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1

Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request from Congressman Aspin et al., has to do with the need for nuclear testing as it relates to stockpile reliability and remanufacture, there are other very important reasons for nuclear testing. Since there has been increasing interest in the US Congress for more restrictive nuclear test limits, we have addressed the overall need for nuclear testing and the potential impact of further nuclear test limitations. Chapter 1 also summarizes the major conclusions of a recent study conducted by the Scientific and Academic Advisory Committee (SAAC) for the President of the University of California; the SAAC report is entitled, ''Nuclear Weapon Tests: The Role of the University of California-Department of Energy Laboratories.'' Chapter 2 presents a brief history of stockpile problems that involved post-deployment nuclear testing for their resolution. Chapter 3 addresses the problems involved in remanufacturing nuclear weapons, and Chapter 4 discusses measures that should be taken to prepare for possible future restrictive test limits.

Miller, G.H.; Brown, P.S.; Alonso, C.T.

1987-10-01

2

Report to Congress on stockpile reliability, weapon remanufacture, and the role of nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report analyzes two issues: (1) ''whether past warhead reliability problems demonstrate that nuclear explosive testing is needed to identify or to correct stockpile reliability,'' or (2) ''whether a program of stockpile inspection, nonnuclear testing, and remanufacture would be sufficient to deal with stockpile reliability problems.'' Chapter 1 examines the reasons for nuclear testing. Although the thrust of the request

G. H. Miller; P. S. Brown; C. T. Alonso

1987-01-01

3

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

4

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded

1993-01-01

5

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology  

SciTech Connect

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

6

Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess stockpile reliability, but have been used extensively in various forms outside Sandia National Laboratories. It is hoped that this report will encourage the use of 'nontraditional' reliabilty and uncertainty techniques in gaining insight into stockpile reliability issues.

Robinson, David G.

1999-04-01

7

US nuclear weapons stockpile (June 1993)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US. nuclear stockpile is at its lowest level since late 1958 or early 1959. In the past year, many weapons were returned to central military storage depots in the United States and funneled to the Energy Department's Pantex facility for final disassembly and disposal. This article presents a table showing the author's current estimate of the composition of the

R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

1993-01-01

8

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a Low-Threshold or Comprehensive Test Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted withith the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured warheads in the absence of

Kidder

1987-01-01

9

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a test ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted within the past decade, together with the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured

Kidder

1987-01-01

10

National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have developed a common framework and key elements of a national certification methodology called Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU). A spectrum from senior managers to weapons designers has been engaged in this activity at the two laboratories for on the order of a year to codify this methodology in an overarching and integrated paper. Following is the certification paper that has evolved. In the process of writing this paper, an important outcome has been the realization that a joint Livermore/Los Alamos workshop on QMU, focusing on clearly identifying and quantifying differences between approaches between the two labs plus developing an even stronger technical foundation on methodology, will be valuable. Later in FY03, such a joint laboratory workshop will be held. One of the outcomes of this workshop will be a new version of this certification paper. A comprehensive approach to certification must include specification of problem scope, development of system baseline models, formulation of standards of performance assessment, and effective procedures for peer review and documentation. This document concentrates on the assessment and peer review aspects of the problem. In addressing these points, a central role is played by a 'watch list' for weapons derived from credible failure modes and performance gate analyses. The watch list must reflect our best assessment of factors that are critical to weapons performance. High fidelity experiments and calculations as well as full exploitation of archival test data are essential to this process. Peer review, advisory groups and red teams play an important role in confirming the validity of the watch list. The framework for certification developed by the Laboratories has many basic features in common, but some significant differences in the detailed technical implementation of the overall methodology remain. Joint certification workshops held in June and December of 2001 and continued in 2002 have proven useful in developing the methodology, and future workshops should prove useful in further refining this framework. Each laboratory developed an approach to certification with some differences in detailed implementation. The general methodology introduces specific quantitative indicators for assessing confidence in our nuclear weapon stockpile. The quantitative indicators are based upon performance margins for key operating characteristics and components of the system, and these are compared to uncertainties in these factors. These criteria can be summarized in a quantitative metric (for each such characteristic) expressed as: (i.e., confidence in warhead performance depends upon CR significantly exceeding unity for all these characteristics). These Confidence Ratios are proposed as a basis for guiding technical and programmatic decisions on stockpile actions. This methodology already has been deployed in certifying weapons undergoing current life extension programs or component remanufacture. The overall approach is an adaptation of standard engineering practice and lends itself to rigorous, quantitative, and explicit criteria for judging the robustness of weapon system and component performance at a detailed level. There are, of course, a number of approaches for assessing these Confidence Ratios. The general certification methodology was publicly presented for the first time to a meeting of Strategic Command SAG in January 2002 and met with general approval. At that meeting, the Laboratories committed to further refine and develop the methodology through the implementation process. This paper reflects the refinement and additional development to date. There will be even further refinement at a joint laboratory workshop later in FY03. A common certification methodology enables us to engage in peer reviews and evaluate nuclear weapon systems on the basis of explicit and objective metrics. The clarity provided by such metrics enables each laboratory and our common customers to understand the meaning and logic

Goodwin, B T; Juzaitis, R J

2006-08-07

11

Sample preselection process designed to enhance early planning information. [Sampling program for evaluating nuclear weapon stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The DOE provides for the continuing evaluation of the nuclear weapon stockpiles through a stockpile sampling program in which randomly selected weapons are withdrawn for testing from the stockpiles each year. For some time, DOE has used a preselection scheme to obtain early identification of certain characteristics of the sample weapons for planning purposes, but which does so without jeopardizing the necessary randomization of sample selection. A DOD desire for additional and more detailed planning information to minimize weapon movements has led to an improvement of the original preselection scheme that enhances the planning information and its accuracy, while still preserving randomization.

Mueller, F.W.; Spencer, F.W.

1981-11-01

12

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

13

Stockpile surveillance: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The US nuclear weapon stockpile is entering a different era. Continuous introduction of new weapons into the stockpile, a large production capacity, and underground nuclear testing played important roles in how the nuclear weapons stockpile was managed in the past. These are no longer elements of the nuclear weapons program. Adjustments need to be made to compensate for the loss of these elements. The history of the stockpile indicates that problems have been found in both nuclear and nonnuclear components through a variety of methods including the Stockpile Evaluation Program, stockpile management activities, underground nuclear tests, and research activities. Changes have been made to the stockpile when necessary to assure safety, performance, and reliability. There have been problems found in each of the weapon types expected to be in the stockpile in the year 2000. It is reasonable to expect problems will continue to arise in the stockpile as it ages beyond the original design expectations.

Johnson, K.; Keller, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ekdahl, C.; Krajcik, R.; Salazar, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kelly, E.; Paulsen, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-01-01

14

Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are

Darby; John L

2011-01-01

15

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01

16

Chemical-Stockpile Disposal Program. Chemical weapons movement history compilation. Historical report 1946-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report was produced to study the history of past chemical-weapons-movement operations from 1946 to 1986. The history was then to be used as a source of lessons learned for planning any transportation that might be required to implement the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. The report candidly discusses problems encountered on past chemical-weapons-movement operations and suggests areas in which the

Brankowitz

1987-01-01

17

National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have developed a common framework and key elements of a national certification methodology called Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU). A spectrum from senior managers to weapons designers has been engaged in this activity at the two laboratories for on the order of a year to codify this methodology in an overarching and

B T Goodwin; R J Juzaitis

2006-01-01

18

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

19

Improvement of Weapon Systems Reliability Through Reliability Improvement Warranties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the basic causes of poor weapon systems reliability. These include: (1) Military requirements that demand greater improvements in capability over improvements in reliability; (2) Inadequate development testing; and (3) The lack of inc...

J. D. Shmoldas

1977-01-01

20

High Reliability Capacitors for Nuclear Weapon Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to provide very high reliability capacitors for two basic nuclear weapon circuit applications. The first requirement is for a low inductance capacitor with high discharge current capability. The second application is a high vol...

W. E. Packer

1985-01-01

21

Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-06-01

22

Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

23

Stockpile Monitor Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent political changes have led to drastic reductions in the number of nuclear warheads in stockpile, as well as increased expectations for warhead-service lives. In order to support and maintain a shrinking and aging nuclear stockpile, weapon scientist...

G. A. Buntain M. Fletcher R. Rabie

1994-01-01

24

Reasoned Response to Nimby Opposition to Incineration of Chemical Weapon Stockpiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of a dilemma faced by elected officials who face international responsibilities on one hand and obligations to constituents on the other. Diplomatic efforts to rid the world of chemical weapons culminated in January 1993 with the signing of a ...

M. C. Bobrick

1993-01-01

25

The Future of the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will examine our plans for the future of the U.S. nuclear weapons program including efforts to ``transform'' the stockpile and supporting infrastructure. We proceed from the premise that the United States will need a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent for the foreseeable future. Moreover, the Stockpile Stewardship Program is working. Today's stockpile---comprised of legacy warheads left over

Linton F. Brooks

2007-01-01

26

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18

27

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The

Scott A Vanderwiel; Alyson G Wilson; Todd L Graves; Christopher S Reese

2009-01-01

28

Implications of reduced NATO nuclear stockpiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

After completing the initial deployment of nuclear weapons in Europe in the early 1960s, the US maintained for the next 20 years a stockpile advertised at 7000 weapons in the support of NATO. This number was not explained by any official statement of the roles of the weapons, which made the stockpile vulnerable to politically motivated decisions to reduce its

Sandoval

1984-01-01

29

Human reliability and safety in the handling of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of accidental or inadvertent nuclear war has been couched largely in terms of superpower confrontations during a crisis. Whether the focus is on the major powers, or on developing nations with ballistic missiles and probable nuclear weapons capability, stability in those who handle weapons and effective safeguards on use are essential preventive measures.The United States and the USSR

Herbert L. Abramso

1991-01-01

30

Stockpile Management Program quarterly report. 2. quarter 1998  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to ensure the safety and reliability of the enduring nuclear weapons stockpile by: (1) maintaining robust nuclear facilities that comprise the infrastructure needed to conduct the various laboratory programs; (2) maintaining capabilities and qualified personnel needed to successfully implement the Program and ensure availability of competencies; (3) meeting present and future production and surveillance requirements to support the enduring stockpile and other programmatic deliverables; and (4) capturing and maintaining expertise and competency in the processes and technologies required to build a complete physics package. Summaries of accomplishments are presented for approximately 30 projects managed under this program.

NONE

1998-11-01

31

The Future of the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will examine our plans for the future of the U.S. nuclear weapons program including efforts to ``transform'' the stockpile and supporting infrastructure. We proceed from the premise that the United States will need a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent for the foreseeable future. Moreover, the Stockpile Stewardship Program is working. Today's stockpile---comprised of legacy warheads left over from the Cold War---is safe and reliable. That said, we see increased risk, absent nuclear testing, in assuring the long-term safety and reliability of our current stockpile. Nor is today's nuclear weapons complex sufficiently ``responsive'' to fixing technical problems in the stockpile, or to potential adverse geopolitical change. Our task is to work to ensure that the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise, including the stockpile and supporting infrastructure, meets long-term national security needs. Our approach is to develop and field replacement warheads for the legacy stockpile---so-called Reliable Replacement Warheads (RRW)---as a means to transform both the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure.

Brooks, Linton F.

2007-03-01

32

Weapons design policy impedes test ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two letters accompanying this article take opposing positions on a central issue in the debate on a comprehensive nuclear test ban agreement: is continued nuclear testing necessary to ensure the reliability of the US nuclear stockpile. Hans Bethe and cosigners say it is not; Roger Batzel and Donald Kerr, speaking for the nuclear weapons design laboratories, claim that continued testing

H. E. DeWitt; G. E. Marsh

1985-01-01

33

Computational Challenges in Nuclear Weapons Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of experience, the Stockpile Stewardship Program continues to ensure the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASCI) program was established to provide leading edge, high-end simulation capabilities needed to meet the program's assessment and certification requirements. The great challenge of this program lies in developing the tools and resources

C F McMillain; T F Adams; M G McCoy; R B Christensen; B S Pudliner; M R Zika; P S Brantley; J S Vetter; J M May

2003-01-01

34

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

35

Manufacturing high reliability weapon grade transformers in small lots  

SciTech Connect

Sandia has used flyback transformers for many years, primarily to charge capacitors for capacitive discharge units. Important characteristics of the transformer design are to meet inductance, turns ratio, and high voltage breakdown requirements as well as not magnetically saturating during each energy transfer cycle. Sandia has taken over production responsibility for magnetic components from a previous GE/LM, General Electric/Lockheed Martin, facility in Florida that produced {approximately} 50 K units per year. Vanguard Electronics is working with Sandia to transfer many of these designs to Vanguard`s small manufacturing facility in Gardena, CA. The challenge is to achieve the required high reliability and meet all the other electrical requirements with such small quantities of parts, {approximately} 100 per year. DOE requirements include high reliability {le} 3 failures per 10,000 components per 20 years while meeting numerous other environmental requirements. The basic design and prove-in required four lots of preproduction parts, extensive environmental testing, and numerous design changes. The manufacturing problems that affected performance of the transformer will be presented. These include encapsulation voids and core alignment. Also, some extended life test data that predicts long term reliability of newly produced transformers versus older designs will be compared.

Archer, W.E.; Sanchez, R.O.

1998-08-01

36

Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the

B. M. Vogt; J. H. Sorensen

1994-01-01

37

Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

38

AAAS Assessment of the Role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a study of the role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex during the latter part of 2006. As the Chair of that study I will report our principal findings and recommendations. Our conclusions are based on the experience and knowledge of the committee members, the information available in numerous reports and related analyses, and on presentations and discussions with DOE/NNSA officials, staff members from the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and others with special expertise and perspectives.

Tarter, C. Bruce

2007-03-01

39

Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

2009-10-11

40

Mission Area Overview: Project Manager - Chemical Stockpile Elimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Project Manager Chemical Stockpile Elimination (PM-CSE) PM-CSE is an acquisition PM responsible for the safe destruction of the nation's unitary chemical agents and weapons. The destruction technologies used by PM- CSE include incineration and neutral...

2008-01-01

41

Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program focus groups: A manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

While completing a congressionally mandated destruction of the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons, the US Army decided that enhanced emergency planning was needed to reduce the consequences of an accidental release of agent. This decision is being implemented cooperatively by the US Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency in the form of the Chemical Stockpile

S. A. Carnes; C. A. Garkovich; T. E. Jr. Shriver

1991-01-01

42

Bayesian methods for estimating the reliability in complex hierarchical networks (interim report).  

SciTech Connect

Current work on the Integrated Stockpile Evaluation (ISE) project is evidence of Sandia's commitment to maintaining the integrity of the nuclear weapons stockpile. In this report, we undertake a key element in that process: development of an analytical framework for determining the reliability of the stockpile in a realistic environment of time-variance, inherent uncertainty, and sparse available information. This framework is probabilistic in nature and is founded on a novel combination of classical and computational Bayesian analysis, Bayesian networks, and polynomial chaos expansions. We note that, while the focus of the effort is stockpile-related, it is applicable to any reasonably-structured hierarchical system, including systems with feedback.

Marzouk, Youssef M.; Zurn, Rena M.; Boggs, Paul T.; Diegert, Kathleen V. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Red-Horse, John Robert (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pebay, Philippe Pierre

2007-05-01

43

Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program: Challenges and progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is ``hardware`` originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming\\/fusing\\/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems.

W. B. Chambers; S. L. Chavez

1992-01-01

44

Disposal of SNL-designed electronics assemblies associated with the nuclear weapons program: Challenges and progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the common waste streams generated throughout the nuclear weapon complex is hardware'' originating from the nuclear weapons program. The activities associated with this hardware at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) include design and development, environmental testing, reliability and stockpile surveillance testing, and military liaison training. SNL-designed electronic assemblies include radars, arming\\/fusing\\/firing systems, power sources, and use-control and safety systems.

