meleagridis (n=11), C. felis (n=2), Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype 1 (n=2), and a recently described species, C. viatorum (n=2). Analysis of the Gp60 gene revealed five C. hominis allele families (Ia, Ib, Id, Ie, If), and four C. parvum allele families (IIa, IIc, IId, IIe). Most C. parvum cases (51%) were infected in Sweden, as opposed to C. hominis cases (26%). Clinical manifestations differed slightly by species. Diarrhoea lasted longer in C. parvum cases compared to C. hominis and C. meleagridis cases. At follow-up 25-36 months after disease onset, 15% of the patients still reported intermittent diarrhoea. In four outbreaks and 13 family clusters, a single subtype was identified, indicating a common infection source, which emphasizes the value of genotyping for epidemiological investigations. PMID:22877562

Insulander, M; Silverlĺs, C; Lebbad, M; Karlsson, L; Mattsson, J G; Svenungsson, B

2013-05-01

152

Kingdom Hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kingdom Hearts is a popular action Role-Playing Game (RPG ) for PlayStation 2, developed collaboratively by Square Enyx, known for its stylistic\\u000a series Final Fantasy (1987–2006), and Disney, known around the world for its animated movies and characters. The world of Kingdom Hearts is a meta-verse: a multidimensional reality through which an infinite number of fantastical worlds are interconnected. This

Troy Whitlock

153

Reading Stockholm Riots 2013 in social media by text-mining  

E-print Network

The riots in Stockholm in May 2013 were an event that reverberated in the world media for its dimension of violence that had spread through the Swedish capital. In this study we have investigated the role of social media in creating media phenomena via text mining and natural language processing. We have focused on two channels of communication for our analysis: Twitter and Poloniainfo.se (Forum of Polish community in Sweden). Our preliminary results show some hot topics driving discussion related mostly to Swedish Police and Swedish Politics by counting word usage. Typical features for media intervention are presented. We have built networks of most popular phrases, clustered by categories (geography, media institution, etc.). Sentiment analysis shows negative connotation with Police. The aim of this preliminary exploratory quantitative study was to generate questions and hypotheses, which we could carefully follow by deeper more qualitative methods.

Jarynowski, Andrzej

2013-01-01

154

Epidemiology: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important to determine whether a maximum human life span, genetically determined, exists. A maximal rectangularization of the mortality curve should then be the ultimate goal. At the same time the possible re-emergence of old and new infectious diseases (SARS, Ebola, BSE, AIDS) should be kept in mind. PMID:15641567

Kesteloot, H

2004-01-01

155

Estimated Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background: Although serious health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m (PM10) and ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5; fine fraction) are documented in many studies, the effects of coarse PM (PM2.5–10) are still under debate. Objective: In this study, we estimated the effects of short-term exposure of PM2.5–10 on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden. Method: We collected data on daily mortality for the years 2000 through 2008. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured simultaneously in central Stockholm. We used additive Poisson regression models to examine the association between daily mortality and PM2.5–10 on the day of death and the day before. Effect estimates were adjusted for other pollutants (two-pollutant models) during different seasons. Results: We estimated a 1.68% increase [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20%, 3.15%] in daily mortality per 10-?g/m3 increase in PM2.5–10 (single-pollutant model). The association with PM2.5–10 was stronger for November through May, when road dust is most important (1.69% increase; 95% CI: 0.21%, 3.17%), compared with the rest of the year (1.31% increase; 95% CI: –2.08%, 4.70%), although the difference was not statistically significant. When adjusted for other pollutants, particularly PM2.5, the effect estimates per 10 ?g/m3 for PM2.5–10 decreased slightly but were still higher than corresponding effect estimates for PM2.5. Conclusions: Our analysis shows an increase in daily mortality associated with elevated urban background levels of PM2.5–10. Regulation of PM2.5–10 should be considered, along with actions to specifically reduce PM2.5–10 emissions, especially road dust suspension, in cities. PMID:22182596

Johansson, Christer; Forsberg, Bertil

2011-01-01

156

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

157

A food-borne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis among guests and staff at a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden, September 2008.  

PubMed

In September 2008, 21 cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among guests and staff at a wedding reception in a hotel restaurant in Stockholm county, Sweden. The most probable source of the outbreak was bearnaise sauce containing chopped fresh parsley. PMID:19094915

Insulander, M; de Jong, B; Svenungsson, B

2008-12-18

158

Framingham Heart Study  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Hypertension; Heart Failure, Congestive; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Heart Failure

2009-04-13

159

Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

Marion Fass (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

160

Heart Health - Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Heart Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Most heart attacks happen when a clot in the coronary ...

161

Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND- Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that affect cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. They are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis and are the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Levels of these fatty acids have been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS- Genome-wide association studies were conducted in 5 population-based cohorts comprising 8961 participants of European ancestry to investigate the association of common genetic variation with plasma levels of these 4 fatty acids. We identified polymorphisms in 7 novel loci associated with circulating levels of ?1 of these fatty acids. ALG14 (asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:0 (P=2.7×10(-11)) and lower 18:0 (P=2.2×10(-18)). FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7 (P=6.6×10(-13)) and 18:1n-9 (P=2.2×10(-32)) and lower 18:0 (P=1.3×10(-20)). LPGAT1 (lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase) polymorphisms were associated with lower 18:0 (P=2.8×10(-9)). GCKR (glucokinase regulator; P=9.8×10(-10)) and HIF1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1; P=5.7×10(-9)) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7, whereas PKD2L1 (polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1; P=5.7×10(-15)) and a locus on chromosome 2 (not near known genes) were associated with lower 16:1n-7 (P=4.1×10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS- Our findings provide novel evidence that common variations in genes with diverse functions, including protein-glycosylation, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, phospholipid modeling, and glucose- and oxygen-sensing pathways, are associated with circulating levels of 4 fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway. These results expand our knowledge of genetic factors relevant to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid biology. PMID:23362303

Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Manichaikul, Ani; Guan, Weihua; Tanaka, Toshiko; Foy, Millennia; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Djousse, Luc; Siscovick, David; Fretts, Amanda M; Johnson, Catherine; King, Irena B; Psaty, Bruce M; McKnight, Barbara; Rich, Stephen S; Chen, Yii-Der I; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Tang, Weihong; Bandinelli, Stefania; Jacobs, David R; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C; Gu, Xiangjun; Tsai, Michael Y; Steffen, Lyn M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush

2013-04-01

162

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

163

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Français ??????? Espańol RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home ... Follow WHO on Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO Google+ page WHO iTunes © WHO 2014 Back to top

164

Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration  

Cancer.gov

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

165

International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium  

Cancer.gov

The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Formed in 2001, the Consortium is a group of international investigators who have completed or have ongoing case-control studies and who discuss and undertake research projects that pool data across studies or otherwise undertake collaborative research.

166

Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

167

Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... quit. It’s never too late to get some benefit from quitting smoking. Follow a heart healthy diet. Choose low-fat foods and those that are low in salt. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables, and foods high in fiber. Following a healthy eating plan and being physically active might help you. ...

168

Heart Attack Recovery FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Attack Recovery FAQS Updated:Sep 2,2014 Most people survive their first heart attack and return to ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers How long will I ...

169

Wine and heart health  

MedlinePLUS

Health and wine: Wine and heart disease: Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Health care providers recommend that if you ...

170

Heart attack first aid  

MedlinePLUS

First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

171

Total Artificial Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Total Artificial Heart? A total artificial heart (TAH) is a device ... the chest to an outside power source. Normal Heart and CardioWest Total Artificial Heart Figure A shows ...

172

Heart Valves Explained  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Valves Explained Updated:Jun 23,2014 Learn More About Heart Valves The heart has four chambers. The upper ... Options . Order a brochure of this information here. Heart Valves Are For Life Watch our friendly and ...

173

Coronary heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

174

Diabetic Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Diabetic Heart Disease? The term "diabetic heart disease" (DHD) refers ... Kidney Diseases' Introduction to Diabetes Web page. What Heart Diseases Are Involved in Diabetic Heart Disease? DHD ...

175

Pediatric heart surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Heart surgery - pediatric; Heart surgery for children; Acquired heart disease; Heart valve surgery - children ... after the baby is born. For others, your child may be able to safely wait for months ...

176

Who Needs Heart Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Heart Surgery? Heart surgery is used to treat many heart problems. For ... haven't worked or can't be used, heart surgery might be an option. Specialists Involved Your primary ...

177

Left heart ventricular angiography  

MedlinePLUS

... left side of the heart and, sometimes, the coronary arteries. ... Angiography - left heart; Left ventriculography ... side of the heart or the heart valves. Coronary angiography may be needed when blockage of the coronary ...

178

How Many Hearts?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students practice adding one or more heart(s) and recording drawings and equations on white boards. Students will also repeat this activity by subtracting a given number of hearts from a larger number hearts.

Mathis, Clara

2012-08-02

179

Heart Health for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Patient Network--Cardiovascular Disease Free Publications For Women Heart Health for Women You may think heart disease ... signs of a heart attack. 1. Eat a heart healthy diet. The nutrition facts on the food ...

180

About Heart Attacks  

MedlinePLUS

... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ... survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or ...

181

Heart disease and diet  

MedlinePLUS

Diet - heart disease ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke. Conditions that lead to heart disease, including high cholesterol , high blood pressure, obesity , and ...

182

The Mighty Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the form and function of the human heart through the dissection of sheep hearts. They learn about the different parts of the heart and are able to identify the anatomical structures and compare them to the all of the structural components of the human heart they learned about in the associated lesson, Heart to Heart.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

183

Artificial Heart Valve Design  

E-print Network

Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

Provancher, William

184

Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass concentrations (MLAC) were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean and standard deviation MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36 (rural) to 5.39 ?g m-3 (street canyon) and from 0.50 to 3.60 ?g m-3, respectively. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

2011-04-01

185

Spatiotemporal distribution of light-absorbing carbon and its relationship to other atmospheric pollutants in Stockholm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon-containing particles have deleterious effects on both Earth's climate and human health. In Europe, the main sources of light-absorbing carbon (LAC) emissions are the transport (67%) and residential (25%) sectors. Information on the spatiotemporal variability of LAC particles in urban areas is relevant for air quality management and to better diagnose the population exposure to these particles. This study reports on results of an intensive field campaign conducted at four sites (two kerbside stations, one urban background site and a rural station) in Stockholm, Sweden, during the spring 2006. Light-absorbing carbon mass (MLAC) concentrations were measured with custom-built Particle Soot Absorption Photometers (PSAP). The spatiotemporal variability of MLAC concentrations was explored by examining correlation coefficients (R), coefficients of divergence (COD), and diurnal patterns at all sites. Simultaneous measurements of NOx, PM10, PM2.5, and meteorological variables were also carried out at the same locations to help characterize the LAC emission sources. Hourly mean (± standard deviation) MLAC concentrations ranged from 0.36±0.50 at the rural site to 5.39±3.60 ?g m-3 at the street canyon site. Concentrations of LAC between urban sites were poorly correlated even for daily averages (R<0.70), combined with highly heterogeneously distributed concentrations (COD>0.30) even at spatial scales of few kilometers. This high variability is connected to the distribution of emission sources and processes contributing to the LAC fraction at these sites. At urban sites, MLAC tracked NOx levels and traffic density well and mean MLAC/PM2.5 ratios were larger (26-38%) than at the background sites (4-10%). The results suggest that vehicle exhaust emissions are the main responsible for the high MLAC concentrations found at the urban locations whereas long-range transport (LRT) episodes of combustion-derived particles can generate a strong increase of levels at background sites. To decrease pollution levels at kerbside and urban background locations in Stockholm, we recommend abatement strategies that target reductions of vehicle exhaust emissions, which are the main contributors to MLAC and NOx concentrations.

Krecl, P.; Targino, A. C.; Johansson, C.

2011-11-01

186

Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heart transplantation (HTX) has evolved over the past 39 years from a rarely performed experimental procedure to a clinically\\u000a well established therapy with an excellent circumoperative outcome regarding survival and quality of life. It was Christiaan\\u000a Barnard who performed unexpectedly the first successfulhuman-to-humanhearttransplant(allograft) on 3 December, 1967 at Groote\\u000a Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa (Barnard 1967, 1968); however,

Herwig Antretter; Guenther Laufer; Janet E. Kuhlman

187

Heart Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

1991-01-01

188

Local media monitoring in process evaluation. Experiences from the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Programme.  

PubMed

We present a rationale and approach for longitudinal analyses of media coverage and content, and illustrate how media monitoring can be used in process evaluations. Within a community-based diabetes prevention project, the Stockholm Diabetes Prevention Program, we analyzed the frequency, prominence, and framing of physical activity in local newspapers of three intervention and two control municipalities. In total, 2,128 stories and advertisements related to physical activity were identified between the years 1997 and 2002. Although stories about physical activity were relatively few (n = 224), they were prominently located in all five local newspapers. Physical activity was framed rather similarly in the municipalities. Health aspects, however, were expressed to a greater extent in stories in two of the intervention municipalities. A limited portion (14%) of the articles could be linked directly to the program. It is not possible to assess to what extent the program has had a disseminating effect on the newspapers' health-related content in general, due to weaknesses of the process tracking system and limitations of the study design. Implications for the design is that an evaluative framework should be preplanned and include data collection about media relationships, media's interest in public health, media coverage prior to the program and coverage in other media for comparisons of general trends in the reporting. The material and the current database, however, provide a good basis for quantitative content analysis and qualitative discourse analysis to yield information on the type, frequency, and content of health reporting in local newspapers. PMID:17497380

Andersson, Camilla Maria; Bjärĺs, Gunilla; Tillgren, Per; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

2007-01-01

189

Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuńa, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

2011-01-01

190

Distributions of new Stockholm Convention POPs in soils across South Korea.  

PubMed

In this study, we monitored the newly added Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POPs) HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs in industrial, urban, and agricultural soils in South Korea, in order to evaluate their distributions and potential sources. These POPs were widely distributed throughout South Korea, and their concentrations and distributions were affected by land use, reflecting their sources. The overall concentrations of HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, PBDEs, and PFCs in soils were in the range of ND (non-detectable)-0.358 ng/g (average±standard deviation: 0.060±0.080 ng/g), ND-0.531 ng/g (0.083±0.133 ng/g), 0.058-8.42 ng/g (2.19±2.43 ng/g), 0.004-4.78 ng/g (0.68±1.06 ng/g), and ND-1.62 ng/g (0.50±0.46 ng/g), respectively. Agricultural soils showed the highest concentration of endosulfan, which was the most recently used pesticide monitored in this study. On the other hand, industrial soils contained the highest concentrations of PeCBz, PBDEs, and PFCs, which were mainly introduced to environment via the industrial activities. PMID:24476973

Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Yu-Mi; Park, Jong-Eun; Kim, Jong-Guk

2014-04-01

191

Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: A review.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are major environmental concern due to their persistence, long-range transportability, bio-accumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Analytical chemistry plays an essential role in the measurement of POPs and provides important information on their distribution and environmental transformations. Much effort has been devoted during the last two decades to the development of faster, safer, more reliable and more sensitive analytical techniques for these pollutants. Since the Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs was adopted 12 years ago, analytical methods have been extensively developed. This review article introduces recent analytical techniques and applications for the determination of POPs in environmental and biota samples, and summarizes the extraction, separation and instrumental analyses of the halogenated POPs. Also, this review covers important aspects for the analyses of SC POPs (e.g. lipid determination and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC)), and finally discusses future trends for improving the POPs analyses and for potential new POPs. PMID:23870403

Xu, Weiguang; Wang, Xian; Cai, Zongwei

2013-08-01

192

Bristol Heart Institute issue broken heart  

E-print Network

living with heart disease is increasing. Changing people's diet and exercise behaviour has been found THE BRISTOL HEART INSTITUTE 1 C ardiovascular disease is the UK's single biggest killer of both men and women of the heart and circulatory system. The most common problem is coronary heart disease, which results from

Bristol, University of

193

Apoptosis, Heart Failure, Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyocytes die by apoptosis in addition to necrosis under a variety of pathological conditions including heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and ischemia\\/reperfusion. This review summarizes current status of the literature demonstrating evidence of apoptotic cell death in heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Apoptotic cells have been detected in failing hearts of human and dog. Ischemia up to 2 hr does not

Nilanjana Maulik; Dipak K. Das

1999-01-01

194

Epidemiology in occupational medicine.  

