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1

Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

1987-10-01

2

Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)

Chrzanowski, P.

1991-03-20

3

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

4

Recovery following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with disposal planning, the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) was developed to improve emergency preparedness at the eight installations involved and for the communities which surround them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is assisting in the implementation of this program on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding established with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army, for Installations, Logistics and the Environment (OASA, IL E). A steering committee and six subcommittees, co-chaired by DA and FEMA, were created, and representatives from state and local governments, as well as other federal agencies, were invited to observe and participate in meetings of these subcommittees. Recognizing the need for a coordinated recovery effort in the event of a chemical incident or accident, the Army and FEMA established one of these subcommittees to guide and coordinate recovery planning. The Army has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to conduct research for offpost procedural planning for the recovery phase, in coordination with this subcommittee. The draft paper Reentry, Restoration and Recovery from a Chemical Weapons Accident: offpost Procedural Planning and Preparedness, A Concept Paper, is a result of efforts by Mr. Tom Hess and Mr. Denzel Fisher of the Army, OASA IL E, by Dr. Caroline Herzenberg and other members of the Emergency Systems Section at Argonne National Laboratory, and by Dr. James D. Adams of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Concept Paper was written to provide an overview of the role of recovery planning in the CSEP Program and discusses various technical and social aspects which should be considered by offpost planners. This conference paper presents a brief summary of that work, and hopes to emphasize the importance of recovery planning. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Hess, T. (Department of the Army, Washington, DC (USA)); Herzenberg, C.; Tanzman, E.; Meleski, S.; Hemphill, R.; Haffenden, R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, L. (Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (USA)); Adams, J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1991-01-01

5

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01

6

Defense Experimentation and Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

A primary mission of the site is to help ensure that the nation's nuclear weapon stockpile remains safe, secure and reliable. The stockpile stewardship program, working with the national weapons laboratories conducts a wide range of experiments using advanced diagnostic technologies, many of which were developed right here at the NNSS.

None

2014-10-28

7

Defense Experimentation and Stockpile Stewardship  

ScienceCinema

A primary mission of the site is to help ensure that the nation's nuclear weapon stockpile remains safe, secure and reliable. The stockpile stewardship program, working with the national weapons laboratories conducts a wide range of experiments using advanced diagnostic technologies, many of which were developed right here at the NNSS.

None

2015-01-07

8

Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-06-01

9

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

10

Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some

Lani Miyoshi Sanders; Sharon Marie DeLand; Arian Leigh Pregenzer

2010-01-01

11

Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

Adams, Marvin L.

2014-05-01

12

The Stockpile Monitor Program  

SciTech Connect

Recent political changes have led to drastic reductions in the number of nuclear warheads in stockpile, as well as increased expectations for warhead-service lives. In order to support and maintain a shrinking and aging nuclear stockpile, weapon scientists and engineers need detailed information describing the environments experienced by weapons in the field. Hence, the Stockpile Monitor Program was initiated in 1991 to develop a comprehensive and accurate database of temperature and humidity conditions experienced by nuclear warheads both in storage and on-alert.

Buntain, G.A.; Fletcher, M.; Rabie, R.

1994-07-01

13

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18

14

Stockpile Management Program quarterly report. 2. quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to ensure the safety and reliability of the enduring nuclear weapons stockpile by: (1) maintaining robust nuclear facilities that comprise the infrastructure needed to conduct the various laboratory programs; (2) maintaining capabilities and qualified personnel needed to successfully implement the Program and ensure availability of competencies; (3) meeting present and future production and surveillance requirements to support the enduring stockpile and other programmatic deliverables; and (4) capturing and maintaining expertise and competency in the processes and technologies required to build a complete physics package. Summaries of accomplishments are presented for approximately 30 projects managed under this program.

NONE

1998-11-01

15

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

16

Reliability guarantees, demonstration, and control for weapon systems proposals  

E-print Network

it has been necessary to delete the co-ordinates on one figure and to normaliss the absoissa on another. The numerioal examples serve only to illustrate methodology and do not represent any existing or propose4 guided missiles. LIST Qy ZIGUk... aircraft' to establish demonstra- tion requirements& snd to present a method for controlling reliability during the design and production phases. RELIABILI1T AEEEE ZPE~'LCTIVilEEE"'SS Reliability is the probabil1ty that any missile, after passing all...

Lanier, Ross Edwin

1959-01-01

17

Manufacturing high reliability weapon grade transformers in small lots  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has used flyback transformers for many years, primarily to charge capacitors for capacitive discharge units. Important characteristics of the transformer design are to meet inductance, turns ratio, and high voltage breakdown requirements as well as not magnetically saturating during each energy transfer cycle. Sandia has taken over production responsibility for magnetic components from a previous GE/LM, General Electric/Lockheed Martin, facility in Florida that produced {approximately} 50 K units per year. Vanguard Electronics is working with Sandia to transfer many of these designs to Vanguard`s small manufacturing facility in Gardena, CA. The challenge is to achieve the required high reliability and meet all the other electrical requirements with such small quantities of parts, {approximately} 100 per year. DOE requirements include high reliability {le} 3 failures per 10,000 components per 20 years while meeting numerous other environmental requirements. The basic design and prove-in required four lots of preproduction parts, extensive environmental testing, and numerous design changes. The manufacturing problems that affected performance of the transformer will be presented. These include encapsulation voids and core alignment. Also, some extended life test data that predicts long term reliability of newly produced transformers versus older designs will be compared.

Archer, W.E.; Sanchez, R.O.

1998-08-01

18

Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

19

Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

2009-10-11

20

Aging and Radiation Effects in Stockpile Electronics  

SciTech Connect

It is likely that aging is affecting the radiation hardness of stockpile electronics, and we have seen apparent examples of aging that affects the electronic radiation hardness. It is also possible that low-level intrinsic radiation that is inherent during stockpile life will damage or in a sense age electronic components. Both aging and low level radiation effects on radiation hardness and stockpile reliability need to be further investigated by using both test and modeling strategies that include appropriate testing of electronic components withdrawn from the stockpile.

Hartman, E.F.

1999-03-25

21

Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine if the SNS is delivered to your area? Local communities are prepared to receive SNS medicine and ... a terrorist will strike and few state or local governments have the resources to create sufficient stockpiles on ...

22

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

23

A Sandia nuclear weapon knowledge management program plan for FY 1998--2003. Volume 1: Synopsis  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains a synopsis and briefing charts for a five-year plan which describes a Knowledge Management Program needed to meet Sandia`s responsibility for maintaining safety, security, reliability, and operational effectiveness of the nuclear weapon stockpile. Although the knowledge and expertise required to maintain and upgrade the stockpile continues to be critical to the country`s defense, Sandia`s historical process for developing and advancing future knowledge and expertise needs to be addressed. This plan recommends implementing an aggressive Knowledge Management Program to assure retention and furtherance of Sandia`s expertise, beginning in fiscal year 1998, as an integrated approach to solving the expertise dilemma.

NONE

1998-02-01

24

Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

2012-01-26

25

Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos  

ScienceCinema

"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

2014-08-12

26

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

SciTech Connect

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The most definitive tests typically destroy the weapons so a given unit is tested only once. Surveillance managers need to decide how many units should be tested, how often they should be tested, what tests should be done, and how the resulting data are used to estimate the stockpile's current and future reliability. These issues are particularly critical from a planning perspective: given what has already been observed and our understanding of the mechanisms of stockpile aging, what is an appropriate and cost-effective surveillance program? Surveillance programs are costly, broad, and deep, especially in the DOE, where the US nuclear weapons surveillance program must 'ensure, through various tests, that the reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained' in the absence of full-system testing (General Accounting Office, 1996). The DOE program consists primarily of three types of tests: nonnuclear flight tests, that involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed; and nonnuclear and nuclear systems laboratory tests, which detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, and design of the nonnuclear and nuclear portions of the weapons. Fully integrated analysis of the suite of nuclear weapons surveillance data is an ongoing area of research (Wilson et al., 2007). This paper introduces a simple model that captures high-level features of stockpile reliability over time and can be used to answer broad policy questions about surveillance programs. Our intention is to provide a framework that generates tractable answers that integrate expert knowledge and high-level summaries of surveillance data to allow decision-making about appropriate trade-offs between the cost of data and the precision of stockpile reliability estimates.

Vanderwiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Alyson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reese, Christopher S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-07-22

27

A system simulation to enhance stockpile stewardship (ASSESS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the ASSESS project, whose goal is to construct a policy driven enterprise simulation of the DOE nuclear weapons complex (DOE/NWC). ASSESS encompasses the full range of stockpile stewardship activities by incorporating simulation component models that are developed and managed by local experts. ASSESS runs on a heterogeneous distributed computing environment and implements multi-layered user access capabilities. ASSESS allows the user to create hypothetical policies governing stockpile stewardship, simulate the resulting operation of the DOE/NWC, and analyze the relative impact of each policy.

Yoshimura, A.S.; Plantenga, T.D.; Napolitano, L.M.; Johnson, M.M.

1997-11-01

28

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

29

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

30

An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

31

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

32

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01

33

The pediatric vaccine stockpiling problem.  

PubMed

The U.S. has experienced many major interruptions of its pediatric vaccine production in the past decade. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) copes with these shortages by building a national stockpile of pediatric vaccines, which it makes accessible to the public in the event of a shortage. The management of this stockpile is difficult due to limited production capacity and long and unpredictable production interruptions. In this paper, we address policies for managing the stockpile. We provide sufficient conditions for the optimal policy to be a modified state-dependent base-stock policy, with the base-stock level decreasing in the pipeline inventory. Since the optimal policy is in general difficult to evaluate, we derive bounds on the optimal decision in each period. We develop an efficient policy that performs on average within 1% of optimality in simulations. We show that stocking the same supply of vaccine of every type can be over-conservative in some cases, and inadequate in others by large factors. We also quantify the substantial reduction in inventory level that can be achieved when there are multiple suppliers in the market. PMID:22874852

Truong, Van-Anh

2012-09-21

34

Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect

The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

1998-02-01

35

Using Direct Sub-Level Entity Access to Improve Nuclear Stockpile Simulation Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Direct sub-level entity access is a seldom-used technique in discrete-event simulation modeling that addresses the accessibility of sub-level entity information. The technique has significant advantages over more common, alternative modeling methods--especially where hierarchical entity structures are modeled. As such, direct sub-level entity access is often preferable in modeling nuclear stockpile, life-extension issues, an area to which it has not been previously applied. Current nuclear stockpile, life-extension models were demonstrated to benefit greatly from the advantages of direct sub-level entity access. In specific cases, the application of the technique resulted in models that were up to 10 times faster than functionally equivalent models where alternative techniques were applied. Furthermore, specific implementations of direct sub-level entity access were observed to be more flexible, efficient, functional, and scalable than corresponding implementations using common modeling techniques. Common modeling techniques (''unbatch/batch'' and ''attribute-copying'') proved inefficient and cumbersome in handling many nuclear stockpile modeling complexities, including multiple weapon sites, true defect analysis, and large numbers of weapon and subsystem types. While significant effort was required to enable direct sub-level entity access in the nuclear stockpile simulation models, the enhancements were worth the effort--resulting in more efficient, more capable, and more informative models that effectively addressed the complexities of the nuclear stockpile.

Robert Y. Parker

1999-08-01

36

Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program  

SciTech Connect

The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

1994-09-01

37

From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program  

SciTech Connect

The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation's aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

1991-01-01

38

System reliability assessment with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The projected service life of weapons in the US nuclear stockpile will exceed the original design life of their critical components. Interim metrics are needed to describe weapon states for use in simulation models of the nuclear weapons complex. The authors present an approach to this problem based upon the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) that allows meaningful assessments to be made in an environment where reliability models are incomplete. AR models are designed to emulate the inference process used by subject matter experts. The emulation is based upon a formal logic structure that relates evidence about components. This evidence is translated using natural language expressions into linguistic variables that describe membership in fuzzy sets. The authors introduce a metric that measures the acceptability of a weapon to nuclear deterrence planners. Implication rule bases are used to draw a series of forward chaining inferences about the acceptability of components, subsystems and individual weapons. They describe each component in the AR model in some detail and illustrate its behavior with a small example. The integration of the acceptability metric into a prototype model to simulate the weapons complex is also described.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Helm, T.M.; Boerigter, S.T.

1998-12-31

39

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

40

The Threat of Low-Yield Earth-Penetrating Nuclear Weapons to Civilian Populations: Nuclear \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of a new generation of low-yield nuclear earth-penetrating weapons (EPWs), such as modified versions of the B61-11 currently in the US stockpile, claim that such weapons could be used against deeply buried and hardened underground bunkers with \\

Victor W. Sidel; H. Jack Geiger; Herbert L. Abrams; Robert W. Nelson; John Loretz

2003-01-01

41

GeoffBrumfiel,Washington Nuclear watchdogs and former weapons  

E-print Network

existing bombs detonate, so that the stockpile can be maintained without testing the weapons it contains. The National Ignition Facility uses 192 high-power lasers to fuse hydrogen isotopes together, releasing energy. But part of its environmental-impact statement, released in February, announced plans to line the hydrogen

42

Reliability and Lifetime Prediction for Ceramic Components  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic materials are used extensively in non-nuclear components in the weapons stockpile including neutron tubes, stronglinks, weaklinks, batteries, and current/voltage stacks. Ceramics also perform critical functions in electronics, passively as insulators and actively as resistors and capacitors, Glass and ceramic seals also provide hermetic electrical feedthrus in connectors for many weapons components.

Vedula, V.R.; Glass, S.J.; Monroe, S.L.; Neilsen, M.K.; Newton, C.

1999-01-11

43

Reliability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In essence, reliability is the consistency of test results. To understand the meaning of reliability and how it relates to validity, imagine going to an airport to take flight #007 from Pittsburgh to San Diego. If, every time the airplane makes the flight

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

44

Laser weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

Tsipis, K.

1981-12-01

45

Hurricane/Disaster Checklist Stockpile Water!!  

E-print Network

with water, including heavy contractor garbage bags o Purchase bottled water for drinking o Fill the (clean1 Hurricane/Disaster Checklist · Stockpile Water!! o Fill up as many containers as possible) bath tubs and sinks with fresh water · Get $cash, enough for food and flights out of Oahu, etc. · Gas

Wang, Yuqing

46

Sinclair Stockpiles CFCs for Future Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Dayton (Ohio) community college's 21 buildings were cooled by a network of 5 chillers, all of which used soon-to-be-banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A reclamation program provides the college with reusable refrigerant and eliminates chiller replacement costs. Refrigerant from three of the old units is stockpiled for use in the two other…

George, Stephen C.

1996-01-01

47

Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile.  

SciTech Connect

A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support material in the W76. It contains MDA, which has been identified by OSHA as a carcinogen and is no longer used in the nuclear weapons complex. In addition, the Thornel carbon mat used in the syntactic foam formulation is no longer available. These issues have created major challenges in the effort to reestablish aft support production capability for the W76 LEP. Urethane Encapsulant 7200, an adhesive used to bond explosive booster pellets and detonator components, was originally manufactured by Hexcel Corporation and is no longer available. The details of the projects currently underway to provide replacements for these materials will be discussed.

Sandoval, C. W. (Cynthia W.); Gladysz, G. M. (Gary M.); Stephens, T. S. (Thomas S.); Gleiman, S. S. (Seth S.); Mendoza, D. (Daniel); Baker, G. K. (G. Keith); Schoonover, J. R. (Jon R.); Schneider, Jim; Perry, B. (Brian); Lula, J. W.

2002-01-01

48

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01

49

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the way other major powers view their nuclear capability. Finally, and though of less cosmic importance, it will save money in the long run.

Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

50

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

SciTech Connect

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-01-01

51

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

52

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

53

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity  

SciTech Connect

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC sought technical assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define and quantify the management options for the thorium nitrate stockpile. This paper describes methodologies and results comprising the work in Phase 1 and Phase 2. The results allow the DNSC to structure and schedule needed tasks to ensure continued safe long-term storage and/or phased disposal of the stockpile.

Hermes, W. H.; Hylton, T. D.; Mattus, C.H.; Storch, S. N.; Singley, P.S.; Terry. J. W.; Pecullan, M.; Reilly, F. K.

2003-02-26

54

Locations and Status of Stockpile SitesLocations and Status of Stockpile Sites Pueblo,COPueblo,CO  

E-print Network

obsolete and deteriorating with age. The U.S. national stockpile of lethal chemical warfare agents 32, Chemical and Biological Warfare Program· Section 1521, Destruction of existing stockpile of Section 1523, Annual report on chemical and biological warfare defense> National Center for Environmental

55

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13

56

Science based stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification, and fission fragment beams  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. The extent to which underground experimental data can be matched with simulations is one measure of the credibility of our capability to predict weapon performance. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the fission yield of a device was often determined by measuring fission products. Conversion of the measured fission products to yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable neutron-rich fission fragments and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One of the fission products measured was {sup 95}Zr, the accumulation of all mass 95 fission products of Y, Sr, Rb and Kr (see Fig. 1). Subsequent neutron-induced reactions on these short lived fission products were assumed to cancel out - in other words, the destruction of mass 95 nuclides was more or less equal to the production of mass 95 nuclides. If a {sup 95}Sr was destroyed by an (n,2n) reaction it was also produced by (n,2n) reactions on {sup 96}Sr, for example. However, since these nuclides all have fairly short half-lives (seconds to minutes or even less), no experimental nuclear reaction cross-sections exist, and only theoretically modeled cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity, should the beam intensity be sufficient, to measure cross-sections on a few important nuclides in order to benchmark the theoretical calculations and significantly improve the nuclear data. The nuclides in Fig. 1 are prioritized by importance factor and displayed in stoplight colors, green the highest and red the lowest priority.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D; Burke, J; Bernstein, L A; Wu, C Y

2009-09-14

57

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2011-07-01

58

CRAX/Cassandra Reliability Analysis Software  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years Sandia National Laboratories has been moving toward an increased dependence on model- or physics-based analyses as a means to assess the impact of long-term storage on the nuclear weapons stockpile. These deterministic models have also been used to evaluate replacements for aging systems, often involving commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS). In addition, the models have been used to assess the performance of replacement components manufactured via unique, small-lot production runs. In either case, the limited amount of available test data dictates that the only logical course of action to characterize the reliability of these components is to specifically consider the uncertainties in material properties, operating environment etc. within the physics-based (deterministic) model. This not only provides the ability to statistically characterize the expected performance of the component or system, but also provides direction regarding the benefits of additional testing on specific components within the system. An effort was therefore initiated to evaluate the capabilities of existing probabilistic methods and, if required, to develop new analysis methods to support the inclusion of uncertainty in the classical design tools used by analysts and design engineers at Sandia. The primary result of this effort is the CMX (Cassandra Exoskeleton) reliability analysis software.