W. B. Chambers; S. L. Chavez

1992-01-01

45

Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Ãs New Contained Firing Facility;

1998-01-01

46

Quality control of meteorological data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Meteorological Support Project ensures the accuracy and reliability of data acquired by meteorological monitoring stations located at seven U.S. Army chemical weapons depots where storage and weapons destruction (demilitarization) activities are ongoing. The data are delivered in real time to U.S. Army plume dispersion models, which are used to plan for and respond to a potential accidental release of a chemical weapons agent. The project provides maintenance, calibration, and audit services for the instrumentation; collection, automated screening, visual inspection, and analysis of the data; and problem reporting and tracking to carefully control the data quality. The resulting high-quality meteorological data enhance emergency response modeling and public safety.

Liljegren, J.C.; Tschopp, S.; Rogers, K.; Wasmer, F.; Liljegren, L.; Myirski, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

2009-08-01

47

Pharmaceuticals and the strategic national stockpile program.  

PubMed

This article discusses current stockpile practices after exploring a history of the use of biologic agents as weapons, the preventive measures that the federal government has used in the past, and the establishment of a Strategic National Stockpile Program in 2003. The article also describes the additional medical supplies from the managed inventory and the federal medical stations. The issues (financial burden, personnel, and materiel selection) for local asset development are also discussed. Critical is the cost to local communities of the development and maintenance of a therapeutic agent stockpile and the need for personnel to staff clinics and medical stations. Finally, the important role of the dental profession for dispensing medication and providing mass immunization in the event of a disaster is described. PMID:17888762

Stewart, Amy; Cordell, Geoffrey A

2007-10-01

48

Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the continued operation of the Pantex Plant and associated storage of nuclear weapon components. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a successor agency to the Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) is required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to provide for the safety and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapon stockpile. Through P...

1996-01-01

49

Disposing of chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

There are at least two important reasons to dispose of US chemical warfare agents and munitions stockpiles without deliberate delay. One is the laudable intent to rid the world of these dangerous weapons of mass destruction. The other is the pragmatic observation that the aging stockpile is becoming increasingly dangerous for US citizens. In terms of laudable intent, the United States has an opportunity to lead by example, and as for the threat to its citizens, it has the obligation to act responsibly.

Peterson, C.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-06-01

50

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

51

Mitigative Features for Explosive Containment on the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public Law 99-145 mandated that the Army dispose of the United States inventory of obsolete and deteriorating chemical weapons in the safest and most environmentally acceptable manner. The Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) was created by the Depa...

B. L. Ross

1992-01-01

52

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

SciTech Connect

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The most definitive tests typically destroy the weapons so a given unit is tested only once. Surveillance managers need to decide how many units should be tested, how often they should be tested, what tests should be done, and how the resulting data are used to estimate the stockpile's current and future reliability. These issues are particularly critical from a planning perspective: given what has already been observed and our understanding of the mechanisms of stockpile aging, what is an appropriate and cost-effective surveillance program? Surveillance programs are costly, broad, and deep, especially in the DOE, where the US nuclear weapons surveillance program must 'ensure, through various tests, that the reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained' in the absence of full-system testing (General Accounting Office, 1996). The DOE program consists primarily of three types of tests: nonnuclear flight tests, that involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed; and nonnuclear and nuclear systems laboratory tests, which detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, and design of the nonnuclear and nuclear portions of the weapons. Fully integrated analysis of the suite of nuclear weapons surveillance data is an ongoing area of research (Wilson et al., 2007). This paper introduces a simple model that captures high-level features of stockpile reliability over time and can be used to answer broad policy questions about surveillance programs. Our intention is to provide a framework that generates tractable answers that integrate expert knowledge and high-level summaries of surveillance data to allow decision-making about appropriate trade-offs between the cost of data and the precision of stockpile reliability estimates.

Vanderwiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Alyson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reese, Christopher S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

53

Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

1999-04-01

54

Forbidden weapon - the employment of Army tactical nuclear weapons. Rept. for Aug 90Mar 91  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has possessed tactical nuclear weapons (TNW) since the early 1950's. Initially developed for deployment to Europe to offset the Soviet\\/Warsaw Pact's huge conventional superiority and to deter war, these weapons have never been used in combat. With the demise of the Cold War, a desire to reduce nuclear weapon stockpiles, and the capability of sister services to

Skelton

1991-01-01

55

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

56

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

57

Lifetime predictive capabilities for materials in the enduring stockpile  

SciTech Connect

Although materials understanding and modeling is not currently advanced to the point of failure prediction for most critical areas for stockpile components, research should continue to extend the knowledge base and enable science based choices for future programs or upgrades. Several critical areas are lacking for a science-based lifetime extension of the current stockpile. Hermeticity is critical for many components but modeling and predicative capabilities are limited in these areas. PETN is prevalent throughout the stockpile but modeling and predictive capability for autocatalysis and non-hermetic lifetimes is limited. Corrosion is a frequently observed age-related finding from the historical stockpile but the ability to predict the initiation of corrosion is limited. Advanced electronics are in some current weapons types and will most likely be a part of any retrofits and upgrades in the future. Understanding of stress voiding and electromigration in microelectronics is limited and predictions are not yet available. Polymeric materials are prevalent throughout the stockpile and temperature dependent response mass transport properties are not well understood. Modeling and predictive capabilities for polymeric materials are limited.

Koeck, D.C.

1996-03-01

58

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States' largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county's emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-01-01

59

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States` largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county`s emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-06-01

60

Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2008-07-01

61

Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

1998-05-01

62

Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report to the President of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the brink of war, and in front of the whole world, the United States government asserted that Saddam Hussein had reconstituted his nuclear weapons program, had biological weapons and mobile biological weapon production facilities, and had stockpiled an...

C. S. Robb H. S. Rowen J. McCain L. H. Silberman R. C. Levin

2005-01-01

63

An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

64

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

65

Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile

OBrien

2005-01-01

66

Nuclear weapon R and D and the role of nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four fundamental reasons why we do nuclear tests: (1) to maintain confidence in the existing stockpile; (2) to modernize the stockpile for improved safety, security, survivability, and military effectiveness; (3) to assess the vulnerability of weapons to the nuclear threat environment posed by the weapons of our adversaries; and (4) to avoid technological surprise by maintaining the scientific

1986-01-01

67

Defending Against a Stockpiling Terrorist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A government defends against a terrorist who attacks repeatedly and stockpiles its resources over time. The government defends an asset and attacks the terrorist's resources. The terrorist defends its resources and attacks the government. We find four possible equilibrium solutions: (1) the government attacks only, deterring the terrorist; (2) both players defend and attack; (3) the government defends but does

Kjell Hausken; Jun Zhuang

2011-01-01

68

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an ent...

B. Kellman E. A. Tanzman D. S. Gualtieri S. W. Grimes

1993-01-01

69

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of

Bill Williams; Tilman A. Ruff

2007-01-01

70

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01

71

16 CFR 1207.12 - Stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.12 Stockpiling...Stockpiling means manufacturing or importing swimming pool slides between the date of promulgation...importation) means the total number of swimming pool slides manufactured (or...

2013-01-01

72

Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

1991-07-01

73

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment,

B. Vogt; J. Sorensen; C. Coomer; B. Shumpert; H. Hardee

1998-01-01

74

Multiscale science for science-based stockpile stewardship  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project has been to develop and apply the methods of multi scale science to the problems of fluid and material mixing due to instability and turbulence, and of materials characterization. Our specific focus has been on the SBSS (science-based stockpile stewardship) issue of assessing the performance of a weapons with off-design, aged, or remanufactured components in the absence of full-scale testing. Our products are physics models, based on microphysical principles and parameters, and suitable for implementation in the large scale design and assessment codes used in the nuclear weapons program.

Margolin, L.; Sharp, D.

2000-12-01

75

The destruction of weapons under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

As the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) enters into force, countries with stocks of chemical weapons will begin the task of destroying them. In the U.S. whose stockpile consists of approximately 30,000 tons of nerve and blister agents at eight separate sites in the continental United States at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific, the Army has designed a highly-automated {close_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} system to dismantle and incinerate the weapons. Although researchers have identified potential alternatives to incineration, involving chemical neutralization and biodegradation, it appears that these techniques are likely to substitute for incineration at most, at two sites: Newport, Indiana, and Aberdeen, Maryland. The Russian destruction program is less advanced than that of the U.S. and probably cannot be carried out effectively without significant and technical assistance from abroad, an urgent requirement given that the Duma Defense Committee has described Russian Chemical weapons storage sites as insecure and unsafe.

Smithson, A.E. [Henry L. Stimson Center, Washington, DC (United States); Lenihan, M. [Commission on Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

76

Stockpile tritium production from fusion  

SciTech Connect

A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century.

Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

1986-03-21

77

Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program  

SciTech Connect

The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

1994-09-01

78

Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June

Mattus

2003-01-01

79

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding

1993-01-01

80

Predictive method for weapon storage environments  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Stockpile Monitor Program provides for the placement of Campbell Scientific Inc. data loggers in many weapons storage areas for the purpose of gathering environmental information such as relative humidity and temperature. Not all storage areas can be covered, however, so a means of estimating storage conditions is needed. This report describes one such technique.

Rabie, R.L.

1996-08-01

81

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2013-01-01

82

Strengthening the biological weapons convention and implications on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development, production, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons are banned by the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). Reflecting the realities of the Cold War era in which it was negotiated, the BWC lacks means for compliance verification or enforcement. International efforts to remedy this deficiency are accelerating in the face of evidence that covert biological weapon programs are proliferating

Dane Zabriskie

1998-01-01

83

Low-Yield Earth-Penetrating Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some senior members of the U.S. government and leaders of America's nuclear weapons labs have recently advocated that the U.S.A. develop a new generation of low-yield earth-penetrating nuclear weapons (EPWs) capable of destroying hardened and deeply buried targets. Because they are intended to detonate below ground and have substantially lower yields than typical weapons in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, it

Robert W. Nelson

2002-01-01

84

Need the U.S. resume nuclear weapons testing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has not tested a nuclear weapon since 1992. Nuclear weapons are very complicated devices and have many possible failure modes. The U.S. has invested many hundreds of millions of dollars and many thousands of man-years in ensuring the safety and security of the stockpile. Are these efforts sufficient? Do we understand how nuclear weapons work---and decay---sufficiently well

Benn Tannenbaum

2005-01-01

85

Joint nuclear weapons development studies and engineering projects. Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directive replaces DoD Directive 5030.2 and updates policy, procedures, and responsibilities for conducting joint Department of Energy (DOE)-DoD nuclear weapons concept definition studies, feasibility studies, and design definition and cost studies; for handling nuclear weapon development engineering projects; and for developing and transmitting nuclear weapons military characteristics and stockpile-to-target sequence to the DoE.

Gilson

1983-01-01

86

System reliability assessment with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The projected service life of weapons in the US nuclear stockpile will exceed the original design life of their critical components. Interim metrics are needed to describe weapon states for use in simulation models of the nuclear weapons complex. The authors present an approach to this problem based upon the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) that allows meaningful assessments to be made in an environment where reliability models are incomplete. AR models are designed to emulate the inference process used by subject matter experts. The emulation is based upon a formal logic structure that relates evidence about components. This evidence is translated using natural language expressions into linguistic variables that describe membership in fuzzy sets. The authors introduce a metric that measures the acceptability of a weapon to nuclear deterrence planners. Implication rule bases are used to draw a series of forward chaining inferences about the acceptability of components, subsystems and individual weapons. They describe each component in the AR model in some detail and illustrate its behavior with a small example. The integration of the acceptability metric into a prototype model to simulate the weapons complex is also described.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Helm, T.M.; Boerigter, S.T.

1998-12-31

87

Handling leachate from glass cullet stockpiles.  

PubMed

Mixed glass cullet (crushed recycled glass containers) is stockpiled uncovered before use as roadway construction aggregate or daily cover in landfills. Rainwater that leaches through the stockpiles dissolves and suspends contaminants such as those from food residuals and paper labels. The objective of this study was to determine leachate quantity and quality from cullet stockpiles as a basis for development of Best Management Practices (BMPs). Four 35-tonne field stockpiles were set up for leachate analysis and to determine the effects of mechanical turning treatment on the leachate. Field-collected leachate and laboratory-generated washwater of cullet (water:cullet=3:1 by weight) were both analyzed for basic wastewater parameters, which showed pollutant levels comparable to or higher than those of untreated domestic wastewater or urban stormwater. While organic contamination decreased substantially (e.g., washwater BOD>95% reduction), TKN and total-phosphorus levels in leachate ranged between 11.6-154mgL(-1) and 1.6-12.0mgL(-1), respectively, and remained comparable to levels found in untreated domestic wastewater after four months. Turning enhanced the degradation of the organic constituents inside the stockpiles, which was confirmed by elevated temperatures. Based on this study, leachate from glass cullet stockpiles should not be released to surface water. For leachate from long-term cullet stockpiles, release to groundwater should be only done after treatment to reduce nitrogen levels. PMID:19121574

Tsai, C L; Krogmann, U; Strom, P F

2009-01-01

88

Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special volume of Statistical Sciences presents some innovative, if not provocative, ideas in the area of reliability, or perhaps more appropriately named, integrated system assessment. In this age of exponential growth in science, engineering and technology, the capability to evaluate the performance, reliability and safety of complex systems presents new challenges. Today's methodology must respond to the ever-increasing demands

Sallie Keller-McNulty; Alyson Wilson; Christine Anderson-Cook

2007-01-01

89

Stockpiling Hydrated Lime-Soil Mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept and feasibility of stockpiling and reusing hydrated lime-soil mixtures to stabilize particular areas on stabilization projects after the mixing contractor has departed were examined. In chemical stabilization of subgrades, situations often ari...

C. Sun T. C. Hopkins T. L. Bakcham

2007-01-01

90

Technical basis for chemical stockpile emergency planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, an Accident Planning Base Review Group (APBRG) was convened in December 1992. The APBRG's mission was to update the accident basis for protective action strategy planning in the vicinity of...

D. E. Newsom M. A. Madore R. A. Paddock M. J. G. Absil

1995-01-01

91

Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special volume of Statistical Sciences presents some innovative, if not\\u000aprovocative, ideas in the area of reliability, or perhaps more appropriately\\u000anamed, integrated system assessment. In this age of exponential growth in\\u000ascience, engineering and technology, the capability to evaluate the\\u000aperformance, reliability and safety of complex systems presents new challenges.\\u000aToday's methodology must respond to the ever-increasing demands

Sallie Keller-McNulty; Alyson Wilson; Christine Anderson-Cook

2006-01-01

92

Department of Energy`s Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: A tool for decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program is considerably different today than originally envisioned. The pivotal cause for these changes was the end of the Cold War. As a result the size of the stockpile of nuclear weapons is being significantly reduced, and no new nuclear weapons production is anticipated for the foreseeable future. The evolution of the reconfiguration program can

E. Schweitzer; S. Sohinki

1994-01-01

93

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

94

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

95

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

96

Imaging sensor fusion for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensors are needed for concealed weapon detection which perform better with regard to weapon classification, identification, probability of detection and false alarm rate than the magnetic sensors commonly used in airports. We have concluded that no single sensor will meet the requirements for a reliable concealed weapon detector and thus that sensor fusion is required to optimize detection probability and

Nicholas C. Currie; Fred J. Demma; David D. Ferris; Robert W. McMillan; Michael C. Wicks; Kathleen Zyga

1997-01-01

97

The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?  

PubMed

This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs). PMID:21314080

Borrmann, Robin

98

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

99

ROLE OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION IN COMBATING CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is shortly characterised stressing its main principles, inter alia the General Purpose\\u000a Criterion. Status of its implementation as of December 2004 shows the main data obligatory declared by already 167 States\\u000a Parties and main achievements in destruction of Chemical Weapons (CW) stockpiles and destruction \\/ conversion of CW production\\u000a facilities and the verification efforts. The

Jiri Matousek

100

Strategic weapons  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Defense Department's process for formulating its strategic weapons targeting policy and translating that policy into a nuclear war plan-the Single Integrated Operational Plan. GAO provides information on the relationship between the strategic nuclear targeting process and the determination of requirements for nuclear weapons and related delivery systems, level of civilian oversight, and categories and types of targets. These strategic nuclear weapons systems, commonly known as the triad, include land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers armed with nuclear bombs and missiles.