PubMed

Each of the research strategies employed in epidemiology has distinctive advantages and disadvantages related to costs, time required, sources of bias, kinds of risk assessments produced, and limitations on causal inference. Therefore each must be evaluated in the light of the needs and opportunities that characterize the disease problem addressed and the environment within which it occurs. Epidemiology has the major disadvantage that it requires illness and death as a base for research. However, many health and disease problems cannot be anticipated before illnesses have occurred, and epidemiological studies then represent the most efficient means of identifying hazardous substances and situations. Epidemiological analysis should be a routine responsibility of every major corporate medical department, including, at a minimum, a system of surveillance for morbidity and mortality that will draw attention to significant problems as they arise, so that more intensive research may be initiated and preventive measures taken as early as possible. Epidemiology should, therefore, be integrated with industrial hygiene, safety engineering, and toxicology as the bases of occupational health. PMID:6679675

Stallones, R A

1983-03-20

195

Vitamin D in heart failure.  

PubMed

Evidence linking vitamin D to cardiovascular (CV) health has accumulated in recent years: numerous epidemiologic studies report deficiency as a significant CV risk factor, and rodent models suggest that active vitamin D can modulate critical remodeling processes, including cardiac hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling. The presence of vitamin D signaling machinery within the human heart implies a direct role for this hormone in cardiac physiology and may explain associations between vitamin D status and CV outcomes. Heart failure (HF) represents a growing social and economic burden worldwide. Myocardial remodeling is central to HF development, and in the context of emerging evidence supporting mechanistic involvement of vitamin D, this review provides critical appraisal of scientific literature related to the role of vitamin D in CV disease, including data from epidemiologic and supplementation studies, as well as novel findings from animal models and in vitro work. Although associative data linking vitamin D and CV outcomes and evidence supporting a role for vitamin D in relevant pathogenic processes are both substantial, there are limited mechanistic data to indicate vitamin D supplementation as a viable therapeutic adjunct for the prevention of HF development following myocardial injury. PMID:24125108

Meredith, Anna J; McManus, Bruce M

2013-10-01

196

Whose epidemiology, whose health?  

PubMed

Simplistic claims about the objectivity of science have been challenged from a variety of perspectives. Evaluation of the external context of production of knowledge and the methodological approaches to posing questions and assembling evidence shows that there is no pure "science"; rather, all scientific knowledge is shaped by the social history of its production. Examples are given of how quantitative concepts in modern epidemiology influence the recognition of the causes of disease. The author uses the phenomenon of intensive swine production by vertically integrated agribusiness to illustrate how broad problems such as environmental racism, agricultural determinants of nutrition, loss of natural resources, and conditions conducive to emergence of new diseases are hidden by epidemiological approaches that fit into corporate policy perspectives. It is critically important to ask who produces epidemiological knowledge, and whose health is promoted by that knowledge. PMID:9595342

Wing, S

1998-01-01

197

Epidemiology of gout.  

PubMed

Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiologic studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the past few decades. Although incidence data are scarce, data from the United States suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol, and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C seem to have a protective effect. PMID:24703341

Roddy, Edward; Choi, Hyon K

2014-05-01

198

Epidemiological Methods: About Time  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1) cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2) statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3), how risk factors “work together” to impact public health significance. The issue of time should be central to all thinking in epidemiology research, affecting sampling, measurement, design, analysis and, perhaps most important, the interpretation of results that might influence clinical and public-health decision-making and subsequent clinical research. PMID:20195431

Kraemer, Helena Chmura

2010-01-01

199

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

Weber, David J.

200

Anemia in heart failure: an overview of current concepts.  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure is a substantial public health problem. Anemia is an important comorbidity frequently observed in patients with the disease and, in heart failure, anemia has only recently started to attract systematic epidemiological and therapeutical research endeavor. This article describes the many aspects of anemia in chronic heart failure, starting with the ongoing discussion of how to define anemia, which has important consequences for the estimation of its prevalence and incidence. Further, we discuss prognostic implications of anemia in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, the etiology of anemia in heart failure and treatment possibilities. Such therapeutic avenues embrace intravenous iron preparations and subcutaneous administration of erythropoietin and its derivatives, all of which have been extensively studied over the last several years. Finally, this article describes the potential costs incurred by treating anemic patients with heart failure. PMID:21174515

von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D

2011-01-01

201

Resting Heart Rate and Outcomes in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Currently Stand?  

PubMed Central

Background Data from large epidemiological studies suggest that elevated heart rate is independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension and in those with established cardiovascular disease. Clinical trial findings also suggest that the favorable effects of beta-blockers and other heart rate–lowering agents in patients with acute myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure may be, at least in part, due to their heart rate–lowering effects. Contemporary clinical outcome prediction models such as the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score include admission heart rate as an independent risk factor. Aims This article critically reviews the key epidemiology concerning heart rate and cardiovascular risk, potential mechanisms through which an elevated resting heart rate may be disadvantageous and evaluates clinical trial outcomes associated with pharmacological reduction in resting heart rate. Conclusions Prospective randomised data from patients with significant coronary heart disease or heart failure suggest that intervention to reduce heart rate in those with a resting heart rate >70 bpm may reduce cardiovascular risk. Given the established observational data and randomised trial evidence, it now appears appropriate to include reduction of elevated resting heart rate by lifestyle +/? pharmacological therapy as part of a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22954325

Menown, Ian BA; Davies, Simon; Gupta, Sandeep; Kalra, Paul R; Lang, Chim C; Morley, Chris; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2013-01-01

202

Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

2007-01-01

203

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

204

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

205

Community-Based Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional epidemiologic research, the concept of risk emerges from a biomedical paradigm which draws heavily upon Cartesian-Newtonian ontological assumptions. Rational assessment of individual risk is based on a culturally conditioned metatheoreti-cal framework that seeks specific causes for specific disease conditions. This leads to the identification of “risk factors” that can be individually modified. Research within this orientation tends to

Mark H. Smith

1998-01-01

206

Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

2012-01-01

207

Application of the Stockholm Hierarchy to Defining the Quality of Reference Intervals and Clinical Decision Limits  

PubMed Central

The Stockholm Hierarchy is a professional consensus created to define the preferred approaches to defining analytical quality. The quality of a laboratory measurement can also be classified by the quality of the limits that the value is compared with, namely reference interval limits and clinical decision limits. At the highest level in the hierarchy would be placed clinical decision limits based on clinical outcome studies. The second level would include both formal reference interval studies (studies of intra and inter-individual variations) and clinical decision limits based on clinician survey. While these approaches are commonly used, they require a lot of resources to define accurately. Placing laboratory experts on the third level would suggest that although they can also define reference intervals by consensus, theirs aren’t as well regarded as clinician defined limits which drive clinical behaviour. Ideally both analytical and clinical considerations should be made, with clinicians and laboratorians both having important information to consider. The fourth level of reference intervals would be for those defined by survey or by regulatory authorities because of the focus on what is commonly achieved rather than what is necessarily correct. Finally, laboratorians know that adopting reference limits from kit inserts or textbook publications is problematic because both methodological issues and reference populations are often not the same as their own. This approach would rank fifth and last. When considering which so called ‘common’ or ‘harmonised reference intervals’ to adopt, both these characteristics and the quality of individual studies need to be assessed. Finally, we should also be aware that reference intervals describe health and physiology while clinical decision limits focus on disease and pathology, and unless we understand and consider the two corresponding issues of test specificity and test sensitivity, we cannot assure the quality of the limits that we report. PMID:23267246

Sikaris, Ken

2012-01-01

208

Causation in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the application of scientific knowledge.???Keywords: causality; counterfactual; philosophy PMID:11707485

Parascandola, M; Weed, D

2001-01-01

209

The Impact of Population Growth on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally expected that in developing countries the epidemiological transition, with improved health and lower mortality\\u000a rates, will eventually lead to a demographic transition with lower fertility rates. The reductions in mortality characterising\\u000a the epidemiological transition are often associated with controlling the infectious diseases within populations, which leaves\\u000a the chronic diseases associated with old age, cancer and heart disease

Geoffrey P. Garnett; James J. C. Lewis

210

Radiocarbon apportionment of fossil versus biofuel combustion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Stockholm metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Source-diagnostic markers and the isotopic composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in surface sediments from the greater Stockholm waterways to deduce the contribution from biomass sources to the environmental PAH load. The summed concentration of 20 PAHs ranged from 0.8 to 45.1 microg/g (dry weight) and exhibited a steep decline with increasing distance from the city center evidencing that sources within the metropolitan area of Stockholm dominate its PAH burden. Several diagnostic PAH ratios indicated an overwhelming predominance of pyrogenic sources over the petrogenic ones, while retene and 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene were unable to correctly evaluate the contribution from biomass combustion. The stable carbon isotope composition (delta13C) of individual PAHs ranged from -24.8 to -27.0% but also was proved inefficient to discriminate between different types of fuels due to the overlapping signals in various sources. The delta14C values of PAHs ranged between -550.4 and -934.1%, indicating a clear predominance of fossil fuel sources. By using an isotopic mass balance approach, we estimated that on average 17+/-9% of PAHs derived from biomass combustion. This radiocarbon apportionment, in conjunction with detailed energy statistics for the Stockholm region, revealed that the ambient PAH burden is roughly similar, per unit energy produced, from fossil fuels and biofuels. Societies' shifting energy policies toward a larger reliance on biofuels may thus not lead to further deterioration of air quality and respiratory ailments for the urban population. PMID:15543735

Mandalakis, Manolis; Gustafsson, Orjan; Reddy, Christopher M; Xu, Li

2004-10-15

211

Heart and vascular services  

MedlinePLUS

... heart or blood vessel problems. This may include: Heart transplant Insertion of pacemakers or defibrillators Open and minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery Repair or replacement of ... valves Surgical treatment of congenital heart defects Vascular ...

212

Left heart catheterization  

MedlinePLUS

Catheterization - left heart ... to carefully guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is the moved through the aortic ...

213

Right heart ventriculography  

MedlinePLUS

Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

214

Heart Disease in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Heart Disease Affect Women? In the United States, 1 ... about coronary MVD and broken heart syndrome. Coronary Heart Disease CHD is a disease in which plaque ( ...

215

Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Topics Holes in the Heart Heart Valve Disease Patent Ductus Arteriosus Tetralogy of Fallot How the Heart ... this page with Gmail. Bookmark this page with Google. Share this page from the NHLBI on LinkedIn. ...

216

Women and Heart Attacks  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Women and Heart Attacks HealthDay July 22, 2014 Related ... Pages Health Disparities Heart Attack Heart Disease in Women Transcript Young and middle-aged adults are just ...

217

Adult Congenital Heart Association  

MedlinePLUS

... we've shared from Chicago! Click For More Heart to Heart Ambassadors ACHA connects patient and family members with ... your own personal ACHA fundraiser. Learn More Congenital Heart Walks We walk to honor and remember the ...

218

Heart and Down Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Conditions » The Heart & Down Syndrome The Heart & Down Syndrome Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are common in ... the Most Common Heart Defects in Children With Down Syndrome? The most common defects are Atrioventricular Septal Defect ( ...

219

Honolulu Heart Program  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Heart Failure, Congestive; Myocardial Infarction; Asthma; Emphysema; Lung Diseases, Obstructive; Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal; Bronchitis; Dementia; Hypertension; Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Heart Failure

2005-06-23

220

Congenital Heart Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

221

Living with Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Disease If you have coronary heart ... suddenly faint, collapse, or have other severe symptoms. Living With Broken Heart Syndrome Most people who have ...

222

A six-year follow-up of HIV seroprevalence among 300 intravenous drug users in Stockholm.  

PubMed

As HIV tests became available in 1984, 300 intravenous drug users (IVDUs) admitted to treatment centres in Stockholm were tested and asked questions regarding their drug use and other risk factors with regard to HIV. At this initial testing, 33 persons (11.0%) were seropositive. Among the 79 heroin users, 28 (35.4%) were positive. The cohort has been followed until 1990 at which time a further 12 seroconversions had taken place. Annual seroconversion rates fell during the study period. The findings support the official statistics showing a fall in new HIV diagnoses among IVDUs during the second half of the 1980's. PMID:1287805

Blaxhult, A; Janzon, R; Böttiger, M; Annell, A; Gabrielsson, G; Rantala, J; Wejderma, A

1992-01-01

223

Examining the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about the heart (on page 22 of the PDF), learners examine sheep or chicken hearts to learn about the heart's structure and the flow of blood through the heart. Learners will note various components of the heart (atria, auricles, aorta, etc.) as well as discover how blood circulates through the heart to the body. This activity can be conducted as a demonstration. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, and handouts.

Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Matyas, Marsha L.; Mcneel, Ronald L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

224

Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

225

Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum)  

E-print Network

Epidemiologic Methods (All 3 courses required for 9 Credits) Credit PHC 6001 Principles of Epidemiology 3 PHC 6000 Epidemiology Research Methods I 3 PHC 6011 Epidemiology Research Methods II 3 Course Epidemiology Regression Methods 3 PHC 7065 Critical Skills in Epidemiology Data Management 2 Course Epidemiology Electives

Kane, Andrew S.

226

International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.

227

Prospects for epigenetic epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L; Craig, Jeffrey M; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig A; Olsson, Craig J; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine; Saffery, Richard

2009-02-15

228

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

229

Epidemiology of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness with\\u000a episodic weakness often triggered by strong emotions. Due to difficulty in diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and delayed diagnosis,\\u000a measurement of prevalence rates in population-based samples is complicated. However, the most intensively screened population-based\\u000a studies suggest that prevalence rates for narcolepsy with cataplexy range between 25

Lauren Hale

230

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

231

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

232

Hazards, Risks, and Threats of Heart Disease from the Early Stages to Symptomatic Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiac Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiologic approach to investigation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease has provided many insights into the preclinical and clinical spectrum of the disease. The hazard of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is substantial with coronary heart disease (CHD), the most common and most lethal feature. The outlook in those who manage to survive the initial episode is also serious, with a 10-year

William B. Kannel

1997-01-01

233

Epidemiology of reflex syncope  

E-print Network

? Abstract Cost-effective diagnostic approaches to reflex syncope require knowledge of its frequency and causes in different age groups. For this purpose we reviewed the available literature dealing with the epidemiology of reflex syncope. The incidence pattern of reflex syncope in the general population and general practice is bimodal with peaks in teenagers and in the elderly. In the young almost all cases of transient loss of consciousness are due to reflex syncope. The life-time cumulative incidence in young females ( ? 50 %) is about twice as high as in males ( ? 25 %). In the elderly, cardiac causes, orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, and the effects of medications are common, whereas typical vasovagal syncope is less frequent. In emergency departments, cardiac causes and orthostatic hypotension are more frequent especially in elderly subjects. Reflex syncope, however, remains the most common cause of syncope, but all-cause mortality in subjects with reflex syncope is not higher than in the general population. This knowledge about the epidemiology of reflex syncope can serve as a benchmark to develop cost-effective diagnostic approaches. ? Key words reflex syncope · epidemiology · incidence · prevalence · setting · prognosis

N. Colman; K. Nahm; K. S. Ganzeboom; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer; W. Wieling; H. Kaufmann; W. Wieling; N. Colman; K. Nahm; H. Kaufmann; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer

234

Heart murmurs and other sounds  

MedlinePLUS

Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has four chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

235

Seasonal and diurnal cycles of 0.25-2.5 ?m aerosol fluxes over urban Stockholm, Sweden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size resolved aerosol and gas fluxes were measured in Stockholm from 1 April 2008 to 15 April 2009 over both urban and green sectors. CO2 and H2O fluxes peaked in daytime for all seasons. CO2 concentrations peaked in winter. Due to vegetation influence the CO2 fluxes had different diurnal cycles and magnitude in the two sectors. In the urban sector, CO2 fluxes indicated a net source. The sector dominated by residential areas and green spaces had its highest aerosol fluxes in winter. In spring, super micrometer concentrations for both sectors were significantly higher, as were the urban sector rush hour fluxes. The submicrometer aerosol fluxes had a similar diurnal pattern with daytime maxima for all seasons. This suggests that only the super micrometer aerosol emissions are dependent on season. During spring there was a clear difference in super micrometer fluxes between wet and dry streets. Our direct flux measurements have improved the understanding of the processes behind these aerosol emissions. They support the hypothesis that the spring peak in aerosol emissions are due to road dust, produced during the winter, but not released in large quantities until the roads dry up during spring, and explain why Stockholm has problems meeting the EU directive for aerosol mass (PM10).

Vogt, M.; Nilsson, E. D.; Ahlm, L.; Mártensson, E. M.; Johansson, C.

2011-11-01

236

The dynamics of social-ecological systems in urban landscapes: Stockholm and the National Urban Park, Sweden.  