Robinson, D.

1999-02-10

59

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

60

Reconversion of nuclear weapons  

E-print Network

The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

Kapitza, Sergei P

1993-01-01

61

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

62

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

63

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

64

Versatile attack weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air defense threat to air strike forces continues to increase, both in quality and quantity. Third World countries now possess Integrated Air Defense (AID) capabilities equaling that of major powers. Radio Frequency (RF) only Anti-Radiation Homing (ARH) weapons are being effectively neutralized by countermeasure improvements in these land based and satellite IAD systems. The cost of piecemeal modification of existing weapon systems or the continuous fielding of threat specific weapon systems is becoming prohibitive. A low funded in-house project was started in 1988 that confronts this defense threat situation with a multi-mode multi-mission weapon system which is affordable to employ in large quantities. The system has capabilities as both a defense suppression weapon and a surgical strike weapon. Employment can be facilitated from a reduced threat environment to air strike forces. Other objectives for this innovative weapon system are the capabilities for high target damage, countermeasure resistance, real time aim point selection, and real time Battle Damage Assessment (BDA). Technical feasibility of the various system and subsystem elements were verified by theoretical analysis. Many were also verified by physical demonstration in prototype hardware.

Quist, D.

1992-11-01

65

Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2008-07-01

66

NIF system-design requirements for nuclear-weapons physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

One of the objectives of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to provide an aboveground experimental capability for conducting weapons-physics experiments, for maintaining nuclear competence. To achieve the high-energy-density regimes needed for a science-based stockpile stewardship program, NIF must produce conditions similar to those in nuclear weapon explosions. This imposes fundamental facility design requirements on NIF. This document summarizes those requirements for opacity, radiation-flow, equation-of-state, non-LTE and x-ray laser, hydrodynamic, and capsule-implosion experiments.

Perry, T.S. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wilde, B.H. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-01

67

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-07-01

68

Stockpiled Prairie Grass For Fall-Grazing Lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New varieties of prairiegrass (Bromus catharticus Vahl. = B. willdenowii Kunth.) exhibit improved persistence over 'Matua' under USA growing conditions, but animal performance data is lacking. Therefore, we evaluated performance of lambs grazing fall-stockpiled 'Dixon' prairiegrass on a West Virgin...

69

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons useable fissile materials. Final report, March-June 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium), much of which is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union, is a clear and present danger to international society. Given the widespread availability of the materials and technology for bomb making, the ever increasing amounts of fissile materials is highly susceptible to theft or

1995-01-01

70

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

1998-06-01

71

National Defense Stockpile: an organizational perspective. Masters thesis  

SciTech Connect

The United States is dependent on foreign sources for many strategic and critical materials vital to its survival and national security. To counter the affects of a disruption in the supply of these materials, the US maintains a National Defense Stockpile (NDS) made up of over a hundred separate depots located in various parts of the country. The management and policy formulation of various aspects of the NDS are distributed across a wide spectrum of agencies in the Executive and Legislative Branches. These organizations along with associated legislation are examined for their impact on the policy-formulation process. This thesis also reviews organizations outside the government that affect stockpile policy. General and specific recommendations on proposed management alternatives are presented at the end of the study.

Batchelor, R.A.; Kirby, J.E.

1985-03-01

72

Cyber Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

World leaders are beginning to look beyond temporary fixes to the challenge of securing the Internet. One possible solution may be an international arms control treaty for cyberspace. The 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) provides national security planners with a useful model. CWC has been ratified by 98% of the world’s governments, and encompasses 95% of the world’s population. It

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

73

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

74

Nuclear Weapons and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

Howie, David I.

1984-01-01

75

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

76

Names and Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

Kauffman, Charles

1989-01-01

77

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

78

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

Maaranen, S.A.

1996-07-01

79

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

ScienceCinema

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2015-01-05

80

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2014-11-03

81

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

82

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

83

Monitoring nuclear weapons 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a America’s first space program was to develop surveillance satellites to monitor the nuclear arsenals of the Soviet Union and\\u000a its allies. Although the Cold War has ended, nuclear weapons remain a threat to world peace and surveillance satellites are\\u000a still an important tool in monitoring them. A recent US policy statement on the subject stated that “The threat of nuclear

Pat Norris

84

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

85

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

1993-10-01

86

Effect of natural convection on spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous combustion may occur in a coal stockpile when the heat generated within the pile cannot be dissipated at near ambient temperature. Under practical conditions, natural convection enhances the rate of heat removal from the bed and shifts the ignition to lower particle sizes (higher reactivities). Analysis of three limiting cases of a one-dimensional model yields criteria predicting the conditions under which ignition occurs as well as those for which a low-temperature (extinguished) state exists for all particle sizes. A simple asymptotic relation predicts the ignition point at large Rayleigh numbers.

Brooks, K.; Balakotaiah, V.; Luss, D.

1988-03-01

87

Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J. [Odgen Environmental and Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

88

Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of sewage sludge that are dried and then often stored in biosolid stockpiles in treatment plants. Because the biosolids are rich in decomposable organic matter they could be a significant source for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yet there are no direct measurements of GHG from stockpiles. We therefore measured the direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a monthly basis from three different age classes of biosolid stockpiles at the Western Treatment Plant (WTP), Melbourne, Australia, from December 2009 to November 2011 using manual static chambers. All biosolid stockpiles were a significant point source for CH4 and N2O emissions. The youngest biosolids (<1 year old) had the greatest CH4 and N2O emissions of 60.2 kg of CO2-e per Mg of biosolid per year. Stockpiles that were between 1 and 3 years old emitted less overall GHG (?29 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)) and the oldest stockpiles emitted the least GHG (?10 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)). Methane emissions were negligible in all stockpiles but the relative contribution of N2O and CO2 changed with stockpile age. The youngest stockpile emitted two thirds of the GHG emission as N2O, while the 1-3 year old stockpile emitted an equal amount of N2O and CO2 and in the oldest stockpile CO2 emissions dominated. We did not detect any seasonal variability of GHG emissions and did not observe a correlation between GHG flux and environmental variables such as biosolid temperature, moisture content or nitrate and ammonium concentration. We also modeled CH4 emissions based on a first order decay model and the model based estimated annual CH4 emissions were higher as compared to the direct field based estimated annual CH4 emissions. Our results indicate that labile organic material in stockpiles is decomposed over time and that nitrogen decomposition processes lead to significant N2O emissions. Carbon decomposition favors CO2 over CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. PMID:24835360

Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

2014-10-01

89

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

90

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

2001-01-01

91

ENZYMES FOR DEGRADATION OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS AND DEMILITARIZATION OF EXPLOSIVES STOCKPILES, SERDP ANNUAL (INTERIM) REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001. over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed...

92

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

93

Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

Ozdeniz, H [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

94

Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.  

PubMed

Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

2010-06-11

95

Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

Wellington, J. J.

1984-01-01

96

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

97

Ciliates Expel Environmental Legionella-Laden Pellets To Stockpile Food  

PubMed Central

When Tetrahymena ciliates are cultured with Legionella pneumophila, the ciliates expel bacteria packaged in free spherical pellets. Why the ciliates expel these pellets remains unclear. Hence, we determined the optimal conditions for pellet expulsion and assessed whether pellet expulsion contributes to the maintenance of growth and the survival of ciliates. When incubated with environmental L. pneumophila, the ciliates expelled the pellets maximally at 2 days after infection. Heat-killed bacteria failed to produce pellets from ciliates, and there was no obvious difference in pellet production among the ciliates or bacterial strains. Morphological studies assessing lipid accumulation showed that pellets contained tightly packed bacteria with rapid lipid accumulation and were composed of the layers of membranes; bacterial culturability in the pellets rapidly decreased, in contrast to what was seen in ciliate-free culture, although the bacteria maintained membrane integrity in the pellets. Furthermore, ciliates newly cultured with pellets were maintained and grew vigorously compared with those without pellets. In contrast, a human L. pneumophila isolate killed ciliates 7 days postinfection in a Dot/Icm-dependent manner, and pellets harboring this strain did not support ciliate growth. Also, pellets harboring the human isolate were resuscitated by coculturing with amoebae, depending on Dot/Icm expression. Thus, while ciliates expel pellet-packaged environmental L. pneumophila for stockpiling food, the pellets packaging the human isolate are harmful to ciliate survival, which may be of clinical significance. PMID:22635991

Hojo, Fuhito; Sato, Daisuke; Matsuo, Junji; Miyake, Masaki; Nakamura, Shinji; Kunichika, Miyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Mitsutaka; Takahashi, Kaori; Takemura, Hiromu; Kamiya, Shigeru

2012-01-01

98

Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension  

SciTech Connect

One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

Turbiville, G.H.

1996-06-01

99

Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

2012-12-01

100

Internet-based monitoring and prediction system of coal stockpile behaviors under atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous combustion on industrial-scale stockpiles causes environmental problems and economic losses for the companies\\u000a consuming large amounts of coal. In this study, an effective monitoring and prediction system based on internet was developed\\u000a and implemented to prevent losses and environmental problems. The system was performed in a coal stockpile with 5 m width,\\u000a 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 t of

Nihat Yilmaz; A. Hadi Ozdeniz

2010-01-01

101

Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.  

PubMed

To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs. PMID:20236719

Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

2010-05-01

102

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

103

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

104

Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other organizations includes performing special tests on weapon components, subassemblies, and systems for purposes such as basic development and specific problem investigation. The WETL staff also sends equipment to other laboratories for specific tests that cannot be performed at Pantex. For example, we modified and sent equipment to Brookhaven National Laboratory for testing with their Neutral Particle Beam. WETL supplied the engineering expertise to accomplish the needed modifications to the equipment and the technicians to help perform many special tests at Brookhaven. A variety of testing is possible within the WETL, including: Accelerometer, decelerometer, and G-switch g-level/closure testing; Neutron generator performance testing; weapon systems developmental tests; weapon system component testing; weapon system failure-mode-duplication tests; simultaneity measurements; environmental extreme testing; parachute deployment testing; permissive action link (PAL) testing and trajectory-sensing signal generator (TSSG) testing. WETL`s existing equipment configurations do not restrict the testing performed at the WETL. Equipment and facilities are adapted to specific requirements. The WETL`s facilities can often eliminate the need to build or acquire new test equipment, thereby saving time and expense.

Peters, W.R.

1993-08-01

105

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force  

E-print Network

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

Liolios, T E

1999-01-01

106

Energy harvesting device for power generation onboard gravity-dropped weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and construction of an energy harvesting device to provide a safe, reliable source of electrical energy onboard gravity-dropped weapons such as aerial bombs. The generators collect and store mechanical energy as the weapon falls away from the aircraft. Only after the weapon has fallen away from the aircraft is the stored mechanical energy released, generating electricity through a hybrid piezoelectric and electromagnetic generation method. The design, construction, and testing of the generator is discussed at length. Conceptual designs for integrating the described energy harvester alongside current and alternative sources of electrical power are also discussed.

Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Bridge, M.

2012-04-01

107

Endless generations of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The author feels that pursuit of Star Wars and continued US nuclear testing is blocking progress toward the eventual worldwide elimination of nuclear weapons. It is also bound to reveal new ways to attack military or civilian targets that will, in turn, stimulate further searches for new types of offensive and defensive nuclear weapons. Some of these developments could intensify the belief that limited nuclear wars can be fought and won. In short, development of new generations of nuclear weapons will provide the kind of positive feedback to the nuclear arms race that will greatly expand its dangers and its costs. Further proliferation of new types of nuclear weapons will increase the already extreme complexity of military planning and response, and the attendant dangers of nuclear war occurring by accident or through misinterpretation of information. Assessments of possible new military threats will become more uncertain as the complexities increase. Uncertainty can lead to catastrophic mistakes. Real or mistakenly perceived gaps in nuclear preparedness are likely to be used as further arguments for vast new military expenditures. We may all come to long for the relative simplicity of military nuclear issues during the first decade or so following the end of World War II. For these reasons, the author is convinced that there should be a halt to all nuclear tests, worldwide, as soon as possible. 2 references.

Taylor, T.B.

1986-11-01

108

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

109

Risk Identification and Evaluation of Weapons Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the risk evaluation problem in developing weapon is investigated, and a systematized risk evaluation approach based on the independent third party is proposed. Concretely, the necessity of carrying out the risk evaluation based on the independent third party in developing weapon is discussed, and the risk factors in developing weapon are identified. In the stage of choosing

Cheng Wang; Huiru Chen

2010-01-01

110

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

111

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

2011-01-01

112

Weapons in Schools. NSSC Resource Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More than ever, our public school system must confront weapons in schools and become aware of steadily rising statistics on youth homicide and suicide. This report delineates the problem, discusses why children carry weapons to school, and outlines strategies for keeping weapons out of schools and for improving school safety. Although some…

Butterfield, George E., Ed.; Turner, Brenda, Ed.

113

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

114

Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster. PMID:24901104

Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

2014-01-01

115

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

Roberts, G.B.

1996-02-01

116

An empirical analysis of the dynamic programming model of stockpile acquisition strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's future oil price is affected by many factors. The challenge, therefore, is how to select optimal stockpile acquisition strategies to minimize the cost of maintaining a reserve. This paper provides a new method for analyzing this problem using an uncertain dynamic programming model to analyze stockpile acquisition strategies for strategic petroleum reserve. Using this model, we quantify the

Gang Wu; Ying Fan; Lan-Cui Liu; Yi-Ming Wei

2008-01-01

117

Method for measuring density of a bulk material in a stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining the density of coal or other bulk material in a stockpile includes boring a calibration hole into the pile and collecting at least a portion of the cuttings thus obtained into a container. A series of readings are taken within the container with a nuclear depth-density gauge, and the weight of the cuttings and container volume

D. C. Cowherd; J. L. DeWitte; K. A. Taylor; W. C. Whitaker; Ce. A. Wolfe

1984-01-01

118

76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile for...State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal...Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...

2011-09-21

119

75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile Disposals...State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal...Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...

2010-09-09

120

EFFECTS OF HARVEST FREQUENCY AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF STOCKPILED COMON BERMUDAGRASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] is commonly grazed by beef cattle during the growing season and fed as hay during the winter months. Producer perception that stockpiled warm season perennials have less than adequate nutritive value to maintain beef cattle has deterred the practice of sto...

121

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making high-density concrete, and loading conveyor near TAN-607 construction site. Date: September 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 8710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

122

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

123

Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.  

PubMed

In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P < 0.01) than those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. As allocation of stockpiled tall fescue increased from 2.25 to 4.50% of cow-calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P < 0.01) from 84 +/- 7% to 59 +/- 7%. During phase 1 of both years, cow BW losses increased linearly (P < 0.02) as forage allocations decreased, although the losses in yr 1 were almost double (P < 0.01) those in yr 2. During phases 2 and 3, few differences were noted across treatment groups, such that by the end of phase 3, cow BW in all treatments did not differ either year (P > 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P < 0.01) with forage allocation (y = 0.063x + 0.513; R(2) = 0.91). However, calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as stockpiled tall fescue allocations increased (y = -26.5x + 212; R(2) = 0.97) such that gain per hectare for cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P < 0.01) than for those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. Allocating cow-calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized. PMID:18073276

Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

2008-03-01

124

Physical protection technologies for the reconfigured weapons complex  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was a memtier of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfigaration. New and improved S&S concepts, approaches and technologies were needed to support both new and upgraded facilities. Physical protection technologies used in these facilities were to use proven state-of-the-art systems in such areas as image processing, alarm communications and display, entry control, contraband detection, intrusion detection and video assessment, access delay, automation and robotics, and various insider protection systems. Factors considered in the selection of these technologies were protection against the design basis threat, reducing S&S life-cycle costs, automation of S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, increasing the amount of delay to an outsider adversary and having reliable and maintainable systems. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical protection technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

Jaeger, C.D.

1994-08-01

125

Chapter 13 -Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices  

E-print Network

53 Chapter 13 - Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OAR or incendiary material or any other chemical substance; or (b) A bomb, grenade, missile, or similar device authorized by law or authorized in this rule. Possession of a concealed weapons permit does not constitute

126

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

127

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

128

Nuclear weapons are illegal threats  

SciTech Connect

Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

Meyrowitz, E.L.

1985-05-01

129

Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software  

SciTech Connect

As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

Lee, J.R.