Not Available

1991-09-01

101

The Economics of United States Grain Stockpiling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report attempts to synthesize the written discussion of grain stockpiling in the economics literature and to provide a structure for the policy discussion of grain stock issues within the U.S. Government. In addition, some new economic analysis is pr...

J. P. Stein R. T. Smith

1977-01-01

102

Sinclair Stockpiles CFCs for Future Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Dayton (Ohio) community college's 21 buildings were cooled by a network of 5 chillers, all of which used soon-to-be-banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A reclamation program provides the college with reusable refrigerant and eliminates chiller replacement costs. Refrigerant from three of the old units is stockpiled for use in the two other…

George, Stephen C.

1996-01-01

103

Prevention of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous ignition of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This paper deals with oxidation and spontaneous combustion of coal piles laid in coal storage yard and the measures to avoid the heat losses produced. Investigations on self heating were carried out with five test piles (2000–3000 tons) built at the ENDESA power station in Teruel (Spain),

V Fierro; J. L Miranda; C Romero; J. M Andrés; A Arriaga; D Schmal; G. H Visser

1999-01-01

104

Need the U.S. resume nuclear weapons testing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has not tested a nuclear weapon since 1992. Nuclear weapons are very complicated devices and have many possible failure modes. The U.S. has invested many hundreds of millions of dollars and many thousands of man-years in ensuring the safety and security of the stockpile. Are these efforts sufficient? Do we understand how nuclear weapons work---and decay---sufficiently well to preclude the need for further testing? This presentation will examine how nuclear weapons work, describe possible failure modes, and explore various technologies and techniques used for certifying nuclear weapons. The presentation will also explore what, if any, useful information would likely be gained from a nuclear weapon test. Finally, the presentation will examine the statistics of small numbers to determine how many tests would likely be needed to reveal complicated problems with the arsenal.

Tannenbaum, Benn

2005-04-01

105

Acquisition reform: Impact of conversion to performance and commercial specifications/standards on the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) was established to plan and execute the safe destruction of the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. Execution of the program requires that multiple public issues be addressed including the public`s concern regarding safety and the environment. Another relevant issue is reform of the acquisition process, specifically the DoD requirement to convert military-unique specifications and standards to performance statements or commercial equivalents. This research provides evidence that acquisition reform initiatives on specifications and standards has had a positive influence on program costs with no overall program schedule delays. Continued efforts in this area should enhance the ability to demilitarize the nation`s deteriorating stockpile of lethal chemical weapons within projected cost while maintaining or improving the quality and safety levels currently set by the EPA.

Crisp, S.S.

1996-06-01

106

Supervision of self-heating in peat stockpiles by aerial thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of peat supplies approximately 4 % of the total energy consumption on Finland. Peat is produced in bogs, where the produced fuel is stored in stockpiles. Because of self-heating caused by microbe activities and chemical reactions there is an annual loss of about 5% of the energy content of stored peat. The supervision based on visual control combined with manual temperature measurements carried out on the peat bog is expensive, and furthermore a very unreliable method. Because the warm patterns in the peat stockpiles are not necessarily found. The damages can partly be avoided when self-heating is observed in time and the necessary actions are carried out. The Research Institute of Northern Finland, University of Oulu, started an experimentation of airborne thermal scanning supervision of peat stockpiles on initiative of A. Jalander Oy, a subsidiary of Kemira Oy, in 1987. The field studies have been made as a co-operate project of the Research Institute of Northern Finland and Building Laboratory, Technical Research Center of Finland (Oulu, Finland). During the experiment 2800 thermograms were taken of peat stockpiles, the inner temperature of 200 of the stockpiles being controlled on the bogs. On the basis of the studies it has been possible to define the criteria for thermal scanning of peat stockpiles. Depending on the weather conditions, even a difference of 2 degrees in the surface temperature of the stockpile can indicate a warmed pattern. In autumn 1990 a regular airborne supervision based on thermal scanning was started on the peat bogs of two producers, the peat bogs containing altogether approximately 1 million m3 of peat, the area supervised being about 3500 hectares. The flights were made three times an autumn with intervals of 4 weeks. The flights have been made on a four-seated airplane, the frame of which was equipped with a hole for the infrared scanner. The results were documented on videotape, and video printer shots of the suspected warmed stockpiles were sent to the producers. The supervision has proved to be quite reliable. The self-heating of the stockpiles has been observed at an early stage long before the ignition. The costs of airborne supervision have been covered with the amounts of the saved energy.

Tervo, Matti; Kauppinen, Timo

1991-03-01

107

Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile.  

SciTech Connect

A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support material in the W76. It contains MDA, which has been identified by OSHA as a carcinogen and is no longer used in the nuclear weapons complex. In addition, the Thornel carbon mat used in the syntactic foam formulation is no longer available. These issues have created major challenges in the effort to reestablish aft support production capability for the W76 LEP. Urethane Encapsulant 7200, an adhesive used to bond explosive booster pellets and detonator components, was originally manufactured by Hexcel Corporation and is no longer available. The details of the projects currently underway to provide replacements for these materials will be discussed.

Sandoval, C. W. (Cynthia W.); Gladysz, G. M. (Gary M.); Stephens, T. S. (Thomas S.); Gleiman, S. S. (Seth S.); Mendoza, D. (Daniel); Baker, G. K. (G. Keith); Schoonover, J. R. (Jon R.); Schneider, Jim; Perry, B. (Brian); Lula, J. W.

2002-01-01

108

Stockpiling supplies for the next influenza pandemic.  

PubMed

Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems. PMID:21970033

Radonovich, Lewis J; Magalian, Paul D; Hollingsworth, Mary Kay; Baracco, Gio

2009-06-01

109

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic

D. R. Stephens; C. H. Hall; G. S. Holman; K. F. Graham; T. F. Harvey; F. J. D. Serduke

1993-01-01

110

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Nelson, Robert A.

2003-04-01

111

New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons—``mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while ``limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons—and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. ct.

2003-03-01

112

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

113

Laser weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

Tsipis, K.

1981-12-01

114

Electric control weapon, operation and ammunition therefor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention pertains to an electric control weapon. A condenser is charged by a battery through an electrical circuit including n integrated circuit, a transistor, a transformer and a diode. As the trigger of a thyristor is activated, the condenser is suddenly discharged into an electrical cap of the cartridge, so as to fire it. This invention provides a more accurate and reliable weapon.

1982-06-01

115

New technologies and the role of nuclear weapons in national-security strategy. Volume 8. S3 (safety, security, and survivability) concerns and primitive nuclear powers. A concept paper. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts an initial look at the potential roles of Safety, Security, and Survivability (S3) concerns in the design of the nuclear stockpiles of nascent nuclear powers. It address such issues as the influence of S3 concerns on a country's weapons design, its weapons-control system, its incentives to seek nuclear weapons in the first place, and the risks of

Brody

1983-01-01

116

Mobile coal stockpiling and reclaiming system  

SciTech Connect

The experience the Centralia Plant has had with the mobile conveyor/mobile reclaimer system indicates that while the system was installed to help solve the serious handling problems of this particular coal, it has proved to be a productive and cost-effective method of filling the basic need to stockpile and reclaim dead storage. As a first-of-a-kind system, experience to date has been particularly good, as the ''bottom line'' indicates. Subsequent installations should be even better as they will be built on our experience. In reading and hearing about the industry's problems with capital, productivity, environmental constraints, etc., it is encouraging to think that these efforts may have led to a significant plant improvement that promises to be of benefit in all areas.

Udy, L.C.; Roller, R.L.

1982-05-01

117

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.  

PubMed

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

118

Why Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing Makes Sense for the Plants and Laboratories of the Nuclear Weapon Complex  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this White Paper is to outline the benefits we expect to receive from Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing (MBE/M) for the design, analysis, fabrication, and assembly of nuclear weapons for upcoming Life Extension Programs (LEPs). Industry experiences with model-based approaches and the NNSA/DP investments and experiences, discussed in this paper, indicate that model-based methods can achieve reliable refurbished weapons for the stockpile with less cost and time. In this the paper, we list both general and specific benefits of MBE/M for the upcoming LEPs and the metrics for determining the success of model-based approaches. We also present some outstanding issues and challenges to deploying and achieving long-term benefit from the MBE/M. In conclusion, we argue that successful completion of the upcoming LEPs--with very aggressive schedule and funding restrictions--will depend on electronic model-based methods. We ask for a strong commitment from LEP managers throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex to support deployment and use of MBE/M systems to meet their program needs.

Franklin, K W; Howell, L N; Lewis, D G; Neugebauer, C A; O'Brien, D W; Schilling, S A

2001-05-15

119

The Stockpile Thesis and Industrial Relations at Kambalda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent work on industrial relations in the Australian minirtg industry has focused on a close relationship between the incidence of strikes and the stockpiling of the mineral mined. It is argued that when demand for a mineral falls and the stockpile grows, management can afford the disruption to production caused by strikes. Hence management will take action to provoke

Helen Lang

1986-01-01

120

Economics of industrial preparedness planning and raw-materials stockpiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some relatively sophisticated economic analysis techniques are used in present United States Industrial Preparedness Planning (IPP) and stockpiling but they have significant deficiencies. The most serious is the failure to consider the effects of substitution in a comprehensive way. This study hypothesizes that substitution could obviate the need for formal IPP and stockpiling of the type now practices. To test

Stambaugh

1982-01-01

121

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity  

SciTech Connect

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC sought technical assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define and quantify the management options for the thorium nitrate stockpile. This paper describes methodologies and results comprising the work in Phase 1 and Phase 2. The results allow the DNSC to structure and schedule needed tasks to ensure continued safe long-term storage and/or phased disposal of the stockpile.

Hermes, W. H.; Hylton, T. D.; Mattus, C.H.; Storch, S. N.; Singley, P.S.; Terry. J. W.; Pecullan, M.; Reilly, F. K.

2003-02-26

122

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01

123

New Weapon Proposal: Towed Laydown Weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is made for a delivery system which will allow delivery of a laydown weapon at altitudes of 100 feet or lower. The weapon would be towed behind the delivery aircraft. At time of release the weapon is given an upward component of velocity.

Claassen

1957-01-01

124

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the way other major powers view their nuclear capability. Finally, and though of less cosmic importance, it will save money in the long run.

Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

125

Science Based Stockpile Stewardship, Uncertainty Quantification, and Surrogate Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the thermonuclear yield of a device was often inferred through the use of radiochemical detectors. Conversion of the detector activations observed to thermonuclear yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Surrogate nuclear reactions at STARS/LIBERACE offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable nuclei and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One radiochemical detector that was loaded in devices was mono-isotopic yttrium ({sup 89}Y). Nuclear reactions produced {sup 87}Y and {sup 88}Y which could be quantified post-shot as a ratio of {sup 87}Y/{sup 88}Y. The yttrium cross-section set from 1988 is shown in Figure 1(a) and contains approximately 62 cross-sections interconnecting the yttrium nuclides. The 6 experimentally measured cross-sections are shown in Figure 1(b). Any measurement of cross-sections on {sup 87}Y or {sup 88}Y would improve the quality of the cross-section set. A recent re-evaluation of the yttrium cross-section set was performed with many more calculated reaction cross-sections included.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D P; Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A

2009-08-06

126

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13

127

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

SciTech Connect

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding release of plutonium contamination, and (3) prevent proliferation by precluding plutonium diversion to sub-national groups or nonweapons states. The most efficient and effective way to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium is to fabricate it into fuel and use it for generation of electrical energy in commercial nuclear power plants. Weapons-grade plutonium can be used as fuel in existing commercial nuclear power plants, such as those in the US and Russia. This recovers energy and economic value from weapons-grade plutonium, which otherwise represents a large cost liability to maintain in safeguarded and secure storage. The plutonium remaining in spent MOX fuel is reactor-grade, essentially the same as that being discharged in spent UO{sub 2} fuels. MOX fuels are well developed and are currently used in a number of LWRs in Europe. Plutonium-bearing fuels without uranium (non-fertile fuels) would require some development. However, such non-fertile fuels are attractive from a nonproliferation perspective because they avoid the insitu production of additional plutonium and enhance the annihilation of the plutonium inventory on a once-through fuel cycle.

Newman, D.F.

1993-06-01

128

CRAX/Cassandra Reliability Analysis Software  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years Sandia National Laboratories has been moving toward an increased dependence on model- or physics-based analyses as a means to assess the impact of long-term storage on the nuclear weapons stockpile. These deterministic models have also been used to evaluate replacements for aging systems, often involving commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS). In addition, the models have been used to assess the performance of replacement components manufactured via unique, small-lot production runs. In either case, the limited amount of available test data dictates that the only logical course of action to characterize the reliability of these components is to specifically consider the uncertainties in material properties, operating environment etc. within the physics-based (deterministic) model. This not only provides the ability to statistically characterize the expected performance of the component or system, but also provides direction regarding the benefits of additional testing on specific components within the system. An effort was therefore initiated to evaluate the capabilities of existing probabilistic methods and, if required, to develop new analysis methods to support the inclusion of uncertainty in the classical design tools used by analysts and design engineers at Sandia. The primary result of this effort is the CMX (Cassandra Exoskeleton) reliability analysis software.

Robinson, D.

1999-02-10

129

Excess weapons plutonium: How to reduce a clear and present danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons offers immeasurable benefits for the security of the United States and the world. But it is also creating a daunting new security challenge: controlling the risks of theft, proliferation and reversal of ongoing arms reductions posed by the growing U.S. and Russian stockpiles of excess separated plutonium

J. P. Holdren; J. F. Ahearne; R. L. Garwin

1996-01-01

130

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization

Lani Miyoshi Sanders; Sharon Marie DeLand; Arian Leigh Pregenzer

2010-01-01

131

Small arms and light weapons: the tools used to violate human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

he availability, transfer and misuse of small arms have dramatic adverse consequences on human rights. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children are killed or injured each year by small arms and light weapons. The estimated number of firearms in circulation in the world is 640 million.1 It is likely that the actual global stockpile of small arms is

Barbara A. FREY

132

Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in

Michael David Yaffe

1991-01-01

133

Science based stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification, and fission fragment beams  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. The extent to which underground experimental data can be matched with simulations is one measure of the credibility of our capability to predict weapon performance. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the fission yield of a device was often determined by measuring fission products. Conversion of the measured fission products to yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable neutron-rich fission fragments and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One of the fission products measured was {sup 95}Zr, the accumulation of all mass 95 fission products of Y, Sr, Rb and Kr (see Fig. 1). Subsequent neutron-induced reactions on these short lived fission products were assumed to cancel out - in other words, the destruction of mass 95 nuclides was more or less equal to the production of mass 95 nuclides. If a {sup 95}Sr was destroyed by an (n,2n) reaction it was also produced by (n,2n) reactions on {sup 96}Sr, for example. However, since these nuclides all have fairly short half-lives (seconds to minutes or even less), no experimental nuclear reaction cross-sections exist, and only theoretically modeled cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity, should the beam intensity be sufficient, to measure cross-sections on a few important nuclides in order to benchmark the theoretical calculations and significantly improve the nuclear data. The nuclides in Fig. 1 are prioritized by importance factor and displayed in stoplight colors, green the highest and red the lowest priority.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D; Burke, J; Bernstein, L A; Wu, C Y

2009-09-14

134

A Screening for Potentially Critical Materials for the National Stockpile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inorganic and organic source materials were reviewed in an attempt to identify materials of greatest potential criticality. While primary criticality was based upon short-term stockpiling needs, other aspects such as the impact of new energy developments,...

1977-01-01

135

30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...materials. Where combinations of such soil materials created by mixing have been shown to be equally or more favorable for plant growth than the B horizon, separate handling is not necessary. (d) Stockpiles shall be placed within the permit...