PubMed

This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape. PMID:15253913

Elmqvist, T; Colding, J; Barthel, S; Borgstrom, S; Duit, A; Lundberg, J; Andersson, E; Ahrné, K; Ernstson, H; Folke, C; Bengtsson, J

2004-06-01

237

The elaboration of the 'Stockholm convention' on persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a negotiation process fraught with obstacles and opportunities.  

PubMed

The conclusion in December 2000 of the negotiations for the 'Stockholm Convention' can clearly be labeled as a success. The Convention text was negotiated in merely five sessions of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) and accomplished after its fifth session despite the fact that numerous controversial issues, such as the inclusion of new substances under the ambit of the Convention, the acknowledgement of the precautionary principle or--clearly most controversial--the financing mechanisms, remained to be resolved. This paper attempts to provide a somewhat impressionistic account of the negotiations leading to the conclusion of the 'Stockholm Convention' as experienced by the members of the Swiss delegation participating in the negotiations of the INC. Besides a brief overview on the 'history' of the negotiations, it will focus on some issues of special interest--and controversy--to the negotiators, and finally attempt to provide an outlook on the future of the work performed by the INC and the implementation of the Convention. Issues of special interest are environmental policy issues, capacity building and financing, trade-related issues, precautionary principles, and technical and scientific issues. PMID:11505906

Karlaganis, G; Marioni, R; Sieber, I; Weber, A

2001-01-01

238

Can You Recognize a Heart Attack? Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Diagnosis of Heart Attack Prevention & Treatment of Heart Attack Heart Attack Tools & Resources Heart Failure About Heart Failure ... Attack? Quiz Risk Assessment Patient Information Sheets: Heart Attack Heart Attack Personal Stories Heart Attack and Other Educational ...

239

Maste? s Programme at Stockholm University: Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many environmental risks and societal concerns are directly related to the way we manage our land and water environments. The two-year master's programme "Hydrology, Hydrogeology and Water Resources" at Stockholm University, Sweden, is based on a system perspective and provides extended knowledge about water and soil-rock-sediment systems and how these interact with each other and with land use, socio-economic and water resource policy and management systems. This water system perspective includes the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems and associated risks for society. Questions related to water resources are also covered: the management of water resources and conflicts as well as collaborations caused by shared water resources on local, regional and global scales. A common learning objective for the courses in the programme is to be able to identify, extract and combine relevant information from databases and scientific publications, and use the resulting dataset in hydrological, hydrogeological and water resources analyses, on local, regional or global levels. Traditional classroom teaching is to large extent complemented by case study analyses, performed as project assignments. The importance of water resources for both the society and the environment is emphasized through applications to practical water resources management challenges in society. The courses in this program include the following topics: · Hydrological and hydrogeological processes, main components of the water cycle (e.g., precipitation, evapotranspiration, discharge) and the spreading of dissolved substances and pollutants in various water systems. · Water resources and water quality, pollution spreading through surface, ground and coastal water systems, as well as vulnerability and resilience of water resources. · Regional analyses related to global water resource vulnerability and resilience. · Models and information systems as important tools for dealing with hydrologic and hydrogeologic problems, and as a basis for sustainable governance and management of water resources. · Mathematical equations that are used in models for describing water flow and contaminant transport and their physico-chemical basis. · Handling of hydrologic data including methods for time series analyses and management of spatial data using geographic information systems (GIS) and geostatistics. · Integrated natural and social science studies of natural and anthropogenic flows of water, nutrients, pollutants and other biogeochemical substances that are important for environmental risk assessment, ecosystem development, and management of environmental resources.

Jarsjö, J.; Destouni, G.; Lyon, S. W.; Seibert, J.

2009-04-01

240

Design of a centre for biologically optimised light ion therapy in Stockholm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy is today in a state of very rapid development with new intensity-modulated treatment techniques continuously being developed. This has made intensity modulated electron and photon beams almost as powerful as conventional uniform beam proton therapy. To be able to cure also the most advanced hypoxic and radiation resistant tumours of complex local spread, intensity modulated light ion beams are really the ultimate tool and only slightly more expensive than proton therapy. The aim of the new centre for ion therapy and tumour diagnostics in Stockholm is to develop radiobiologically optimised three-dimensional (3D)-pencil beam scanning techniques. Beside the `classical' approaches using low ionisation density hydrogen ions (protons, but also deuterons and tritium nuclei) and high ionisation density carbon ions, two new approaches will be developed. In the first one lithium or beryllium ions, that induce the least detrimental biological effect to normal tissues for a given biological effect in a small volume of the tumour, will be key particles. In the second approach, referred patients will be given a high-dose high-precision `boost' treatment with carbon or oxygen ions during one week preceding the final treatment with conventional radiations in the referring hospital. The rationale behind these approaches is to reduce the high ionisation density dose to the normal tissue stroma inside the tumour and to ensure a microscopically uniform dose delivery. The principal idea of the centre is to closely integrate ion therapy into the clinical routine and research of a large radiotherapy department. The light ion therapy centre will therefore be combined with advanced tumour diagnostics including MR and PET-CT imaging to facilitate efficient high-precision high-dose boost treatment of remitted patients. The possibility to do 3D tumour diagnostics and 3D dose delivery verification with the same PET camera will be the ultimate step in high quality adaptive radiation therapy where alterations in the delivered dose can be performed by subsequent treatments. The increased knowledge in tumour and molecular biology will hopefully further improve the efficiency of this very unique new treatment modality that will be planned and delivered by radiobiologically optimised 3D-pencil beam scanning techniques to maximise the complication-free tumour cure and minimise normal tissue side effects. Finally, the design, cost, time scale and treatment capacity of the centre are reviewed. After a few years of running, the centre will be capable of treating 1000 patients/year with light ions and almost 3000 patients/year with the high-precision boost techniques.

Brahme, A.; Lewensohn, R.; Ringborg, U.; Amaldi, U.; Gerardi, F.; Rossi, S.

2001-12-01

241

Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 83: 193202 (July 2002) 2002The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 193  

E-print Network

Abstract Wirkner, C. S. and Pass, G. 2002.The circulatory system in Chilopoda: functional morphology of haemolymph flow. In Scutigera coleoptrata, the heart ultrastructure was studied. The circulatory system descriptions in this group have been only superficial. In all investigated species, the circulatory system

Pass, GĂĽnther

242

What Causes Heart Disease?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Heart Disease? Research suggests that coronary heart disease (CHD) begins with damage to the lining and ... causing coronary microvascular disease (MVD). Coronary MVD is heart disease that affects the heart's tiny arteries. The cause ...

243

Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics.AEDSuperstore.com Stem Cell Study - Heart Now enrolling patients with heart disease in adult stem cell trial. www· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science

Rogers, John A.

244

Types of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Types of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 9,2014 Left-sided heart failure The heart's pumping action moves oxygen-rich blood as it ... during their journey. Visit our Support Network today . Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

245

Heart Rate and Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about heart health (on page 27 of the PDF), learners measure their heart rates after a variety of physical activities and compare the results with their resting heart rates, and with the heart rates of other learners in their groups. Learners also make predictions about their pulse rates. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extension ideas, information about the heart in space and a handout.

Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Matyas, Marsha L.; Mcneel, Ronald L.; Moreno, Nancy P.

2009-01-01

246

Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

Lĺftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

2013-01-01

247

M. Appert, From state-led to private-led development Stockholm's CBD, 2010 halshs-00710644,version1-21Jun2012  

E-print Network

AW1 M. Appert, From state-led to private-led development ­ Stockholm's CBD, 2010 halshs-00710644)" #12;AW2 M. Appert, The last wave: FIRE industries and the rejuvenation of the modernist CBD ­ La costs of expanding the CBD, 2009 halshs-00710644,version1-21Jun2012 #12;AW7 M. Appert, Having fun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

248

Appeared in: Frisk, E. et al. (eds.), 20th International Workshop on Principles of Diagnosis, Stockholm, 2009 Diagnosis of Bottling Plants First Success and Challenges  

E-print Network

, Stockholm, 2009 Diagnosis of Bottling Plants ­ First Success and Challenges Peter Struss, Benjamin Ertl Comp to the domain of bottle-filling plants. The task is to localize the causes for stops of the central aggregate, the filler, based on recorded operation data of a plant. A model-based solution is challenging in several

Cengarle, MarĂ­a Victoria

249

Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Around 1500 BC large areas of southern Britain are laid out as fields, through the  

E-print Network

Seminar in Archaeology, Stockholm University, 28 November 2012 Fields Around 1500 BC large areas Gosden is Professor of European Archaeology, University of Oxford. He is a Fellow of the British Academy and a Trustee of the Art Fund. He has carried out archaeological and ethnographic work in Britain, central

250

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

251

Epidemiology of brain tumors.  

PubMed

After lagging behind other brain tumor disciplines in the 1980s, the epidemiology of brain tumors is now making progress on several fronts. The Central Brain Tumor Registry in the USA has made a complete description of primary brain tumors available to researchers. International data suggest that environmental components in the etiology of brain tumors are likely to be widely dispersed by geography and demographic subgroups. There are few proven causes of brain tumors: high-dose ionizing radiation, inherited genetic syndromes and AIDs-related brain lymphomas. Promising avenues of research include the role of immune function, genetic components in families, metabolic and DNA-repair pathways and neurocarcinogen exposures. PMID:18076316

Davis, Faith S

2007-12-01

252

Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

1990-01-01

253

[Epidemiology of allergic diseases].  

PubMed

The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

Aleraj, Borislav; Tomi?, Branimir

2011-01-01

254

Animal influenza epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted successfully between species, these three selected examples have spread and evolved in different ways, exemplifying the complexity of influenza A virus epidemiology. PMID:19230163

Ducatez, M.F.; Webster, R.G.; Webby, R.J.

2009-01-01

255

Keep your heart healthy About the British Heart Foundation  

E-print Network

..........................................................................4 What are coronary heart disease and stroke? ......................5 What increases my risk of coronary heart disease and stroke reduce my risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

Paxton, Anthony T.

256

Molecular epidemiology of amebiasis.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to the development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

Ali, Ibne Karim M; Clark, C Graham; Petri, William A

2008-09-01

257

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

258

Shallow water radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements in urban environment: A case study from Stockholm city  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radio-MagnetoTelluric (RMT) method uses the electromagnetic signal from distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 15 to 250 kHz. RMT applications in near-surface studies have already been well established. Two components of electric field and three components of magnetic field are measured. These measured components are related to each other via transfer functions which contain detailed information about the variation of electrical resistivity of the subsurface. The present study is carried out in the frame of TRUST (TRansparent Underground STructure) project supported by several research and public organizations as well as industry. The study area is located close to central Stockholm in Sweden where the Swedish traffic authority has planned to construct a 21-km long motorway to bypass the city. In order to reduce the impact on natural and cultural environments, 18 km of the motorway will be located in tunnels. The main objective of this study is thus to identify potential fracture zones and faults as well as the general geological settings. The proposed path of the tunnel partly passes under the Lake Mälaren at a depth of about 60 m. Thus a challenge was posed on the applicability of RMT method in shallow water environments. Successful applications of RMT measurements using the Uppsala University's EnviroMT system on land encouraged us to modify the system to acquire data over lake water especially in urban areas. Pioneered by the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), RMT data were collected over the Lake Mälaren in spring 2012. The prototype acquisition system did not only turn out to be appropriate for such a challenging environment, but it was also much more efficient as compared with land surveys. Fifty two lines including 1160 stations with an average spacing of 15 m were covered in three days. Cultural noise associated with the city-related environment had to be identified and filtered out before inversion could be carried out. Reliable estimates of the impedance tensor were obtained by the parametric representation combined with a Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) regularization of Bastani and Pedersen (2001). The processed data were then inverted to obtain 2D resistivity models. The resulting models along 23 lines correlate well and image variation of water depth, thickness of subaqueous sediments as well as the depth to crystalline bedrock. Low resistivity zones observed in the bedrock coincide well with the low velocity zones identified in refraction seismic surveys available along the RMT lines, indicating the presence of possible fracture zones in the bedrock. The experiment illustrates that the RMT methods can be well adapted to this type of environment; it is fast and cost-effective in shallow water especially in urban settings. Acknowledgments: Formas, SGU, BeFo, SBUF, Skanska, Boliden, FQM and NGI References: Bastani, M., 2001, EnviroMT - a new Controlled Source/Radio Magnetotelluric System: Ph.D. thesis, ISBN 91-554-5051-2, Uppsala University. Bastani, M. and Pedersen, L. B., 2001, Estimation of magnetotelluric transfer functions from radio transmitters. GEOPHYSICS, 66, 1038-1051.

Mehta, Suman; Bastani, Mehrdad; Malehmir, Alireza; Wang, Shunguo; Pedersen, Laust

2014-05-01

259

CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump enough  

E-print Network

, and increased heart rate are the clinical markers of disease progression as the heart attempts to compensate disease (HTN, Diabetes, Cardiomyopathy, Heart Valve Disease, etc.) ultimately may lead to heart failureCONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE Congestive Heart Failure: Condition in which the heart muscle can not pump

260

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES Summer 2011 Wacholder Senior investigator in the Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Pine Ave. West, Room 25 ALL ARE WELCOME - Refreshments to follow - #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics

Barthelat, Francois

261

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

Shoubridge, Eric

262

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health 2010-2011 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2010-2011 Student Handbook TABLE

Barthelat, Francois

263

2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.

264

Chicken Embryonic Heart Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Both in vivo and in vitro techniques are used to investigate the development of the vertebrate heart using the chicken embryo as a model system. Simultaneously, the students are exposed to the physiology of embryonic blood flow, the electrical circuitry of the developing heart, and the effects of reproductive toxins on heart rate. Classical embryological microtechniques, explantation of the embryo, surgical removal of the beating heart, and isolation of the heart chambers, are conducted. Student teams devise a hypothesis concerning the effects of caffeine or alcohol on the in vivo or in vitro heart rate.

PhD Jacqueline S McLaughlin (Berks-Lehigh Valley College Biology)

2006-01-09

265

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

266

Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

1992-01-01

267

Feature Identification: An Epidemiological Metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature identification is a technique to identify the source code constructs activated when exercising one of the features of a program. We propose new statistical analyses of static and dynamic data to accurately identify features in large multithreaded object- oriented programs. We draw inspiration from epidemiology to improve previous approaches to feature identification and develop an epidemiological metaphor. We build

Giuliano Antoniol; Yann-gaël Guéhéneuc

2006-01-01

268

The epidemiology of diagphragmatic hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the epidemiology of diaphragmatic hernia based on 1439 cases collected from a French, a Swedish, and a California birth defect registry. This is the largest epidemiological material available up to now. Isolated diaphragmatic hernia existed in 875 infants, diaphragmatic hernia with associated malformations in 486, and with chromosome anomalies in 78. Among unilateral forms, right-sided hernias were found

Elisabeth Robert; Bengt Källén; John Harris

1997-01-01

269

Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.  

PubMed

Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection. PMID:20805805

Mĺnsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia

2010-09-01

270

Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

2012-01-01

271

Why health educators need epidemiology.  

PubMed

The aim of health education is to encourage health behaviors that promote a better quality of life and longer life expectancy. In the late 1960s, universities in the US began offering degree programs in health education. Most programs today require that at least one class be taken in epidemiology, where epidemiology involves the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations. In recent years, several competency areas have been set forth for health educators by the US National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. This paper specifically describes how training in epidemiology provides health educators with the ability to satisfy, in large part, these competency areas. The intent of this paper is to clarify to students and advisors of health education the rationale for requiring course work in epidemiology, as well as to emphasize that epidemiology is the cornerstone to all health education, whether conducted by physicians, nurses, or formally trained health educators. PMID:14741970

Merrill, Ray M; White, George L

2002-01-01

272

The Epidemiology of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

2012-01-01

273

Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  

PubMed

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

2012-10-01

274

Global epidemiology of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

With 1.4 million deaths in 2011 and 8.7 million new cases, tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a global scourge. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and demonstrating whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments.This paper discusses the methods used to estimate the global burden of TB; estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality for 2011, combined with assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and prospects for elimination of TB by 2050. PMID:23460002

Glaziou, Philippe; Falzon, Dennis; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

2013-02-01

275

Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967. PMID:320723

Ellis, F P

1976-01-01

276

Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment can include medicines, catheter procedures, surgery, and heart transplants. The treatment depends on the type of the defect, how severe it is, and a child's age, size, and general health. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

277

Heart Attack Risk Assessment  

MedlinePLUS

... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ... with heart disease, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm or carotid artery disease. You are already at ...