1998-11-01

130

Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable complete UQ workflow and analysis for ensemble runs at the extreme scale (e.g. exascale) with self-guiding adaptation in the UQ Pipeline engine. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was funded by the Uncertainty Quantification Strategic Initiative Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project at LLNL under project tracking code 10-SI-013 (UCRL LLNL-ABS-569112).

Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

2012-12-01

131

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

132

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

133

Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

Sniegowski, J.J.

1996-12-31

134

Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

135

Initial radiations from tactical nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Neutron and gamma-ray free-field kermas and fluence spectra for ranges between 1 and 2 km are presented for three tactical nuclear weapons and are compared with nuclear radiations at Hiroshima. The three tactical weapons are modeled as near-surface bursts of a fusion explosive, a fission explosive, and a suppressed-neutron explosive represented by the Little Boy bomb used at Hiroshima.

Loewe, W.E.

1985-08-01

136

Europium-155 in debris from nuclear weapons.  

PubMed

The lithium-drifted germanium detector enables determination of europium-155 on a routine basis in environmental samples contaminated with debris from nuclear weapons. From measurements of europium-155, cesium-144, and strontium-90 in air filters collected between 1961 and 1966, the yield of europium-155 from weapons was estimated at 1400 atoms per 10(6) fissions, which is close to the yield of europium-155 from fast fission of uranium-238. PMID:6028023

Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

1967-07-28

137

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

138

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

139

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

140

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and\\/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a

C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

141

A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R. [Army Defense Ammunition Center and School, Savanna, IL (United States)

1994-05-01

142

Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) establishes environmental policy, sets goals, and provides means for implementing the policy. NEPA contains provisions to ensure that Federal agencies adhere to the letter and spirit of the Act. The key provision requires preparation of an environmental impact statement on ''major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'' (40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' [CFR] {section}1502.3). NEPA ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and actions are taken (40 CFR {section}1500.1[b]). DOE has a policy to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements documents for certain large, multiple-facility sites such as LLNL (10 CFR {section}1021.330). In August 1992, DOE released the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operations of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore'' (LLNL EIS/EIR). A Record of Decision (ROD) (58 ''Federal Register'' [FR] 6268) was issued in January 1993. With the passage of more than 10 years since the publication of the 1992 LLNL EIS/EIR (DOE/EIS-0157) and because of proposed modifications to existing projects and new programs, NNSA determined that it was appropriate to prepare a new LLNL SW/SPEIS.

N /A

2004-02-27

143

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

144

Shelf-life extension program (SLEP) as a significant contributor to Strategic National Stockpile Maintenance: the Israeli experience with ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the 2001 anthrax incident in the U.S. and the 2003 SARS epidemic have highlighted the biological threat to civilian populations. The risk posed by the natural or manmade spread of biological agents among the population dictates a need for better national preparedness. One key component of this preparation is the establishment of a Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) of pharmaceuticals that would provide appropriate medical countermeasures in case of an outbreak. However, to reduce the expense of such a stockpile and to make it worthwhile, there is also a need for a shelf-life extension program (SLEP) through which pharmaceuticals could be extended beyond manufacturer-ascribed shelf life, as long as they meet regulation standards. In this article, we review the Israeli experience with the national ciprofloxacin stockpile procurement and shelf-life extension program. PMID:22578017

Bodas, Moran; Yuval, Landschaft; Zadok, Ron; Hess, Zippora; Haran, Batya; Kaplan, Mimi; Eisenkraft, Arik

2012-06-01

145

Laser weapons come down to earth  

SciTech Connect

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of development. The Stingray, a low-energy, tank-mounted laser that targets enemy electro-optical systems and crazes the inside of the tank cockpit, uses an innovative slab design instead of the conventional rod. The slab neutralizes the heating effect, improving beam quality tenfold. The author discusses the possibility that the psychological impact of battlefield lasers could match or exceed the physiological effects because of eye damage.

Morrison, D.C.

1985-05-01

146

Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Henry L. Stimson Center, the Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project was launched by Senior Associate, Amy E. Smithson in 1993. The project aims to serve as an "information clearinghouse, watchdog, and problem-solver regarding chemical and biological weapons issues." As such, the site offers a number of resources including information on how much the government is spending on anti-terrorism, how to protect oneself against chemical and biological terrorism, and nonproliferation efforts internationally. The site offers text of legislation, articles, maps of selected countries (especially the United States, Russia, and Iraq), and much more. This should be a very valuable site for both researchers and general readers looking for background material on chemical and biological weapons, their production, and efforts to reduce their threats.

147

Computer Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a NASA developed program, Dr. J. Walter Bond is creating a course in computer reliability modeling. The course will examine three different computer programs, one of them NASA's Care III, the others UCLA's Aries 78 and Aries 82. All three are designed to help estimate the reliability of complex, redundant, fault tolerant system. In computer design, software of this kind can predict or model the effects of various hardware or software failures, a process called reliability modeling.

1987-01-01

148

When Sugar Turns to Sh%&: Immediate Action Decision Making and Resilience in High Reliability Teams  

E-print Network

qualitative analysis of Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams to explore and identify factors surrounding adaptation within the critical moment, and (3) discuss the implications of these factors in the theory and research surrounding high-reliability teams...

Wesner, Bradley Scott

2012-02-14

149

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

150

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

151

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2014-01-01

152

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2013-01-01

153

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2011-01-01

154

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2012-01-01

155

Reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to search for and demonstrate approaches and concepts for fast wafer probe tests of mechanisms affecting the reliability of MOS technology and, based on these, develop and optimize test chips and test procedures. Progress is reported on four important wafer-level reliability problems: gate-oxide radiation hardness; hot-electron effects; time-dependence dielectric breakdown; and electromigration.

1985-01-01

156

Defense against nuclear weapons: a decision analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to the public health threat posed by nuclear weapons is a medical imperative. The United States, in contrast to other nations, has chosen a course that assures maximal casualties in the event of a nuclear attack, on the theory that prevention of the attack is incompatible with preventive measures against its consequences, such as blast injuries and radiation sickness.

Orient

1985-01-01

157

Nuclear weapons and the gray area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue facing the United States and its European allies is what to do about the nuclear threat to Western Europe, and to NATO's deterrent, posed by Soviet systems targeted on Western Europe - the SS-20 mobile missile and other Soviet weapons in the gray area between the strategic and the tactical. The prospect of strategic parity between the

Treverton

2009-01-01

158

The history of nuclear weapon safety devices  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

1998-06-01

159

Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

160

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-09-01

161

Vulnerability of Structures to Weapons Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geotechnical and structures laboratory have a number of funded research efforts to support Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for understanding the response of structures to explosives\\/weapons. These efforts are all heavily dependent on high performance computing (HPC) simulations to meet research needs. The research efforts to be supported include: force protection, military operations in urban terrain, and homeland defense.

James Baylot; Stephen Akers; J. O'Daniel; B. Armstrong; R. Weed

2008-01-01

162

Vulnerability of Structures to Weapons Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (GSL) has a number of funded research efforts to support Department of Defense (DoD) requirements for understanding the response of structures to explosives\\/weapons. These efforts are all heavily dependent on high performance computing (HPC) simulations to meet research needs. The research efforts to be supported include Force Protection, Military Operations in Urban Terrain, and Homeland

James Baylot; Stephen Akers; J. O'Daniel; B. Armstrong; K. Danielson; R. Weed

2009-01-01

163

Cyber Weaponization: Analysis of Internet Arms Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet attacks are a familiar part of cyber residency for every modern institution. While the criminals behind the attacks, their business practices, and the illicit economy that propels most of the acts have been the subjects of many researchers, the refinement of the tools employed has not. We posit the concept of weaponization as an important facet of Internet security

Jason Gordon

164

Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

Nelson, Linden

165

What Do Americans Know about Nuclear Weapons?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a survey of knowledge of and attitudes toward nuclear weapons. Respondents (N=938) were students and adults aged 15 to 89 who completed a 51-item questionnaire. Also reports on an experiment in which college students (N=166) were given the survey under one of four different conditions. (JN)

Zweigenhaft, Richard L.

1984-01-01

166

The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

Garwin, Richard L.

2014-05-01

167

Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

Reardon, Betty; And Others

1983-01-01

168

Dangerous knowledge: Can nuclear weapons be abolished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War spurred significant and encouraging steps towards the abolition and eradication of nuclear weapons. After the breakthrough discussions between Gorbachev and Reagan at Reykjavik in 1986, the substantial cut-backs in Russian and American nuclear warheads agreed to under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) negotiations, successive initiatives at the United Nations (UN) and the review

Jasjit Singh; Manpreet Sethi; Garry Jacobs

2007-01-01

169

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

170

Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.  

PubMed

Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US. PMID:23689882

Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

2013-01-01

171

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2014-10-01

172

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2012-10-01

173

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2013-10-01

174

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2011-10-01

175

Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

176

Weapon research project cost evaluation method based on technology readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional weapon research project pricing method makes the bigger valuation cost, the more profit research department is got. The weapon research department always loses the driver of saving cost and controlling expenditure. This paper identifies the technology units, evaluates technology risk based on technology readiness theory. According to value engineering methods, it provides weapon research project cost evaluation method from

Tengda Guo; Mengjun Li; Chaomin Ou

2011-01-01

177

Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies and focuses on the period since 1982. The section on nuclear weapons policies and capabilities discusses China`s land, sea, and airborne deterrent forces, the development of tactical nuclear weapons, and nuclear doctrine and policy. The section on arms control policy describes Beijing`s stance on disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control talks, the

Sismanidis

1985-01-01

178

Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

Reynolds, R.R.

1996-01-01

179

Adolescents Who Carry Weapons to School: A Review of Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school…

Finkenbine, Ryan D.; Dwyer, R. Gregg

2006-01-01

180

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

181

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...net (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2011-07-01

182

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...net. (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2010-07-01

183

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...net. (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2011-07-01

184

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...net (2) Weapons, traps or nets may be carried, possessed or...vacation home. (3) Traps, nets and unloaded weapons may be...with Federal and State law. (c) The use of a weapon, trap or net in a manner that endangers...

2010-07-01

185

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents ...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-01-01

186

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...effectively to the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2012-11-05

187

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Federal...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-11-08

188

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents ...of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-01-01

189

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Federal...National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-11-10

190

Model-Based Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Modeling, in conjunction with testing, is a rich source of insight. Model parameters are easily controlled and monitoring can be done unobtrusively. The ability to inject faults without otherwise affecting performance is particularly critical. Many iterations can be done quickly with a model while varying parameters and conditions based on a small number of validation tests. The objective of Model-Based Reliability Analysis (MBRA) is to identify ways to capitalize on the insights gained from modeling to make both qualitative and quantitative statements about product reliability. MBRA will be developed and exercised in the realm of weapon system development and maintenance, where the challenges of severe environmental requirements, limited production quantities, and use of one-shot devices can make testing prohibitively expensive. However, the general principles will also be applicable to other product types.

Rene L. Bierbaum; Thomas d. Brown; Thomas J. Kerschen

2001-01-22

191

Electricity Reliability  

E-print Network

Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

192

Study of Windows Effects for Shock Wave Temperature Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements of shocked plutonium are needed for improved understanding of its equation of state (EOS) and will enable better understanding and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile.

W. D. Turley, G. Stevens, L. Veeser, D. Holtkamp, A. Seifter

2011-05-25

193

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

194

Defense programs: A Sandia weapon review bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s mission to explore technology that enhances US nuclear weapons capabilities has been the primary impetus for the development of a class of inertial measurement units not available commercially. The newest member of the family is the Ring Laser Gyro Assembly. The product of a five-year joint effort by Sandia and Honeywell`s Space and Strategic Systems Operation, the RLGA is a small, one-nautical-mile-per-hour-class inertial measurement unit that consumes only 16 watts - attributes that are important to a guidance and control capability for new or existing weapons. These same attributes led the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman Air Force Base to select the RLGA for their newest test instrumentation pod. The RLGA sensor assembly is composed of three Honeywell ring laser gyroscopes and three Sundstrand Data Control accelerometers that are selected from three types according to the user`s acceleration range and accuracy needs.

Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

1993-11-01

195

Robots as Weapons in Just Wars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay analyzes the use of military robots in terms of the jus in bello concepts of discrimination and proportionality. It argues that while robots may make mistakes, they do not suffer from most\\u000a of the impairments that interfere with human judgment on the battlefield. Although robots are imperfect weapons, they can\\u000a exercise as much restraint as human soldiers, if

Marcus Schulzke

196

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

197

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

198

Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

Reeves, Glen I

2010-12-01

199

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

200

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A&N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A&N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

201

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

202

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to a high speed impact  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to an accident is critical in determining the safety of a weapon. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of the weapon based on the acceleration histories of its safety components. The accident scenario was a 80 feet/second impact of the weapon onto a railroad rail. Large deformations and many contacts were expected due to the severity of the impact condition. The complexity of this analysis required a nonlinear finite element code which could track many contact surfaces simultaneously and simulate material failure using element death. The damage to the structure and its contents was simulated using PRONTO3D (an explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Laboratories). Some of PRONTO3D`s advanced features used in the calculations included the self-contacting algorithms, material death, and rigid body mechanics. Throughout the analysis, a large number of mechanical contacts, both normal and sliding with friction, were detected and tracked by PRONT03D. The analysis predicted large deformations and material failure that took the form of tears in the aluminum shroud and in the housing of the components. The predicted acceleration histories were then used to determine if the components remained functional.

Gruda, J.D.

1994-12-31

203

Brigade Combat Team Future Combat Systems Inspector General Objective Crew Served Weapon Objective Individual Combat Weapon  

E-print Network

technology for use on 25-millimeter, high-explosive, airbursting ammunition and with program entry into the system development and demonstration phase of the acquisition process. (U) Background. The Objective Individual Combat Weapon (OICW or XM29 [Increment III]) is a dual-engagement weapon: its primary subsystem fires a 25-millimeter, airbursting ammunition (XM25 [Increment II]), and its secondary subsystem fires the standard 5.56-millimeter ammunition (Increment I). The Advanced Crew Served Weapon, which later became the XM307 and XM307G Programs, is to provide accurate, long-range firepower, including airbursting ammunitions, in a lightweight system package. The XM307 and XM307G weapons are the next generation of mounted and dismounted machine guns, respectively. (U) This is the fourth in a series of reports on the overall management of the OICW Program. This report addresses a common fuze technology for the high-explosive, airbursting shells used in the XM25/XM29 and XM307 weapons. This report also addresses entry of the XM307 and XM307G Programs into the system development and

unknown authors

204

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

205

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program  

SciTech Connect

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-11-01

206

Management plan for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Medical Course (Re)Design  

SciTech Connect

Under the Interagency Agreement between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been tasked with the preparation of a chemical-agent-specific course (and a complementary train-the trainer'' program) for civilian emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics in Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)-impacted communities in the 10 CSEPP states. This course is to be based on the Centers for Disease Control course Medical Management of Chemical Exposures'' and the US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (MRICD) course entitled Medical Management of Chemical Casualties.'' Though the course materials will be based strongly on the above courses that have already undergone review and approval from the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Army, they will have to be redeveloped to a significant degree. The redevelopment will change the orientation from on-site conditions to potential off-site conditions and will allow the courses or course modules to be used in the variety of instructional conditions outlined, the most difficult condition being the ability to be used by an individual without an instructor present. This necessitates the development of self-study guides for each module as well as instructional materials geared to group interactions and instructor-controlled presentation. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1991-05-01

207

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

208

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

209

ACAM2000™: The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc.), was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™), a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine. PMID:20531961

Nalca, Aysegul; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E

2010-01-01

210

Stockpiled forage or limit-fed corn as alternatives to hay for gestating and lactating beef cows.  

PubMed

In Exp. 1, 31, 24, and 17 mature, pregnant Simmental x Angus cows (initial BW = 662.0 +/- 10.4 kg) in each of 3 yr were used to determine the efficacy of stockpiled orchardgrass, limit-fed corn, or ad libitum hay for maintaining cows in mid- to late gestation, respectively. In Exp. 2, 24 mature, pregnant crossbred cows (initial BW = 677.7 +/- 9.4 kg) per treatment in each of 3 yr were used to determine the efficacy of stockpiled orchardgrass, limit-fed corn, or ad libitum hay for maintaining cows in late gestation and early lactation, respectively. Each year, cows were assigned to treatment by BW. From November to February or from January to April, respectively, nutritional needs for mid- to late gestation (Exp. 1) or late gestation and early lactation (Exp. 2) were met either by 1) rotating cows on approximately 15.2 or 21.7 ha of predominantly orchardgrass pasture, set aside and fertilized in late August, 2) limit-feeding approximately 5.8 kg of whole shelled corn, 1.1 kg of a pelleted supplement, and 1.2 kg of hay daily, or 3) ad libitum feeding of round-baled hay. During extreme weather conditions, cows grazing stockpiled orchardgrass were limit-fed a grain-based diet. Postcalving weight (P < 0.10) was greatest for limit-fed cows in Exp. 1 and lowest for cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass; cows given ad libitum access to hay were intermediate in weight and did not differ from cows limit-fed or cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass (641.8, 657.4, and 634.0 kg, respectively). Calving date, calf birth and weaning weight, and conception rate did not differ among treatments (P > 0.15) in Exp. 1. In Exp. 2, weight at weaning did not differ among treatments (P > 0.17); however, postcalving weight (P < 0.01) was greatest for cows given ad libitum access to hay, intermediate for limit-fed cows, and lowest for cows grazed on stockpiled orchardgrass (674.8, 652.4, and 624.5 kg). Body condition score at any time point did not differ among treatments (P > 0.38), nor did calving date, calf birth and weaning weights, and conception rate (P > 0.12). Because of the few differences in cow performance, selection of energy sources for beef cows can be made based on economics. The cost to feed a cow hay in early to mid-gestation was nearly double that of limit-feeding the corn-based diet or grazing stockpiled orchardgrass. Because of lower quality pastures, the cost to graze cows on stockpiled orchardgrass during late gestation and early lactation was not as cost effective as limit feeding a corn-based diet. PMID:12772835

Schoonmaker, J P; Loerch, S C; Rossi, J E; Borger, M L

2003-05-01

211

Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the  

E-print Network

2006 Long-Term Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the Bulk Power Systems In North America..................................7 FUEL SUPPLY AND DELIVERY FOR ELECTRIC GENERATION IMPORTANT TO RELIABILITY..............................................11 RELIABILITY WILL DEPEND ON CLOSE COORDINATION OF GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION PLANNING

212

Merger Simulation in the Presence of Large Choice Sets and Consumer Stockpiling: The Case of the Bottled Juice Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We simulate the price effects of several hypothetical mergers in the shelf-stable bottled juice industry. In doing so, we\\u000a highlight the effects of consumer stockpiling on demand elasticity estimates and subsequent merger simulations. This task\\u000a is complicated by a large number of choice alternatives within the bottled juice category. To address this challenge we employ\\u000a a demand model based on

Geoffrey M. Pofahl

2009-01-01

213

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-free cleaning procedures. The short term leg of the philosophy was the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. The long-term leg of that philosophy was the initiation of a several tier testing program that will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with accelerated lubricant life tests that compare lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC solvents with lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC-free solvents. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years before a number of important tribological questions can be answered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life lubricated mechanism based on a number of parameters, including 4 comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODC's based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; LeBoeuf, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

214

Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

215

Redefining reliability  

SciTech Connect

Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company`s experiment in direct marketing of natural gas.