2013-07-01

136

Users: stockpile coal to hedge '84 strike risk  

SciTech Connect

A possible lengthy coal miners' strike in 1984 is prompting industrial users to increase their coal stockpiles beyond the usual 45 to 60 day to as much as a four-month supply. Users plan to make spot market purchases, make temporary switches to oil and gas, and look for non-union coal in addition to building up their stockpiles, although such moves can involve the use of higher sulfur coal and run the risk of compacting and freeze damage. (DCK)

Warrock, A.M.

1983-09-19

137

Compatibility and Outgassing Studies for Directed Stockpile Work (FY05)  

SciTech Connect

Compatibility and outgassing studies of non-nuclear materials were carried out in support of the W80 Life Extension Program. These studies included small-scale laboratory experiments as well as participation in Sandia's Materials Aging and Compatibility test (MAC-1). Analysis of the outgassing signature of removable epoxy foam (REF) revealed unusually high levels of volatile organic compounds in the material. REF was replaced with the polyurethane PMDI. Laboratory compatibility tests of high priority materials were performed and revealed incompatibilities between Viton A (LX-07 binder) and syntactic polysulfide as well as Viton A and REF. With the removal of REF from the system, the incompatibility with Viton A is not an issue. In the case of the viton/polysulfide, both of these materials have a history of reliability in the stockpile, and the observed results, while scientifically interesting, appear to be a laboratory anomaly. Participation in the MAC-1 test led to a detailed study of Viton A degradation. At elevated temperatures up to 70 C, the Viton A samples darkened and exhibited increased crosslinking. Laboratory experiments were pursued to correlate the observed changes to exposure to specific compounds that were present in the MAC-1 canister atmospheres. Exposure to siloxanes resulted in changes similar to those seen in the MAC-1 samples. Knowledge gained from the MAC-1 test will be applied to the upcoming MAC-2 test planned for FY06. Finally, the suitability of isotopically labeled nitrogen fill gas ({sup 15}N{sub 2}) was addressed. This gas will behave as standard nitrogen with no compatibility concerns expected.

Alviso, C; Harvey, C; Vance, A

2005-11-23

138

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

139

Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-01-01

140

Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components  

SciTech Connect

Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Weapon components contain hazardous materials (e.g., heavy metals), PCBS, self-contained explosives, radioactive material, gas-filled tubes, etc. In addition, these components may be classified and are generally sealed in a potting compound, making waste stream separation difficult. Because of the wide range of materials found in these components, advanced processes that are technologically robust (i.e., can handle a wide variation of materials), cost-effective, recycle as much material as possible, provide true waste minimization, and are frilly regulatory compliant are needed. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment, and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) is a Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program that is examining issues in these areas and demonstrating technologies that can be used for the safe disposal of the non-nuclear components of a nuclear weapon.

Wheelis, W.T.

1992-09-01

141

Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2008-07-01

142

The future of nuclear weapons without nuclear testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty on U.S. security concerns is assessed in this article. Three technical issues specific to nuclear weapons are addressed: (1) safety and reliability of the existing U.S. arsenal, (2) constraints on the development of new types of nuclear weapons by the U.S. and other nations, and (3) prevention of further proliferation of weapons.

Garwin

1997-01-01

143

Availability of Weapon Systems with Air-attack Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During air-attack operations, i.e., air-to-air and land-air operations in battles, maintaining a high level of availability of weapon systems (aircraft and weapons) becomes important from the point of view of winning the battle. Availability may depend on severity of combat operations, attrition factors (battle damage failures and reliability related failures), and logistic delays in weapons deployment and in the repair

K. Sadananda Upadhya; N. K. Srinivasan

2004-01-01

144

Dose reduction through automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War and the subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need. To compensate for this excess an estimated 20,000 nuclear warheads have been earmarked for dismantlement and storage at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It is

D. A. Thompson; J. W. Poston

1996-01-01

145

Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support

C. W. Sandoval; G. M. Gladysz; T. S. Stephens; S. S. Gleiman; D. Mendoza; G. K. Baker; J. R. Schoonover; Jim Schneider; B. Perry; J. W. Lula

2002-01-01

146

Adventitious agents and smallpox vaccine in strategic national stockpile.  

PubMed

In keeping with current standards, we urge that old smallpox vaccines that were made in animal skin and are still a key part of our strategic national stockpile be tested for adventitious infectious agents. The advisory especially applies to viruses that have the potential for zoonotic transmission to human vaccine recipients. PMID:16022785

Murphy, Frederick A; Osburn, Bennie I

2005-07-01

147

Supply Chain Management of the Strategic National Stockpiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic National Stockpile is part of the federal response to a bio-terrorist attack on the United States and it is composed of a combination of vaccines, prophylaxis, and medical supplies aimed at minimizing the damage of the attack. The SNS is currently divided into “Push Packages” directly managed by the government, which constitute about 20%, with the rest as

Maged M. Dessouky

2009-01-01

148

Supply Chain Management of the Strategic National Stockpiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Strategic National Stockpile is part of the federal response to a bio-terrorist attack on theUnited Statesand it is composed of a combination of vaccines, prophylaxis, and medical supplies aimed at minimizing the damage of the attack. The SNS is currently divided into “Push Packages” directly managed by the government, which constitute about 20%, with the rest as Vendor Managed

Maged M. Dessouky; Fernando Ordonez

2008-01-01

149

Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution

Anna Hayes

2004-01-01

150

Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

2004-05-01

151

30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed...blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil and soil materials to be removed and...

2010-07-01

152

30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be disturbed...blasting, or mining. (b) The minimum depth of soil and soil materials to be removed and...

2009-07-01

153

Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others

1995-02-01

154

A convergence of weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the course of the post?war era, two types of weapons—weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (traditionally nuclear arms, biological and chemical weapons, and their delivery systems), and conventional arms, such as tanks, artillery, aircraft, and naval vessels—have become separated conceptually by scholars and policy makers. This has, in turn, produced separate research agendas among scholars. Proliferation research focuses on the

John Sislin

1998-01-01

155

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 5. Kentucky Stockpile Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the compacted coal stockpile built at Uniontown, Kentucky with a 200-ton sample representative of Camp 1 coal shipped to Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa. This stockpile program had several objectives: obtain information on the c...

1982-01-01

156

Integrated strapdown avionics for precision guided weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional avionic configurations for precision guided weapons are often unnecessarily costly and inefficient because of built-in (but unused) redundancy in instrumentation attributed to the present day independent systems design approach. Described in this paper is an integrated design approach using strapdown avionic components that has the potential for lowering cost, increasing reliability, and improving overall performance as a result of

J. Richman; B. Friedland

1986-01-01

157

Forbidden weapon - the employment of Army tactical nuclear weapons. Rept. for Aug 90-Mar 91  

SciTech Connect

The United States has possessed tactical nuclear weapons (TNW) since the early 1950's. Initially developed for deployment to Europe to offset the Soviet/Warsaw Pact's huge conventional superiority and to deter war, these weapons have never been used in combat. With the demise of the Cold War, a desire to reduce nuclear weapon stockpiles, and the capability of sister services to employ TNW, if needed, the Army must decide whether it needs to retain its capability to employ TNW. Following a discussion of the evolution of TNW theory and a historical review of the Army's TNW capability, this monograph addresses whether or not the Army needs the capability to employ TNW in future war. The analysis suggests that the Army should relinquish its TNW capability because of a decreased threat from the Soviet Union, the availability of Air Force and Navy TNW to support a theater Commander-in-Chief (CINC), and to avoid redundant TNW capabilities in an era of fiscal constraints. Before the Army gives up its TNW capability, however, the Department of Defense must ensure that the Air Force and Navy can perform all TNW missions in support of a CINC.

Skelton, J.D.

1991-02-01

158

Where Should Weapons Release Authority Reside for Space Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. has a huge reliance on space. This reliance, combined with a leaner more rapidly deployable military, makes space weapons an appealing prospect. Space weapons technology continues to advance, and as improvements occur, the weaponization of space ...

C. T. Anderson

2003-01-01

159

Potential use of stockpiled circulating fluidized bed combustion ashes in controlled low strength material (CLSM) mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the potential use of stockpiled circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ashes in developing controlled low strength material (CLSM) in which stockpiled CFBC ash was partially or fully replaced with Class F fly ash. Prior to develop CLSM mixture, basic material characterization of stockpiled CFBC ash was executed

Chang-Seon Shon; Anal K. Mukhopadhyay; Don Saylak; Dan G. Zollinger; Gleb G. Mejeoumov

2010-01-01

160

SPSim: A stockpile simulator for analyzing material quality distribution in mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stockpile simulator has been developed for analyzing a class of stockpile operations, including stacking, blending and reclaiming bulk materials in mining. Based on a selected dynamics model - a novel Cellular Automata model shipped together with the software, our simulator provides means to analyse material quality distribution within a stockpile after a sequence of operations, which is essential for

Tien-Fu Lu; Shihong Xu

2010-01-01

161

Security with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental

Karp

1991-01-01

162

Space Weapons Earth Wars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space weapons for terrestrial conflict have been the subject of intense debate twice in the modern history of space. The first time, at the beginning of the Cold War, was over the possibility of bombardment satellites carrying nuclear weapons. The second ...

B. Preston C. Shipbaugh D. J. Johnson M. Miller S. J. Edwards

2002-01-01

163

Precision-guided weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper discusses enough about the mechanics of these weapons to give the reader a feel for how they work and provide brief descriptions of some of the more important weapons associated with non-nuclear land combat. The brief treatment here mentions only a fraction of current PGM developments; it is characteristic of the pace of development

J. F. Digby

1975-01-01

164

The nuclear weapons legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the 50th anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two new reports from the US DOE shed light on nuclear weapons production and its aftermath. This article summarizes and comments on the two reports: Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom: the Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production in the United States and What the Department

Stadie

1996-01-01

165

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

166

The Army and chemical weapons destruction: Implementation in a changing context  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destroy the nation`s stockpile of chemical weapons. The estimate was that this task could be accomplished by 1994 at a cost of $1.7 billion. By 1998, only a portion of the stockpile has been destroyed, the deadline extended to 2007 and the estimated cost had risen to approximately $16 billion. This paper discusses the factors underlying cost escalation and missed deadlines. It examines the diffusion of control over the implementation process surrounding the chemical weapons demilitarization (Chem Demil) program in the US. Focusing on the role of the Army and its difficulties in adjusting strategies in the face of political change from the Cold War to the post-Cold War setting, it analyzes the course of implementation through three converging streams of political activity. What differentiates the federal, intergovernmental, and international streams are the nature and number of actors, and the type of pressures with which the Army must deal.

Lambright, W.H.; Gereben, A.; Cerveny, L.

1998-12-31

167

Economics of Neuraminidase Inhibitor Stockpiling for Pandemic Influenza, Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared strategies for stockpiling neuraminidase inhibitors to treat and prevent influenza in Singapore. Cost- benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses, with Monte Carlo simulations, were used to determine economic outcomes. A pandemic in a population of 4.2 million would result in an estimated 525-1,775 deaths, 10,700-38,600 hospitaliza- tion days, and economic costs of $0.7 to $2.2 billion Singapore dollars. The treatment-only

Vernon J. Lee; Kai Hong Phua; Mark I. Chen; Angela Chow; Stefan Ma; Kee Tai Goh; Yee Sin Leo

168

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

1998-06-01

169

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-07-01

170

Joint AEC-DOD (Atomic Energy Commission-Department of Defense) nuclear weapons development procedures. Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Instruction supplements the provisions of and delineates responsibilities assigned under DoD Directive 5030.2. It provides uniform procedures for the submission of requests for, and the conduct of, Joint AEC-DoD Phase 1 through Phase 5 nuclear weapons conceptual\\/feasibility studies and development projects. It also includes the prescribed format and content of Military Characteristics and the Stockpile-to-Target Sequence and outlines procedures

Gilson

1974-01-01

171

Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention.  

PubMed Central

The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, and stockpiling of biological weapons agents or delivery devices for anything other than peaceful purposes. A protocol currently in the final stages of negotiation adds verification measures to the convention. One of these measures will be international investigation of disease outbreaks that suggest a violation of the convention, i.e., outbreaks that may be caused by use of biological weapons or release of harmful agents from a facility conducting prohibited work. Adding verification measures to the current Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention will affect the international public health and epidemiology communities; therefore, active involvement of these communities in planning the implementation details of the protocol will be important.

Wheelis, M.

2000-01-01

172

NIF system-design requirements for nuclear-weapons physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

One of the objectives of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to provide an aboveground experimental capability for conducting weapons-physics experiments, for maintaining nuclear competence. To achieve the high-energy-density regimes needed for a science-based stockpile stewardship program, NIF must produce conditions similar to those in nuclear weapon explosions. This imposes fundamental facility design requirements on NIF. This document summarizes those requirements for opacity, radiation-flow, equation-of-state, non-LTE and x-ray laser, hydrodynamic, and capsule-implosion experiments.

Perry, T.S. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wilde, B.H. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-01

173

Investigation of coal stockpiles of Tuncbilek thermal power plant with respect to time under atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Thermal power plants have delayed the coal that they will use at stockpiles mandatorily. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stockyards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started itself. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research a coal stockpile at Tuncbilek Thermal Power Plant which was formed in 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m height with a weight of 120 tons to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Later, internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over two layers in the stockpile. The parameters, such as air temperature, humidity, atmosphere pressure, wind speed and direction, which are effective on the stockpiles, were measured and used to obtain the graphs of stockpiles' internal temperature.

Ozdeniz, A.H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

174

[Viruses as biological weapons].  

PubMed

The destruction made by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons used by governments and terrorist groups in the near history is posing anxiety and fear for human being. Rumour about the possible use of these agents leads to the development of serious negative effects on populations. Since there are no vaccine and therapy for most viral agents and cost of production as biological weapons is low, interest rate is rising for viruses. In this review, general characteristics, diagnosis, therapy and protective measures for viral agents such as variola virus, hemorrhagic fever viruses, encephalitis viruses, Hantaviruses and Nipah viruses, those can be used as biological weapon, have been summarized. PMID:16358499

Akçali, Alper

2005-07-01

175

Smart Weapons Encounter Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the Smart Weapon Encounter Model (SWEM) developed to support the Tank Extended Range Munition (TERM) science and technology objective (STO) III G.3. The report describes the model's algorithm, input, and Output. SWEM uses solid geometry...

R. J. Pearson K. K. Chien

2000-01-01

176

Turveaumojen itsekuumeneminen ja sen pysaeyttaeminen nestetypellae. (Self heating of peat stockpiles and stopping of it with liquefied nitrogen).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically significant losses may occur in stockpiling of peat. The losses caused by selfheating of stockpile often cause the earlier use of a stockpile than planned or at least the heated peat is removed from stockpile. Fire and extinguishing losses ma...

H. Kauppi

1990-01-01

177

Ballistic-missile defense weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ballistic missile defense (BMD) weapons are discussed in relation to the elements, functions, interception process and principles of control and guidance of the BMD weapon system. The defense penetration and countermeasures, and the structure and characteristics of antiballistic missiles are also discussed. Other means for intercepting guided missiles, such as stimulated light weapons and particle beam weapons are examined.

L. S. Chin; L. H. Lin

1982-01-01

178

Nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to long-standing safety and environmental problems plaguing the nuclear weapons complex, this paper reports that the Department of Energy (DOE) faces a major new challenge-how to reconfigure the weapons complex to meet the nation's defense needs in the 21st century. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex; where, if necessary, to relocate

Rezendes

1992-01-01

179

The nuclear weapons legacy  

SciTech Connect

On the 50th anniversary of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two new reports from the US DOE shed light on nuclear weapons production and its aftermath. This article summarizes and comments on the two reports: Closing the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom: the Environmental Legacy of Nuclear Weapons Production in the United States and What the Department of Energy is Doing About it; and Estimating the Cold War Mortgage: the 1995 Baseline Environmental Management Report.

Stadie, K.B.