278

Target Heart Rate Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...

279

Depression After Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Professor of Medicine, Professor of Psychology, and Director, ... patients after a heart attack than in the general population, with 15% to 20% of heart attack ...

280

Getting a New Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... to help the heart pump blood. If these therapies fail, transplantation is the only other option for patients who have the most advanced forms of heart disease; these patients have no other choice. The best ...

281

Patterns of heart attacks  

E-print Network

Myocardial infarction is a derivative of heart disease that is a growing concern in the United States today. With heart disease becoming increasingly predominant, it is important to not only take steps toward preventing ...

Shenk, Kimberly N

2010-01-01

282

Heart bypass surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Heart bypass surgery begins with an incision made in the chest, with the breastbone cut exposing the heart. Next, a portion of the saphenous vein is harvested from the inside of the leg. Pieces of this ...

283

Marriage and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... hand corner of the player. Marriage and Heart Health HealthDay November 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family ... marital quality, underwent lab tests to assess cardiovascular health and provided medical information about heart attacks, strokes ...

284

Living with Heart Block  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Block First-degree heart block may ... whether you need ongoing care for your condition. Living With a Pacemaker People who have third-degree ...

285

Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... SITE › Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease Share: Fact Sheet Hypothyroidism and Heart Disease January 2014 Download PDFs English ... nervous system, body temperature, and weight. What is hypothyroidism and what are its symptoms? Hypothyroidism, also called ...

286

Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... and any related health problems. How a Healthy Heart Works To understand more about congenital heart defects, ... affect its ability to function properly. Continue Common Heart Defects Common types of congenital heart defects, which ...

287

What Is Heart Valve Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your doctor about the different kinds used. Heart valve surgery is done to replace or repair heart valves ... left atrium from the left ventricle. What Is Heart Valve Surgery? ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests If a valve ...

288

Heart failure - surgeries and devices  

MedlinePLUS

... Suggested procedures may include: Angioplasty and stent placement Heart bypass surgery ... cause heart failure or make heart failure worse. Heart valve surgery may be needed to repair or replace one ...

289

Women and Heart Health Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Women and Heart Health Awareness Share Compartir Don’t ... risk for heart disease. Heart disease symptoms in women While some women have no symptoms of heart ...

290

How Is Heart Disease Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... Red: Eileen's Story Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research All of Our Stories Are Red: ... 04/11/2014 Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 All of Our ...

291

Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Health and Stroke > Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more ... well-being. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevent heart disease? Once you reach menopause, your ovaries stop ...

292

Managing Feelings about Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...

293

Working Model Hearts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite student interest, the heart is often a poorly understood topic in biology. To help students understand this vital organ's physiology, the author created this investigation activity involving the mammalian heart and its role in the circulatory system. Students design, build, and demonstrate working artificial "hearts" to exhibit what they…

Brock, David

2009-01-01

294

Heart Disease in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

295

Heart 1: Transplant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students use the internet to learn about the workings and anatomy of the heart and new medical techniques that help people live longer, healthier lives. Students then use their knowledge to discuss controversial issues surrounding heart transplants. Students also perform an online heart transplant to get a more realistic idea of what is involved.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-25

296

Heart Valve Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

Your heart has four valves. Normally, these valves open to let blood flow through or out of your heart, and then shut to keep it from flowing ... close tightly. It's one of the most common heart valve conditions. Sometimes it causes regurgitation. Stenosis - when ...

297

Assemble the Human Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity about anatomy, learners will drag and drop pieces of the heart into their proper positions and explore what function each part of the heart has. This activity is part of a rather extensive collection of activities and information surrounding the wonder of the human heart.

Cosi

2000-01-01

298

Primitive Heart Turnabout  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple FlashTM animation displays both sides of the two chambered heart. It begins with a ventral view, labeling the chambers and aortic arches. The heart then turns around to a dorsal view, labeling the major vessels. A button allows one to see the inside of the heart and the openings of the major vessels.

PhD Jack D Thatcher (West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine Structural Biology)

2009-11-20

299

Implantable Heart Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

1984-01-01

300

The failing heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiomyopathies are disorders affecting heart muscle that usually result in inadequate pumping of the heart. They are the most common cause of heart failure and each year kill more than 10,000 people in the United States. In recent years, there have been breakthroughs in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of conditions, with knowledge of the genetic basis

J. A. Towbin; N. E. Bowles

2002-01-01

301

Diabetes and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Diabetes | Diabetes and Heart Disease What does diabetes have to do with heart disease? People who ... the weight you need to. Remember: Diabetes and heart disease are related. Diabetes, being overweight and having high blood pressure are ...

302

Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 What are the Symptoms of High Blood Pressure? 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 Low Blood Pressure 5 Target Heart Rates 6 All About Heart Rate (Pulse) 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Warning Signs of ...

303

Menopause and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Menopause and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 1,2013 Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but for women symptoms can ... women is seen about 10 years after menopause. Heart disease is the leading killer of women . Estrogen Levels ...

304

Women and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Women & Heart Disease Things you need to know Talk to your doctor about heart disease It’s important to ask your doctor about your ... you can do to lower your risk for heart disease Keep a healthy... 1. Blood pressure 2. Cholesterol ...

305

Classes of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Classes of Heart Failure Updated:Sep 29,2014 Doctors usually classify patients' heart failure according to the severity of their symptoms. The ... is classified: Functional Capacity IV, Objective Assessment A Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

306

Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.  

PubMed

Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large. PMID:8206029

Rothman, K J

1993-12-01

307

What Causes a Heart Attack?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes a Heart Attack? Coronary Heart Disease A heart attack happens if the flow of oxygen-rich blood ... and the heart can't get oxygen. Most heart attacks occur as a result of coronary heart disease ( ...

308

Texas Heart Institute Heart Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interested parties who care about their own heart, or the heart of a loved one, will find that the Texas Heart Institute website has a wealth of information in the "For Patients and Consumers" section on the homepage. Researchers and doctors will also find much to love about the Texas Heart Institute website, with its "For Medical Professionals" section, also on its homepage. Patients interested in enrolling in the Stem Cell Center's clinical trials, can click on the "Enrolling Patients" tab near the top of the page on the left hand side. Patients interested in finding out if they have the ten classic risk factors that lead to an unhealthy heart, can click "How healthy is your heart?", near the bottom of the page, to take the quiz. Doctors can read a guide to the website by clicking on the link "Resources for Physicians" at the top of the section of the homepage designated "For Medical Professionals". Information on Continuing Medical Education (CME) is available on the left hand side of the page, as well as the upcoming Texas Heart Institute "symposia" topics. Clicking on one of the topics will take the medical professional to an online registration form for the symposia, along with a synopsis of the topic that will be discussed.

309

Poisoning and epidemiology: 'toxicoepidemiology'.  

PubMed

1. There is little hypothesis-testing clinical research performed in toxicology. Randomized clinical trials are rare and most observational studies are performed on highly selected patients and are subject to marked bias. Thus, for many poisonings, our approach has been based almost entirely on deduction from known pharmacological/toxicological effects, generalizations from drugs within the same therapeutic class, animal data and case reports. This is also far from satisfactory, as many toxicological mechanisms are poorly understood and not related to the therapeutic class. 2. Although we need much better data to address the clinical and public health aspects of poisoning, there are many practical and ethical reasons why randomized clinical trials are difficult in this field. However, the scope for observational research, in particular population-based clinical epidemiology, is almost unlimited. The collection of data on human poisoning is facilitated because most non-fatal overdoses are admitted to hospital and by legal requirements to report to the coroner deaths that are due to poisoning. In the present article I argue that 'toxicoepidemiology', meaning the application of epidemiological methods to the problem of acute poisoning, is the best means we have of addressing deficiencies in our knowledge of poisoning. 3. Examples are given of a variety of observational research strategies, ranging from audit to meta-analysis, that may be applied to clinical toxicology. From coronial and clinical data obtained from reasonably well-defined populations, it has been possible to identify a number of previously unrecognized differences in the severity and spectrum of toxicity between and within drug classes. Also, the demographic risk factors for poisoning and the reproducibility, validity and optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be assessed. 4. The major limitations to the range of associations and interventions that may be studied are the need to achieve adequate power to study uncommon outcomes or poisonings and the ability to replicate findings at other centres using similar methodology. The expansion of data collection to other centres has the potential largely to overcome these obstacles. PMID:9590568

Buckley, N A

1998-01-01

310

Heart Transplantation for Congenital Heart Disease in the First Year of Life  

PubMed Central

Successful infant heart transplantation has now been performed for over 25 years. Assessment of long term outcomes is now possible. We report clinical outcomes for322 patients who received their heart transplant during infancy. Actuarial graft survival for newborn recipients is 59% at 25 years. Survival has improved in the most recent era. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the most important late cause of death with an actuarial incidence at 25 years of 35%. Post-transplant lymphoma is estimated to occur in 20% of infant recipients by25 years. Chronic kidney disease grade 3 or worse is present in 31% of survivors. The epidemiology of infant heart transplantation has changed through the years as the results for staged repair improved and donor resources remained stagnant. Most centers now employ staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and similar extreme forms of congenital heart disease. Techniques for staged repair, including the hybrid procedure, are described. The lack of donors is described with particular note regarding decreased donors due to newer programs for appropriate infant sleep positioning and infant car seats. ABO incompatible donors are a newer resource for maximizing donor resources, as is donation after circulatory determination of death and techniques to properly utilize more donors by expanding the criteria for what is an acceptable donor. An immunological advantage for the youngest recipients has long been postulated, and evaluation of this phenomenon may provide clues to the development of accommodation and/or tolerance. PMID:22548030

Chinnock, Richard E; Bailey, Leonard L

2011-01-01

311

Assessment of air quality in Stockholm by personal monitoring of nonsmokers for respirable suspended particles and environmental tobacco smoke.  

PubMed

Exposure to respirable suspended particles (RSP) from all sources and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was assessed for 190 nonsmokers in Stockholm during 1994. Each subject wore a personal monitor for 24-h, provided saliva samples for cotinine analysis, and completed a detailed questionnaire about air quality and life-style. The subjects consisted of housewives and househusbands in one main group and working men and women in the second. The housewives and househusbands wore a single monitor throughout the 24-h period and the working subjects wore one monitor at work and a separate monitor while not at work. The geodemographic distribution of the recruited subjects accurately reflected the population of Stockholm. For most of the subjects, exposure to ETS and nicotine was at or below the limits of quantification (LOQ). This finding was supported by the fact that about 80% of the recruited subjects claimed that their exposure to ETS was "none" or "low". The concentration of RSP was found to be highest (median 39 micrograms.m-3) in homes where smoking occurred and below the LOQ in the workplace irrespective of its smoking status. These levels are at the lowest end of typical indoor air levels for RSP. For the housewives and househusbands living in smoking homes (nonsmoking homes in parentheses), the median exposure levels were 39 micrograms.m-3 (18 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 17 micrograms . m-3 (0.12 micrograms . m-3) for ETS particles, and 1.1 micrograms.m-3 (0.05 micrograms.m-3) for nicotine. Both the pre- and postmonitoring continine saliva levels measured for these housewives and househusbands were 2.9 ng.ml-1 (pre-0.56 ng.ml-1, post-0.41 ng.ml-1). The highest exposure levels were recorded for the housewives and househusbands in the age range of 35-49 years. For the working subjects, the exposure measured in smoking workplaces (nonsmoking workplaces in parentheses) gave median levels of 16 micrograms.m-3 (16 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 1.1 micrograms.m-3) for ETS particles and 0.2 micrograms.m-3 (0.15 microgram.m-3) for nicotine. Similarly measured exposures at home (nonsmoking homes in parentheses), including all other locations outside the workplace, gave median levels of 24 micrograms.m-3 (19 micrograms.m-3) for RSP, 1.4 micrograms. m-3 (0.2 microgram.m-3) for ETS particles, and 0.15 microgram.m-3 (0.07 microgram.m-3) for nicotine. Overall, the exposure levels of ETS due to living with smokers in Stockholm was found to be much lower than similar exposures measured previously in the United Kingdom and the United States. Over 70% of all the nicotine measurements and 60% of all the ETS measurements were below the LOQ. When the median values for nicotine and ETS particles are converted to cigarette equivalents, Stockholm housewives and househusbands living with smokers would receive 6-9 cigarette equivalents per year, working nonsmokers living with smokers would receive 0.6-0.7 cigarette equivalents at home, and nonsmokers working with smokers would be exposed to 0.1-0.2 cigarette equivalent at work. The exposures were therefore up to six times greater at home than in workplaces where smoking was occurring. Although all the subjects were recruited as nonsmokers on the basis of their self-reported nonsmoking status, saliva continine measurements were used for confirmation. Subjects with continine levels below 25 ng.ml-1 were considered to be nonsmokers although the selection of a threshold level within the range of 10-50 ng.ml-1 was not considered to be critical. With a threshold of 25 ng.ml-1, between 2.7% and 5.3% were later shown to be misclassified as nonsmokers, depending on the definition of misclassification used. During the study period the air quality in Stockholm could be described according a British nomenclature as "very good" for the majority of the time. The daily average at no time fell below "good," and the maximum hourly nitrogen dioxide level was 111 micrograms.m-3 (inner city at street level) on the coldest day PMID:8817762

Phillips, K; Bentley, M C; Howard, D A; Alván, G

1996-01-01

312

Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Introduction to Epidemiology is to introduce you to epidemiologic methods so that you can understand. Optional Koepsell TD and Weiss NS. Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness. New York1 Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology 1.0 Credit Summer 2013 (June 24 ­ August 23

Contractor, Anis

313

Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues.  

PubMed

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M

2013-07-01

314

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- Information for Researchers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), this website provides a plethora of helpful information and resources for researchers. The site provides abstracts for NHLBI supported research from 1972-present, which also links to the NIH CRISP Database. Online research resources include Programs for Genomic Applications, Available Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Data Sets, as well as links to the NIH Obesity Research Web Site. The site also provides links to other research resources including databases, biologic resources, and training opportunities. In addition, the site links to the NHLBI Population Studies Database, information on the Framingham Heart Study, a section on Workshop and Meeting Summaries, and much more.

315

Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age. While clinical trials suggest that contemporary evidence-based HF therapies have reduced morbidity and mortality, these trials largely excluded the elderly. Questions remain regarding the clinical characteristics of elderly HF patients and the impact of contemporary therapies on their outcomes. This review presents the epidemiology of HF in the elderly and summarizes the data on the pathophysiology of the ageing heart. The clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of elderly HF patients are explored. Finally, the main gaps regarding HF therapies in the elderly and the opportunities for future trials are highlighted. PMID:23429975

Lazzarini, Valentina; Mentz, Robert J.; Fiuzat, Mona; Metra, Marco; O'Connor, Christopher M.

2013-01-01

316

Epidemiology, anthropology and health education.  

PubMed

Epidemiology gives only a partial picture of a health problem. Without a knowledge of social, cultural, and economic conditions as well, one can fall into farcical errors in designing interventions. PMID:2637707

Robert, C F; Bouvier, S; Rougemont, A

1989-01-01

317

John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The key tactics of epidemiology—surveillance and response—were first used by Dr. John Snow during a cholera outbreak in 1850s London, as dramatized in this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-08-31

318

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

319

Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

2014-01-01

320

[Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].  

PubMed

With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

Mahr, A; Maldini, C

2014-02-01

321

Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) Epidemiologic Methods May/June 2011 Epidemiologic Methods  

E-print Network

Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 1 Epidemiologic) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 2 15.4516.15 Break 16.1517.00 L6: Measures of effect School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 3 Epidemiologic Methods Principal

Boehning, Dankmar

322

Assessment of heart rate as a predictor of ventilation.  