Paulson, S.L.

1995-11-01

216

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01

217

Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

2014-12-01

218

Prompt effects of nuclear weapons: a microcomputer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research allowed for development of a microcomputer model reporting the damage and casualty-producing prompt effects of nuclear weapons from one kiloton to ten megatons. The mode was largely regression-derived and used range-contour modeling to report the effects of normal nuclear weapons. Effects were predicted for the low to intermediate overpressure range (1 to 150 psi overpressure). The weapon effects

1987-01-01

219

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

220

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

221

Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.  

PubMed

The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and formulation development. This paper provides a review of recent work and collaborations supported by the RNCP. PMID:24648046

Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

2014-02-01

222

Reducing mortality from anthrax bioterrorism: strategies for stockpiling and dispensing medical and pharmaceutical supplies.  

PubMed

A critical question in planning a response to bioterrorism is how antibiotics and medical supplies should be stockpiled and dispensed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for maintaining and dispensing local and regional inventories of antibiotics and medical supplies for responses to anthrax bioterrorism. We modeled the regional and local supply chain for antibiotics and medical supplies as well as local dispensing capacity. We found that mortality was highly dependent on the local dispensing capacity, the number of individuals requiring prophylaxis, adherence to prophylactic antibiotics, and delays in attack detection. For an attack exposing 250,000 people and requiring the prophylaxis of 5 million people, expected mortality fell from 243,000 to 145,000 as the dispensing capacity increased from 14,000 to 420,000 individuals per day. At low dispensing capacities (<14,000 individuals per day), nearly all exposed individuals died, regardless of the rate of adherence to prophylaxis, delays in attack detection, or availability of local inventories. No benefit was achieved by doubling local inventories at low dispensing capacities; however, at higher dispensing capacities, the cost-effectiveness of doubling local inventories fell from 100,000 US dollars to 20,000 US dollars/life year gained as the annual probability of an attack increased from 0.0002 to 0.001. We conclude that because of the reportedly rapid availability of regional inventories, the critical determinant of mortality following anthrax bioterrorism is local dispensing capacity. Bioterrorism preparedness efforts directed at improving local dispensing capacity are required before benefits can be reaped from enhancing local inventories. PMID:16999586

Bravata, Dena M; Zaric, Gregory S; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Brandeau, Margaret L; Wilhelm, Emilee R; McDonald, Kathryn M; Owens, Douglas K

2006-01-01

223

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

2005-01-01

224

Network reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1985-01-01

225

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department  

E-print Network

is a weapon? A weapon is basically anything somebody could use to hurt or harm somebody else. Weapons could be any of the following: a knife a gun pepper spray your own hands your feet any available object that could be used to hurt somebody else What kind of weapon can't I bring to school? Most weapons

Rose, Michael R.

226

Book Review: New Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of The New Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation and Prospects by Michael Bothe, Natalino Ronzitti, and Allan Rosas (1998).\\u000aThis book, a fine-grained, expert-level analysis of several of the most intricate legal and policy issues arising in connection with the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), also serves as a vivid symbol of the \\

David A Koplow

2000-01-01

227

67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, FROM MASTER PLAN OF CARIBOU AFS. PHOTOGRAPH, PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1960'S LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

228

J. David Janiec Director for the Weapons and Energetics  

E-print Network

J. David Janiec Director for the Weapons and Energetics Department Naval Air Systems Command Mr. J. David Janiec is the Director for the Weapons and Energetics Department of the Naval Air Systems Command of $1M annual gross revenue. He successfully led the non-profit corporation out of a chapter 11

229

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

230

Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

1984-01-01

231

2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago

J E Hernandez; J Valentine

2004-01-01

232

EU STRATEGY AGAINST PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION  

E-print Network

to produce chemical warfare (CW) agent precursors and to weaponise chemical warfare agents. In addition or are seeking to develop such weapons. The risk that terrorists will acquire chemical, biological, radiological undermining non-proliferation and disarmament efforts. 7. Chemical Weapons Proliferation: A particular

Sussex, University of

233

7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 522 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

234

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS

235

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

236

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2013-07-01

237

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2011-07-01

238

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2014-07-01

239

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2010-07-01

240

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2012-07-01

241

10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. ...Section 160.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. ...be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

2010-01-01

242

15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 742 - Description of Major Weapons Systems  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employing guided missiles, unguided rockets, bombs, guns, cannons, or other weapons of destruction...Munitions (PGMs), including “smart bombs”: Weapons used in precision bombing missions such as specially designed weapons, or bombs fitted with kits to allow them to be...

2012-01-01

243

15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 742 - Description of Major Weapons Systems  

...employing guided missiles, unguided rockets, bombs, guns, cannons, or other weapons of destruction...Munitions (PGMs), including “smart bombs”: Weapons used in precision bombing missions such as specially designed weapons, or bombs fitted with kits to allow them to be...

2014-01-01

244

15 CFR Supplement No. 7 to Part 742 - Description of Major Weapons Systems  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employing guided missiles, unguided rockets, bombs, guns, cannons, or other weapons of destruction...Munitions (PGMs), including “smart bombs”: Weapons used in precision bombing missions such as specially designed weapons, or bombs fitted with kits to allow them to be...

2013-01-01

245

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2013-01-01

246

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2012-01-01

247

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2010-01-01

248

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2011-01-01

249

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2014-01-01

250

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other...

2010-07-01

251

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other...

2014-07-01

252

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other...

2013-07-01

253

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other...

2012-07-01

254

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition, explosives, or other...

2011-07-01

255

Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

256

Article on Trident Laser Facility for NA-11 Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly  

SciTech Connect

The Trident Intermediate-Scale Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an extremely versatile Nd:glass laser system dedicated to high energy density laboratory physics and weapons physics research and fundamental laser-matter interactions. Trident is a three-beam, 200 J/beam at the second harmonic for glass (527 nm wavelength), facility with tremendous flexibility and high beam quality. Pulse durations varying over 6 orders of magnitude, from 0.5 picoseconds to 1.0 microsecs, can be directed to either of two different target chambers with changeable illumination geometries, including the ability to achieve near-diffraction limited focus. This provides a unique range of capability at one facility from sub-picosecond pulses (and high-intensity laser science) to nanosecond pulses (and LPI physics relevant to ICF) to microsecond pulses (and driving flyer plates for supported shock dynamic materials science.) When in short-pulse mode (less than picosecond pulse), a single beam can provide up to 200 TW of power with uniquely controllable and measured pre-pulse contrast of 10 orders of magnitude. A recent external capability review at Los Alamos concluded that 'Trident is generating excellent, cutting edge science and is a leading intermediate scale laser system worldwide.'

Barnes, Cris W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

257

78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by...biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...effectively to the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2013-11-12

258

Performance testing and Bayesian Reliability Analysis of small diameter, high power electric heaters for the simulation of nuclear fuel rod temperatures  

E-print Network

proposed full test using prototypic mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) containing plutonium from converted nuclear weapons. Bayesian reliability analysis methods were used to determine the expected heater failure rate because of the expected short test duration...

O'Kelly, David Sean

2000-01-01

259

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-12-01

260

(+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?  

PubMed

(+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm) after 24 h. The results support the recent rejection of the hypothesis that (+/-)-catechin may serve as a 'chemical weapon' for invasive plants. Instead, accumulation and exudation of (+/-)-catechin may help plants survive periods of stress. PMID:19701725

Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

2009-08-01

261

An Optimal Dynamic Threat Evaluation and Weapon Scheduling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time scheduling problems demand high level of flexibility and robustness under complex dynamic scenarios. Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA), together TEWA is one such complex dynamic system having optimal or near optimal utilization of scarce defensive resources of supreme priority. Several static solutions of TEWA have been proposed. This paper discusses an optimal dynamic multi-air threat evaluation and weapon allocation algorithm using a variant of Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA). WA uses a new dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution. Testing part of this paper shows feasibility of this approach for a range of scenarios.

Naeem, H.; Masood, A.

262

Macroencapsulation Equivalency Guidance for Classified Weapon Components and NNSSWAC Compliance  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has a surplus of classified legacy weapon components generated over the years with no direct path for disposal. The majority of the components have been held for uncertainty of future use or no identified method of sanitization or disposal. As more weapons are retired, there is an increasing need to reduce the amount of components currently in storage or on hold. A process is currently underway to disposition and dispose of the legacy/retired weapons components across the DOE complex.

Poling, J.

2012-05-15

263

Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D

2008-10-01

264

Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

2013-10-01

265

Foams for barriers and nonlethal weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our times demand better solutions to conflict resolution than simply shooting someone. Because of this, police and military interest in non-lethal concepts is high. Already in use are pepper sprays, bean-bag guns, flash-bang grenades, and rubber bullets. At Sandia we got a head start on non- lethal weapon concepts. Protection of nuclear materials required systems that went way beyond the traditional back vault. Dispensable deterrents were used to allow a graduated response to a threat. Sticky foams and stabilized aqueous foams were developed to provide access delay. Foams won out for security systems simply because you could get a large volume from a small container. For polymeric foams the expansion ratio is thirty to fifty to one. In aqueous foams expansion ratios of one thousand to ne are easily obtained. Recent development work on sticky foams has included a changeover to environmentally friendly solvents, foams with very low toxicity, and the development of non-flammable silicone resin based foams. High expansion aqueous foams are useful visual and aural obscurants. Our recent aqueous foam development has concentrated on using very low toxicity foaming agents combined with oleoresin capsicum irritant to provide a safe but highly irritating foam.

Rand, Peter B.

1997-01-01

266

The medical effects of conventional weapons.  

PubMed

The medical effects of weapons used in modern conventional warfare are, overwhelmingly, penetrating. Fragments from explosive munitions such as shells, rockets, and grenades are the predominate source of missiles, especially in high-intensity war. Bullets from assault rifles and machine guns cause fewer casualties, except in counterinsurgency operations. The threat from penetrating missiles depends upon the part of the body that is struck and, to a lesser extent, upon the physical characteristics of the missile. The missile's mass and velocity determine its potential to do physical damage, but the extent to which this potential is realized depends upon diverse factors such as shape, construction, and stability. The American experience in the wars of this century indicate that approximately 20%-25% of all casualties died on the battlefield and are therefore classified as killed in action. Approximately 3%-5% die while receiving care, and thus are classified as died of wounds. Wounds of the brain or heart and great vessels are the most common causes of death. Prevention of sepsis in soft-tissue and orthopedic wounds is the major medical treatment problem in survivors. Since it determines the quality and quantity of combat casualty care, the single most important factor determining mortality or morbidity for combat casualties is the tactical situation. PMID:1462625

Bellamy, R F

1992-01-01

267

Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.  

PubMed

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

Forge, John

2009-03-01

268

Detection of weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

Bjorkholm, Paul J.

2003-07-01

269

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

270

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

271

76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...military, test instrument manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off delivery of an electric shock to attend a public meeting. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss the need for standardized methods of testing the...

2011-01-07

272

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in...

2012-01-01

273

7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

...AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other...

2014-01-01

275

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2013-01-01

276

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2011-01-01

277

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2010-01-01

278

Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Should I Do? KidsHealth > Teens > School & Jobs > Bullying/Violence > Someone at School Has a Weapon. What ... name-calling, harassment, taunting, and other forms of bullying . People who are more likely to become violent ...

279

Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

2013-05-01

280

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms, ammunition, bows and arrows, crossbows, or other projectile firing devices on Reclamation lands and waterbodies, provided the firearm, ammunition, or...

2010-10-01

281

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2014-01-01

282

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2012-01-01

283

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2010-01-01

284

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2013-01-01

285

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2011-01-01

286

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any person discharge or set off any firework or explosive of any nature on the...

2012-07-01

287

7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No person while in or on the USNA shall ignite fireworks or other pyrotechnical...

2012-01-01

288

7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No person while in or on the USNA shall ignite fireworks or other pyrotechnical...

2014-01-01

289

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any person discharge or set off any firework or explosive of any nature on the...

2011-07-01

290

Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

Brummett, Barry

1989-01-01

291

Paradigms of Development and Employment of Weapon Systems  

E-print Network

Weapons procurement decisions are extremely complex, with an unmanageable quantity of variables to take into account. The human brain, unable to process such a complex problem in a strictly rational way, seeks mechanisms ...

Gillespie, Daniel M.

2008-10-23

292

A Conceptual Framework for Teaching about Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts which represent the minimal conceptual essentials for the study of nuclear weapons in secondary level social studies classes are discussed, and issues and controversies which may rise during such a study are examined. (RM)

Jacobson, Willard; And Others

1983-01-01

293

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weapons—security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in...

2010-07-01

294

7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on Research Center property shall carry...

2010-01-01

295

7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on Research Center property shall carry...

2011-01-01

296

VIEWPOINT: EXPANDING THE HIGH FRONTIER: SPACE WEAPONS IN HISTORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hot topic within national security policy circles involves space weaponization. Concerns about a future arms race, cost, operational capability, and other problems appear to be new. However, past space weaponization efforts have addressed these same issues. Current policy makers can look to World War II German experiments, the Soviet Union's co-orbital anti-satellite system, and the United States' X-20 Dyna-Soar

CLAYTON K. S. CHUN

2004-01-01

297

A Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geneva talks could lead to a nuclear-weapon-free zone separating Eastern and Western Euorpe, a step which could defuse tensions and reduce the risks of war. The politically feasible concept was first proposed in Common Security: a Blueprint for Survival, a report by a commission made up of Eastern, Western, and Third World nations. The case for a nuclear-weapon-free zone

Barry M. Blechman; Mark R. Moore

1983-01-01

298

Is (?)Catechin a Novel Weapon of Spotted Knapweed ( Centaurea stoebe )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel weapons hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated\\u000a by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this\\u000a new allelochemical (i.e., the novel weapon). In their native habitat, however, the plants that co-evolved with these invasive\\u000a species have

Stephen O. Duke; Amy C. Blair; Franck E. Dayan; Robert D. Johnson; Kumudini M. Meepagala; Daniel Cook; Joanna Bajsa

2009-01-01

299

Low-cost removal of trace metals from copper-nickel mine stockpile drainage. Volume II - Trace metal sequestration by peat, other organics, tailings, and soils  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a two-phase experimental program to examine the feasibility of removing trace metals (Cu, Mi, Co, Zn) from stockpile effluent using readily available materials in low-cost, low-maintenance systems. Volume II is a literature review of several low-cost materials that might be used for removing trace metals from stockpile drainage. The materials included peat, humic acid, fulvic acid, other organics, soils, and tailings. The methods employed in the investigations review ranged from laboratory experiments to field-scale studies. Trace metal removal mechanisms and capacities were addressed.

Lapakko, K.A.; Strudell, J.D.; Eger, A.P.

1986-01-01

300

Fusion of radar and ultrasound sensors for concealed weapons detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated radar and ultrasound sensor, capable of remotely detecting and imaging concealed weapons, is being developed. A modified frequency-agile, mine-detection radar is intended to specify with high probability of detection at ranges of 1 to 10 m which individuals in a moving crowd may be concealing metallic or nonmetallic weapons. Within about 1 to 5 m, the active ultrasound sensor is intended to enable a user to identify a concealed weapon on a moving person with low false-detection rate, achieved through a real-time centimeter-resolution image of the weapon. The goal for sensor fusion is to have the radar acquire concealed weapons at long ranges and seamlessly hand over tracking data to the ultrasound sensor for high-resolution imaging on a video monitor. We have demonstrated centimeter-resolution ultrasound images of metallic and non-metallic weapons concealed on a human at ranges over 1 m. Processing of the ultrasound images includes filters for noise, frequency, brightness, and contrast. A frequency-agile radar has been developed by JAYCOR under the U.S. Army Advanced Mine Detection Radar Program. The signature of an armed person, detected by this radar, differs appreciably from that of the same person unarmed.

Felber, Franklin S.; Davis, Herbert T., III; Mallon, Charles E.; Wild, Norbert C.