1996-01-01

180

Numerical Simulation of Chemical Weapon Detonations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Huntsville Engineering and Support Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is currently involved in the location, removal, and demilitarization of stockpiled and non-stockpiled chemical munitions. To support the development of safe, efficient, and cost-...

D. J. Stevens I. J. Serena

1996-01-01

181

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

182

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

183

Weaponeering the Future: Direct Energy Weapons Effectiveness Now and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Energy weapons can exist on the battlefield of today, and the warfighter needs to know what Probability of Damage these weapons can attain. Currently, the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual calculates a Single Sortie Probability of Damage for con...

C. F. Fager

2007-01-01

184

Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J. [Odgen Environmental and Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

185

Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution in the event of a terrorist domestic nuclear attack. In the case of nuclear non-proliferation a number of new schemes are being considered by the IAEA to address the ever greater needs, including neutrino monitoring of the plutonium content of reactors. For all of these problems detailed nuclear theory is required. In this talk I discuss the theoretical physics needs for the type of problems of overlapping interest to astrophysics and national security.

Hayes, Anna

2004-10-01

186

Weapons of mass destruction, WMD  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic\\/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described.

H. Vogel

2007-01-01

187

Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

1993-07-20

188

Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials  

SciTech Connect

The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information.

Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.

1998-12-01

189

Living with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear

A. Carnesale; P. Doty; S. Hoffmann; S. P. Huntington; J. S. Jr. Nye; S. D. Sagan

1983-01-01

190

Concealed Weapons Detection Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort considers the integration of an ultrasound sensor with an active radar sensor. The purpose of the active-radar sensor is to provide long-range detection of concealed weapons. The radar will then hand over the detection data to the ultrasound s...

F. Felber

1998-01-01

191

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

192

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

193

To disarm [weapons abolition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how recent events have brought a renewed urgency to halting the spread of massively destructive weapons, whether nuclear, chemical, or biological. The concern of the moment is that these deadly devices not fall into the hands of extremists. There may also be a growing sense that what will ultimately make the world a safer place is to

J. Kumagai

2002-01-01

194

Nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to

Rezendes

1991-01-01

195

US weapons secrets revealed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

1993-01-01

196

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

197

Effects of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most recent data concerning the effects associated with explosions of nuclear weapons are presented. The data have been obtained from observations made of effects of nuclear bombing in Japan and tests carried out at the Eniwetok Proving Grounds and Nevada Test Site, as well as from experiments with conventional explosives, and mathematical calculations. The volume is intended for use

Glasstone

1957-01-01

198

Are nuclear weapons obsolete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of a nuclear winter and the hypothetical evidence from Carl Sagan and other scientists that even a relatively small and contained nuclear war could threaten the survival of the human species lead the author to urge a radical reduction in the number of nuclear weapons. The importance of this evidence, however, is in the reminder of how incomplete

Weissbourd

2009-01-01

199

Medicalized weapons & modern war.  

PubMed

"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L

200

Nuclear Weapons and Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)|

Howie, David I.

1984-01-01

201

Nuclear weapons in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents papers on the issue of the deployment of intermediate-range American nuclear missiles in Western Europe. Topics considered include an American view on the struggle for Europe, military strategy, nuclear deterrence, the illusion of NATO's nuclear defense, arms control, political aspects, national security, and a German Social Democrat's perspective on nuclear weapons in Europe.

1984-01-01

202

Non?Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of non?lethal weapons (NLWs) programmes, the technologies involved, and their present and future deployment. It also looks at the risks and dangers involved with their use, and comments on possible chemical and biological warfare treaty violations. Increasing interest is being paid by military and related research communities to NLWs, and pressure is being put on

Nick Lewer

1995-01-01

203

The Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons Destruction Program. Hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, June 16, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The House hearing before the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources Subcommittee addressed the Department of Defense`s Chemical Weapons destruction program. The hearing focussed on the Department of Army`s program to destroy its stockpile of lethal chemical weapons located at eight locations in the United States and on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. This program has been plaqued with continued delays, procedural shortcuts, and enormous cost overruns. In 1985, Congress directed the Army to destry the U.S. chemical weapons stockpile by 1995. Included is the General Accounting Office testimony on: Chemical Weapons Destruction: Issues related to environmental permitting and testing experience. Statements of Federal and State government officials and industry officials, along with statements and documents submitted for the record by environmental associations are included.

NONE

1993-12-31

204

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

205

ENZYMES FOR DEGRADATION OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS AND DEMILITARIZATION OF EXPLOSIVES STOCKPILES, SERDP ANNUAL (INTERIM) REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001. over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed...

206

Hedging against Antiviral Resistance during the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Small Stockpiles of an Alternative Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of

Joseph T. Wu; Gabriel M. Leung; Marc Lipsitch; Ben S. Cooper; Steven Riley

2009-01-01

207

Coal stockpile: how much is enough. How much is too much  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companies that stockpile coal often maintain a 60 to 90 days' supply during periods of relatively stable supply and 100 to 120 days' supply during periods of anticipated strikes by miners\\/railroad workers. This paper describes a procedure that can be used to (1) estimate the probabilities and durations of strikes, (2) calculate the cost of stockpiled coal, (3) calculate the

1981-01-01

208

Stockpiled Annual Ryegrass for Winter Forage in the Lower Midwestern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

lower Midwest, are interested in stockpiling annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) as a source of high-quality winter forage. Almost creates an uneven forage supply and an intermittent no information exists about stockpiling annual ryegrass in this region. failure of the pasture system to meet livestock require- Our objective was to determine the yield and forage quality of stock- ments (Fales

R. L. Kallenbach; G. J. Bishop-Hurley; M. D. Massie; M. S. Kerley; C. A. Roberts

2003-01-01

209

Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons proliferation is a topic of intense interest and concern among both academics and policy makers. Diverse opinions exist about the determinants of proliferation and the policy options to alter proliferation incentives. We evaluate a variety of explanations in two stages of nuclear proliferation, the presence of nuclear weapons production programs and the actual possession of nuclear weapons. We

Dong-Joon Jo; Erik Gartzke

2007-01-01

210

Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons

Theodore B. Taylor

1987-01-01

211

Nuclear weapons and international law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Pogany

1987-01-01

212

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by

Almond; H. H. Jr

1985-01-01

213

Can nuclear weapons be abolished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the greatest threats to virtually all human rights is a global or regional nuclear war. For so long as nuclear weapons exist, there is a risk that they may be used. If nuclear war is to be avoided, therefore, nuclear weapons must be abolished. The abolition of nuclear weapons by international treaty is topical because for the first

Frank Barnaby

1998-01-01

214

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

1993-10-01

215

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

216

Monitoring and ANN modeling of coal stockpile behavior under different atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile of 5 m width, 4 m height, and 10 m length was built in a coal stock area to investigate coal stockpile behavior under different atmospheric conditions. The effective parameters on the coal stockpile that were time, weather temperature, atmospheric pressure, air humidity, velocity, and direction of wind values were automatically measured by means of a computer-aided measurement system to obtain Artificial Neural Network (ANN) input data. The coal stockpiles, which should be continuously observed, are capable of spontaneous combustion and then causing serious economical losses due to the mentioned parameters. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of the ANN model. Comparison of the experimental and ANN results, accuracy rates of training, and testing were found as 98.6% and 98.7%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this ANN model is powerfully estimated.

Ozdeniz, A.H.; Ozbay, Y.; Yilmaz, N.; Sensogut, C. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Engineering & Architecture Faculty

2008-07-01

217

76 FR 12271 - Human Reliability Program: Identification of Reviewing Official  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DOE is amending the Human Reliability Program...disassembling, or transporting nuclear explosives, which...delivery systems, become nuclear weapons systems. These facilities...DOE established the Human Reliability...

2011-03-07

218

Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.  

PubMed

Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern. PMID:23011963

Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

2012-10-01

219

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

220

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Lane, David M.; Anderson, Craig

2009-03-06

221

Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

Ozdeniz, H [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

222

A New-style Portable Fault Diagnosis Device For A Complex Weapon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize the function for monitoring and fault diagnosis real time, fulfil the request of celerity, maneuverability and high reliability of a weapon system and conquer the problem of the single function and the miscellaneous structure of tradition monitoring and diagnosis system, a new-style portable fault diagnosis device for the complex weapon system based on PC104 bus is designed. The

Wu Haicheng; Guo Xiaosong; Wang Wei

2007-01-01

223

Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 5. Kentucky stockpile tests. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; coal stockpile study  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the compacted coal stockpile built at Uniontown, Kentucky with a 200-ton sample representative of Camp 1 coal shipped to Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa. This stockpile program had several objectives: obtain information on the changes in quality of coal over a period of one year resulting from weatering and leaching. The weathering of coal may affect the physical and chemical properties, the gasification characteristics and oxygen consumption); obtain chemical composition of rainwater leached through the pile and collected over a period of one year to assist in the environmental design of water collection system; and demonstrate construction of a stockpile that is safe from spontaneous ignition. Conclusions and design recommendationa for the long term storage of compacted coal resulted from the program. Recommendations of interest include oxidation and weathering stability, minimal leaching due to rainwater, limited impact on gasification characteristics and effective method to minimize spontaneous ignition. The tests conducted on the compacted stockpile (Section 3.0) provided observations over the one-year period on spontaneous ignition, surface and weathering, oxidation as measured by chemical, physical and gasification property changes, size degradation, acid runoff, pH of rainwater and leachate and extent of leaching. Texas Gas was responsible for constructing, maintaining and collecting site data at the stockpile (Section 4.1.1). Paul Weir Company was responsible for sampling, screening, analytical testing program and the leaching program for the stockpile over regular intervals of one to two months (Section 4.2.1). Lurgi was requested to analyze samples (Section 4.2.2) corresponding to the samples analyzed by Commercial Testing and Engineering and report on the influence of weathering on the gasification characteristics.

Not Available

1982-06-01

224

Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and

Franklin S. Felber; Norbert C. Wild; Scott Nunan; Dennis Breuner; Frank Doft

1998-01-01

225

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in

Norbert Wilde; Steve Niederhaus; Hon Lam; Chris Lum

2002-01-01

226

Quality Assurance at Sandia Laboratories. [Nuclear weapons materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publication describes the Sandia Laboratories Quality Assurance (QA) program, its role with the Albuquerque Operations Office of the Department of Energy (DOE\\/ALO) in achieving the stringent safety and reliability goals which have been established for weapon material, and its expanding role in national security, energy, and other programs of national importance.

S. L. Love; F. W. Muller

1978-01-01

227

Nuclear weapons proliferation as a world order problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

World-order concerns have intensified recently in light of mounting evidence that a weapons capability will soon be within easy reach of more and more governments and of certain nongovernmental groupings as well. One reliable source estimates that by 1985 as many as fifty countries could ''produce enough plutonium each year for at least several dozen nuclear explosives.'' In an even

Falk

2009-01-01

228

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Onsite Disposal of Chemical Munitions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document has been prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. This report describes the results of a comprehensive probabilistic assessment of the frequency ...

A. W. Barsell E. A. Bellis C. A. Bolig R. K. Deremer C. J. Everline

1987-01-01

229

Strategy, demand, management, and costs of an international cholera vaccine stockpile.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the feasibility of mass vaccination against cholera and estimate the global population at risk for epidemic cholera. We then examine the cost of establishing and managing a cholera vaccine stockpile and summarize published mathematical models of the estimated impact of reactive vaccination campaigns developed for the current Haitian outbreak and a recent outbreak in Zimbabwe. On the basis of these evaluations, we recommend a stockpile that starts at 2 million doses, with an estimated annual cost of $5.5-$13.9 million in 2013, and grows to 10 million doses per year by 2017, with an annual cost of $27-$51 million. We believe that the stockpile can enhance efforts to mitigate future cholera outbreaks by guaranteeing the availability of cholera vaccines and, through use of the stockpile, by revealing knowledge about the efficient use of cholera vaccines during and after crises. PMID:24101640

Maskery, Brian; Deroeck, Denise; Levin, Ann; Kim, Young Eun; Wierzba, Thomas F; Clemens, John D

2013-11-01

230

Stockpiles of obsolete pesticides and cleanup priorities: A methodology and application for Tunisia.  

PubMed

Obsolete pesticides have accumulated in almost every developing country or economy in transition over the past several decades. Concerned about the risks these chemicals pose to nearby residents, public health and environmental authorities are eager to reduce health threats by removing and decontaminating stockpile sites. However, there are many sites, cleanup can be costly, and public resources are scarce, so decision makers need to set priorities. Under these conditions, it seems sensible to develop a methodology for prioritizing sites and treating them sequentially, as budgetary resources permit. This paper presents a new methodology that develops a cleanup priority index for 1915 metric tons of obsolete pesticide formulations at 197 stockpile sites in Tunisia. The approach integrates information on populations at risk, their proximity to stockpiles, and the relative toxic hazards of the stockpiles. What emerges from the Tunisia results is a strategy for sequentially addressing all 197 sites to rapidly reduce potential health damage in a cost-effective way. PMID:19913349

Dasgupta, Susmita; Meisner, Craig; Wheeler, David

2009-11-12

231

Modeling the national pediatric vaccine stockpile: supply shortages, health impacts and cost consequences.  

PubMed

Pediatric vaccine stockpiles have been in place in the U.S. since 1983 to address the potential disruption in supply of routine pediatric vaccines. Increases in the number of vaccines recommended for pediatric and adolescent patients have increased the cost of stocking and maintaining the stockpile. Based on a spreadsheet-based model (VacStockpile) we developed, we estimated potential supply shortages of 14 stockpiled vaccines as of August 1, 2008 and its health and financial impacts under various shortage and stockpile scenarios. To illustrate the implications of policy options, we compared "high" to "low" stockpile scenarios. The high stockpile scenario ensures a 6-month vaccine supply to vaccinate all children according to recommended schedules. The low scenario comprised of 50% of the high scenario or existing stocks, whichever is smaller. For each vaccine, we used a weighted average of five shortage scenarios ranging from 0% to 100%, in 25% increments. Demand for each vaccine was based on current distribution or birth cohort size. The probabilities of shortages were based on number of manufacturers, market stability, history of manufacturing problems, and production complexity. CDC contract prices were used to estimate costs. Expert opinion and literature provided estimates of health impacts due to shortages. Applying the probabilities of shortages to all vaccines in a single year, the "low" scenario could cost $600 million, with 376,000 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 1774 deaths. The "high" scenario could cost $2 billion, with an additional $1.6 billion initial stocking, and result in 7100 vaccine-preventable cases occurring and 508 deaths. Based on the assumptions in the model, there is the potential for large differences in outcomes between the scenarios although some outcomes could potentially be averted with measures such as catch-up campaigns after shortages. Using the VacStockpile policy makers can readily evaluate the implications of assumptions and decide which set of assumptions they wish to use in planning. PMID:20638451

Shrestha, Sundar S; Wallace, Gregory S; Meltzer, Martin I

2010-07-16

232

Internet-based monitoring and prediction system of coal stockpile behaviors under atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous combustion on industrial-scale stockpiles causes environmental problems and economic losses for the companies\\u000a consuming large amounts of coal. In this study, an effective monitoring and prediction system based on internet was developed\\u000a and implemented to prevent losses and environmental problems. The system was performed in a coal stockpile with 5 m width,\\u000a 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 t of

Nihat Yilmaz; A. Hadi Ozdeniz

2010-01-01

233

Production and use of stockpiled fescue to reduce beef cattle production costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tall fescue is the predominant cool-season forage in the eastern United States. Because of its relatively high autumn growth rate, propensity to accumulate nonstructural carbohydrates, and ability to resist deterioration due to freezing\\/thawing, it is ideal for stockpiled winter grazing. Fescue does inevitably lose some quality as winter progresses, but stockpiling potentially allows a year-round grazing program. To accumulate significant

M. H. Poore; G. A. Benson; M. E. Scott

2000-01-01

234

Current Trends in Smart Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the last thirty years or so major advances have been made in the development of seekers and sensors for use on smart weapons. The American public had its first look at smart weapons when they watched guided bombs used against targets in North Vietnam...