PubMed

The rate of ventilation and route of breathing (i.e., nasal versus oronasal) are potential determinants of pollutant doses to target sites in the lung. However, the lack of accurate methods for ambulatory measurement of ventilation has hindered estimation of exposure and dose in freely ranging individuals, complicating the interpretation of the relationships among exposure, dose, and response in epidemiological studies. The goal of this project was to develop and validate a method of monitoring ventilation for large-scale epidemiologic investigations. We estimated ventilation for individual subjects from ambulatory heart rate monitoring, using the relationship between ventilation and heart rate that had been obtained during exercise testing. Fifty-eight subjects participated in the study, which included healthy adults and children, and subjects with lung and heart disease. Subjects performed cycle exercise and tasks involving lifting and vacuuming. Work loads of progressive and variable order were used in the testing. Conventional methods were used to measure heart rate and total ventilation, and a sampling mask was developed to measure the partitioning of breathing between oral and nasal routes. The minute ventilation-heart rate relation was evaluated under steady-state and varying work loads. In a second phase, subjects wore wristwatch monitors that recorded their heart rates, minute by minute, throughout the day. Subjects recorded activities, locations, and levels of exertion. Two 16-hour monitoring periods were obtained from each subject. The laboratory findings documented considerable intersubject variability in the minute ventilation-heart rate relation with a two- to five-fold range in the coefficients describing the change in ventilation relative to heart rate. This variation implies that individual testing is required to derive accurate predictive equations. Minute ventilation-heart rate regressions for the maximal progressive exercise test and for the test with a nonprogressive submaximal work load sequence were comparable, indicating that varying the sequence of work loads does not substantially affect the minute ventilation-to-heart rate ratio. During upper body work (e.g., lifting), the minute ventilation-to-heart rate ratio was one-third greater than during lower body exercise. Diverse patterns of partitioning breathing between oral and nasal routes were observed with increasing oral ventilation in most subjects as work load increased. In the field, heart rate and activity patterns were monitored successfully in adults and children with low rates of instrument failure and noncompliance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8216970

Samet, J M; Lambert, W E; James, D S; Mermier, C M; Chick, T W

1993-05-01

323

Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Studies on the prevalence and other epidemiological features of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and pilot prophylactic programmes have been carried out in India for the past 12 years or more. The results of these, together with data from other developing countries, have been taken into account in discussing the problems of these diseases in the developing world. Suggestions for their control, to be modified according to local conditions, are made. PMID:310360

Padmavati, S.

1978-01-01

324

Congenital heart disease in adults: management of advanced heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of adults living with congenital heart disease grows annually. The sequelae of congenital heart disease surgery may involve the electrical conduction system, cardiac valves, prosthetic materials, the myocardium, vascular beds, and the nervous system. These sequelae may lead to heart failure. Adults with congenital heart disease develop heart failure as a consequence of: (1) chronic cyanosis, volume overload,

Stacy F. Davis; Thomas P. Graham

2003-01-01

325

Heart of the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore the concept of valve operation and how engineers have adapted valves for use in mechanical heart valve design. Learners read about several different valves used at home and in industry, and three different mechanical heart valve designs. Learners then examine and operate both a ball valve and a gate valve. Finally, learners work as a team of "engineers" to develop and sketch enhancements to the mechanical heart valve.

Ieee

2014-05-23

326

Valvular Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Primary valvular heart disease remains a source of significant morbidity and mortality. Over 5 million Americans are living\\u000a with valvular heart disease and nearly 100,000 undergo valve surgery each year (1). Valvular heart disease is often first\\u000a identified after a murmur is appreciated during a primary care visit and subsequently characterized by echocardiography (Fig.\\u000a 1) (2). Optimal management of valvular

Garrick C. Stewart; Patrick T. O’Gara

327

Exercise for the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eighteenth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. The heart needs continual blood flow, and interruption of that blood flow is called ischemia. Eventually, ischemia can lead to hypertrophy and that can lead to heart attacks. But if the heart could be pre-conditioned, then maybe it could better survive hypertrophy. The work of Dr. Karyn Butler at the University of Cincinnati investigates this possibility.

2008-05-01

328

Biomarkers in heart failure.  

PubMed

Appropriate use of biomarkers is clinically important for identifying heart failure in its early stage, optimizing risk stratification, and managing patients. This article describes established and traditional biomarkers as well as novel biomarkers reflective of myocardial stress, myocardial damage, extracellular matrix, oxidative stress, inflammation, renal function, micro RNAs, and heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. This review focuses on the recent advances in cardiac and non-cardiac biomarkers of heart failure and their appropriate use in clinical practice. PMID:25341366

Takeishi, Yasuchika

2014-11-13

329

Heart Rate Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a NASA grant, Dr. Robert M. Davis and Dr. William M. Portnoy came up with a new type of electrocardiographic electrode that would enable long term use on astronauts. Their invention was an insulated capacitive electrode constructed of a thin dielectric film. NASA subsequently licensed the electrode technology to Richard Charnitski, inventor of the VersaClimber, who founded Heart Rate, Inc., to further develop and manufacture personal heart monitors and to produce exercise machines using the technology for the physical fitness, medical and home markets. Same technology is on both the Home and Institutional Model VersaClimbers. On the Home Model an infrared heart beat transmitter is worn under exercise clothing. Transmitted heart rate is used to control the work intensity on the VersaClimber using the heart rate as the speedometer of the exercise. This offers advantages to a full range of users from the cardiac rehab patient to the high level physical conditioning of elite athletes. The company manufactures and markets five models of the 1*2*3 HEART RATE monitors that are used wherever people exercise to accurately monitor their heart rate. Company is developing a talking heart rate monitor that works with portable headset radios. A version of the heart beat transmitter will be available to the manufacturers of other aerobic exercise machines.

1990-01-01

330

To keep the catch - that is the question: a personal account of the 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, Stockholm.  

PubMed

The 3rd Annual EULAR Congress, held in Stockholm on 12-15 June 2002, had a turnout of 8300 delegates, almost identical to last year's record attendance level in Prague. The venue was close to ideal, allowing ample space for poster sessions in the exhibition hall. The manned poster sessions were well attended, even on the last day of the Congress. The numerous invited speakers represented the world's elite, allowing the staging of excellent state-of-the-art podium sessions. The aim of attracting the young scientific community was partly achieved, but individual delegates' dependence on industry sponsorship poses potential problems. The organization was a big improvement compared to that of the two previous congresses. Approximately 1800 abstracts were submitted, an increase of 50%, resulting in a higher quality of accepted abstracts. The satellite symposia held every morning and late afternoon were well attended; thus, industry exposure of new products, both in podium sessions and at the exhibitions, was well accommodated. The Annual EULAR Congress consolidates its position as one of the two most important annual congresses of rheumatology, but EULAR economy and commercial aspects are still too dominant in relation to science. PMID:12223107

Wollheim, Frank A

2002-01-01

331

Epidemiology of kidney cancer.  

PubMed

Renal-cell carcinoma usually affects those over 40 years old, and, in any age group, the disease occurs about twice as frequently among men as it does among women. The incidence of the disease has been steadily increasing over the years. In the United States, the probability of surviving after diagnosis of renal cancer has been improving since 1940 regardless of race, sex, and age at diagnosis. The relationship between SES and the chance of developing the disease is sporadic with an indication of a slightly higher risk in the upper socioeconomic classes. Urbanrural comparisons consistently suggest that a higher risk is associated with urban residence. Tobacco use is probably the only environmental factor that could be considered to be etiologically related to cancer of the kidney. A variety of studies point to a moderate but consistent association with tobacco use in the form of cigarette, cigar, or pipe smoking. The excess of the disease in males compared to females and the lower incidence in Mormons may partly be due to the confounding effect of smoking. Dietary vitamin A or vitamin A supplements may have an antipromoting effect in the development of kidney cancer. Hypotheses implicating fat and/or cholesterol intake in the etiology of cancer of the kidney appear to be too tenuous. The evidence of a relationship between concentrations of certain trace metals in drinking water and incidence of renal cancer is weak. Similarly, there is no strong indication of an increased risk among individuals exposed to radiation. In general, with the exception of the observation of an unusually high risk among coke-oven workers, occupational studies have not identified any high-risk groups. Familial aggregation, though rare, occurs with peculiar disease characteristics that may predict similar cancers in the proband's relatives with a high degree of accuracy. In conclusion, the etiology of cancer of the kidney is poorly understood. The descriptive epidemiology of the disease provides some interesting insights into the correlates of the distribution of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6320449

Dayal, H; Kinman, J

1983-12-01

332

Warning Signs of Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Jul 18,2014 By themselves, any one sign of heart failure may not be cause for alarm. But ... content was last reviewed on 08/20/2012." Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Warning Signs of Heart ...

333

Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today. PMID:11171517

Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

2001-01-01

334

Epidemiological studies for regulatory agencies.  

PubMed Central

In regulation of exposures to hazardous environmental agents, epidemiologic evidence is especially important in defining human risk estimates. The process of developing appropriate regulations is complex, however, and depends on many considerations beyond those established to a high degree of scientific certainty. Thus the needs of regulatory agencies are involved in the way epidemiologic data are developed and presented. To coordinate and review common problems associated with preventive and regulatory activities among the federal agencies concerned with regulation, an Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) was established in 1977. Because of difficulties encountered by these agencies or Congressional committees in evaluating epidemiologic evidence, a subcommittee of the IRLG has developed in draft form guidelines for human population studies to be used in public health decision-making. Although these guidelines have attracted much controversy, their aim is to present criteria for design and documentation of epidemiologic studies, without interfering with the initiative of investigators. Some aspects of the IRLG guidelines are discussed. The need for epidemiologic research in providing evidence for regulatory purposes is increasing, but such studies must be well done if they are to be useful. PMID:7333261

Hunt, V R

1981-01-01

335

HONOLULU HEART PROGRAM (HHP)  

EPA Science Inventory

The HHP is a prospective epidemiologic study of cardiovascular disease conducted in Honolulu, HI. There were 8006 men who participated in repeated examinations and were followed for cardiovascular disease and cancer....

336

Irregular Heart Rhythm Ups Stroke Risk Soon After Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Irregular Heart Rhythm Ups Stroke Risk Soon After Heart Surgery Older age, past stroke among factors that boost ... July 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Atrial Fibrillation Heart Surgery Stroke MONDAY, July 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People ...

337

Dimensional analysis of heart rate variability in heart transplant recipients  

SciTech Connect

We discuss periodicities in the heart rate in normal and transplanted hearts. We then consider the possibility of dimensional analysis of these periodicities in transplanted hearts and problems associated with the record.

Zbilut, J.P.; Mayer-Kress, G.; Geist, K.

1987-01-01

338

Heart rate variability in mice with coronary heart disease  

E-print Network

Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat fluctuation of the heart rate, is a non-invasive test that measures the autonomic regulation of the heart. Assessment of HRV has been shown to predict the risk of mortality ...

Zapanta, Laurence (Laurence F.)

2005-01-01

339

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-09-01

340

Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56 (2003) 646650 Digoxin therapy and the risk of primary cardiac arrest in patients  

E-print Network

cardiac arrest (PCA) associated with digoxin therapy within three levels of renal function. Results: After to cardiac causes other than heart failure, including mortality from cardiac arrest [4]. In contrastJournal of Clinical Epidemiology 56 (2003) 646­650 Digoxin therapy and the risk of primary cardiac

Lin, Danyu

341

Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

2010-01-01

342

Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is the most commonly occurring intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is frequently involved in respiratory tract infections and to a lesser degree in extrapulmonary diseases. According to seroepidemiologic surveys, C. pneumoniae infection seems to be both endemic and epidemic. Such studies indicate that C. pneumoniae infection is widespread, with frequent reinfection during a lifetime. In Western countries the highest rate of new infections occurs between the ages of 5 and 15. The antibody prevalence worldwide is higher in adult males than in females. Currently available data suggest that C. pneumoniae is primarily transmitted from human to human without any animal reservoir. Transmission seems to be inefficient, although household outbreaks with high transmission rates are reported. Most reports rank C. pneumoniae among the three most common etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia, with an incidence ranging from 6% to 25%, and generally presenting a mild and, in some cases, self-limiting clinical course. Recent reports also indicate a possible role for C. pneumoniae in severe forms of community-acquired pneumonia and in respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. C. pneumoniae infection has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma in both adults and children. The hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection could lead to asthma is based on clinical studies and on the evidence of specific IgE production, direct epithelial damage, induction of T-cell immunopathologic diseases, and vascular smooth cell infection. Chronic C. pneumoniae infection seems to be common in patients with chronic bronchitis whether exacerbated or not, and is characterized by a strong humoral immune response to this intracellular microorganism, which is present in the majority of patients with severe chronic bronchitis. More than 60% of subjects with chronic bronchitis have specific C. pneumoniae antibody titers, and the microorganism may be identified by culture or PCR in almost 40% of these patients. This pathogen has also been recently associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Seroepidemiological evidence indicates that the majority of patients with CHD present an anti-C. pneumoniae antibody pattern consistent with chronic infection. Furthermore, C. pneumoniae has been detected in atherosclerotic coronary plaques by several methods, including immunocytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and molecular biology techniques. Recently, we detected C. pneumoniae DNA in a high percentage (51%) of aortic aneurysm plaques. Moreover, our serologic data support the hypothesis that a chronic C. pneumoniae antibody pattern may be a possible risk marker for atherosclerosis. Recently, C. pneumoniae has been isolated by culture from the coronary artery of a patient with coronary atherosclerosis, providing direct evidence of the presence of viable organisms in atheromatous lesions. Moreover, we recently demonstrated an association between C. pneumoniae reinfection and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:11869264

Blasi, F.; Tarsia, P.; Arosio, C.; Fagetti, L.; Allegra, L.

1998-01-01

343

Heart imaging method  

DOEpatents

A method for providing an image of the human heart's electrical system derives time-of-flight data from an array of EKG electrodes and this data is transformed into phase information. The phase information, treated as a hologram, is reconstructed to provide an image in one or two dimensions of the electrical system of the functioning heart.

Collins, H. Dale (Richland, WA); Gribble, R. Parks (Richland, WA); Busse, Lawrence J. (Littleton, CO)

1991-01-01

344

Mapping the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

Hulse, Grace

2012-01-01

345

Congenital cyanotic heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE surgieal relief of congenital heart disease was ushered in by the successful ligation of the patent duetus arteriosus by Gross in 1938. Crafoord's-brilliant resection of the strictured segment of the aorta in coarctation, with restoration of the lumen by direct end-toend anastomosis, followed in 1944. The cyanotic group of congenital heart diseases proved amenable to surgical treatment as a

R. C. Brock

1949-01-01

346

State of the Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possible reasons why the death rate from heart disease is falling. Three phenomena that are considered partly responsible are: (1) early diagnostic technology; (2) the existence of new tools for treating the disease; and (3) public awareness of risk factors. A prescription for a healthy heart is provided. (BC)

DeYoung, H. Garrett

1984-01-01

347

Heart valve surgery - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... surgery to repair or replace one of your heart valves. Your surgery may have been done through a large incision ( ... 118:e523-e661. Fullerton DA, Harken AH. Acquired heart disease: ... . 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap ...

348

Changing Leaders' Educational Hearts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as a position statement on educational leadership, this article uses a heart metaphor to delineate a workable managerial framework. Leadership is at the heart of managing all educational levels. Leading is the educational lifeblood that guides and flows into planning, organizing, and monitoring teachers' work. (Contains 43 references.)…

McCrea, Nadine L.; Ehrich, Lisa C.

1999-01-01

349

Human heart by art.  

PubMed

Heart is of great importance in maintaining the life of the body. Enough to stop working for a few minutes to cause death, and hence the great importance in physiology, medicine, and research. This fact was already emphasized in the Bible in the Book of Proverbs, chapter 4 verse 23: "Keep your heart with all diligence, for out of it is the wellspring of life." Art was able to demonstrate the heart from various aspects; realistically, as done by Leonardo de Vinci who demonstrated the halves of the heart and its blood vessels. Symbolically, as a source of life, the heart was demonstrated by the artist Mrs. Erlondeiel, as a caricature by Salvador Dali, as an open heart by Sawaya, etc. Finally, it should be emphasized that different demonstrations of the human heart by many artworks make this most important organ of our body (that cannot be seen from outside) more familiar and clearer to us. And this is the purpose of this article-to demonstrate the heart through a large number of artworks of different kinds. PMID:23172473

Tamir, Abraham

2012-11-01

350

Types of Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... plaque narrows the coronary arteries and reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can cause ... coronary artery. This creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle. Surgeons can bypass multiple ...

351

Model Heart Valves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use provided materials to design and build prototype artificial heart valves. Their functioning is demonstrated using water to simulate the flow of blood through the heart. Upon completion, teams demonstrate their fully functional prototypes to the rest of the class, along with a pamphlet that describes the device and how it works.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

352

Signs of a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... attack Heart Health and Stroke Signs of a heart attack Related information Make the Call. Don't Miss ... to top More information on Signs of a heart attack Read more from womenshealth.gov Make the Call, ...

353

Heart-respiratory monitor - infants  

MedlinePLUS

Cardiorespiratory monitor - infants; Apnea monitor - infants; Heart rate monitor - infants ... A heart–respiratory monitor can measure a baby's or child's: Breathing rate Heart beat Oxygen level Caregivers can use ...