1996-06-01

301

Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

McClintock, Michael; And Others

302

Your Career and Nuclear Weapons: A Guide for Young Scientists and Engineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part booklet examines various issues related to nuclear weapons and how they will affect an individual working as a scientist or engineer. It provides information about the history of nuclear weapons, about the weapons industry which produces them, and about new weapons programs. Issues are raised so that new or future graduates may make…

Albrecht, Andreas; And Others

303

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

304

Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

Law, K. K.

2013-12-01

305

ANational Security Science Issue 2 2011 Also in this issue  

E-print Network

and technologies that are essential to the continued success of the Laboratory. A vibrant science, technology's nuclear weapons stockpile through a science-based understanding of weapons safety, reliabilityANational Security Science Issue 2 · 2011 Also in this issue No-meltdown nuclear reactors Safer

306

Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction  

SciTech Connect

The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It's short half-life of 20-55 sec makes it distinct from neutron activation due to the interrogation that is typically much longer lived. This work spawned a collaboration with LBNL where experiments verified the abundance and other characteristics of this new signature [24]. Follow-on work funded by DoE/NA22 led to the development of a detailed system concept and evaluation of its impact on operating personnel and cargos [60] and characterization of one important interference that was identified [61]. The follow-on work led to two patent applications at LBNL and LLNL. The signature flux, while small, is 2-5 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. The actual benefit is highly dependent on the type and thickness of cargo, with modest benefit in the case of metallic cargos of iron, lead, or aluminum, but maximum benefit in the case of hydrogenous cargo. In addition, unwanted collateral effects of the interrogation, such as neutron activation of the cargo, were analyzed [60] and one significant interference due to oxygen activation was characterized. This interference can be eliminated by lowering the energy of interrogating neutrons [60] and no others have yet been identified. The neutron source technology required exists commercially. Follow-on work to produce a laboratory prototype and to engage a commercial partner for development of a prototype to be fielded at a port was initially funded by DOE/NA-22 is currently supported by DHS. That support is expected to continue through FY06.

Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

2004-02-18

307

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28

308

SARA Title III and community hazards planning: Lessons for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview and analysis of the impact of Title 3 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title 3) on improving community participation and risk communication and facilitating decisions leading to enhanced emergency preparedness for timely response to accidental hazardous chemical releases. The US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) and attendant Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) are case studies. In addition to reviewing progress in SARA Title 3 implementation in the 10 states directly affected by these programs, interviews were conducted with regional Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) representatives responsible for overseeing staffing and fiscal decisions that enable this law to take effect. These interviews also permit derivation of a broad federal perspective on Title 3's success (or lack thereof) in heightening public awareness of chemical hazards and improving local political competence in addressing chemical hazards warning, notification, communication, and procurement and equipment acquisition issues. We conclude that SARA Title 3 has significantly transformed the process of chemical and other technological hazards management by forcing greater cooperation between federal agencies (particularly EPA, FEMA, and, in some instances, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration, or OSHA) and states in planning and conducting emergency exercises. The process of emergency planning is becoming increasingly decentralized. However, we also conclude that Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) and State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs)--institutions established under Title 3--are faced with several challenges in order to ensure viable risk communication and achievement of enhanced preparedness in local communities nationwide. 36 refs., 3 tabs.

Feldman, D.L.

1991-01-01

309

Reliability model generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

310

The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, an urgent and challenging issue facing the U.S. Navy is the self-defense against cruise missile in a littoral battlefield environment against threats originating from shore and/or scattered low- value platforms. This fundamental shift in the battlefield environment and engagement configuration profoundly affected the basic performance requirements placed on potential shipboard high energy laser weapon systems (HELWS). In a littoral maritime environment, thermal blooming limits atmospheric propagation of an HEL beam, and thus limits the weapon's effectiveness. This paper identifies and discusses the technical issues associated with HELWS requirements in this new environment. It also discuses the collateral capabilities that enhance and complement the performance of other weapon and sensor systems onboard ship. This paper concludes that the HELWS using a free electron laser (FEL) offers a unique weapon option for our warships in facing the new defense challenges of the future.

Cook, Joung R.; Albertine, John R.

1997-05-01

311

Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW. PMID:22951473

Reeves, Glen I

2012-08-01

312

Mobile and stationary laser weapon demonstrators of Rheinmetall Waffe Munition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile high energy laser (HEL) weapon systems for air- and ground-defence scenarios like C-RAM, UXO clearing. By employing beam superimposition technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms and now military mobile vehicles were equipped with high energy laser effectors. Our contribution summarises the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls high energy laser weapon program. We present three different vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V integrated in an M113 tank, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX integrated in a multirole armoured vehicle GTK Boxer 8x8 and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L integrated in a reinforced container carried by an 8x8 truck. As a highlight, a stationary 30 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator shows the capability to defeat saturated attacks of RAM targets and unmanned aerial vehicles. 2013 all HEL demonstrators were tested in a firing campaign at the Rheinmetall testing centre in Switzerland. Major results of these tests are presented.

Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

2014-10-01

313

Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.  

PubMed

The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

2014-09-01

314

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01

315

HELIOS Critical Design Review: Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents Helios Critical Design Review Reliability form October 16-20, 1972. The topics include: 1) Reliability Requirement; 2) Reliability Apportionment; 3) Failure Rates; 4) Reliability Assessment; 5) Reliability Block Diagram; and 5) Reliability Information Sheet.

Benoehr, H. C.; Herholz, J.; Prem, H.; Mann, D.; Reichert, L.; Rupp, W.; Campbell, D.; Boettger, H.; Zerwes, G.; Kurvin, C.

1972-01-01

316

Reliability Engineering & Data Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

International petrochemical, chemical, refining and petroleum industries are trying to implement reliability programs to improve plant safety while trying to maintain plant availability. These programs can vary significantly in size and complexity. Any kind of reliability program, like a preventive maintenance (PM) program, consists always of one or more reliability models and reliability data to execute these models. It is

Michel Houtermans; T. V. Capelle; M. Al-Ghumgham

2007-01-01

317

Reviewing Traffic Reliability Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-dimension, stochastic, and dynamic are essential nature of urban traffic operation. Traffic reliability introduces the idea of reliability into traffic research and is an important field of cause analysis of traffic problems. Considerable researches have been conducted on traffic reliability, covering from theory to practice, and from model to algorithm. There already exists a framework for reliability analysis. However, few

Dianhai WANG; Hongsheng QI; Cheng XU

2010-01-01

318

Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

Smith, Julie M.

2011-01-01

319

67 FR 63081 - Weapons Laboratory Support of the Defense Nuclear Complex  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...formulating its Recommendation 93-6, the Board recognized some of the difficulties DOE would face in its stockpile stewardship program. That recognition was implicit in the statement: ``Although it may be relatively straightforward to...

2002-10-10

320

Going nuclear: The spread of nuclear weapons 1986-1987  

SciTech Connect

In the third annual report of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on the spread of nuclear weapons, Spector provides a critical survey of the status of nuclear proliferation throughout the world and examines the nuclear potential of nations in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Drawing on both historical documents and up-to-date reports, the author addresses such specific topics as Israel's nuclear arsenal, nuclear terrorism and its global security implications, arms control and nuclear safeguards, international treaties, weapons buildup, and political radicalism and unrest in nuclear-threshold nations.

Spector, L.S.

1987-01-01

321

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

322

The future of nonnuclear strategic weapons. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

In this brief study, Pan Heuristics (PAN) has (1) evaluated the future importance of nonnuclear strategic weapons (NNSW), (2) considered their impact on forces and operations, and (3) investigated the technical requirements to support NNSW. In drawing conclusions, PAN has emphasized aspects that might be important to Los Alamos National Laboratory over the long run. It presents them here in a format similar to that used in a briefing at the laboratory. This paper reflects independent PAN research as well as conclusions drawn from discussions with other offices and individuals involved in nonnuclear strategic weapons development.

Brody, R.; Digby, J. [Pan Heuristics, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

1989-01-31

323

DOE weapons laboratories' contributions to the nation's defense technology base  

SciTech Connect

The question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons laboratories can contribute to a stronger defense technology base is addressed in testimony before the Subcommittee on Defense Industry and Technology of the Senate Armed Services Committee. The importance of the defense technology base is described, the DOE technology base is also described, and some technology base management and institutional issues are discussed. Suggestions are given for promoting a more stable, long-term relationship between the DOE weapons laboratories and the Department of Defense. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Hecker, S.S.

1988-04-01

324

Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

1994-04-01

325

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2012-04-01

326

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2011-04-01

327

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2013-04-01

328

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2010-04-01

329

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2014-04-01

330

PHIL 20628/ Ethics of Emerging STV 20228 Weapons Technologies  

E-print Network

PHIL 20628/ Ethics of Emerging STV 20228 Weapons Technologies TTh 11:00-12:15 204 DeBartolo Spring Hours: TTh 1:00-2:00 Required Texts: Russ Shafer Landau. The Fundamentals of Ethics. Oxford University (minimum five pages) on a topic in ethics or the law of armed conflict. The discussion paper will also

Howard, Don

331

SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3584), CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS SHOP (BUILDING 3580), AND SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING (BUILDING 3582). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

332

Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard.{close_quotes} One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed.

Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1998-03-01

333

Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

Hollander, Jack, Ed.

334

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. AFTER SEGREGATION, PLUTONIUM MATERIALS WERE EITHER RETURNED TO THE BUILDING 776 FOUNDRY WHERE THEY WERE CAST INTO FEED INGOTS, OR UNDERWENT CHEMICAL RECOVERY FOR PURIFICATION. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

335

Operation Desert Shield: medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Our concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation. PMID:1852275

Knudson, G B

1991-06-01

336

A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.  

PubMed

Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans). PMID:24992886

Rozsa, Lajos

2014-12-01

337

Nuclear proliferation today: The spread of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Announced as the first of a series of annual reports on the spread of nuclear weapons, this endeavor of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace may stimulate increased public awareness of this critical topic. A good part of the book contains the historical setting of the nuclear issue in the eight most likely proliferators.

Spector, L.S.

1984-01-01

338

Nuclear weapons and world politics: alternatives for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisions regarding nuclear weapons - their development, their deployment, and the circumstances in which they might be used - are traditionally the province of a very few leaders, supported by cadres of expert advisers, in a very few countries. Yet there are no decisions whose outcomes have a more profound effect upon the entire fabric of international life. The studies

D. C. Gompert; M. Mandelbaum; R. L. Garwin; J. H. Barton

1977-01-01

339

Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Article p.497

Finney, John; Acton, James M.

2014-06-01

340

Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

2014-01-01

341

Television's Action Arsenal: Weapon Use in Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to fill a basic information gap in the television violence research literature, namely, or lack of information on the instruments of violence. Weapon use was chosen not only because it is a manageable component of the entire television violence issue, but because it is one that is clearly subject to modification by the…

Higgins, Patricia B.; Ray, Marla W.

342

Environmental impact of white phosphorus weapons on urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicts and geopolitical competition of global and regional powers have stimulated regional conflicts in certain geographic areas in the twenty-first century as well as the twentieth century. During the geopolitical conflicts governments to achieve their goals and commitments sometimes violated environmental treaties and human rights and used weapons which severely damaged the environmental resources and civilian population. Middle East as

S. M. Mojabi; F. Feizi; A. Navazi; M. Ghourchi

2010-01-01

343

A vision system for an unmanned nonlethal weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned weapons remove humans from deadly situations. However some systems, such as unmanned guns, are difficult to control remotely. It is difficult for a soldier to perform the complex tasks of identifying and aiming at specific points on targets from a remote location. This paper describes a computer vision and control system for providing autonomous control of unmanned guns developed

Greg Kogut; Larry Drymon

2004-01-01

344

Chlorine gas: an evolving hazardous material threat and unconventional weapon.  

PubMed

Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

2010-05-01

345

Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon  

PubMed Central

Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

2010-01-01

346

Hot Cell Examination of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured with weapons-grade MOX and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg. As part of the fuel qualification process, five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This is the first hot cell examination of weapons-grade MOX fuel. The rods have been examined nondestructively with the ADEPT apparatus and are currently being destructively examined. Examinations completed to date include length measurements, visual examination, gamma scanning, profilometry, eddy-current testing, gas measurement and analysis, and optical metallography. Representative results of these examinations are reviewed and found to be consistent with predictions and with prior experience with reactor-grade MOX fuel. The results will be used to support licensing of weapons-grade MOX for batch use in commercial power reactors.

Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; McCoy, Kevin [Areva NP

2010-01-01

347

Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

Nelson, Linden, Comp.

348

Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique.

D R Manatt; B Sleaford; T Schaffer; M R Accatino; D Slaughter; J Mauger; R Newmark; S Prussin; J Luke; M Frank; A Bernstein; O Alford; G Mattesich; J Stengel; J Hall; M A Descalle; J Wolford; H Hall; A Loshak; K Sale; D Trombino; A D Dougan; B Pohl; D Dietrich; D Weirup; R Walling; M Rowland; D Johnson; C Hagmann; D Hankins

2004-01-01

349

Changing Our Ways of Thinking: Health Professionals and Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the issues raised by health professionals concerned about the threat of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, including epidemics, civil defense, arms costs, psychosocial aspects, and ethical responsibility. Appendixes include lists of antinuclear organizations, medical professional associations, and 160 references. (SK)

Neal, Mary

1984-01-01

350

Nuclear Weapons and Communication Studies: A Review Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the body of work inspired by the late Cold War period, where nuclear weapons briefly became a compelling object for communication scholars. Considers the prospects for nuclear communication scholarship in post-Cold War culture. Discusses "nuclear criticism" and issues regarding the bomb in communication. (SC)

Taylor, Bryan C.

1998-01-01

351

Nuclear Weapons and the Future: An "Unthinkable" Proposal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks ahead 30 or 40 years to see what might come of the nuclear weapons predicament. As a minimal first step in the campaign against nuclear warfare, he suggests a unilateral and complete disarmament by the United States. (AM)

Tyler, Robert L.

1982-01-01

352

Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: Assessing the risks  

SciTech Connect

The report describes what nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons can do, analyzes the consequences of their spread for the United States and the world, and summarizes technical aspects of monitoring and controlling their production. The report also explains the array of policy tools that can be used to combat proliferation, identifying tradeoffs and choices that confront policymakers.

Not Available

1993-08-01

353

The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

Not Available

1990-01-01

354

Japan-US cooperation in dismantling nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan is in a perfect position to work closely with the US in dismantling nuclear weapons in Russia and the CIS countries, says Yasuhide Yamanouchi, director of the Department of Research and Education, Center for Global Communications (GLOCOM) at the International University of Japan. Japan must become more involved, and will have to overcome its self-imposed constraints on dealing with

Yasuhide Yamanouchi

1997-01-01

355

32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated...description of the weapon to Commander, I Corps and Fort Lewis, ATTN: AFZH-PMS-P, Fort Lewis, WA 98433-5000. A copy of this...

2010-07-01

356

Cloud Computing for Large-Scale Weapon Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale weapon systems employ distributed computing, but these systems typically do not have a services orientation as found in systems architected to leverage cloud computing. In this paper we describe some of the issues that need to be addressed to enable the application of cloud computing in such systems, using high-level generic use cases and requirements to illustrate the issues.

Kevin D. Foster; John J. Shea; James Bret Michael; Thomas W. Otani; Loren Peitso; Man-tak Shing

2010-01-01

357

A weapon-target assignment approach to media allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem which media planners face with is media allocation including budget allocation for an advertising campaign in an optimal frame. This study developed a near optimization model, originated from the weapon–target assignment problem of military operations research, that allocates both media and budget. The proposed model, which is independent of the duration of an advertising campaign, also schedules

Eyüp Çetin; Seda Tolun Esen

2006-01-01

358

Energy conversion issues for airborne directed energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of an airborne directed energy weapon (DEW) to effectively strike a target depends strongly on the ability to develop, deliver, and manage the required energy for the onboard DEW source. The energy flow within various generic airborne DEW systems is examined from power generation to waste heat management. Each airborne DEW system is analyzed by considering the energy

Steven F. Adams; John G. Nairus

2002-01-01

359

Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass  

SciTech Connect

A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process.

Barrena, R. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Canovas, C. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: asanchez@eupma.uab.es

2006-07-01

360

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

...Washington § 552.123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords, air guns, BB guns, cross bows, pellet guns, bow and arrows, of personnel residing the unit billets will be...

2014-07-01

361

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Washington § 552.123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords, air guns, BB guns, cross bows, pellet guns, bow and arrows, of personnel residing the unit billets will be...

2010-07-01

362

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Washington § 552.123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords, air guns, BB guns, cross bows, pellet guns, bow and arrows, of personnel residing the unit billets will be...

2012-07-01

363

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-12-31

364

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-01-01

365

An analysis of technical and policy drivers in Current U.S. nuclear weapons force structure  

E-print Network

U.S. nuclear weapons force structure accounts for the number and types of strategic and nonstrategic weapon systems in various locations that comprise the nuclear arsenal. While exact numbers, locations, and detailed designs ...

Baker, Amanda, S. B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

366

36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.  

...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The possession of loaded...explosive devices of any kind, including fireworks or other pyrotechnics, is...

2014-07-01

367

36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The possession of loaded...explosive devices of any kind, including fireworks or other pyrotechnics, is...

2011-07-01

368

36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The possession of loaded...explosive devices of any kind, including fireworks or other pyrotechnics, is...

2012-07-01

369

36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327.13 Parks...Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The possession of loaded...explosive devices of any kind, including fireworks or other pyrotechnics, is...