R. Hayes

1997-01-01

235

Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world's arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for produ...

1997-01-01

236

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

237

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

238

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons

A. L. Latter; E. A. Martinelli

1993-01-01

239

Some facts about “weapon focus”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapon focus” refers to the concentration of acrime witness's attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. We examined this phenomenon by presenting subject-witnesses with a series of slides depicting an event in a fast-food restaurant. Half of the subjects saw a customer point a gun at the cashier; the other

Elizabeth F. Loftus; Geoffrey R. Loftus; Jane Messot

1987-01-01

240

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling

Glasstone; Samuel

1957-01-01

241

Future of Nuclear Weapon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next few years will bring decisions that are critical for the future of the nation's nuclear weapons program and for the role of the national weapons laboratories. To meet this challenge, the United States needs to develop both a clear, cohesive, nati...

G. H. Miller P. S. Brown P. T. Herman R. D. Neifert P. L. Chrzanowski

1988-01-01

242

Soviet Weapons Development and the Scientific Community.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics include: Development of the Soviet T-34 Tank, Organizations in Soviet Weapons R/D and Science, Soviet Weapons Acquisition Process, Characteristics of Soviet Weapon Design, Science Ties to the Soviet Military, Types of Linkages between Science and t...

A. J. Alexander

1985-01-01

243

What do weapons secure  

SciTech Connect

The iron triangle of the Defense Department, Congressional hawks, and the defense industry will fight any efforts to reduce President Reagan's plan to rearm America and will dominate any debate over national security and weapons procurement as they have done since 1945. American attitudes are changing, however, and pressing for a re-evaluation of this closed policy apparatus. The first step to be taken is a re-examination of global and national realities to see if current policy is appropriate. Reagan has reversed the trend toward arms control to more strategic arms competition which, by creating waste and distrust, will reduce security. It also narrows policy considerations to East-West rivalry and ignores the North-South changes that are taking place. US failures in Vietnam and Watergate and a negative response to US involvement in Central America are signs that the public is increasingly skeptical of the iron triangle. (DCK)

Adams, G.

1982-04-01

244

Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of potential proliferants.

Flores, Kristen Lee

2004-07-01

245

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

246

Plasmachemical Destruction of Chemical Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Soviet Union and then Russia presented in its stockpiles only two types of the first generation of contained chemical\\u000a warfare agents, namely the blister agents yperite (agent HD) and lewisite (agent L). The second generation of Russian toxic\\u000a chemicals include three types of nerve agents (phosphorous containing agent), sarin (agent GB), soman (agent GD) and Russian\\u000a V-gas.

Lev A. Fedorov

247

Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

248

Primary Polymer Aging Processes Identified from Weapon Headspace Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A current focus of our weapon headspace sampling work is the interpretation of the volatile chemical signatures that we are collecting. To help validate our interpretation we have been developing a laboratory-based material aging capability to simulate material decomposition chemistries identified. Key to establishing this capability has been the development of an automated approach to process, analyze, and quantify arrays of material combinations as a function of time and temperature. Our initial approach involves monitoring the formation and migration of volatile compounds produced when a material decomposes. This approach is advantageous in that it is nondestructive and provides a direct comparison with our weapon headspace surveillance initiative. Nevertheless, this approach requires us to identify volatile material residue and decomposition byproducts that are not typically monitored and reported in material aging studies. Similar to our weapon monitoring method, our principle laboratory-based method involves static headspace collection by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). SPME is a sorbent collection technique that is ideally suited for preconcentration and delivery of trace gas-phase compounds for analysis by GC. When combined with MS, detection limits are routinely in the low- and sub-ppb ranges, even for semivolatile and polar compounds. To automate this process we incorporated a robotic sample processor configured for SPME collection. The completed system will thermally process, sample, and analyze a material sample. Quantification of the instrument response is another process that has been integrated into the system. The current system screens low-milligram quantities of material for the formation or outgas of small compounds as initial indicators of chemical decomposition. This emerging capability offers us a new approach to identify and non-intrusively monitor decomposition mechanisms that are accelerated by stockpile-relevant aging parameters such as heat, irradiation, material incompatibility and physical force. The primary organic material groups that make up many of the weapon systems are chlorofluoropolymers, polysiloxanes, and polyurethanes (PUR). In the weapon headspace we see the greatest residue from polysiloxanes and PUR and, therefore, are interested in identifying and quantifying the origin responsible for their presence. Although we have produced a number of significant findings concerning the chlorofluoropolymer and polysiloxane materials, this work focuses on the decomposition of PUR.

Chambers, D M; Bazan, J M; Ithaca, J G

2002-03-25

249

Internet-based monitoring and prediction system of coal stockpile behaviors under atmospheric conditions.  

PubMed

Spontaneous combustion on industrial-scale stockpiles causes environmental problems and economic losses for the companies consuming large amounts of coal. In this study, an effective monitoring and prediction system based on internet was developed and implemented to prevent losses and environmental problems. The system was performed in a coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 t of weight. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. The recorded values were analyzed with artificial neural network and Statistical modeling methods for prediction of spontaneous combustion. Real-time measurement values and model outputs were published with a web page on internet. The internet-based system can also provide real-time monitoring (combustion alarms, system status) and tele-controlling (Parameter adjusting, system control) through internet exclusively with a standard web browser without the need of any additional software. PMID:19238568

Yilmaz, Nihat; Ozdeniz, A Hadi

2009-02-24

250

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

251

Corrosion Resistance of Weapon Lubricants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

INTRODUCTION: Used animal fat for lubrication as far back as 1400BC * Oils became available as lubricants in 1859 * Dry lubricant formulations became available in the 1950's. WEAPON SYSTEM LUBRICATION CHARACTERISTICS - LUBRICITY - VISCOSITY - CORROSION RE...

J. Menke

2010-01-01

252

Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)|

Wellington, J. J.

1984-01-01

253

Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and

Allan R. Hunt; R. Douglas Hogg; William Foreman

1998-01-01

254

Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

1999-01-01

255

Is this the time for a high-energy laser weapon program?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has made large investments weaponizing laser technology for air defense. Despite billions of dollars spent, there has not been a successful transition of a high-energy laser (HEL) weapon from the lab to the field. Is the dream of a low-cost-per-shot, deep-magazine, speed-of-light HEL weapon an impossible dream or a set of technologies that are ready to emerge on the modern battlefield? Because of the rapid revolution taking place in modern warfare that is making conventional defensive weapons very expensive relative to the offensive weapons systems, the pull for less expensive air defense may necessitate a HEL weapon system. Also, due to the recent technological developments in solid-state lasers (SSL), especially fiber lasers, used throughout manufacturing for cutting and welding, a HEL weapon finally may be able to meet all the requirements of ease of use, sustainability, and reliability. Due to changes in warfare and SSL technology advances, the era of HEL weapons isn't over; it may be just starting if DoD takes an evolutionary approach to fielding a HEL weapon. The U.S. Navy, with its large ships and their available electric power, should lead the way.

Kiel, David H.

2013-02-01

256

Nuclear weapon-free zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature dealing with nuclear weapon-free zones is not as prominent as is that on arms control and reduction negotiations, confidence-building measures, and a variety of other security-related issues. Documentary sources are relatively scarce and they are widely scattered. Yet on close scrutiny, it becomes apparent that nuclear weapon-free zones have been the object of widespread, intense interest in most

Zinner

1988-01-01

257

A SUBSPACESIGNALPROCESSINGTECHNIQUEFOR CONCEALED WEAPONS DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concealed weapons detection isoneofthegreatest challenges facing national security nowadays. Recently, ithasbeenshown that each weapon canhave auniquefingerprint, which isaset ofelectromagnetic (EM)resonant frequencies determined by its size, shape, andphysical composition. Extracting theres- onantfrequencies ofeachweaponisoneofthemajor tasks ofanydetection system. Inthis paper, wemodelthereflected signal fromeachobject asasummation ofsinusoidal signals, eachatcertain frequency equal tooneoftheobject's reso- nantfrequencies. Usingthis model, wepropose adetection approach that isbased onamodified version oftheMUlti- pleSIgnal

K. JRayLiu

258

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

259

Meteor Beliefs Project: meteoritic weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion of meteoritic iron weapons and weapon-like tools is given, drawing on fictional, mythological, and real-world examples. The evidence suggests that no great significance was attached to such metal purely because of its "heavenly" provenance prior to the early 19th century AD, despite later assumptions, including during the period of increased interest in meteorites, cratering events and the early usage of meteoritic iron, beginning in the early 20th century.

Kristine Larsen, K.; McBeath, A.

2012-01-01

260

Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension  

SciTech Connect

One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

Turbiville, G.H.

1996-06-01

261

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

262

A human reliability analysis of a nuclear explosives dismantlement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methodology used in a human reliability analysis (HRA) conducted during a quantitative hazard assessment of a nuclear weapon disassembly process performed at the Pantex plant. The probability of human errors during the disassembly process is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons processing. The methods include the systematic identification of potential human-initiated

Bott

1995-01-01

263

Software reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first session of the software reliability area will address Software Reliability Needs. It includes three invited papers that deal, respectively, with the origination of reliability requirements, with issues of reliability measurements, and with reliability modeling and prediction. All of them represent the cutting edge of the current technology and treat the subject in a broad manner that may be

Herbert Hecht

1980-01-01

264

A conceptual model for “inherent reliability” for nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people, when thinking about different stages of a particular device's life vis-a¿-vis defectiveness, use the notion of the ¿bathtub curve¿ as a model. However this model is not fully applicable for the class of systems referred to as one-shot or single-shot systems. Key attributes of these systems are outlined: they typically stay in dormant storage until called upon for

Rene L. Bierbaum

2010-01-01

265

Fresh, Stockpiled, and Composted Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure: Nutrient Levels and Mass Balance Estimates in Alberta and Manitoba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of manure nutrients in beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlots is influenced by handling treatment, yet few data are available in western Canada comparing traditional practices (fresh handling, stockpiling) with newer ones (composting). This study examined the influence of handling treatment (fresh, stockpiled, or composted) on nutrient levels and mass balance estimates of feedlot manure at Lethbridge, Alberta, and

Francis J. Larney; Katherine E. Buckley; Xiying Hao; W. Paul McCaughey

2006-01-01

266

Site-specific emergency response concept plans for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

Site-specific emergency response concept plans were developed to help initiate enhanced emergency preparedness for continued storage of the stockpile and the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) at the eight army installations storing the unitary chemical stockpile -- Aberdeen Proving Ground, Anniston Army Depot, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pueblo Depot Activity, Tooele Army Depot, and Umatilla Depot Activity. This document summarizes the emergency response plans for all the sites and highlights similarities and differences among them. Section 2 summarizes site-specific differences in stockpile hazard and risk by showing differences in planning-basis accident categories and distributions of topographical features, meteorological conditions, and populations at risk. Section 3 presents a summary of the methodology used to identify the emergency planning zones for each site and the actual recommended boundaries of those zones for the eight sites. Section 4 identifies feasible and recommended protective actions for the sites and explains reasons for differences in them. Finally, Section 5 notes the dependence of protective action effectiveness on the development and implementation of command and control and warning systems that can be implemented in a timely manner, it also identifies the differences in recommended lead times (i.e., from the onset of an accidental release) needed at the sites for effective implementation of protective actions. 17 refs., 11 figs. , 12 tabs.

Carnes, S.A.

1989-12-01

267

EFFECTS OF DIET ON PERFORMANCE, REPRODUCTION, AND ECONOMICS OF MARKET COWS GRAZING STOCKPILED FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forty-two crossbred, nonpregnant cows (mean age = 4.3 ± 0.2 yr) were purchased from local auction barns to determine the effect of diet on performance, reproduction, and economics of market cows grazing stockpiled, endophyte-infected fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Cows were assigned to one of three r...

268

Hospital stockpiling for influenza pandemics with pre-determined response levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the problem of hospital stock-piling of critical medical supplies in preparation for a possible influenza pandemic.We consider a regional network of hospitals that have mutual aid agreements in place such that they may borrow or lend supplies from each other during medical emergencies. We assume that the attack rate is a random variable with known distribution and

Po-Ching C. DeLaurentis; Elodie Adida; Mark Lawley

2009-01-01

269

Model predictions and experimental results on self-heating prevention of stockpiled coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles is a serious economic and safety problem. This phenomenon is herein analysed using a TNO-model modified to predict the spontaneous heating behaviour of coal piles built with “Mezcla”, a mixture of low rank coals from Teruel (Spain). The simulation carried out with the mathematical model for this coal showed that the pile porosity or

V Fierro; J. L Miranda; C Romero; J. M Andrés; A Arriaga; D Schmal

2001-01-01

270

Antiviral resistance during pandemic influenza: implications for stockpiling and drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The anticipated extent of antiviral use during an influenza pandemic can have adverse consequences for the development of drug resistance and rationing of limited stockpiles. The strategic use of drugs is therefore a major public health concern in planning for effective pandemic responses. METHODS: We employed a mathematical model that includes both sensitive and resistant strains of a virus

Julien Arino; Christopher S Bowman; Seyed M Moghadas

2009-01-01

271

Effects of Forage Management on the Nutritive Value of Stockpiled Bermudagrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] located near Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertilization rate (0, 37, 74, or 111 kg N ha-1) on the nutritive value of f...

272

What Use the IEA Emergency Stockpiles? A Price-based Model of Oil Stock Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the International Energy Agency (IEA) has had a program of maintaining strategic oil stockpiles since 1974 in order to cope with unforeseen interruptions to supplies, it has failed to prevent the worst effects of the 1979 and recent interruptions. This paper develops a price-based model of stock management which is then used to simulate the management of an actual

Bright E. Okogu

1992-01-01

273

SUPPLEMENTATION INFLUENCES MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPONENTS OF COWS GRAZING STOCKPILED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Eighty-eight crossbred cows were assigned to one of three paddocks of stockpiled fescue for 160 d to determine milk yield and components, and determine performance of cows and calves consuming either corn:soybean meal (CSB; n = 28), soyhulls (SH; n = 28), or no supplement (control; n = 32). Supplem...

274

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

275

What future for nuclear weapons?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What have nuclear weapons to do with QCD? The temperatures in nuclear explosions are too low to generate quark-gluon plasma (but only by a factor of 10-6). Perhaps what they have in common is that they were both invented by physicists. But please don't blame me for this harangue, rather blame the conference organisers who accepted it. Nuclear weapons are not the only grave danger facing our society, there are plenty of competitors: global population growth, anthropomorphic ecological damage such as the greenhouse effect, the rapid exhaustion of important resources such as oil and gas, etc. What is special about the nuclear weapons danger is that it could probably be eliminated without much trouble and with a consequent benefit to all, nuclear haves and nuclear have-nots alike.

Steinberger, J.

1998-05-01

276

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

277

The Winning Weapon? Rethinking Nuclear Weapons in Light of Hiroshima  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reexamines the widely held presumption that nuclear weapons played a decisive role in winning the war in the Pacific. Based on new research from Japanese, Soviet, and U.S. archives, it concludes that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, played virtually no role in this outcome. A comparison of the responses of high-level Japanese officials to

Ward Wilson

2007-01-01

278

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

279

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

280

Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

1998-12-13

281

Space Weaponization and US-China Relations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issues surrounding the weaponization of outer space present difficult security and diplomatic challenges to the United States in its relationship with foreign states. Several features of space weaponization account for these difficulties. First, many ...

K. S. Blazejewski

2008-01-01

282

Weapons: A Report on the Industry 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapons industry provides critical support directly to the military element and indirectly to other (e.g., diplomatic, informational, and economic) elements of national power. The industry, with products ranging from nuclear weapons to non-lethal arms...

S. Maybaumwisniewski W. Kreitler L. Kerr J. Laurence

2004-01-01

283

Antidepressants: Another Weapon Against Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

Antidepressants: Another weapon against chronic pain Basics Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Antidepressants: Another weapon against chronic pain By Mayo Clinic staff Original ...