354

What Happens After Heart Surgery?  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors. This is where patients go after open-heart surgery or a heart attack. You’re watched around ... for several days, depending on the type of heart surgery and the time you need to recover. Then ...

355

Preparing Children for Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... by congenital heart defects provide inspiration and hope. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications ... to you or your child’s defect and concerns. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Web Booklet: ...

356

Life After a Heart Attack  

MedlinePLUS

... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Life After a Heart Attack Many people survive heart ... improves your chances for a better quality of life after a heart attack. Medical Followup After a ...

357

Living with Diabetic Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Diabetic Heart Disease Diabetic heart disease (DHD) increases the likelihood of earlier and more ... also tend to have less success from certain heart disease treatments, such as coronary artery bypass grafting and ...

358

Living with Coronary Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...

359

Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. PMID:23202546

Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

2012-01-01

360

What Is the Heart?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Figuring out how the heart functions in a metaphorical sense can be an unending and highly metaphysical process (just ask John Donne), so it's nice to find a place online where visitors can learn how the heart functions in a literal sense. This website was created by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, and begins by answering the basic question: "What is the Heart?" After reading this short and informative piece of writing, visitors can meander through sections titled "Anatomy", "Contraction", "Circulation", "Electrical System", and "Heart Disease". Each section provides a brief summary of each topic, complete with graphic illustrations and several digital animations. It's a well-constructed and user-friendly introduction to this important topic, and one that will be of use to those entering one of the health care professions, or those who are intrigued with various body systems.

361

Angioplasty and stent placement - heart  

MedlinePLUS

... angioplasty; Coronary artery angioplasty; Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; Heart artery dilatation ... to carefully guide the catheter up into your heart and arteries. Dye will be injected into your ...

362

NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), will be held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.

363

Heart 2: Changing Lifestyles and Heart Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Science NetLinks lesson, students examine and evaluate changes in diet and lifestyle from prehistoric to modern times and how these differences have spurred the development (and better treatment) of heart disease. They then use their knowledge in a debate between students representing hunter-gatherers and modern students. Students also critically examine their own diets.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-26

364

Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is mounting evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Observations have been made linking the presence of infections in the vessel wall with atherosclerosis, and epidemiological data also implicate infection in remote sites in the aetiology of CHD. In this article we propose a key role for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6)

John S Yudkin; Meena Kumari; Steve E Humphries; Vidya Mohamed-Ali

2000-01-01

365

Styrene Exposure and Ischemic Heart Disease: A Case-Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies have consistently reported increased daily mortality and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease related to daily changes in ambient particulate levels. One theory is that substances adhering to particulates might have a cardiovascular effect. Styrene has been found in very low doses in air and has chemical characteristics that would cause adherence to particles. Industrial studies have found

Genevieve M. Matanoski

366

Screening and Assessment of Coronary Heart Disease in HIV-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

uman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individ- uals are living longer in the era of antiretroviral therapy. As a result, they are increasingly prone to the development of concomitant chronic disease. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe. Recent studies suggest that CHD rates may be increasing among HIV-infected patients (see Epidemiological Evidence

Priscilla Y. Hsue; Kathleen Squires; Ann F. Bolger; Bernadette Capili; George A. Mensah; Zelalem Temesgen; Christine A. Wanke; David A. Wohl

2010-01-01

367

Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Patients with Heart Failure: An Often Neglected Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications in patients with acute heart failure; in addition, the level of risk associated with this disease is notable, ranging from 15 to 30%. Three large clinical trials have clearly demonstrated the efficacy and safety of pharmacological prophylaxis in internal medicine patients hospitalized for an acute medical disease;

Davide Imberti; Matteo Giorgi Pierfranceschi; Michela Falciani; Domenico Prisco

2009-01-01

368

Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground Vitamin E (?-tocopherol) is thought to have a role in prevention of atherosclerosis, through inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein. Some epidemiological studies have shown an association between high dietary intake or high serum concentrations of ?-tocopherol and lower rates of ischaemic heart disease. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with a high dose of ?-tocopherol would reduce subsequent

N. G Stephens; A Parsons; M. J Brown; P. M Schofield; F Kelly; K Cheeseman; Mj Mitchinson

1996-01-01

369

Commentary: Hormones and heart disease: do trials and observational studies address different questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By 1990, the number of epidemiological studies of postmenopausal hormone use and coronary heart disease (CHD) was sufficient to justify a quantitative assessment of the evidence. Divergent views of the potential effect of postmenopausal hormones on cardiovascular risk were common. On the one hand, the observation that premenopausal women had substantially lower risk for cardiovascular disease led many to suspect

Meir Stampfer

370

The interface between epidemiology and population genetics.  

PubMed

Modern biology increasingly integrates disparate disciplines. Here, Steve Paterson and Mark Viney examine the interface between epidemiology and population genetics. They argue that infection and inheritance can be considered as analogous processes, and that epidemiology and population genetics share many common features. They consider the potential for existing population genetic theory to dissect epidemiological patterns in field studies and they consider other relationships between genetics and epidemiology that provide a research challenge for the future. PMID:11121850

Paterson, S; Viney, M E

2000-12-01

371

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Montreal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the epidemiologic caracteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in Mon- treal and the patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs in order to improve TB control in the region. Design: Descriptive analysis of surveillance data for TB cases reported in Montreal by physicians and laboratories between 1992 and 1995. Setting: Region of Montreal, population 1 775 899. Participants: All cases

Paul Rivest; Terry Tannenbaum; Lucie Bédard

372

Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular typing methods based on the analysis of the genetic structure of bacteria, are used to address many different problems such as the study of genomic organisation and evolution, the identification of patterns of infection, the identification of sources of transmission, the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases and for investigations into outbreaks. Of particular interest is the application of these

Stefania Stefani; Antonella Agodi

2000-01-01

373

Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes key results of epidemiologic studies published in peer-reviewed journals between April 2003 and March 2004. The prevalence of H. pylori infection continues to vary strongly between developing countries and developed countries, and according to ethnicity, place of birth and socio- economic factors among people living in the same country. Intrafamilial spread appears to play a central role

Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Hermann Brenner

2004-01-01

374

Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of

G. Sabatinelli; G. Majori; F. D'Ancona; R. Romi

1994-01-01

375

Epidemiology of pelvic floor dysfunction.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of female pelvic floor disorders, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence, and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is reviewed. The natural history, prevalence, incidence, remission, risk factors, and potential areas for prevention are considered. PMID:19932408

Sung, Vivian W; Hampton, Brittany Star

2009-09-01

376

Computational Epidemiology Research Laboratory (CERL)  

E-print Network

.R., Mikler A.R., Moonan P., and Weis S., 2006, "From Medical Geography to Computational Epidemiology. and Mikler, A.R., 2006, "An Infectious Disease Outbreak Simulator Based on the Cellular Automata Paradigm '04), Guadalajara, Mexico, June 2004, Springer LNCS 3473, 2006, 198 - 211. Biology Medical Geography

Mohanty, Saraju P.

377

Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group  

Cancer.gov

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

378

Design issues for drug epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Despite the difficulties involved in designing drug epidemiology studies, these studies are invaluable for investigating the unexpected adverse effects of drugs. The aim of this paper is to discuss various aspects of study design, particularly those issues that are not easily found in either textbooks or review papers. We have also compared and contrasted drug epidemiology with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) wherever possible. Drug epidemiology is especially useful in the many situations where the RCT is not suitable, or even possible. The study base has to be defined before the appropriate cohort of subjects is assembled. If all of the cases are identified, then a referent sample of controls may be assembled by random sampling of the study base. If all of the cases cannot be assembled, a hypothetical secondary base may need to be created. Preferably, only new-users of the drug should be included, and the risk-ratio will be different for acute users and chronic users. Studies will usually only be possible when researching the unintended effects of drugs. It is difficult to study efficacy because of confounding by indication. In occasional circumstances it may be possible to study efficacy (examples are given). Discussion of the dangers of designing with generalisability in mind is provided. Additionally, the similarities in study design between drug epidemiology and the RCT are discussed in detail, as well as the design-characteristics that cannot be shared between the two methods. PMID:11069436

McMahon, Alex D; MacDonald, Tom M

2000-01-01

379

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

380

Epidemiologic studies of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing existing data which indicate an association between disease and air pollution, new epidemiologic studies provide evidence on the relationship of malignant neoplasms of the lung to air pollution, the distribution of deaths resulting from emphysema and the apparent increase in this disease, the relationship of asthmatic attack rates to air pollution as measured by sulfur dioxide, and the effects

R. J. Anderson

1962-01-01

381

Epidemiologic Aspects of Down Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focused primarily on epidemiological questions regarding Down Syndrome (DS) births in Ohio, but included data for the United States as well. Specific objectives were to (1) extend a previous Ohio DS data set from 1970-79 to 1980-85 so that a 16 ...

C. A. Huether

1987-01-01

382

Epidemiologic aspects of lipid abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing cholesterol guidelines aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease emphasize the role of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in lipid management decisions, with a subsidiary role for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in guiding treatment and little role for triglycerides. In this article, epidemiologic evidence is reviewed relating to the independent value of lipid factors in prediction of cardiovascular

Michael H Criqui; Beatrice A Golomb

1998-01-01

383

Commentary: Epidemiology: Indeed “Quo Vadis”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know where you are going, it is useful to know where you are coming from, and who you are. Epidemiology came from studying distributions of diseases, primarily infectious diseases, in populations. The wellknown historical examples of this can be found in any textbook. At the same time, the epidemiologist’s concern with populations – as perceived by non-epidemiologists – rather

Jacobus Lubsen

2004-01-01

384

Preattentive processing of heart cues and the perception of heart symptoms in congenital heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed at clarifying whether preattentive processing of heart cues results in biased perception of heart sensations in patients with congenital heart disease (ConHD) who are also highly trait anxious.Twenty-six patients with ConHD and 22 healthy participants categorized heart-related (heart rate) or neutral sensations (constant vibration) as either heart or neutral. Both sensations were evoked using a

Petra A. Karsdorp; Merel Kindt; Walter Everaerd; Barbara J. M. Mulder

2007-01-01

385

2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

386

Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello  

E-print Network

Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello Graham Cormode DIMACS and Ask.com Research E@dimacs.rutgers.edu #12;2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 92D30 Epidemiology, Secondary 68R01 Discrete, and Ilya Muchnik 1 Descriptive Epidemiology: A Brief Introduction Dona Schneider 41 Biostatistical

Cormode, Graham

387

Updated October 1, 2013 INTERMEDIATE EPIDEMIOLOGY  

E-print Network

epidemiologic theory and methods. Specifically, this course provides students with the following: (1) advanced understanding of epidemiologic and clinical study designs; (2) knowledge of classical methods of statistical epidemiologic studies (i.e., confounding). In addition, the course will address the use of statistical methods

Contractor, Anis

388

About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

389

Infective endocarditis epidemiology and consequences of prophylaxis guidelines modifications: the dialectical evolution.  

PubMed

Historically, infective endocarditis (IE) affected patients with predisposing cardiac conditions and community-acquired bacteremia. Over the past 30 years, significant changes have occurred, regarding microorganisms, underlying valvular heart diseases, portals of entry, and patients' comorbidities. Given these epidemiological changes and unproven prophylaxis efficacy, experts in most countries currently limit antibiotic indications to patients with high-risk cardiac conditions having oral procedures and, in the UK, recommend discontinuing their use altogether. To date, no epidemiological impact on streptococcal IE incidence has been observed. Policy must now address these epidemiological modifications, focus on community-acquired and health care-associated staphylococcal bacteremia prevention, and prompt the adoption of broader and nonexclusively antibiotic-based strategies. PMID:25233804

Chirouze, C; Hoen, B; Duval, X

2014-11-01

390

Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts should not assume susceptible groups are the same for warm and cold days and heat and cold waves, respectively. PMID:24647126

Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil; Ebi, Kristie; Bellander, Tom

2014-01-01

391

Anxiety and cardiovascular risk: Review of Epidemiological and Clinical Evidence  

PubMed Central

An increasing body of evidence suggests that anxiety is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. Individuals with high levels of anxiety are at increased risk of coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, fatal ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Anxiety following a major cardiac event can impede recovery, and is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. This linkage between anxiety and CV disease is further corroborated by evidence suggesting that treatment of anxiety may improve cardiac symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying the observed associations are not entirely delineated. Several intermediary mechanisms have been suggested, including sympathetic activation, impaired vagal control, reduced heart rate variability, stimulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, hyperventilation-induced coronary spasm, oxidative stress, increased inflammatory mediators, and unhealthy lifestyle. There is a need for several clinical trials to explicate the complex associations between anxiety and CV disease, which may be compounded by the involvement of other psychosocial factors. In this review, we examine the epidemiological evidence for the association between anxiety and CV disease, and discuss the proposed mechanisms that may be responsible for this association. PMID:21822473

Olafiranye, O; Jean-Louis, G; Zizi, F; Nunes, J; Vincent, MT

2011-01-01

392

Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals  

MedlinePLUS

... and food information, visit diabetes.org/recipes Plan heart-healthy meals and snacks Choose heart-healthy protein foods. J Eat fish 2 or ... J Stir-fry vegetables with tofu. Protect Your Heart: Plan and Cook Heart-Healthy Meals American Diabetes ...

393

Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

2009-01-01

394

Tell Tale Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity you will read Poe's famous short story The Tell-Tale Heart, take notes, and complete one response assignment pertaining to the story. Be prepared to share your notes and response with the class. Have fun! 1. To begin, please click on the following link.Begin My Tell-Tale Heart 2. Follow along with Mrs. Branscomb as we read together about this activity. When you are ready to begin, select "Begin My Tell-Tale Heart." 3. Experiment with the icons on the right hand side of the page. You ...

Branscomb, Mrs.

2010-03-05

395

Heart antibodies in cardiomyopathies.  

PubMed Central

The reported frequency of circulating heart reactive antibodies in cardiomyopathies has varied and their significance is unknown. In this study such antibodies were sought in patients with primary congestive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies and other heart diseases. Standard "single sandwich" and the more sensitive "double sandwich" indirect immunofluorescence techniques failed to disclose a significant difference between any cardiomyopathic group and controls in repeated experiments. With both techniques results were subject to considerable method-specific artefacts and observer variation. No published work associating heart antibodies detected by immunofluorescence methods with cariomyopathies adequately takes these into account. PMID:7028058

Trueman, T; Thompson, R A; Cummins, P; Littler, W A

1981-01-01

396

Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes Updated:May 6,2014 Many heart valve problems are first identified by the ... Congenital Heart Defect See all of our brochures Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • ...

397

HeartTalk-L: Heart Patients Mailing List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HeartTalk-L is a discussion list for people with heart disease and their family and friends. HeartTalk-L is an unmoderated mailing list for discussions of all aspects of life affected by heart disease. Any topic concerning heart disease is welcome on this list. Note that this list is meant as a support group and not as a replacement for proper medical attention.

1997-01-01

398

Sounds of the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will investigate the sounds of the heart. Learners construct two stethoscopes, one out of paper and another made from vinyl tubing and a plastic bottle, and investigate the workings of valves.

Minnesota, Science M.; Center, Learning T.

2000-01-01

399

Artificial Heart Design Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with a hypothetical scenario in which they are biomedical engineers asked to design artificial hearts. Using the engineering design process as a guide, the challenge is established and students brainstorm to list everything they might need to know about the heart in order to create a complete mechanical replacement (size, how it functions, path of blood etc.). They conduct research to learn the information and organize it through various activities. They research artificial heart models that have already been used and rate their performance in clinical trials. Finally, they analyze the data to identify the artificial heart features and properties they think work best and document their findings in essay form.

Bio-Inspired Technology and Systems (BITS) RET,

400

Keeping Hearts Pumping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

2002-01-01

401

Advanced Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS

... doctors, making good decisions requires teamwork. Through shared decision making, doctors and patients consider both the options and ... care you want to receive. What is shared decision making? When heart failure progresses to an advanced stage, ...

402

Measuring heart beats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple instrument has been constructed to measure heart beats via an earlobe sensor. The pulse rate is determined from a Picoscope trace and pupils may wish to see how this rate changes after modest exertion.

Thompson, Frank

2014-03-01

403

Heart valve surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Valve replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... place. The main types of new valves are: Mechanical -- made of man-made materials, such as metal ( ...

404

Heart Diseases and Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... very fast, but steady, heartbeat. Sick Sinus Syndrome ( SSS ) Sick sinus syndrome is not a disease, but ... the sinus node, is not working properly. In SSS , the heart rate can alternate between slow ( bradycardia ) ...