2013-07-01

370

Concealed weapons detection using low-frequency magnetic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military personnel, law-enforcement officers, and civilians face ever-increasing dangers from persons carrying concealed handguns and other weapons. In direct correspondence with this danger is a need for more sophisticated means of detecting concealed weapons. We have developed a novel concealed-weapons detector based on the principle of low- frequency magnetic imaging. The detector is configured as a portal, and constructs an image of electrically conductive objects transported through it with a potential spatial resolution of approximately 1 inch. Measurements on a breadboard version of the weapons detector have, to date, yielded a resolution of 2 inches. In operation, magnetic dipole radiation, emitted by transmitting antennas in the perimeter of the portal, is scattered from conductive objects and is picked up by receive antennas, also positioned around the portal. With sufficient measurements, each with a different geometry, a solution to the inverse scattering problem can be found. The result is an image of conductive objects in the detector. The detector is sensitive to all metals, semiconductors, and conductive composites. The measured conductivity image formed by the detector is combined with the video signal from a visible CCD camera to form a composite image of persons transiting the detector portal and the conductive objects they are carrying. Accompanying image recognition software could be used to determine the threat level of objects based upon shape, conductivity, and placement on the person of the carrier, and provide cueing, logging, or alarm functions to the operator if suspect weapons are identified. The low- power, low-frequency emissions from the detector are at levels considered safe to humans and medical implants..

Zollars, Byron G.; Sallee, Bradley; Durrett, Michael G.; Cruce, Clay; Hallidy, William

1997-02-01

371

Power electronics reliability analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2009-12-01

372

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

373

Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.  

PubMed

Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. PMID:25109229

Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

2014-08-11

374

Cooperative dynamic weapon-target assignment algorithm of multiple missiles based on networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To find a proper assignment of weapons to targets with the objective of maximizing the damage of the target group, the cooperative dynamic weapon target assignment (CDWTA) problem of multimissiles formation is studied. By using the information shared by networks, the dominance matrix is modeled based on the relationship between the missiles and targets. Then, to obtain the dynamic weapon

Chen Peng; Xing Liu; Xiaomin Mu; Yang Du; Sentang Wu

2009-01-01

375

Radiological Weapons Control: A Soviet and US Perspective. Occasional Paper 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two international diplomats from the Soviet Union and the United States focus on the need for a treaty to ban the use of radiological weapons. Radiological weapons are those based on the natural decay of nuclear material such as waste from military or civilian nuclear reactors. Such devices include both weapons and equipment, other than a nuclear…

Issraelyan, Victor L.; Flowerree, Charles C.

376

Integration of high energy laser weapons systems aboard all-electric ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An all-electric ship construct for surface combatants will need to consider the impact of future, electric power based weapons systems. Shipboard environments, driven by war fighting, hoteling, and safety arguments, are already influencing the development of high impulse weapons systems away from chemical or nuclear derived charging mechanism. shipboard high energy laser (HEL) weapons system concepts, for example, are already

M. J. Wardlaw; T. L. Wilson

2002-01-01

377

Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons?: Three Models in Search of a Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central purpose of this article is to challenge conventional wisdom about nuclear proliferation. The author argues that the consensus view, focusing on national security considerations as the cause of proliferation, is dangerously inadequate because nuclear weapons programs also serve other, more parochial and less obvious objectives. Nuclear weapons, like other weapons, are more than tools of national security; they

Scott D. Sagan

1996-01-01

378

Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone developments in Asia: Problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZs) are binding agreements to prevent the acquisition and stationing of nuclear weapons within a particular region, and to secure guarantees from nuclear states not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against the zone. In the context of developing dialogues on nuclear proliferation and security issues in the Asian region, the existing Southeast Asian NWFZ (Bangkok

Michael Hamel-Green

2005-01-01

379

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues ISSUE NO. 32 JUNE 1996 Quarterly Journal of the Harvard Sussex Program on CBW Armament. Undisclosed weapons pro- grammes have been discovered, chemical and biological weapons production sites have

Sussex, University of

380

Reliability and structural integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

Davidson, J. R.

1976-01-01

381

Weapon use increases the severity of domestic violence but neither weapon use nor firearm access increases the risk or severity of recidivism.  

PubMed

Use of weapons is a risk factor for domestic violence severity, especially lethality. It is not clear, however, whether access to firearms itself increases assault severity, or whether it is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who are more likely to commit severe and repeated domestic assault. This reanalysis of 1,421 police reports of domestic violence by men found that 6% used a weapon during the assault and 8% had access to firearms. We expected that firearm use would be rare compared to other weapons and that actual weapon use rather than firearm access would increase the severity of domestic assaults. Firearm access was associated with assault severity, but this was mostly attributable to use of nonfirearm weapons. Weapon use was associated with older age, lower education, and relationship history as well as to assault severity. Victims were most concerned about future assaults following threats and actual injuries. Although firearm access and weapon use were related to actuarial risk of domestic violence recidivism, neither predicted the occurrence or severity of recidivism. We conclude that, consistent with previous research in the United States and Canada, firearm use in domestic violence is uncommon even among offenders with known firearm access. Weapon use is characteristic of a subgroup of offenders who commit more severe domestic violence, and seizure of weapons may be an effective intervention. PMID:23248355

Folkes, Stephanie E F; Hilton, N Zoe; Harris, Grant T

2013-04-01

382

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process.

Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1994-03-01

383

Using a Dynamic Model to Consider Optimal Antiviral Stockpile Size in the Face of Pandemic Influenza Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian National Antiviral Stockpile (NAS) contains treatment for 17.5% of Canadians. This assumes no concurrent intervention strategies and no wastage due to non-influenza respiratory infections. A dynamic model can provide a mechanism to consider complex scenarios to support decisions regarding the optimal NAS size under uncertainty. Methods We developed a dynamic model for pandemic influenza in Canada that is structured by age and risk to calculate the demand for antivirals to treat persons with pandemic influenza under a wide-range of scenarios that incorporated transmission dynamics, disease severity, and intervention strategies. The anticipated per capita number of acute respiratory infections due to viruses other than influenza was estimated for the full pandemic period from surveys based on criteria to identify potential respiratory infections. Results Our results demonstrate that up to two thirds of the population could develop respiratory symptoms as a result of infection with a pandemic strain. In the case of perfect antiviral allocation, up to 39.8% of the population could request antiviral treatment. As transmission dynamics, severity and timing of the emergence of a novel influenza strain are unknown, the sensitivity analysis produced considerable variation in potential demand (median: 11%, IQR: 2–21%). If the next pandemic strain emerges in late spring or summer and a vaccine is available before the anticipated fall wave, the median prediction was reduced to 6% and IQR to 0.7–14%. Under the strategy of offering empirical treatment to all patients with influenza like symptoms who present for care, demand could increase to between 65 and 144%. Conclusions The demand for antivirals during a pandemic is uncertain. Unless an accurate, timely and cost-effective test is available to identify influenza cases, demand for antivirals from persons infected with other respiratory viruses will be substantial and have a significant impact on the NAS. PMID:23805303

Greer, Amy L.; Schanzer, Dena

2013-01-01

384

Facing reality: The future of the US nuclear weapons complex  

SciTech Connect

Facing Reality is a collaboration by 15 authors from environmental and grass-roots groups. The authors bluntly conclude that whether the inertia, habit, or material interest, the nuclear weapons establishment has proven itself incapable of genuine reform.' They therefore call for government agencies other than the Department of Energy to manage the tasks of decontamination and decommissioning. Just a partial list of what needs to be done to clean up the DOE's mess is daunting: closing, decommissioning, and decontaminating production facilities, dismantling thousands of nuclear warheads, safely storing dangerous radioactive materials, identifying alternative employment for weapons specialists, conducting meaningful health studies of workers and citizens exposed to radiation, and providng compensation for the victims of the nuclear buildup.

Not Available

1992-01-01

385

The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

Drell, S.

2005-02-01

386

Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection  

SciTech Connect

Full-body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

2003-07-16

387

Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-05-01

388

Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

Saunders, Emily C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowberry, Ariana N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-12

389

Human response to nuclear and advanced technology weapons effects. Final report, January-December 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to help the system survivability analyst estimate hardness requirements for systems exposed to nuclear weapons and advanced technology weapons (ATWs). The system survivability analyst is often asked to make quick, order-of-magnitude estimates on the hardness requirements for existing or proposed systems based upon human responses to the effects of nuclear weapons and ATWs. The intent of this report is to identity the general range of human survivability to nuclear weapons and ATWs and to provide simple example calcuiations and scenarios that can give the reader rough estimates of the effects of these weapons. While high-powered microwave (HPM) and laser weapons are considered in this report, the main emphasis is on nuclear weapons and their ionizing radiation effects.

Coleman, J.L.

1996-05-01

390

Information Resources and Database Development for Defense Against Biological Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events in the United States on September 11, 2001, the subsequent dissemination of anthrax through the mail, and the existence\\u000a of biological weapons programs in other nations have raised the public’s concern about the detection and medical management\\u000a of biological agents, whether on the battlefield or in a civilian environment. This concern is heightened by advances in molecular\\u000a biology,

Frank J. Lebeda; Murray Wolinsky; Elliot J. Lefkowitz

391

Cleaning Up the Nuclear Weapons Complex: Internet Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in late January by Resources for the Future (RFF), an independent, nonprofit organization devoted to the economic aspects of environmental issues (see the August 28, 1998 Scout Report), this metasite offers about 100 annotated and categorized online resources on the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The site is divided into four main categories: Recommended Reading, Research and Stakeholder Organizations, Federal Government, and News Sources and Periodicals. Links point to the organizations's Webpages, relevant documents, and other resources. Suggestions are welcome.

392

Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

Baker, C.P.

1994-08-01

393

Is (-)-catechin a novel weapon of spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?  

PubMed

The novel weapons hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e., the novel weapon). In their native habitat, however, the plants that co-evolved with these invasive species have theoretically evolved defenses that obviate the allelochemical advantage. Previous studies have claimed that catechin is such a novel weapon of spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe = C. maculosa), an invasive species in the non-native habitat of North America. These studies indicated that (-)-catechin is more phytotoxic than (+)-catechin. Other studies have not found sufficient catechin in field soils to support this theory. We report that (-)-catechin and (+)-catechin are essentially equal, but poorly phytotoxic to a variety of plant species in bioassays without soil. In a dose/response experiment with Montana soils, we found the lowest dose for a growth reduction of two native Montana grasses (Koeleria macrantha and Festuca idahoensis) by a racemic mixture of (+/-)-catechin that ranged from about 25 to 50 mM, concentrations, orders of magnitude higher than expected in nature. Autoclaving the soil before adding the catechin did not affect the activity of catechin. We found (-)-catechin to be a potent antioxidant, in contrast to a previous claim that it acts as an allelochemical by causing oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that catechin is not a novel weapon of spotted knapweed and that other allelochemical(s) or alternative mechanisms must be found to explain the success of this species as an invader in North America. PMID:19153796

Duke, Stephen O; Blair, Amy C; Dayan, Franck E; Johnson, Robert D; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Cook, Daniel; Bajsa, Joanna

2009-02-01

394

SNL/NM weapon hardware characterization process development report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process used by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico to characterize weapon hardware for disposition. The report describes the following basic steps: (1) the drawing search process and primary hazard identification; (2) the development of Disassembly Procedures (DPs), including demilitarization and sanitization requirements; (3) the generation of a ``disposal tree``; (4) generating RCRA waste disposal information; and (5) documenting the information. Additional data gathered during the characterization process supporting hardware grouping and recycle efforts is also discussed.

Graff, E.W.; Chambers, W.B.

1995-01-01

395

High-energy laser weapons since the early 1960s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the U.S. and Russia/USSR have made great strides toward developing high-energy laser weapons for their future national defense systems since the early 1960s. Many billions of dollars and rubles were invested in the effort. Many hundreds of gifted scientists and engineers devoted their careers to working on the problems. They achieved major technological advances and made impressive and successful demonstrations. After more than half a century, however, neither side has yet adapted the first laser weapon for a military use. Why? This paper discusses the history of key technological advancements and successes, as well as some of the difficulties encountered. It also discusses fundamental technological advantages and limitations of high-energy laser weapons, and also the unique social, cultural, and political environments that have contributed to the history. The high-energy laser technical community is in the process of finding ways to adapt to the new warfare environment by taking advantage of the lessons learned in the past while incorporating the new technologies and ideas evolved in recent years.

Cook, Joung

2013-02-01

396

Prompt effects of nuclear weapons: a microcomputer model  

SciTech Connect

This research allowed for development of a microcomputer model reporting the damage and casualty-producing prompt effects of nuclear weapons from one kiloton to ten megatons. The mode was largely regression-derived and used range-contour modeling to report the effects of normal nuclear weapons. Effects were predicted for the low to intermediate overpressure range (1 to 150 psi overpressure). The weapon effects predicted were fireball characteristics, air blast, thermal radiation, initial radiation, and residual radiation. The fireball was characterized for post-breakaway radius and peak mean temperatures. Air-blast parameters were estimated for optimum height and contact surface burst, peak overpressures, peak dynamic pressures, and peak dynamic pressures, and peak windspeeds. Thermal-radiation parameters estimated include thermal exposure and thermal history adjusted for transmittance and reflectance for both surface and optimum height bursts. Initial radiation estimates were reported as total Roentgen Equivalent Mammalian, (REM) for gamma and neutron. Early fallout was modeled using idealized fallout contours and danger zone prediction. Idealized contours were generated using curvilinear regression of the Defense Land Fallout Prediction System.

Duke, J.C.

1987-01-01

397

Legal aspects of national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses some legal aspects of measures at the national level to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to effectuate the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby engendering significant disparities in implementation steps among States Parties. The author discusses progress among several States in actually developing national CWC implementing measures. Implementing measures from Australia, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden were available to him in English through the PTS. He compares them in order to illustrate different approaches to national implementation that are emerging. Of course, it is important to note that this brief survey necessarily omitted examination of the existing ``background`` of other, related domestic laws that these signatories might also have adopted that affect CWC implementation.

Tanzman, E.A.; Zeuli, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1994-11-28

398

Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores  

E-print Network

The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

Gsponer, A

2003-01-01

399

Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

400

Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control.  

PubMed

During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb. PMID:18505023

Wellerstein, Alex

2008-03-01

401

Weapons sponsorship: Promoting strategic defense in the nuclear era  

SciTech Connect

This study develops a framework for an elite network analysis using a concept called weapons sponsorship (i.e., the utilization of resources by individuals and groups for the promotion of new weapons systems) and traces the evolution of U.S. policy regarding Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) from the immediate post-World War II period up to, and including, President Reagan's decision to initiate the Strategic Defense Initiative. The analysis of the major networks of BMD sponsors found relations between these policy-planning groups to be largely uncoordinated, often competitive, and sometimes antagonistic. In addition, several of these networks were highly polarized internally. These discoveries led to a reassessment of the influence and interests of the military-industrial complex, resulting in several findings concerning strategic defense in particular, and the arms race in general. For many BMD proponents, exotic BMD schemes offered a chance to break out of the strategic stalemate in offensive weaponry. Thus, a failed Star Wars would indicate that the political power of weapons sponsors interested in pursuing strategic superiority in the nuclear age is weakening.

Pratt, E.K.

1989-01-01

402

Reliability for tactical cryocoolers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 18 years Carleton Life Support Systems has produced over 15,000 tactical cryogenic coolers that are primarily used in military infrared systems with excellent demonstrated reliability. As system reliability has improved, the cooler performance has emerged as a dominant component for reliability predictions. This has driven cooler reliability requirements to increase from a 1500-hour rotary cooler in chiefly ground applications to current requirements of 20,000 hours for linear coolers in advanced airborne applications. At the same time there is a push for improved cooldown time, lower power, lighter weight and smaller package. This paper reviews our progress on extending cooler life. It reviews recent product returns and contends that the majority of issues are not primarily related to reliability. It also reviews how system performance specifications are restrictive to the cooler designer in achieving higher reliability in tactical coolers.

Hoefelmeyer, Henry L.; Nelson, Randy; Nelson, Robert

2004-08-01

403

Human reliability analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach.

Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

1988-01-01

404

Recalibrating software reliability models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

1989-01-01

405

Software Reliability 2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In FY01 we learned that hardware reliability models need substantial changes to account for differences in software, thus making software reliability measurements more effective, accurate, and easier to apply. These reliability models are generally based on familiar distributions or parametric methods. An obvious question is 'What new statistical and probability models can be developed using non-parametric and distribution-free methods instead of the traditional parametric method?" Two approaches to software reliability engineering appear somewhat promising. The first study, begin in FY01, is based in hardware reliability, a very well established science that has many aspects that can be applied to software. This research effort has investigated mathematical aspects of hardware reliability and has identified those applicable to software. Currently the research effort is applying and testing these approaches to software reliability measurement, These parametric models require much project data that may be difficult to apply and interpret. Projects at GSFC are often complex in both technology and schedules. Assessing and estimating reliability of the final system is extremely difficult when various subsystems are tested and completed long before others. Parametric and distribution free techniques may offer a new and accurate way of modeling failure time and other project data to provide earlier and more accurate estimates of system reliability.

Wallace, Dolores R.