284

Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Terrorist Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapons of mass destruction is a former Soviet military term which was euphemistically used to denote nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. It is now widely used, despite debate over its appropriateness, and its definition has broadened to include ra...

S. Bowman

2002-01-01

285

Dynamic Analysis of Shoulder-Fired Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recoil analysis to assess several recoil mitigating technologies applied to shoulder-fired weapons such as a grenade launcher or shotgun has been conducted. Parameters such as weapon weight, recoil impulse, recoil velocity and recoil energy were identif...

P. D. Benzkofer

1993-01-01

286

No Recall of Weapon Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for police officers to discharge their weapons in the line of duty yet have no memory of having done so. Case histories of such events are presented. Research on perceptual and memory distortions during critical incidents is reviewed, along with the research on involuntary discharges. Both areas of research offer explanations why it is possible for officers

Alexis Artwohl

2003-01-01

287

Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort entailed the development of an enhanced, hand held, low- cost (less than $1,000 production cost), ultra-sound based Concealed Weapons Detector (CWD), which included the building of a working model for further test and evaluation. Development o...

N. Wild

2003-01-01

288

Antennas for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of concealed weapons is limited first by the signal to clutter ratio, and hence a trade between antenna beamwidth versus range to the suspect. An approach is described based on crossed focused line source antennas to produce a small common (transmit-receive) footprint on the subject being examined. These antenna beams can be phased, but a cost-effective approach is to

D. J. Kozakoff; V. Tripp

2005-01-01

289

[Gunshot wounds by military weapons].  

PubMed

The review is based on 34 recent publications. Bullet-wounds by military weapons either in drill or war are to be regarded as special kinds of wounds, needing profound knowledge of wound ballistic. However, the therapy of late developing complications may lead to problems. PMID:437659

Fischer, H

1979-02-15

290

Weapons plutonium: Just can it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilemma plaguing the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) in dealing with 50 years of manufacturing nuclear weapons is choosing a way to dispose of surplus warhead plutonium. The Clinton administration pledged in March 1995 to dispose of approximately 200 metric tons of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It was later disclosed that this included 38.2 tons of plutonium, of which

Lyman

1996-01-01

291

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study,

1993-01-01

292

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is provided of various aspects of nuclear weapon testing ; and the resultant fallout, nature of fission products and extent of contamination ; of the biosphere, acute and longierm biologic effects of radiation, and rneans of ; controlling and reducing the hazards of fallout to man. The question as to ; whether diet or food technology should be

Comar

1962-01-01

293

Human instability and nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human instability is an obvious concern in the handling of nuclear weapons. Assuming that no rational leader of the US or the Soviet Union would embark on a nuclear adventure by design, nuclear war between the superpowers, if it comes, is far more likely to be based on miscalculation, misunderstanding, or misperception. Some believe that computers are the weak link

Abrams

2009-01-01

294

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed,...

A. L. Latter E. A. Martinelli

1993-01-01

295

Defining Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 2005, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) asked the author to research the meaning of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). DTRA s interest arose from the decision of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld to make U.S. Strategic Command (USST...

W. S. Carus

2012-01-01

296

Weapons engineering tritium facility overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20

297

Fractionation of Nuclear Weapon Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

EDVARSON et al.1 report evidence for a fractionation effect noted in the radioactive analysis of samples of nuclear weapons debris collected in filters carried by a jet plane flying over central Sweden. Certain individual particles selected from the filters appeared to be rich in (zinc-90 + niobium-90) radiations and impoverished in ruthenium-103 radiations.

C. Sharp Cook; R. L. Mather; R. F. Johnson; F. M. Tomnovec

1960-01-01

298

USAF Weapon System Evaluation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this task period, Schafer Corporation provided engineering services and analysis to the USAF at Eglin AFB, Florida in direct support of the USAF Air-to-Surface Weapon System Evaluation Program (WSEP). Support was funded through and provided to the ...

1999-01-01

299

Biological weapons: An increasing threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background to the risk of biological warfare is examined with particular reference to recent developments in biotechnology and genetic engineering. The provisions of and problems with the Biological Weapons Convention are discussed, with particular reference to verification. The role of doctors and scientists in issues related to research on biological warfare are considered; they should do more to inform

Wendy Barnaby

1997-01-01

300

Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measur...

1997-01-01

301

Nuclear Weapon-Free Zones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature dealing with nuclear weapon-free zones is not as prominent as is that on arms control and reduction negotiations, confidence-building measures, and a variety of other security-related issues. Documentary sources are relatively scarce and th...

P. E. Zinner

1988-01-01

302

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

303

Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

2002-01-01

304

An Innovative Approach to Weapon Performance Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, software models for weapon system assessment were dedicated to particular systems and were very difficult to modify to meet changing requirements. Therefore more flexible modelling and simulation tools were required to ensure a coherent and efficient capability to rapidly assess the performance of increasingly diverse and complex modern weapon systems. The Unified Weapon Model (UWM) is a novel

Dominic Cernis; Graham Halsall

305

48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

2011-10-01

306

48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

2012-10-01

307

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

308

The Causes of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This critical review of the new political science literature on the causes of nuclear weapons proliferation consists of seven parts. The first section briefly presents what we know about which states developed nuclear weapons and which states started but abandoned weapons development programs. I highlight the problems that result from uncertainty about the accuracy and completeness of the data. The

Scott D. Sagan

2011-01-01

309

The future of nuclear weapon technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next few years will bring decisions that are critical for the future of the nation's nuclear weapons program and for the role of the national weapons laboratories. To meet this challenge, the United States needs to develop both a clear, cohesive, national-security strategy and a policy regarding the future role of nuclear weapons that are appropriate to rapidly evolving

G. H. Miller; P. S. Brown; P. T. Herman; R. D. Neifert; P. L. Chrzanowski

1988-01-01

310

Students who carry weapons to high school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine if those who have recently carried a weapon on school grounds differ from those who carry weapons elsewhere. We hypothesized that involvement in other problem behaviors and exposure to school crime and violence would be associated with risk for weapon carrying on school grounds.Methods: The data for this study were from the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Thomas R Simon; Alex E Crosby; Linda L Dahlberg

1999-01-01

311

Adolescents Who Carry Weapons to School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school suspension, intelligence tests, substance use and mental health information are discussed. The results

Ryan D. Finkenbine; R. Gregg Dwyer

2006-01-01

312

Eyewitness identification: Simulating the “Weapon effect”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigates the effect of weapons on eyewitness recall and recognition using a new experimental paradigm in which a syringe serves as weapon simulation. Contrary to previous weapon manipulations using slides or films of armed targets, the syringe paradigm is personally threatening to the subject. In a 2×2 design, 86 nonpsychology students were approached by an experimenter who

Anne Maass; Günther Köhnken

1989-01-01

313

Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

2002-01-01

314

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide

Maaranen

1996-01-01

315

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

Roberts, G.B.

1996-02-01

316

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume,

J. H. Beeghly; J. M. Bigham; W. A. Dick; R. C. Stehouwer; W. B. Wolfe

1995-01-01

317

Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software  

SciTech Connect

As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

Lee, J.R.

1998-11-01

318

Pandemics, antiviral stockpiles and biosecurity in Australia: what about the generic option?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the possibility of a human pandemic of avian influenza, a first-line strategy for many countries is stockpiling of antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza)), which can reduce mortality, morbidity and influenza transmission. • However, global supply of the antivirals is controlled by the European-based patent owners, Roche and GlaxoSmithKline. This prevents competition in the manufacturing

Buddhima Lokuge; Peter Drahos; Warwick Neville

2006-01-01

319

Electromagnetic launcher: A new weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several perceived advantages to using Electromagnetic (EM) launching for weapons applications. Higher muzzle velocities than can be achieved with conventional ordnance will minimize the projectile time-of-flight to the target; this is of particular interest for air-defense applications against maneuvering targets and for penetrator launching. The potential for precise current (hence acceleration) control promises lower peak accelerations that the projectile must withstand, and much more precise muzzle velocity control, permitting the use of smart projectiles and continuous zoning for artillery applications. The principles behind EM accelerators, particularly dc accelerators (railguns), the recent history of their development, their advantages for weapons applications, the general requirements, potential problem areas that must be faced by designers, and the work that has been done by researchers at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories in accelerating 3-g projectiles to 10 km/s, and larger masses to lower velocities are discussed.

Brooks, A. L.; Hawke, R. S.

1981-08-01

320

Biological weapons and US law.  

PubMed

During the past 8 years, the US Congress has developed a comprehensive legal framework to prevent the illegitimate use of toxins and infectious agents. As part of this framework, Congress has defined as a federal crime virtually every step in the process of developing or acquiring a biological agent for use as a weapon. At the same time, Congress has vested federal law enforcement agencies with broad civil and investigative powers to enable the government to intervene before such weapons are used or even developed. Finally, Congress has directed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish a regulatory regime to monitor the location and transfer of hazardous biological agents and to insure that any use of such agents complies with appropriate biosafety requirements. PMID:9244312

Ferguson, J R

1997-08-01

321

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

322

Potential Military Application of Commercial Intermodal Equipment Advancements: An Alternative to the Stockpiling of National Defense Features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to address alternatives to stockpiling National Defense Features (NDF)/Sealift Enhancement Features (SEF) and secondly to examine possible day-to-day commercial utilization of Government developed and procured NDFs/SEFs. Within...

W. A. Byrne T. A. Dillman

1990-01-01

323

Negotiation Risk: Controlling Biological Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the perception, communication, assessment, and management of risk associated with negotiations on the\\u000a control of biological weapons. After a brief introduction to the relevant theoretical issues concerning how risk affects negotiations,\\u000a it presents a brief history of negotiations to limit biological agents as instruments of warfare and terrorism, and then focuses\\u000a primarily on the negotiation of the

P. Terrence Hopmann

324

RADIOCARBON FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution in time and space of C 1 from the 196.1-1962 nuclear weapons tests of the U.S. and the USSR is used as a tracer for atmospheric mixing phenomena and exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the sea. The mean residence time of Cinjected into the stratosphere by the tests or produced by cosmic rays is about

James A. Young; A. W. Fairhall

1968-01-01

325

Carrying a Weapon to School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighth and tenth grade students (n= 1,619) reported on exposure to risk and protective assets in their day-to-day lives. The relationship between carrying a weapon to school and risk and protective factors in the home and school ecological domains was explored through logistic regression conducted separately by gender. Environmental control in the home, one factor previously unexplored in the context

Shawn C. Marsh; William P. Evans

2007-01-01

326

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons\\/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a

Marjorie Lundquist

2008-01-01

327

Nuclear Weapon Controls and Nonproliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because uranium and plutonium are also sources for nuclear weapons, a lot of public concern has been expressed about the danger\\u000a these materials might pose if they were clandestinely diverted from use in civilian nuclear power plants to more sinister\\u000a applications. These concerns are the true motives behind many who want to abolish nuclear power. They fear that proliferation\\u000a of

Jeff W. Eerkens

328

Space weapons: the legal context  

Microsoft Academic Search

A body of law has evolved that bears on the use of outer space for ballistic missile defense and anti-satellite weapons. This discussion examines the general orientation of the Outer Space Treaty toward military activities in space. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM) Treaty of 1972 is the only permanent and legally operative bilateral arms-control agreement in full effect between the

A. Chayes; E. Spitzer

2009-01-01

329

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

SciTech Connect

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

Latter, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Martinelli, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

330

Future treaties: Chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The recent use and the proliferation of chemical weapons provide impetus to the ongoing negotiations in Geneva to ban the production, possession, and use of all chemical weapons. The provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention are not all agreed upon yet, challenge inspections and sanctions against violators being two particularly difficult areas. Verification of declared stocks and activities poses no major technical problems, but care in technology development and selection will be required to provide effective verification with minimum intrusion. A carefully designed system will be needed to interpret the extensive data from routine inspections, monitoring, and reporting and to protect company proprietary information. Identification of appropriate sites for challenge poses very difficult technical problems, on which R D could be fruitful. On-site inspection in the US poses potential problems ranging from the loss of classified or proprietary information to high financial costs for site preparation and lost operating time. Site access for inspection could also violate US companies' freedom from illegal search and seizure; several remedies are considered. 47 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Gaines, L.L.; Tanzman, E.A.

1989-09-01

331

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

1996-07-01

332

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

333

The application of the root causes of human error analysis method based on HAZOP analysis in using process of weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) is one of the most representative second-generation human reliability analysis methods. By using the CREAM, the retrospective analysis of the root causes of human error is given. There are no accordant standards of the determination of event sequences caused by the human errors in the root causes analysis in using process of weapon

Wei Wang; Tingdi Zhao

2009-01-01

334

Plutonium research and related activities at the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia are reducing their nuclear weapons stockpiles. What to do with the materials from thousands of excess nuclear weapons is an important international challenge. How to handle the remaining US stockpile to ensure safe storage and reliability, in light of the aging support infrastructure, is an important national challenge. To

R. S. Hartley; C. A. Beard; D. L. Barnes

1998-01-01

335

Soviet view on radical weapons cut  

SciTech Connect

Mr. Kokoshin observes that, taking into account what makes for a stable military-strategic balance, studies of the different stages of nuclear arms reductions should generally adhere to the following criteria: (1) The political and military-strategic situation should be such that neither side has any incentive to use nuclear weapons first. The retaliatory actions of the attacked side should preclude the rational use of a first strike. (2) Neither side should have the capability to launch a disarming first strike; whatever the scenario of the attack against one of the sides, the latter must have a potential for inflicting unacceptable and comparable damage to the aggressor. (3) There must be no conditions under which the unauthorized or accidental use of nuclear arms could occur. All three of these criteria presuppose that each side has reliable, redundant, and survivable systems of command, communication, and early warning. The availability of such systems and means, and their purposeful development and perfection on the basis of mutually developed and accepted principles of strategic stability, becomes one of the most crucial factors in insuring stability. In the future, it may be required for this purpose to bring additional means of mutual notification and control into the existing national control systems of both sides.

Kokoshin, A.A.

1988-03-01

336

Optimizing tactics for use of the U.S. antiviral strategic national stockpile for pandemic influenza.  

PubMed

In 2009, public health agencies across the globe worked to mitigate the impact of the swine-origin influenza A (pH1N1) virus. These efforts included intensified surveillance, social distancing, hygiene measures, and the targeted use of antiviral medications to prevent infection (prophylaxis). In addition, aggressive antiviral treatment was recommended for certain patient subgroups to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms. To assist States and other localities meet these needs, the U.S. Government distributed a quarter of the antiviral medications in the Strategic National Stockpile within weeks of the pandemic's start. However, there are no quantitative models guiding the geo-temporal distribution of the remainder of the Stockpile in relation to pandemic spread or severity. We present a tactical optimization model for distributing this stockpile for treatment of infected cases during the early stages of a pandemic like 2009 pH1N1, prior to the wide availability of a strain-specific vaccine. Our optimization method efficiently searches large sets of intervention strategies applied to a stochastic network model of pandemic influenza transmission within and among U.S. cities. The resulting optimized strategies depend on the transmissability of the virus and postulated rates of antiviral uptake and wastage (through misallocation or loss). Our results suggest that an aggressive community-based antiviral treatment strategy involving early, widespread, pro-rata distribution of antivirals to States can contribute to slowing the transmission of mildly transmissible strains, like pH1N1. For more highly transmissible strains, outcomes of antiviral use are more heavily impacted by choice of distribution intervals, quantities per shipment, and timing of shipments in relation to pandemic spread. This study supports previous modeling results suggesting that appropriate antiviral treatment may be an effective mitigation strategy during the early stages of future influenza pandemics, increasing the need for systematic efforts to optimize distribution strategies and provide tactical guidance for public health policy-makers. PMID:21283514

Dimitrov, Nedialko B; Goll, Sebastian; Hupert, Nathaniel; Pourbohloul, Babak; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2011-01-19

337

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material  

SciTech Connect

A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.

Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wolfe, W.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-03-01

338

The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.  