405

Meditation and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

Meditation and Heart Health Updated:May 27,2014 Lower stress, cardiovascular disease risk by meditating. Taking a ... help you lower your risks of cardiovascular disease . Meditation is a practice — often using deep breathing, quiet ...

406

Alcohol and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Heart See More » Healthier Kids Our Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

407

Caffeine and Heart Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Heart See More » Healthier Kids Our Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

408

Broken Heart Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... grief, anger, or surprise. Researchers think that the stress releases hormones that “stun” the heart and affect its ability to pump blood to the body. (The term “stunned” is often used to indicate ...

409

Congenital heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

... for acne, chemicals, alcohol, and infections (such as rubella ) during pregnancy can contribute to some congenital heart ... pregnancy to see if you are immune to rubella. If you are not immune, avoid any possible ...

410

Protein and Heart Health  

MedlinePLUS

... nutritionist and registered dietitian at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University in the Bronx, ... 7 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 8 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 9 Warning Signs of a Heart ...

411

Congestive Heart Failure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the main medicines for treating heart failure: • Diuretics (water or fluid pills) help reduce fluid buildup in ... the body to get rid of salt and water through urine, which lowers the volume of blood ...

412

HIV and Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More HIV and Your Heart Banner 1 - HIV and Your ... Commercial support for this program was provided by HIV Wellness Checklist People living with HIV have even ...

413

Pumping heart of the Daphnia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The heart is located within our chests and is central to the function of the circulatory system. The heart pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The heart also pumps blood to the organs of the body. The rate that the heart beats depends on the needs of the body.

Katie Hale (CSUF;)

2007-08-18

414

HEART SMART NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE = POWER  

E-print Network

million Americans suffered from coronary heart disease, and 8 million Americans had heart attacks cholesterol is one of the three major risk factors for heart disease that you can change. The other two risk the disease. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. In 2008, over 16

415

Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes  

E-print Network

sugar) to build up in your blood. Diabetes is a serious disease. Why is diabetes dangerous? DiabetesProtect Your Heart Against Diabetes Healthy Hearts, Healthy Homes #12;Read other booklets at www.nhlbi.nih.gov. #12;Protect Your Heart Against Diabetes Delicious Heart Healthy Latino Recipes

Bandettini, Peter A.

416

08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology ( EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology The PhD minor in Epidemiology is designed for individuals from other University of Arizona doctoral degree programs who wish

Arizona, University of

417

Infant Heart Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The surgical management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a congenital heart disease that is seen in nearly 2,000\\u000a neonates in North America each year, remains controversial. The initial report of palliative surgery for HLHS by Norwood,\\u000a et al. in 1983 heralded modifications, advancements, and the development of a staged reconstructive surgery for this disease\\u000a [1]. Leonard Bayley at Loma

Timothy M. Hoffman; Thomas L. Spray

418

Heart Rate Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

1984-01-01

419

Calreticulin in the heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calreticulin is a Ca2+ binding\\/storage chaperone resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein plays a key role in the calreticulin\\/calnexin cycle and the quality control pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calreticulin deficiency is lethal due to impaired cardiac development. However, over-expression of the protein in developing and postnatal heart leads to bradycardia, complete heart block and sudden death. Ultrastructural

Marek Michalak; Lei Guo; Murray Robertson; Mira Lozak; Michal Opas

2004-01-01

420

Epidemiology of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy.  

PubMed

Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy is a renal disorder caused by ingestion of feed-borne secondary fungal metabolites, possessing nephrotoxic properties. The disease is present endemically in all areas of Denmark, but unevenly distributed, with frequency varying from 0.6 to 65.9 cases per 10,000 pigs in 1971. Epidemics were encountered in 1963 and 1971, apparently associated with excessive climatic conditions. The highest frequency of the disease is found among pigs from the smaller farms. Ordinarily the same farm delivers cases during only one year. Female pigs contract the disease more frequently than male (castrated) pigs. The epidemiology of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy shows similarities with the epidemiology of endemic Balkan nephropathy. PMID:980696

Krogh, P

1976-09-01

421

Epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has changed over the last decade. Remarkable advances in understanding the pathobiology and clinical care required in PAH have resulted in improved quality of life and survival. Despite such important progress, the long-term rate of survival is still unacceptable. The epidemiology of PAH could not be easily generalized globally, due to the fact that nearly all of the present data has been gathered from Western, multicenter, prospective registries. There are potentially marked differences in PAH patients from Western and Eastern populations, and from developed and developing countries. Therefore, it is clear that more registry data will be needed to address novel questions emerging with improved knowledge of PAH. PMID:24114080

Jiang, Xin; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

2013-12-01

422

Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

2013-01-01

423

The new epidemiology of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A confluence of findings from different vantage points has led to renewed interest and direction in the epidemiology of schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of prevalence and incidence data, examining the validity of reported secular trends in the occurrence of schizophrenia. Advances in molecular genetics have uncovered new linkage on chromosomes 6, 8, and 22 and have suggested complex models, including anticipation, to explain the perpetuation of genetic transmission in the face of low fecundity. Neurotropic viruses and autoimmunity have emerged as pathoplastic mechanisms to explain recent intriguing epidemiologic associations in schizophrenia. Environmental risk factors are also important. With attention to particular risk factors (i.e., perinatal hypoxia), a preventative approach may be realistic for some forms of schizophrenia. PMID:9551488

Jones, P; Cannon, M

1998-03-01

424

Sarcopenia: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed. PMID:24524049

Kim, Tae Nyun

2013-01-01

425

Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

426

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term

B. Shafayan; M. Keyhani

427

Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

428

Epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Changes in the epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have resulted from changes in classification schemes and an increased emphasis on diagnosis because of the availability of effective therapies. The terms primary pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension are considered inappropriate, confusing, and should not be used. Recent registries of patients with PAH have provided improved data regarding prognosis in the era of advanced therapies. PMID:24267294

Taichman, Darren B; Mandel, Jess

2013-12-01

429

Climate change epidemiology: methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is now thought to be unequivocal, while its potential effects on global and public health cannot be ignored.\\u000a However, the complexities of the causal webs, the dynamics of the interactions and unpredictability mean that climate change\\u000a presents new challenges to epidemiology and magnifies existing methodological problems. This article reviews a number of such\\u000a challenges, including topics such as

Wei W. Xun; Aneire E. Khan; Edwin Michael; Paolo Vineis

2010-01-01

430

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

431

Radiation-induced cardiovascular diseases: Is the epidemiologic evidence compatible with the radiobiologic data?  

SciTech Connect

The Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors demonstrates that radiation exposure significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease, in particular myocardial infarction. Similarly, epidemiologic investigations in very large populations of patients who had received postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer or for peptic ulcer demonstrate that radiation exposure of the heart with an average equivalent single dose of approximately 2 Gy significantly increased the risk of developing ischemic heart disease more than 10 years after irradiation. These epidemiologic findings are compatible with radiobiologic data on the pathogenesis of radiation-induced heart disease in experimental animals. The critical target structure appears to be the endothelial lining of blood vessels, in particular arteries, leading to early functional alterations such as pro-inflammatory responses and other changes, which are slowly progressive. Research should concentrate on the interaction of these radiation-induced endothelial changes with the early stages of age-related atherosclerosis to develop criteria for optimizing treatment plans in radiotherapy and also potential interventional strategies.

Schultz-Hector, Susanne [Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: susanne.schultz-hector@helmholtz.de; Trott, Klaus-Ruediger Prof. [Gray Cancer Institute, Northwood (United Kingdom)

2007-01-01

432

Practical limitations of epidemiologic methods.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic methods can be categorized into demographic studies of mortality and morbidity and observational studies that are either retrospective or prospective. Some of the limitations of demographic studies are illustrated by a review of one specific mortality study showing possible relationship of nuclear fallout to leukemia. Problems of accuracy of diagnosis or causes of death on death certificates, estimates of population, migration from areas of study, and the issue of "ecological fallacy" are discussed. Retrospective studies have such problems as recall of previous environmental exposure, selection bias and survivor bias. In environmental epidemiology, prospective studies have been used. The problems associated with these studies are illustrated by reviewing some of the details of the study of effects of microwave radiation on embassy employees in Moscow. The study population had to be reconstructed, individuals had to be located and information on exposure status had to be obtained by questionnaire. The relatively small size of the exposed group permitted the detection of only fairly large relative risks. Despite these limitations, epidemiologic studies have been remarkably productive in elucidating etiological factors. They are necessary since "the proper study of man is man." PMID:6653534

Lilienfeld, A M

1983-01-01

433

Natural history of tuberculosis. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

This Symposium honours the achievements of Dr Karel Styblo. In this presentation, specific epidemiologic insights are reviewed. Studies of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eskimos showed a picture of tuberculosis at the height of the epidemic. Very high incidence was observed in young people who experienced a high fatality rate. Application of specific control measures were accompanied by rapid decline in rates, greater than observed in any other human population, demonstrating that tuberculosis could be brought under control by specific intervention. Studies of the natural trend of tuberculosis in South India showed that, even in the absence of intervention, a decline was observed in the rates of this disease. In the absence of chemotherapy, 50 per cent of cases die within 5 years, 30 per cent recover spontaneously and 20 per cent remain sputum positive. Studies of the efficacy of BCG in Madras, enabled to study the impact of efficient case-finding associated with poor treatment results showing that such a situation multiplies the number of surviving, infectious cases in the community and, thus, actually deteriorates the epidemiological situation. These various basic studies have shown both how to create success and how to create failure in tuberculosis programmes. PMID:1687514

Grzybowski, S

1991-12-01

434

Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

2011-01-01

435

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

2012-01-01

436

Beneficial vs. detrimental actions of ethanol on heart and coronary vascular muscle: Roles of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic studies suggest that daily ingestion of small amounts of alcohol may protect the heart, whereas higher intake may be detrimental. We studied: 1) cardiac performance, bioenergetics, and [Mg2+]1 of isolated working rat hearts during perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit medium containing different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH), 2) mechanical responses, Ca2+ metabolism, and Mg content of isolated coronary arteries obtained from dogs,

Burton M. Altura; Li Yan Zou; Bella T. Altura; Linda Jelicks; Beatrice A. Wittenberg; Raj K. Gupta

1996-01-01

437

Validation of Patient Recall of Doctor-diagno sed Heart Attack and Stroke: A Postal Questionnaire and Record Review Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have assessed the accuracy of patient recall of doctor-diagnosed heart attack and stroke on postal questionnaire, yet such data are widely used in epidemiologic studies. In the national prospective British Regional Heart Study of 7,735 men aged 40-59 years, based in general practice and followed up for a mean 13.8 years, a mailed questionnaire was sent to all

Mary K. Walker; Peter H. Whincup; A. Gerald Shaper; Lucy T. Lennon; Andrew G. Thomson

438

Ischaemic heart disease in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in pregnancy, particularly myocardial infarction (MI), is a rare yet potentially fatal condition for the mother and the foetus. With delays in the age of conception, the changes in some social habits among females including cigarette and shisha smoking in addition to an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus, IHD may represent a real hazard among pregnant women in the near future. The difficulty in the diagnosis emerges from the similarity of the signs and symptoms of ischaemia and infarct to some of the physiological adaptations that occur in a normal pregnancy. The physiological changes that are normal in pregnancy may aggravate pre-existing disease and may unmask some underlying unrecognized coronary vascular changes; therefore, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the underlying risk factors. The management of IHD always requires a multidisciplinary team approach. The management of each patient should be individualized according to the clinical condition, the risk factors, and the availability of the necessary support. Pregnancy after MI may be an acceptable and reasonably safe option provided the cited criteria are met. A systematic PubMed search was performed to identify all published data including cases reports, small series and systematic reviews in the existing literature. These publications were comprised of both retrospective and cross sectional population studies to maximize the number of cases considered in order to reach conclusions and make recommendations based on the best available evidence considering the rare occurrence of this event. The epidemiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, and prognosis of IHD in pregnancy are the subjects of the present review. PMID:23960678

Bondagji, Nabeel S.

2012-01-01

439

A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)  

PubMed Central

Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010) PMID:21592388

2011-01-01

440

Heart-lung transplantation  

PubMed Central

Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination and planning as well as adhering to some fundamental principles. One of the major pitfalls encountered is bleeding related to the explant procedure. Another is graft failure related to harvest and/or the implant procedure. The third is injury to either the phrenic nerve(s) or the left recurrent laryngeal nerve related to the explant procedure. Heart-lung transplantation is a major investment in resources of all sorts including financial, personnel, as well as the organs themselves. It is absolutely imperative that this procedure be performed only by experienced surgeons in centers with established expertise. PMID:25132983

Richey, Samuel R.

2014-01-01

441

Chocolate Consumption is Inversely Associated with Prevalent Coronary Heart Disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epidemiologic studies have suggested beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and particularly dark chocolate are rich in flavonoids and recent studies have demonstrated blood pressure lowering effects of dark chocolate. However, limited data are available on the association of chocolate consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to examine the association between chocolate consumption and prevalent CHD. Methods We studied in a cross-sectional design 4,970 participants aged 25 to 93 years who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study. Chocolate intake was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used generalized estimating equations to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Results Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR=1.49 (0.96-2.32)]. Conclusions These data suggest that consumption of chocolate is inversely related with prevalent CHD in a general population. PMID:20858571

Djousse, Luc; Hopkins, Paul N.; North, Kari E.; Pankow, James S.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ellison, R. Curtis

2010-01-01

442

Research Methods in Psychiatric Epidemiology: An Overview?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide an introduction to the concepts and methods of psychiatric epidemiology for non-specialist readers.Methods: An overview of concepts and research procedures based on the published literature.Conclusion: Psychiatric epidemiology is a key mental health discipline that has adopted and developed a variety of methods and procedures for the study of complex mental disorders. In its future development, psychiatric epidemiology

Assen Jablensky

2002-01-01

443

Integrative Cancer Epidemiology - The Next Generation  

PubMed Central

Summary We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving “omics” technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations into cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures. PMID:23230187

Spitz, Margaret R.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sellers, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

444

Assessment of right heart function in the athlete's heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the heart of an athlete has been physiologically adapted by prolonged training. There are a large number\\u000a of echocardiographic studies which have focused on left ventricular wall thickness and dilatation, but there are few studies\\u000a concerning right heart function in the athlete's heart. The aim of this study was to assess right heart function in elite

Mustafa Kemal Erol; Sule Karakelleoglu

2002-01-01

445

Healthy Heart Experiment I: What Does the Heart Do?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online simulation to allow children to do a simple physiology experiment on heart function. Children gather data as Sam the Dog rests, walks, and runs to learn how the heart helps him to exercise and play. A physiologist explains (written and audio) how the heart helps us to exercise and how exercise benefits the heart. This is one of the Phizzy the Physiology Bear online activities.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2010-11-01

446

Assessing the Global Burden of Ischemic Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. The GBD (Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors) study (GBD 2010 Study) conducted a systematic review of IHD epidemiology literature from 1980 to 2008 to inform estimates of the burden on IHD in 21 world regions in 1990 and 2010. METHODS The disease model of IHD for the GBD 2010 Study included IHD death and 3 sequelae: myocardial infarction, heart failure, and angina pectoris. Medline, EMBASE, and LILACS were searched for IHD epidemiology studies in GBD high-income and low- and middle-income regions published between 1980 and 2008 using a systematic protocol validated by regional IHD experts. Data from included studies were supplemented with unpublished data from selected high-quality surveillance and survey studies. The epidemiologic parameters of interest were incidence, prevalence, case fatality, and mortality. RESULTS Literature searches yielded 40,205 unique papers, of which 1,801 met initial screening criteria. Upon detailed review of full text papers, 137 published studies were included. Unpublished data were obtained from 24 additional studies. Data were sufficient for high-income regions, but missing or sparse in many low- and middle-income regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS A systematic review for the GBD 2010 Study provided IHD epidemiology estimates for most world regions, but highlighted the lack of information about IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income regions. More complete knowledge of the global burden of IHD will require improved IHD surveillance programs in all world regions. PMID:23682350

Moran, Andrew E.; Oliver, John T.; Mirzaie, Masoud; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Chilov, Marina; Anderson, Laurie; Morrison, Janina L.; Khan, Aayla; Zhang, Nasen; Haynes, Norrisa; Tran, Jackie; Murphy, Adrianna; DeGennaro, Vincent; Roth, Gregory; Zhao, Dong; Peer, Nasheeta; Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Pogosova, Nana; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Mensah, George A.