2003-01-01

406

Bonded Retainers - Clinical Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bonded retainers have become a very important retention appliance in orthodontic treatment. They are popular because they are considered reliable, independent of patient cooperation, highly efficient, easy to fabricate, and almost invisible. Of these traits, reliability is the subject of this clinical study. A total of 549 patients with retainers were analyzed with regard to wearing time, extension of the

Dietmar Segner; Bettina Heinrici

2000-01-01

407

On reliability growth testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability development growth testing (RDGT) is the most common method used to improve equipment reliability. The author had an opportunity to perform an analysis of hardware that experienced environmental stress screening (ESS), environmental qualification testing (EQT), RDGT and field usage. The failure mode and corrective action data were used to qualitatively assess the effectiveness of RDGT testing. The results of

E. Demko

1995-01-01

408

Hawaii electric system reliability.  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

2012-09-01

409

Semiconductor network reliability assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the reliability test plan and test results on semiconductor network microelectronic devices. Included in the test plan are reliability programs, life testing, step stress testing, and environmental tests. The failure analysis-corrective action cycle is discussed at length. The failure analysis procedure is outlined with many specific examples of analysis results at various points in the analysis procedure.

J. Adams; W. Workman

1964-01-01

410

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI\\/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules\\/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV

L. Mrig

1990-01-01

411

The cause and effect of exclusionary zoning within a jurisdiction, and, The stockpile of petroleum needed to contain OPEC's price shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I, I model a jurisdiction where residents differ by income, and housing confers benefits on neighbors. By majority vote, residents choose minima on consumption of housing that differ by neighborhood, and they separate into neighborhoods by income. In practice, such laws take the form of minimum lot sizes, bans on multi-family units, building codes, and other restrictions. This policy maximizes a benefit-cost welfare criterion. Alternative policies include no minima and a uniform minimum citywide, based on libertarian and utilitarian welfare criteria, respectively. I compare the policies in terms of efficiency, implementability, and distributional consequences, and give numerical examples based on U.S. data. Willingness to pay for the benefit-cost optimum is convex in income. This helps to explain why neighborhood stratification by income has outpaced stratification of income itself in U.S metropolitan areas since 1970. In the examples, gains to a rich household are in the thousands and losses to the poor in the hundreds of dollars annually. In Part II, I estimate the stockpile of petroleum sufficient to contain a price shock perpetrated by the OPEC. I estimate world demand for petroleum such that the long run price elasticity exceeds that in the short run, and supply from non-OPEC producers with a similar kind of lagged response. Given this structure for elasticities, OPEC profits from sudden increases in price. I simulate interaction among consumers, non-OPEC producers, OPEC, and an International Energy Agency (IEA) that punishes OPEC by releasing oil onto the market. I endow the IEA with increasingly large stockpiles until they suffice to limit price shocks to specified levels. Every 5 reduction in the shock raises present-valued world GDP by about 650 billion. The IEA now has 1.4 billion barrels of petroleum, including 700 million in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A 3 billion barrel stockpile would suffice to reduce a 35 price shock to 20, raising world GDP by about 2 trillion. A 5 billion barrel stockpile would cut the shock to 5. The benefits of doing so are in the trillions of dollars, while lost profits to OPEC are in the hundreds of billions.

Vatter, Marc H.

412

Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law  

SciTech Connect

Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-08-08

413

Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

1993-06-01

414

Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training  

SciTech Connect

This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1989-01-01

415

VVER-1000 weapons-grade MOX computational benchmark analysis  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of computational benchmark problems for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium fuel in VVER-1000 reactors have been performed under the Joint US/Russian Fissile Material Disposition Program. The benchmarks cover pin cell, single fuel assembly, and multi-assembly structures with several different fuel types, moderator densities, and boron content for operational and off-normal conditions. Fuel depletion is performed to a burnup of 60 MWd/kgHM. The results of the analysis of the benchmarks with US and Russian code systems have been compared and indicated good agreement among the different methods and data.

Kalugin, M.A.; Lazarenko, A.P.; Kalahnikov, A.G.; Gehin, J.C.

2000-05-07

416

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20^th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

Boso, Brian

2011-03-01

417

2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago DTRA partnered with NNSA to evaluate commercially available technologies that could be deployed quickly to defend against threats posed by unconventional nuclear weapons under a program called the Unconventional Nuclear Warfare Defense (UNWD) Program. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was one of several National laboratories that participated in this program, which consisted in developing, deploying, and demonstrating detection systems suitable for military base protection. Two key contributions to this program by the LLNL team were the development of two Radiation Detection Buoys (RDB) deployed at Naval Base in Kings Bay in Georgia, and the Detection and Tracking System (DTS) demonstrated at Fort Leonard Wood Missouri, headquarters for the Total Force's Maneuver Support Center (MANSCEN). The RDB's were designed to detect the potential transportation of an unconventional nuclear or radiological weapon by a boat. The RDB's consisted of two commercial marine buoys instrumented with several types of detectors sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons, two key modes of energy emitted by radioactive materials. The engineering team selected a standard marine buoy as the overall system platform for this deployment since buoys are already designed to sustain the harsh marine environment, and also for their covertness, since once deployed, they look just like any other buoy on the water. Since this was the first time such a system was ever deployed, the team choose to instrument the buoys with a suite of different types of detectors with the goal to learn which detectors would be best suited for future deployments of this kind. This goal has now being achieved, and through a combination of computer modeling and experimental data, the team has gain the necessary knowledge to better understand the capabilities and limitations of RDB's, and the tradeoffs involve in the selection of the different detectors. The two LLNL RDB's are currently operational at Kings Bay, and the team is looking forward to another opportunity to design the next generation RDB's.

Hernandez, J E; Valentine, J

2004-04-09

418

Robotics applications for the staging of weapon components  

SciTech Connect

As the US nuclear stockpile is reduced, large numbers of nuclear components must be placed in storage. The necessity for periodic inventories of these components as well as the act of placement of the components in storage areas could result in increased radiation exposure to operations personnel. The use of robotics can significantly reduce or even eliminate such exposure. An automated system is being designed in a project at Sandia Laboratories to allow an operator to remotely stack and retrieve component containers in storage areas using a robotic loader and a portable control console. The operator need not enter the storage area. Operator commands for the loader would be implemented through a supervisory architecture that would insure that the loader did not violate safety constraints. Individual aspects of the loader`s activities would be automated to reduce possible operator errors for many repetitive tasks. The loader will be outfitted with appropriate sensors so that the supervisory controller can enforce safe operations. The system will be configured so that monitoring of components for accountability can be accomplished.

Martin, F.; Caskey, B.

1992-08-01

419

Robotics applications for the staging of weapon components  

SciTech Connect

As the US nuclear stockpile is reduced, large numbers of nuclear components must be placed in storage. The necessity for periodic inventories of these components as well as the act of placement of the components in storage areas could result in increased radiation exposure to operations personnel. The use of robotics can significantly reduce or even eliminate such exposure. An automated system is being designed in a project at Sandia Laboratories to allow an operator to remotely stack and retrieve component containers in storage areas using a robotic loader and a portable control console. The operator need not enter the storage area. Operator commands for the loader would be implemented through a supervisory architecture that would insure that the loader did not violate safety constraints. Individual aspects of the loader's activities would be automated to reduce possible operator errors for many repetitive tasks. The loader will be outfitted with appropriate sensors so that the supervisory controller can enforce safe operations. The system will be configured so that monitoring of components for accountability can be accomplished.

Martin, F.; Caskey, B.

1992-01-01

420

Legal aspects of national implementation of the chemical weapons convention confidential provisions  

SciTech Connect

Today, I shall discuss legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CORK) confidentiality provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. Progress is reported in actually developing implementing measures for the cork`s confidentiality requirements from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden.

Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

1995-05-09

421

Application of AHP-GCP model in weapon equipment research project evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the disadvantage of the methods on weapon equipment research project between local and abroad, the author constructs a AHP-GCP model by the valid connection of AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) and GCP(Catastrophe Progression Process), and applies it in evaluation model of weapon equipment research project, and the result indicates that this method can evaluate the weapon equipment research project

Kan Li; Yunlai Ma

2011-01-01

422

Availability and reliability overview  

SciTech Connect

With the diversity of fuel costs, outages of high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems can have a large economic impact. Available methods to evaluate reliability are based on simple probability and sufficient data. A valid, consistent data base for historical performance is available through CIGRE publications. Additional information on future performance is available from each supplier's bid. Using all available information, including the customer's own estimate of reliability, reliability can be evaluated by calculating the expected value of energy unavailability for each supplier. 4 figures, 2 tables.

Albrecht, P.F.; Fink, J.L.

1984-01-01

423

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

424

Medical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

-generation packaging, where conformal coatings will serve as the primary interface between the deviceMedical Device Reliability BIOMATERIALS Our goal is to provide medical device manufacturers, and consistency of active implantable medical devices. These devices, including pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators

425

Sequential cumulative fatigue reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A component is assumed to be subjected to a sequence of several groups of sinusoidal stresses. Each group consists of a specific number of cycles having the same maximum alternating stress level and the same mean stress level, the maximum alternating stress level being different from group to group. A method for predicting the reliability of components subjected to such loads is proposed, given their distributional alternating stress versus cycles-to-failure (S-N) diagram. It is called the 'conditional reliability-equivalent life' method. It is applied to four-cases using distributional fatigue data generated in the Reliability Research Laboratory of The University of Arizona, and the predicted reliabilities are compared and discussed.

Kececioglu, D.; Chester, L. B.; Gardner, E. O.

1974-01-01

426

Atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum examines the role of atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). Air dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring are expected to form key components in integrated accident assessment and warning systems at each of the eight CSDP installations. This report assesses the capabilities of operating state-of-the-art systems in order to establish a baseline for developing the requirements of the CSDP systems. A general tutorial on the types of atmospheric dispersion models currently available is provided, and the criteria for selection of emergency response models are developed. The requirements for meteorological monitoring are also described. In addition, the basic limitations of modeling and monitoring are discussed, and the importance of model verification is emphasized. Staffing requirements to operate an integrated modeling and monitoring system are characterized. The current state of modeling, monitoring, and staffing levels in support of emergency response at the eight US Army chemical stockpile depots involved in the CSDP is examined. Specific requirements appropriate to emergency planning and response at each of the eight sites are described. Recommendations are made for both the integrated system and the individual components of air dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring. Finally, future work required to prepare for emergency response is discussed. 22 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Miller, R.L.

1990-08-01

427

Reliability and Regression Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet, by David M. Lane of Rice University, demonstrates how the reliability of X and Y affect various aspects of the regression of Y on X. Java 1.1 is required and a full set of instructions is given in order to get the full value from the applet. Exercises and definitions to key terms are also given to help students understand reliability and regression analysis.

Lane, David M.

2009-02-17

428

The Journey Toward Reliability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kansas State University faculty members have partnered with industry to assist in the implementation of a reliability centered manufacturing (RCM) program. This paper highlights faculty members experiences, benefits to industry of implementing a reliability centered manufacturing program, and faculty members roles in the RCM program implementation. The paper includes lessons learned by faculty members, short-term extensions of the faculty-industry partnership, and a long-term vision for a RCM institute at the university level.

Brockway, Kathy V.; Spaulding, Greg

2010-03-15

429

Development of the nuclear weapons complex EP architecture  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Weapons Guidance Team is an interagency committee led by Earl Whiteman, DOE that chartered the generation of EP40100, Concurrent Qualification and its successor EP401099, Concurrent Engineering and Qualification. As this new philosophy of concurrent operations has evolved and as implementation has been initiated, conflicts and insufficiencies in the remaining Engineering Procedures (EPs) have become more apparent. At the Guidance Team meeting in November 1995, this issue was explored and several approaches were considered. It was concluded at this meeting, that a smaller set of interagency EPs described in a hierarchical system could provide the necessary interagency direction to support complex-wide implementation. This set consolidates many existing EP processes where consistency and commonality are critical to success of the extended enterprise. The Guidance Team subsequently chartered an interagency team to initiate development activity associated with the envisioned new EP set. This team had participation from seven Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) sites as well as DOE/AL and DP-14 (team members are acknowledged later in this report). Per the Guidance Team, this team, referred to as the Architecture Subcommittee, was to map out and define an EP Architecture for the interagency EPs, make recommendations regarding a more agile process for EP approval and suggest an aggressive timeline to develop the combined EPs. The Architecture Subcommittee was asked to brief their output at the February Guidance Team meeting. This SAND report documents the results of the Architecture Subcommittee`s recommendations.

Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

1996-07-01

430

Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.  

PubMed

For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations. PMID:21910635

Lockwood, Jeffrey A

2012-01-01

431

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

432

An Important Issue: Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historic Facts and Philosophy: In August, 1947, I participated in a secret meeting concerning the validity and use of a hydrogen bomb. I vigorously supported a ``Super Manhattan Project" to build an ``H" bomb. My philosophy at the time was `bigger and better,' to ensure that no nation attacked the U.S. Our retaliation with ``H" bombs vs. ``A" bombs would be too overwhelming for any nation to risk attacking us should they obtain their own ``A" bombs. Thus, all nations would be forced to use diplomacy. I am older and wiser, and am now convinced that World Test Ban Treaties, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and space free of any military weapons is the best policy for all nations and humanity. With current nuclear testing at nearby Yucca Flats, Nevada, Vandenberg AF/Missile site, Cal Tech, etc., I therefore propose that our new APS California Division form a three-person committee to tabulate all pertinent data and submit it to a qualified expert for review and further action. Comments and suggestions are invited.

Castellano, Doc

2001-03-01

433

Coulomb repulsion and the electron beam directed energy weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mutual repulsion of discrete charged particles or Coulomb repulsion is widely considered to be an ultimate hard limit in charged particle optics. It prevents the ability to finely focus high current beams into small spots at large distances from defining apertures. A classic example is the 1970s era "Star Wars" study of an electron beam directed energy weapon as an orbiting antiballistic missile device. After much analysis, it was considered physically impossible to focus a 1000-amp 1-GeV beam into a 1-cm diameter spot 1000-km from the beam generator. The main reason was that a 1-cm diameter beam would spread to 5-m diameter at 1000-km due to Coulomb repulsion. Since this could not be overcome, the idea was abandoned. But is this true? What if the rays were reversed? That is, start with a 5-m beam converging slightly with the same nonuniform angular and energy distribution as the electrons from the original problem were spreading at 1000-km distance. Could Coulomb repulsion be overcome? Looking at the terms in computational studies, some are reversible while others are not. Based on estimates, the nonreversible terms should be small - of the order of 0.1 mm. If this is true, it is possible to design a practical electron beam directed weapon not limited by Coulomb repulsion.

Retsky, Michael W.

2004-09-01

434

Elimination of chemical weapons: is agreement in sight  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, negotiators laboring under the auspices of the little publicized 40-nation Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva have succeeded in resolving or narrowing differences on many of the military-technical issues which but a short time ago seemed to present insuperable obstacles to the conclusion of a world-wide convention. Significant strides have been made in elaborating a rolling text, that is, the text of an agreement that from session to session is being expanded, refined, and improved upon. As a consequence of the development of supertoxic chemical agents and improved means of delivery, there is heightened concern about the chemical warfare (CW) threat in future conflicts. The existence of a major Soviet CW capability is of particular concern to the population of Western Europe, but the relative ease and modest cost of developing a chemical-warfare capability has widened the scope of the threat to world-wide dimensions. Reportedly at least 15 countries now possess these weapons of mass destruction. Most informed observers believe completion of a convention, as now being negotiated, would take on the order of two years, and would be something of a minor miracle. Still, the accomplishments of the past year make a world-wide ban on chemical weapons look a good deal less like an impossible dream.

Flowerree, C.C.

1988-04-01

435

Nuclear weapons tests and environmental consequences: a global perspective.  

PubMed

The beginning of the atomic age marked the outset of nuclear weapons testing, which is responsible for the radioactive contamination of a large number of sites worldwide. The paper aims to analyze nuclear weapons tests conducted in the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the impact of radioactive pollution on the atmospheric, aquatic, and underground environments. Special attention was given to the concentration of main radioactive isotopes which were released, such as ¹?C, ¹³?Cs, and ??Sr, generally stored in the atmosphere and marine environment. In addition, an attempt was made to trace the spatial delimitation of the most heavily contaminated sites worldwide, and to note the human exposure which has caused a significantly increased incidence of thyroidal cancer locally and regionally. The United States is one of the important examples of assessing the correlation between the increase in the thyroid cancer incidence rate and the continental-scale radioactive contamination with ¹³¹I, a radioactive isotope which was released in large amounts during the nuclear tests carried out in the main test site, Nevada. PMID:24563393

Pr?v?lie, Remus

2014-10-01

436

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 ?m, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2003-08-01

437

Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

2011-01-01

438

Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

439

Software reliability studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The longterm goal of this research is to identify or create a model for use in analyzing the reliability of flight control software. The immediate tasks addressed are the creation of data useful to the study of software reliability and production of results pertinent to software reliability through the analysis of existing reliability models and data. The completed data creation portion of this research consists of a Generic Checkout System (GCS) design document created in cooperation with NASA and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) experimenters. This will lead to design and code reviews with the resulting product being one of the versions used in the Terminal Descent Experiment being conducted by the Systems Validations Methods Branch (SVMB) of NASA/Langley. An appended paper details an investigation of the Jelinski-Moranda and Geometric models for software reliability. The models were given data from a process that they have correctly simulated and asked to make predictions about the reliability of that process. It was found that either model will usually fail to make good predictions. These problems were attributed to randomness in the data and replication of data was recommended.

Wilson, Larry W.

1989-01-01

440

Statistical modelling of software reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the six-month period from 1 April 1991 to 30 September 1991 the following research papers in statistical modeling of software reliability appeared: (1) A Nonparametric Software Reliability Growth Model; (2) On the Use and the Performance of Software Reliability Growth Models; (3) Research and Development Issues in Software Reliability Engineering; (4) Special Issues on Software; and (5) Software Reliability and Safety.

Miller, Douglas R.

1991-01-01

441

User's guide and history of ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil) as a nuclear weapons effect simulation explosive. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The history of the development and use of ANFO as a nuclear-weapons blast, cratering, and ground-shock simulation source, is traced from 1966 to 1976 when the first full-scale target-testing operation was conducted on DICE THROW with a 600-ton ANFO charge. The results of the development tests, of DICE THROW, and of subsequent tests with ANFO through PRE-DIRECT COURSE in 1982, are given and analyzed in terms of explosive-charge performance. The results indicate that ANFO is a safe, economical, and reliable explosive source for effects simulation purposes. The details presented serve as a guide for utilization of ANFO for future similar and more-demanding simulation purposes.

Petes, J.; Miller, R.; McMullan, F.

1983-03-31

442

A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford, "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

Donohue, Nathan

443

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

Sheng, S.

2013-10-01

444

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect

The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

Mrig, L. (ed.)

1990-01-01

445

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

446

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

Mrig, L.

447

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280...Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not...

2012-07-01

448

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280...Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not...

2010-07-01

449

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280...Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not...

2011-07-01

450

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

...Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280...Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not...

2014-07-01

451

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section 1280...Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not...

2013-07-01

452

Pointing and tracking concept for a high energy laser weapon application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to profit from the advantages of a higher energy laser weapon for air defense tasks against aircraft, helicopters or missiles, a suitable laser source and a high-accuracy tracking and pointing system is required. The following publication describes a possible pointing and tracking concept for a laser weapon in order to compensate for the most important factors of disturbance

M. Noll; B. Warm

1994-01-01

453

WHY WE NEED TO ELIMINATE NUCLEAR WEAPONS—AND HOW TO DO IT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ong relegated to the fringes of policy discussions, nuclear disarmament has moved to center stage in the past few years. The continuing deterioration of the nonproliferation regime, the sudden emergence of North Korea as a nuclear- weapon state and of Iran as a potential weapon state, concerns about the stability of another new nuclear power, Pakistan, and revelations about nuclear

Barry M. Blechman

454

Ris-R-1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium in the Arctic  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium in the Arctic Environment (Thule, Greenland) Mats Eriksson Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark April 2002 #12;Risø­R­1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium; that plutonium is not transported from the contaminated sediments into the surface water in this shelf sea

455

The Global Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: A Counter Argument to the Western Interdisciplinary Viewpoint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the two- tier international security system has formally legitimized the possession of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in the hands of the five nuclear weap- ons states (i.e., the United States, France, Britain, the Peoples' Republic of China, and the Russian Federation). 1 The strategic political problem in

Michael J. Siler

456

The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that describe: (1)…

Levy, Tedd

457

A model to calculate effectiveness of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

LLNL's Navy Tactical Applications Group (NTAG) has produced a computer model to calculate the probability of kill of a submarine-launched nuclear ASW standoff-weapon. Because of the uncertainties associated with target position and motion and with weapon delivery, this is a problem appropriately treated statistically. The code is a Monte Carlo's simulation which follows the engagement from localization through optional evasive

Magnoli

1989-01-01

458

Coping With Nuclear Weapons Policy: How Expert Do You Have To Be?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out that policy decisions about nuclear weapons evolve from politics, bureaucracy, and technology, indicating that intelligent people can learn enough about technology to make judgments about policy issues. Suggests, however, that much more thinking is necessary to arrive at a coherent perspective about what constitutes nuclear weapons

Ruina, Jack

1983-01-01

459

Ship-to-Air Missile Weapon System Command Effectiveness Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the definition and index system of the ship-to-air missile weapon system command effectiveness, it assessed the weapon system command effectiveness through fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Thereinto, it assessed the evaluation index weight through modified AHP, and implemented fuzzy comprehensive judgement through the weighted average fuzzy operator. The example exemplified the operability of the proposed methodology.

Dou Jihua; Chen Wanchun; Shi Deping

2010-01-01

460

Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001  

E-print Network

Chemical Weapons Convention Requirements Part 745­page 1 Export Administration Regulations September 28, 2001 §745.1 ADVANCE NOTIFICATION AND ANNUAL REPORT OF ALL EXPORTS OF SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) not less than 30 days in advance of every export

Bernstein, Daniel

461

Nuclear weapons in an uncertain world -- national security implications. Research report, August 1992April 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States (US) nuclear policy evolution has been characterized by change in response to the dynamics of the international environment. New nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies are required in response to the evolving international environment. Specific concerns relate to the military, economic and political conditions of an evolving and uncertain world and the root causes of nuclear weapons proliferation. Proposed

Mistretta

1993-01-01

462

Teaching with the News: North Korea and Nuclear Weapons. Choices for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 2002 North Korea admitted that it had been operating a secret nuclear weapons program in violation of international treaties and the 1994 Agreed Framework with the United States. North Korea also appeared to be taking steps to begin production of nuclear weapons and, according to U.S. officials, may have a missile that can hit…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Inst. for International Studies.

463

Predictors of Weapon Carrying in Youth Attending Drop-in Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test and compare 2 predictive models of weapon carrying in youth (n=308) recruited from 4 drop-in centers in San Diego and Imperial counties. Methods: Both models were based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). Results: The first and second models significantly explained 39% and 53% of the variance in weapon carrying,…

Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Kelley, Norma J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Bousman, Chad A.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Ji, Ming; Clapp, John

2009-01-01

464

32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.124 Transportation...than weapons being transported into Fort Lewis for the first time, may be carried...remove privately owned weapons from Fort Lewis or sub-installations will comply...

2010-07-01

465

Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Talk: Controlling and eliminating nuclear-weapon materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fissile material -- in practice plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) -- is the essential ingredient in nuclear weapons. Controlling and eliminating fissile material and the means of its production is therefore the common denominator for nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism. From a fundamentalist anti-nuclear-weapon perspective, the less fissile material there is and the fewer

Frank von Hippel

2010-01-01

466

Dynamic analysis on gas operated device's of internally-powered Gatling weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas operated device structural parameter is an important factor to affect the firing rate fluctuation of the internally-powered Gatling weapon. In order to improve the movement stability of the automatic machine, Through analyzing internally-powered Gatling weapon's gas chamber structure, using gas dynamics theory , gas operated device's math model was erected. In the course of analyzing, it considered an structure

Xiaoming Han; Yucheng Bo; Qiang Li

2011-01-01

467

Software reliability perspectives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software which is used in life critical functions must be known to be highly reliable before installation. This requires a strong testing program to estimate the reliability, since neither formal methods, software engineering nor fault tolerant methods can guarantee perfection. Prior to the final testing software goes through a debugging period and many models have been developed to try to estimate reliability from the debugging data. However, the existing models are poorly validated and often give poor performance. This paper emphasizes the fact that part of their failures can be attributed to the random nature of the debugging data given to these models as input, and it poses the problem of correcting this defect as an area of future research.

Wilson, Larry; Shen, Wenhui

1987-01-01

468

Dismantled weapons fuel burning in molten salt reactors  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of burning fissile material from dismantled weapons in molten salt reactors (MSRs) are described. The fluid fuel MSRs with some, or full, processing are nondedicated reactors that generate energy and completely burn the fissile material on a continuous basis. No fuel fabrication is needed, and the entire dismantling can be done in a secure facility. Shipments are made in small, safe, and secure quantities. Denaturing, spiking, or mixing can be done at the source for added safety. MSRs are very safe reactors that help close the fuel cycle and simplify waste treatment, thereby contributing to acceptability. Additionally, MSRs are expected to be economically competitive as electric power stations. The safety, security, simplicity, economy, and proliferation resistant properties support the deployment in countries that have the need.

Gat, U.; Engel, J.R.

1993-10-01

469

The uncertain course: New weapons strategies and mind-sets  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an analysis of the strategic, military, and technological forces that are changing the nature and likelihood of war. As the world enters the post-nuclear, or 'second' nuclear age, it has to take account of this revolution in military affairs which is as fundamental as the introduction of gunpowder once was. The contributors explain and chart the exotic technologies such as 'Star Wars', the cruise missile explosion, new naval dynamics, the US Army's forward 'Air-Land' doctrine, the Soviet 'Operational Manoeuvre Groups' and 'Theatres of Military-Strategic Operations', battle management, and new challenges complicating international security calculations. They also take account of the fact that the country has twenty-first century weapons but only nineteenth-century ways of thought, and that computers and artificial intelligence are lessening the comprehension and control. They conclude that the risk of inadvertent war is increasing, even as the risk of deliberate war is diminishing.

Jacobsen, C.G.

1987-01-01

470

Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts  

SciTech Connect

Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

1993-12-31

471

Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: Some metabolites serve both roles.  

PubMed

The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems. PMID:25389065

Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

2015-02-01

472

The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.  

PubMed

Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1m to 18.3m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75?s) and force (1700N) or stress (100MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. PMID:25460102

Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

2015-01-01

473

Neutrophils Turn Plasma Proteins into Weapons against HIV-1  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of innate immune activation granulocytes and macrophages produce hypochlorite/hypochlorous acid (HOCl) via secretion of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to the outside of the cells, where HOCl immediately reacts with proteins. Most proteins that become altered by this system do not belong to the invading microorganism but to the host. While there is no doubt that the myeloperoxidase system is capable of directly inactivating HIV-1, we hypothesized that it may have an additional indirect mode of action. We show in this article that HOCl is able to chemically alter proteins and thus turn them into Idea-Ps (Idea-P?=?immune defence-altered protein), potent amyloid-like and SH-groups capturing antiviral weapons against HIV-1. HOCl-altered plasma proteins (Idea-PP) have the capacity to bind efficiently and with high affinity to the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, and to its receptor CD4 as well as to the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Idea-PP was able to inhibit viral infection and replication in a cell culture system as shown by reduced number of infected cells and of syncytia, resulting in reduction of viral capsid protein p24 in the culture supernatant. The unmodified plasma protein fraction had no effect. HOCl-altered isolated proteins antithrombin III and human serum albumin, taken as representative examples of the whole pool of plasma proteins, were both able to exert the same activity of binding to gp120 and inhibition of viral proliferation. These data offer an opportunity to improve the understanding of the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions and allow the generation of the following hypothetical scheme: natural immune defense mechanisms generate by posttranslational modification of plasma proteins a potent virucidal weapon that immobilizes the virus as well as inhibits viral fusion and thus entry into the host cells. Furthermore simulation of this mechanism in vitro might provide an interesting new therapeutic approach against microorganisms. PMID:23840401

Hagleitner, Magdalena; Rambach, Günter; Van Aken, Hugo; Dierich, Manfred; Kehrel, Beate E.

2013-01-01

474

A strategy for weapons-grade plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

A political as well as technical analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of glassification (vitrification) for weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) disposition. The political analysis provided the criteria necessary to compare alternative storage forms. The technical areas of weapon useability and environmental safety were then computationally and experimentally explored and a vitrification implementation strategy postulated. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) computer code was used to model the effect of blending WGPu with reactor grade Pu (RGPu). A mixture of 30% RGPu and 70% WGPu more than doubled the surface flux from a bare sphere of the mixture which assumedly correlates to a significantly increased predetonation probability. Rare earth diluents were also examined (using MCNP) for their ability to increase the compressed critical mass of the WGPu mixture. The rare earths (notably Eu) were effective in this regard. As Pu-239 has a 24,100 year half life, reactivity control in the long term is an environmental safety issue. Rare earths were investigated as criticality controllers due to their neutron absorption capabilities and insolubility in aqueous environments. Thorium (a Pu surrogate) and the rare earths Eu, Gd, and Sm were added to two standard frits (ARM-1 and SRL-165) and formed into glass. Aqueous leach tests were performed (using MCC-1P guidelines) to measure rare earth leaching and determine the added elements` effects on glass durability. Europium was much more leach resistant than boron in the glasses tested. The elements had no negative effect on the environmental durability of the glasses tested at 90 C and minimal effect at room temperature. No fission product releases were detected in the ARM-1 compositions (which contained numerous simulated fission products).

Sylvester, K.W.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1994-09-01

475

33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...  

...2014-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110... § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station,...

2014-07-01

476

33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110... § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station,...

2013-07-01

477

33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110... § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station,...

2010-07-01

478

33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110... § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station,...

2011-07-01

479

33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110... § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station,...

2012-07-01

480

33 CFR 334.102 - Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal Channel, restricted area...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and Terminal... DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.102 Sandy Hook Bay, Naval Weapons Station EARLE, Piers and...

2010-07-01

481

76 FR 39392 - Record of Decision for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown, Nellis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Record of Decision for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown...24, 2011, the United States Air Force signed the ROD for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation (FDE) and Weapons...

2011-07-06

482

33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...be used for air-to-surface target practice...

2012-07-01

483

33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...be used for air-to-surface target practice...

2010-07-01

484

33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...be used for air-to-surface target practice...

2013-07-01

485

33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.  

...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...be used for air-to-surface target practice...

2014-07-01

486

33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS...Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted...be used for air-to-surface target practice...

2011-07-01

487

Grid Reliability////////////////////////// Grid Dependability  

E-print Network

-6 ) Life-critical, long-life, safety critical domains Aviation industry (aircraft control) Space missions for learning new words! Dependability, reliability, availability, safety integrity, maintainability of System Assessment, Part 5: Assessment of System Dependability, Draft, Publication 1069-5, Int

488

Wood Durability Service & Reliability  

E-print Network

Wood Durability Laboratory Service & Reliability Equipment & Facilities Field sites for AWPA E-7 (mold) tests. Wood weathering facilities. Lab-scale pressure treating cylin- ders. X-ray preservative analyzer (Oxford Twin-X). State-of-the-art facilities for wood and plastics composites manufacturing

489

Software reliability report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Unfortunately, the models appear to be unable to account for the random nature of the data. If the same code is debugged multiple times and one of the models is used to make predictions, intolerable variance is observed in the resulting reliability predictions. It is believed that data replication can remove this variance in lab type situations and that it is less than scientific to talk about validating a software reliability model without considering replication. It is also believed that data replication may prove to be cost effective in the real world, thus the research centered on verification of the need for replication and on methodologies for generating replicated data in a cost effective manner. The context of the debugging graph was pursued by simulation and experimentation. Simulation was done for the Basic model and the Log-Poisson model. Reasonable values of the parameters were assigned and used to generate simulated data which is then processed by the models in order to determine limitations on their accuracy. These experiments exploit the existing software and program specimens which are in AIR-LAB to measure the performance of reliability models.

Wilson, Larry

1991-01-01

490

Human Reliability Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human reliability engineering (HRE) is the description, analysis, and improvement of situations in which human errors have been made or could be made. The probability of human error is distinguished from the probability of incident. HRE can be carried out at different levels: A. Prevention with regard to a future human error; B. Prevention of a future incident and correction

H. Kragt

1978-01-01

491

Quantifying Human Performance Reliability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human performance reliability for tasks in the time-space continuous domain is defined and a general mathematical model presented. The human performance measurement terms time-to-error and time-to-error-correction are defined. The model and measurement terms are tested using laboratory vigilance and manual control tasks. Error and error-correction…

Askren, William B.; Regulinski, Thaddeus L.

492

Post-Cold War Science and Technology at Los Alamos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory serves the nation through the development and application of leading-edge science and technology in support of national security. Our mission supports national security by: ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile; reducing the threat of weapons of mass destruction in support of counter terrorism and homeland defense; and solving national energy, environment,

John C. Browne

2002-01-01

493

PLUTONIUM METALLOGRAPHY AT LOS ALAMOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

From early days of the Manhattan program to today, scientists and engineers have continued to investigate the metallurgical properties of plutonium (Pu). Although issues like aging was not a concern to the early pioneers, today the reliability of our aging stockpile is of major focus. And as the country moves toward a new generation of weapons similar problems that the

RAMIRO A. PEREYRA; DARRYL LOVATO

2007-01-01

494

78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22...Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, as...suspend the authority of foreign air carriers owned or...

2013-12-10

495

General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

496

Effects of Fescue Type, Sampling Date, and Grazing by Dairy Replacement Heifers on the Nutritive Value and In Situ Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of DM and NDF for Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue Forages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forages, one containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other containing the wild-type endophyte (E+), were autumn stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with N. Beginning o...

497

Impact of new technology weapons on SAC (Strategic Air Command) conventional air operations. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Chapter I introduces the issue of conventional-response capability. The point stressed first is that the strategic bomber's primary mission is in support of the single integrated operations plan (SIOP) as a nuclear weapons delivery vehicle. However, as cited by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, we must have a rapid deployment conventional capability to areas where there are small if any U.S. forces present. The SAC strategic projection force (SPF) is available but with gravity weapons of World War II vintage. New technology can provide answers to the problem by providing highly accurate long-range conventional standoff weapons. Chapter II gives a basic historical perspective on the use of the strategic bomber in past wars. It discusses the development of strategy, weapons, and targets in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Chapter III presents a very brief look at current US policy, strategy, and guidance. Chapter IV covers the aircraft attrition issue in today's highly lethal defensive environment. Chapter V describes the development of air-to-ground weapons. Chapter VI addresses the potential for the future in the shifting balance of Soviet and US technology. The final chapter makes the point that a decision must be made on weapons-acquisition programs and bomber force structure. New technology-standoff conventional weapons could make AAA and SAM defenses a modern Maginot Line.

Bodenheimer, C.E.

1983-06-01

498

Reliable broadcast protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

1989-01-01

499

Human Reliability Program Workshop  

SciTech Connect

A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

2014-05-18

500

Reliability and testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliability and its interdependence with testing are important topics for development and manufacturing of successful products. This generally accepted fact is not only a technical statement, but must be also seen in the light of 'Human Factors.' While the background for this paper is the experience gained with electromechanical/electronic space products, including control and system considerations, it is believed that the content could be also of interest for other fields.