2012-01-01

447

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

448

Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................... 3 PREGNANCY AND CHILDHOOD EFFECTS OF INTRA-UTERINE EXPOSURE TO ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS.................................................................................. 14 PEDIATRIC (CHILD AND ADOLESCENT) EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH .................................................................................. 22 RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENT PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

Rau, Don C.

449

The epidemiology of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Further clarification of the epidemiology of eating disorders is essential. The high prevalence of these disorders, which appears to be increasing in women, indicates that high priority should be placed on the effective use of treatment resources through knowledge of the risk factors and clinical course of these illnesses. It seems clear that sociocultural emphasis on thinness in our society contributes to the risk factors of sex, age and social class. Prospective studies following a large number of subjects at high risk will be necessary to define more specific risk factors for the development of these disorders. PMID:6400210

Pyle, R L

450

Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

Weller, R.E.

1992-05-01

451

Healthcare epidemiology: past and future.  

PubMed

Healthcare epidemiology is a robust and adaptable profession with the noble mission of protecting patients and their healthcare providers from infectious diseases and other threats. Change is the constant that links the successes of our field in each decade of our history. Although it is not possible to predict what specific challenges the next decade will bring, the themes of the Sixth Decennial International Conference in 2020 are likely to reflect the most prominent drivers of change that are affecting our profession, including globalization, sustainability, and consumer empowerment. PMID:20929378

Gerberding, Julie Louise

2010-11-01

452

Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

453

Utbildningsdepartementet 103 33 Stockholm  

E-print Network

Research and Innovation Program 2014-2020: Horizon 2020. Sweden and the EU need to worry about of global partners in the proposed Horizon 2020 program. Thus the EU needs to ensure that the Horizon 2020. It is however, disconcerting that the proposed new Horizon 2020 program would lead to a reduction in allowable

Haviland, David

454

PROCEEDINGS Stockholm Water Symposium  

E-print Network

experience in the study of Chesapeake Bay, which is a large estuarine ecosystem on the Atlantic coast.A.G.M, a Systematic Approach to Lake Water Pollution Assessment, - Eindhoven: University of Technology, Eindhoven Assessment, Water Pollution in the Catchment of Lake Victoria, Dares Salaam, Tanzania, August, 1994

Boynton, Walter R.

455

Stockholm based communications agency  

E-print Network

), branding, design and public relations/public affairs. Our clients range from the biggest companies for someone to start as soon as possible. I'll tell you more about us and the position in person. Regards

456

Nordic School of Public Health Computer Software in Epidemiology / Statistical Methods in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

Nordic School of Public Health Computer Software in Epidemiology / Statistical Methods in Epidemiology Open Source Solutions - # Mark Myatt, December 2001 &RS\\ULJKW0DUN0\\DWW : Permission is granted the 5 environment for data analysis and graphics to work with epidemiological data. Topics covered

Gallagher, Colin

457

The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

458

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

459

[Relationship between congenital heart disease and various factors affecting pregnancy].  

PubMed

In a prospective epidemiological study data of 24,732 pregnancies were analysed by computer programmes for the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) and its relationship to various factors affecting pregnancy (age and weight of mother, smoking, alcohol-, and coffee-consumption, usage of oral contraception). Frequency of CHD was 0.9%. Data showed that CHD could be associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, maternal age. Other factors like coffee consumption or taking oral contraceptive tablets did not influence the frequency of CHD. Authors conclude that in the prevention of CHD, reduction or even omission of both alcohol consumption and smoking are highly justified. PMID:1734344

Pejtsik, B; Pintér, J; Horváth, M; Hadnagy, J

1992-01-19

460

Does shisha smoking affect blood pressure and heart rate?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this investigation was to explore the correlation of shisha smoking with blood pressure and heart rate values.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects and methods  This is a randomized cross-sectional epidemiological study involving a total of 14,310 adults selected from various regions\\u000a of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in outpatient settings. The frequencies of water-pipe-smoking\\u000a males and females in the sample were

Saafan A. Al-Safi; Nehad M. Ayoub; Mosa’b A. Albalas; Imad Al-Doghim; Faisal H Aboul-Enein

2009-01-01

461

Cocaine Can Cause Heart Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cocaine Can Cause Heart Problems: Study Subtle blood flow ... Preidt Tuesday, November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cocaine Heart Diseases TUESDAY, Nov. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

462

Types of Congenital Heart Defects  

MedlinePLUS

... Doctors use open-heart surgery to repair VSDs. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a fairly common heart ... some babies, however, the ductus arteriosus remains open (patent). The opening allows oxygen-rich blood from the ...

463

About the Operation: Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... approaches to heart transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach. Because the length of this surgery is ... heart is prepared to fit and implantation begins. Heterotopic Approach. Heterotopic transplantation, also called "piggyback" transplantation, is ...

464

Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive  

MedlinePLUS

... MIDCAB; Robot assisted coronary artery bypass; RACAB; Keyhole heart surgery ... To perform this surgery: The heart surgeon will make a 3- to 5-inch-long surgical cut in the left part of your chest between your ribs ...

465

Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Substances & Heart Rhythm D... Back to Patient Resources Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Thousands of substances may affect ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal ...

466

Modeling the Heart - Figure 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This figure describes the first analysis of potassium channel currents in the heart and their incorporation into a heart cell model, and sodium and potassium conductance changes computed from the first biophysically detailed model of cardiac cells.

Denis Noble (Oxford University Department of Physiology)

2004-08-01

467

Maintain a Heart Healthy Lifestyle  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... attack. DR. BRUCE MacLEOD: The truth is that heart disease is the number one cause of death among women. And the risk of having a heart attack increases with age, especially after menopause. So ...

468

Heart failure induced by itraconazole  

PubMed Central

Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent. It rarely leads to adverse the cardiovascular effects, especially heart failure. We present here a case of a 60-year-old female patient with itraconazole induced heart failure. PMID:24130392

Okuyan, H?z?r; Alt?n, Cihan

2013-01-01

469

Heart failure induced by itraconazole.  

PubMed

Itraconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent. It rarely leads to adverse the cardiovascular effects, especially heart failure. We present here a case of a 60-year-old female patient with itraconazole induced heart failure. PMID:24130392

Okuyan, H?z?r; Alt?n, Cihan

2013-01-01

470

Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms Updated:May 5,2014 How do medications help people with valve problems? People who are ... with heart valve disease may be prescribed a medication to help relieve symptoms and decrease the risk ...

471

Panic Attack or Heart Attack?  

MedlinePLUS

... think you might be pregnant. learn more Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart uses strong magnets to detect energy signals from your heart muscle. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a variation of this test, ...

472

Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

2010-01-01

473

Cyanotic heart disease  

MedlinePLUS

... good control over their blood sugar levels. Some inherited factors may play a role in congenital heart disease. Many family members may be affected. If you are planning to get pregnant, talk to your health care provider about screening for genetic diseases.

474

Sweet & Simple Clay Hearts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nothing pleases parents more than receiving handmade gifts from their children, especially if the gift is in the shape of a heart. Nothing pleases an art teacher more than having a lesson that is easy to follow, teaches basic skills, and enables students to be successful with the activity. In this article, the author describes how to create a…

White, Heather

2010-01-01

475

Exercise and Your Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

476

Educating the Heart  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Japan's elementary and junior high schools have a formal, nationally mandated moral curriculum called Kokoro-no-kyoiku--education of the heart. Japanese educators include moral growth as an integral part of one's intellectual growth and believe that democratic societies must promote virtuous decision making. Moral education in Japan nurtures the…

Schwartz, Sherry

2007-01-01

477

FRAMINGHAM HEART STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to CVD by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke....

478

Be Still My Heart.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project description is designed to show how graphing calculators and calculator-based laboratories (CBLs) can be used to explore topics in physics and health sciences. The activities address such topics as respiration, heart rate, and the circulatory system. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are blackline masters. (MM)

Barber, Betsy; Ball, Rhonda

479

Modeling the Heart  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Models of the heart have been developed since 1960, starting with the discovery and modeling of potassium channels. The first models of calcium balance were made in the 1980s and have now reached a high degree of physiological detail. During the 1990s, these cell models were incorporated into anatomically detailed tissue and organ models.

Denis Noble (Oxford University Department of Physiology)

2004-08-01

480

The Heart of the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how the circulatory system works, including the heart, blood vessels and blood. Students learn about the chambers and valves of the heart, the difference between veins and arteries, and the different components of blood. This lesson also covers the technology engineers have developed to repair the heart if it is damaged. Students also understand how the circulatory system is affected during spaceflight (e.g., astronauts lose muscle in their heart during space travel).

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

481

Determinants of heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to examine clinical determinants of heart rate variability and to report normative reference values for eight heart rate variability measures.Background. Although the clinical implications of heart rate variability have been described, clinical determinants and normative values of heart rate variability measures have not been studied systematically in a large community-based population.Methods. The first 2 h of

Hisako Tsuji; Ferdinand J. Venditti; Emily S. Manders; Jane C. Evans; Martin G. Larson; Charles L. Feldman; Daniel Levy

1996-01-01

482

A Genome Scan for Linkage With Aortic Root Diameter in Hypertensive African Americans and Whites in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network (HyperGEN) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Aortic root dilation is a prominent feature in several cardiovascular diseases. This study seeks to identify genomic regions linked to variation in the aortic root diameter (ARD) in hypertensive African American and white individuals.Methods: We performed a genome scan for ARD in the Hypertension Genetic Epidemiology Network Study, one of four networks in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood

Amy I. Lynch; Donna K. Arnett; Larry D. Atwood; Richard B. Devereux; Dalane W. Kitzman; Paul N. Hopkins; Albert Oberman; Dabeeru C. Rao

2005-01-01

483

What Are the Risks of Heart Transplant?  

MedlinePLUS

... on Twitter. What Are the Risks of a Heart Transplant? Although heart transplant surgery is a life-saving measure, it has ... of these risks. The risks of having a heart transplant include: Failure of the donor heart Complications from ...

484

lillehei heart institute Summer Research Scholars  

E-print Network

Professor, Hematology, Oncology & Transplantation Lillehei Heart Institute University of Minnesota Michael#12;lillehei heart institute Summer Research Scholars The Lillehei Heart Institute is proud St. Paul, MN Daniel J. Garry, MD, PhD Executive Director, Lillehei Heart Institute Professor

Thomas, David D.

485

What Is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?  

MedlinePLUS

... Surgeon? Family Life Listen What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon? Article Body If your child needs surgery ... heart surgery. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Heart Surgeons Have? Pediatric heart surgeons are medical doctors ...

486

Heart Valve Surgery Recovery and Follow Up  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Valve Surgery Recovery and Follow Up Updated:Sep 2,2014 What to expect after heart valve surgery The ... resources from Adam Pick's blog: Traveling Timeline After Heart Surgery 5 Things to Do While Your Heart Mends ( ...

487

What to Expect during a Heart Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Heart Surgery Heart Failure Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Ventricular Assist Device ... temporarily puts you to sleep. Surgeons use open-heart surgery to do heart transplants. The surgeon will make ...

488

What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are conditions or habits that raise your risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart attack . These risk factors also ...

489

Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style  

E-print Network

Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

Bandettini, Peter A.

490

Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitja, Oriol

2014-01-01

491

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

1996-01-01

492

Epidemiology of yaws: an update.  

PubMed

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjŕ, Oriol

2014-01-01

493

[Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases].  

PubMed

Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases has not been sufficiently studied so far. The first statistical studies regarded the coexistence of allergic conjunctivitis together with allergic rhinitis, as rhinoconjunctivitis. Only in the last 10 years eye allergy has been regarded as a separate epidemiological and clinical problem. According to Bonini, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) accompanies pollinosis in 95.2%. Buckley's studies revealed symptoms of SAC in 21% of British population and Berdy reported a similar result in 20% of Americans. Weeke estimates that depending on geographical region and age of examined patients, allergic eye diseases occur in 5 to 22% of the population. Among them SAC and perennial allertgic conjunctivitis (PAC) account for up to 50%. A recent Italian study demonstrated an increase of the incidence of allergic eye diseases, which were found in 38% of the studied population, most frequently in young males. Eye allergy presented most frequently as rhinoconjunctivitis (SAC and PAC) (63.7%), and then as atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) (21%) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (15.5%). It seems that the incidence of allergic eye diseases demonstrates a rising tendency, similarly as it has been found in recent years in the case of bronchial asthma, rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. PMID:14524314

Bogacka, Ewa

2003-06-01

494

Skin cancer epidemiology: research needs.  

PubMed

The basis data currently being used to estimate and evaluate the dose-response relationship of UV-B and skin cancer are from a 6-month survey for four areas that participated in the TNCS, 1971-1972. Although most investigators from various fields of interest outside of cancer research, i.e. aviation, environmental ecology, physics, chemistry, and photobiology, etc., may admit an association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and UV-B exists, they point out that 1) the epidemiologic data currently available are too sparse and lack certain detail, such as exposure patterns and skin types, and 2) more data of this type are needed over a broad geographical range to allow for more precise measurements of the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion. They argue that the present relationships could change drastically with the addition even of a few more points (geographical locations) and that location-specific and demographic factors should be evaluated. Therefore, these data need to be updated and expanded to include more locations over a longer study period. The National Cancer Institute and the Environmental Protection Agency undertook a special skin cancer study from June 1, 1977 to May 31, 1978. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) in various population groups within the United States, and 2) to ascertain and measure epidemiologic factors that may contribute toward the excess risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in specific population groups. PMID:753973

Scotto, J; Fears, T R

1978-12-01

495

Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

2010-01-01

496

Obesity, Diabetes and Atrial Fibrillation; Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Interventions  

PubMed Central

The last few decades have witnessed a global rise in adult obesity of epidemic proportions. The potential impact of this is emphasized when one considers that body mass index (BMI) is a powerful predictor of death, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Similarly we have witnessed a parallel rise in the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the commonest sustained cardiac arrhythmia, which is also a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Part of this increase is attributable to advances in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) and heart failure (HF) improving life expectancy and consequently the prevalence of AF. However, epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent association between obesity and AF, possibly reflecting common pathophysiology and risk factors for both conditions. Indeed, weight gain and obesity are associated with structural and functional changes of the cardiovascular system including left atrial and ventricular remodeling, haemodynamic alterations, autonomic dysfunction, and diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by an adverse structural and functional cardiac phenotype which may predispose to the development of AF [3]. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological and mechanistic relationships between obesity, diabetes and AF, and the challenges posed in the management of this high-risk group of individuals. PMID:22920475

Asghar, O; Alam, U; Hayat, SA; Aghamohammadzadeh, R; Heagerty, AM; Malik, RA

2012-01-01

497

Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Europe: many calculations, little knowledge.  

PubMed

Chagas disease and its causative agent Trypanosoma cruzi are endemic in almost all countries in South and Middle America. Currently, there are more than 10 million affected people. It is the most common reason for heart failure and a frequent cause of intestinal problems in Latin America. The phenotype of the Chagas cardiomyopathy is varying. Dilative cardiomyopathy, often accompanied by an apical aneurysm is the most common finding in the end stage heart failure, but rhythm disorders like conduction blocks, ventricular or supraventricular forms of tachycardia or repolarization changes occur as well, mainly in the early stages. Migration of infected people leads to a distribution from the endemic countries to North America and Europe. Although more than 500,000 people of Latin American origin are currently living in Europe, Chagas disease is not considered as a public health problem, yet. Cases of transmission via blood donation, organ transplantation or from mother-to-child are reported for several European countries but there is no database for Germany. Current epidemiological data are mostly available from regional surveys from other countries or are extrapolated. Hence, there is a large variation in the estimated numbers on the incidence of Chagas. Robust and reliable data are lacking. This review gives an overview on the currently available data and calls for a German Chagas surveillance. PMID:23989652

Strasen, Jörn; Williams, Tatjana; Ertl, Georg; Zoller, Thomas; Stich, August; Ritter, Oliver

2014-01-01

498

Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

1995-01-01

499

Oktober 2008 Beating Heart Graft  

E-print Network

-OP: ­ Kunstherz ­ Andere · Ergebnisse #12;ADULT HEART TRANSPLANTS (1/2002-6/2005) Relative Risk of 1 Year Lung Transplant 2007;26: 769-781 #12;ADULT HEART TRANSPLANTS (1/1999-6/2001) Relative Risk of 5 Year Annual International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantion, S. Tsui, MD, 1-Year Follow Up, PROTECT

Manstein, Dietmar J.

500

Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement  

MedlinePLUS

Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Aug 4,2014 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well ... content was last reviewed on 07/09/2013. Heart Failure News Read the latest heart failure related ...