PubMed

Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for analytical sensitivity. Lowering limits adds additional difficulties to the monitoring efforts. The various monitoring methods and the role they play in ensuring worker and general population safety are discussed. PMID:12400916

Harper, Martin

2002-10-01

339

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view

John D Immele; Richard L Wagner

2009-01-01

340

Does the Gun Pull the Trigger? Automatic Priming Effects of Weapon Pictures and Weapon Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 30 years ago, Berkowitz and LePage (1967) published the first study demonstrating that the mere presence of a weapon increases aggressive behavior. These results have been repli- cated in several contexts by several research teams. The standard explanation of this weapons effect on aggressive behavior involves priming; identification of a weapon is believed to automatically increase the accessibility

Craig A. Anderson; Arlin J. Benjamin; Bruce D. Bartholow

1998-01-01

341

Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of roles lobbied the US President to deploy the long-range weapons being developed by the Defense Department. In the course of deliberations, political preferences suppressed military considerations of deterrence and only a small portion of the original modernization program was implemented.

Yaffe, Michael David

342

The employment of emergency medical units of the National Medical Stockpile.  

PubMed

Canada has a good National Medical Stockpile valued at 21 million dollars and consisting of packaged emergency medical units ready for use in peacetime or wartime disaster. These units are available for release to provinces for pre-positioning in selected communities provided that certain storage conditions are met and that physicians and other key health workers are prepared to take operational charge of the equipment. The major packaged units are the Emergency Hospital with a capacity of 200 beds, the Advanced Treatment Centre with equipment to give emergency medical care to 500 casualties, the Casualty Collecting Unit with equipment to give first-aid care to 500 casualties, the Emergency Blood Depot, the Emergency Clinic and the Emergency Public Health Laboratory. In addition, training equipment, supplies and units are provided.The value of the stockpile has already been demonstrated in disasters occurring inside and outside Canada. Ten Emergency Hospitals have been shipped to South Vietnam for civilian use. A similar Emergency Hospital was flown to Yellowknife, N.W.T., within 24 hours of the destruction, by fire, of the Stanton Yellowknife Hospital in May 1966. PMID:6015738

Hacon, W S

1967-01-28

343

A model "go-kit" for use at Strategic National Stockpile Points of Dispensing.  

PubMed

The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is a national repository of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies forseeably needed during a medical disaster. In the event of SNS deployment, state and local public health authorities must be prepared to receive, distribute, and dispense the materials. We propose a cache of supplies, termed the "POD go-kit," prepared in advance and locally available prior to the establishment of Points of Dispensing (POD) for SNS material. Characteristics of the preassembled go-kit are its multiplicity of use, ease of storage and transportation, minimal redundancy with SNS material, and packaging in a manner consistent with POD function. The POD go-kit is assembled into 4 separate "subkits": administrative supplies, patient routing supplies, dispensing supplies, and POD staff protection supplies. Incorporating existing practices from the SNS Listserv, this article itemizes the contents of the POD go-kit and its subkits and provides a rationale for its packaging. The Division of Strategic National Stockpile (DSNS) has not certified the proposed "POD go-kit" as a standardized POD go-kit. PMID:17149096

May, Larissa; Cote, Timothy; Hardeman, Bernard; Gonzalez, Gabriela R; Adams, Sherry B; Blair, Roderick K; Pane, Gregg

344

A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R. [Army Defense Ammunition Center and School, Savanna, IL (United States)

1994-05-01

345

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from

Sloss

1990-01-01

346

Concealed weapon detection using color image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is studied for detecting weapons or other objects hidden underneath a person's clothing. The focus of this paper is to develop a new algorithm to fuse a color visual image and a corresponding IR image for such a concealed weapon detection application. The fused image obtained by the proposed algorithm will maintain the high resolution of the visual

Zhiyun Xue; Rick S. Blum

2003-01-01

347

The Extended Deterrent Value of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three questions are addressed in this study: (1) Does a nuclear retaliatory capability contribute to extended deterrence against a nonnuclear power? (2) If so, is the deterrent value of nuclear weapons contingent upon the prior credible threat of conventional armed engagement by the defender? (3) Or, is the deterrent impact of nuclear weapons so potent that the conventional balance of

Paul K. Huth

1990-01-01

348

Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

Norris, R.S.

1993-04-01

349

Weaponization of Space: A Strategic Estimate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weaponization of space is a long debated topic. So far, space- based assets have not been targeted, although the technology exists to permit this kind of attack. The central research question is: Should the U.S. develop and employ space-based weapons....

C. E. Steele

2001-01-01

350

How nuclear weapons decisions are made  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on nuclear weapons decisionmaking. Topics considered include the weapons development process in the Soviet Union, the Soviet military,the US intelligence community, Britain's role in NATO, military research in France, nuclear disarmament and proliferation in China, the structure of NATO, and the Warsaw Treaty Organization.

McLean, S.

1986-01-01

351

Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may

Alexander Toet

2003-01-01

352

Evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method to deal with the performance evaluation of weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations. An example of tactical missile systems selection is used to illustrate the performance evaluation process of weapon systems. Because the proposed methods uses simplified fuzzy arithmetic operations of fuzzy numbers rather than the complicated entropy weight calculations mentioned in

Shyi-Ming Chen

1996-01-01

353

Space weapon-The arms control dilemma  

SciTech Connect

Anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, rather than ballistic missile defense, is the main focus of this volume, prepared by SIPRI. There are many authors from the West and the East. The volume as a whole argues a consistent case for a bilateral moratorium on the testing of ASAT weapons, to be followed by a complete ban.

Jasani, B.

1985-01-01

354

US nuclear weapons production: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex is in trouble. The Reagan administration expects to continue and even increase production of the nuclear materials used in warheads. But the plants that produce these materials-plutonium, tritium, and weapon-grade uranium- are currently either shut down or operating at reduced capacity. Recent studies and declassified documents cite safety and environmental problems that

T. B. Cochran; R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

2009-01-01

355

Weapons of mass disruption and terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

New perceptions of weaponry have developed in some counter?terrorism circles, based on the concept of Weapons of Mass Disruption which target bonds and relationships, rather than things, at the systemic level. These capabilities are derived, in many instances, from advanced (cyber) forms of weapons which could eventually be employed by terrorists against the United States.

Robert J. Bunker

2000-01-01

356

Weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat

Ryan

1997-01-01

357

Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an exploratory study designed to describe the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of suburban teenagers from a largely affluent community in the San Francisco Bay area. The paucity of research on the weapon carrying behaviors of suburban adolescents suggests this is a population for which issues related to violence have been ignored. However, the school shootings that

Stephanie R. Hawkins; Amy Campanaro; Traci Bice Pitts; Hans Steiner

2002-01-01

358

Neutron Weapons. War Prevention by Credible Deterrence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The neutron bomb has prompted fierce and controversial public discussions which are more emotional than based on facts. Unaware of the factual repercussions this weapon has, it has been described as the most inhumane weapon ever. By saying so, the public ...

1981-01-01

359

Nuclear weapons headed for the trash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether he intended it or not, Bush has taken steps that mean the beginning of the end for nuclear weapons. His proposals significantly reduce the numbers of nuclear weapons and the burdens associated with deploying and controlling them. And although he retains many of the options for continuing and regenerating the nuclear arsenal, he has exposed the fact that there

W. M. Arkin; D. Durrant; H. Kristensen

1991-01-01

360

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

1983-01-01

361

Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was initiated to study the feasibility of applying the squeeze casting process to produce two specific steel weapon components - the receiver base and the barrel support of the M85 weapon. Dies were designed and fabricated for both components ...

D. A. Stawarz K. M. Kulkarni K. R. Iyer R. B. Miclot

1974-01-01

362

US tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, 2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors write about US tactical nuclear weapons in Europe, and how NATO's new Strategic Concept, adopted in November 2010, places less importance on these weapons. Though the current Europe-based arsenal is only a fraction of what it was at its peak in 1971, 150-200 bombs are currently deployed in Europe and stored at six bases in five countries: Belgium,

Robert S. Norris; Hans M. Kristensen

2011-01-01

363

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Updated August 10, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysts have identified a number of issues with the continued deployment of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. These include questions about the safety and security of Russia's weapons and the possibility that some might be lost, stolen, or s...

A. F. Woolf

2009-01-01

364

Russian chemical weapons: Proliferation or destruction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 11 September 2001 attack on the USA revealed that terrorists are willing to inflict mass casualties and might use weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to increase the scope of their acts. Chemical weapons (CW) are the easiest WMD to use and obtain, and have been more frequently used in terrorist acts and terrorist threats. However, it is not very

Maria Katsva

2002-01-01

365

Precision Guided Weapons Training and Employment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A historical review of the requirement and use of precision guided weapons in Vietnam begins with a discussion on three current guided weapons in the Air Force inventory, the GBU-15, the GBU-24 and the AGM-65. The need for adequately trained aircrews and ...

B. L. Ream

1988-01-01

366

Future of nuclear weapons: Final study report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the findings of a three-year study by the Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) that evaluated the long-term (thirty-year) future of nuclear weapons. The Future of Nuclear Weapons (FNW) Study sought (a) to identify and analyze...

P. J. Garrity

1990-01-01

367

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)|

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

368

32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228...228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No...possess, either openly or concealed, firearms, any illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing...

2010-07-01

369

14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on...that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed. This section...

2009-01-01

370

7 CFR 501.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 501.12...NEBRASKA § 501.12 Weapons and explosives. No person...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except as officially...

2013-01-01

371

31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13...TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official...

2013-07-01

372

25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11...Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about...places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is...

2009-04-01

373

32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228...228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No...possess, either openly or concealed, firearms, any illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing...

2009-07-01

374

14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on...that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed. This section...

2010-01-01

375

25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11...Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about...places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is...

2010-04-01

376

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 503.13...DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person...or other dangerous or deadly weapons or explosives either openly or concealed, except when authorized...

2013-01-01

377

25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11...Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about...places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is...

2013-04-01

378

31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11...AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized...

2013-07-01

379

49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 hours. (d) Location of weapon. (1) Any individual traveling...armed must at all times keep their weapon: (i) Concealed and out of view, either on their...2) No individual may place a weapon in an overhead storage...

2009-10-01

380

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13...AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official...

2013-07-01

381

49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 hours. (d) Location of weapon. (1) Any individual traveling...armed must at all times keep their weapon: (i) Concealed and out of view, either on their...2) No individual may place a weapon in an overhead storage...

2010-10-01

382

14 CFR 135.119 - Prohibition against carriage of weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. 135.119 Section 135...Prohibition against carriage of weapons. No person may, while on...that person a deadly or dangerous weapon, either concealed or unconcealed. This section...

2013-01-01

383

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees...or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed, while on Government property...who are required to possess weapons or explosives in the...

2013-07-01

384

Nuclear Weapon Burst Parameters Governing Urban Fire Vulnerability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapon burst parameters governing thermal effects from nuclear weapon explosions are reviewed as part of the OCD program for assessing urban vulnerability to fire from nuclear bursts. The most important burst parameters are weapon yield, burst height,...

R. E. Jones S. B. Martin R. H. Renner

1967-01-01

385

10 CFR Appendix H to Part 73 - Weapons Qualification Criteria  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Weapons Qualification Criteria H Appendix H to Part 73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...H Appendix H to Part 73âWeapons Qualification Criteria ...difficulty will be used for all weapon qualification testing....

2013-01-01

386

Whither Space Weapons: A Capability in Need of an Advocate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Space weaponization has been a much debated topic over the past decade. The debate has included political and technical discussions on whether, with what, and for what purpose to weaponize space. Little has been written about space weaponization from the ...

D. C. Blaettler

2005-01-01

387

Human radiation exposures related to nuclear weapons industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of radiation exposures resulting from American nuclear weapons test, nuclear weapons fabrication and from non-nuclear accidents involving nuclear weapons. 221 refs., 50 figs., 45 tabs. (DTT)

R. G. Cuddihy; G. J. Newton

1985-01-01

388

50 CFR 27.43 - Weapons other than firearms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Weapons § 27.43 Weapons other than firearms. The use or possession of cross bows, bows and arrows, air guns, spears, gigs, or other weapons on national wildlife refuges is prohibited except as...

2011-10-01

389

[Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].  

PubMed

The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons. PMID:23802298

Kozachenko, I N

390

Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) establishes environmental policy, sets goals, and provides means for implementing the policy. NEPA contains provisions to ensure that Federal agencies adhere to the letter and spirit of the Act. The key provision requires preparation of an environmental impact statement on ''major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'' (40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' [CFR] {section}1502.3). NEPA ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and actions are taken (40 CFR {section}1500.1[b]). DOE has a policy to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements documents for certain large, multiple-facility sites such as LLNL (10 CFR {section}1021.330). In August 1992, DOE released the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operations of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore'' (LLNL EIS/EIR). A Record of Decision (ROD) (58 ''Federal Register'' [FR] 6268) was issued in January 1993. With the passage of more than 10 years since the publication of the 1992 LLNL EIS/EIR (DOE/EIS-0157) and because of proposed modifications to existing projects and new programs, NNSA determined that it was appropriate to prepare a new LLNL SW/SPEIS.

N /A

2004-02-27

391

Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and require the cooperation of the person being searched. The new generation of detectors under development that focuses primarily on imaging methods, faces problems associated with privacy issues. There remains a need for a weapons detector which is portable, detects weapons remotely, avoids the issues associated with privacy rights, can tell the difference between car keys and a knife, and is affordable enough that one can be issued to every peacekeeper and law enforcement officer. AKELA is developing a concealed weapons detector that uses wideband radar techniques to excite natural electromagnetic resonances that characterize the size, shape, and material composition of an object. Neural network processing is used to classify the difference between weapons and nuisance objects. We have constructed both time and frequency domain test systems and used them to gather experimental data on a variety of armed and unarmed individuals. These experiments have been performed in an environment similar to the operational environment. Preliminary results from these experiments show that it is possible to detect a weapon being carried by an individual from a distance of 10 to 15 feet, and to detect a weapon being concealed behind the back. The power required is about 100 milliwatts. A breadboard system is being fabricated and will be used by AKELA and our law enforcement partner to gather data in operationally realistic situations. While a laptop computer will control the breadboard system, the wideband radar electronics will fit in a box the size of a CD ROM drive of a computer.

Hunt, Allan R.; Hogg, R. Douglas; Foreman, William

1998-12-01

392

Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program  

SciTech Connect

UN inspectors discovered an electromagnetic isotope separation factory that put Iraq just 18-30 months away from having enough material for a bomb. They also found European centrifuge technology and plans for an implosion device. The inspections of Iraq mandated by the United Nations as a cease-fire condition at the end of the Gulf War in February 1991 have revealed a clandestine nuclear materials production and weapons design program of unexpected size and sophistication. The total value of that program, in terms of equipment and personnel deployed between 1981 and 1991, may be on the order of $5-10 billion. The program employed an estimated 7000 scientist and 20,000 workers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Davis, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Kay, D.A. (Uranium Institute, London (United Kingdom))

1992-07-01

393

Shelf-life extension program (SLEP) as a significant contributor to Strategic National Stockpile Maintenance: the Israeli experience with ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the 2001 anthrax incident in the U.S. and the 2003 SARS epidemic have highlighted the biological threat to civilian populations. The risk posed by the natural or manmade spread of biological agents among the population dictates a need for better national preparedness. One key component of this preparation is the establishment of a Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) of pharmaceuticals that would provide appropriate medical countermeasures in case of an outbreak. However, to reduce the expense of such a stockpile and to make it worthwhile, there is also a need for a shelf-life extension program (SLEP) through which pharmaceuticals could be extended beyond manufacturer-ascribed shelf life, as long as they meet regulation standards. In this article, we review the Israeli experience with the national ciprofloxacin stockpile procurement and shelf-life extension program. PMID:22578017

Bodas, Moran; Yuval, Landschaft; Zadok, Ron; Hess, Zippora; Haran, Batya; Kaplan, Mimi; Eisenkraft, Arik

2012-05-11

394

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

2011-02-03

395

Nuclear Bunker Busters, Mini-Nukes, and the US Nuclear Stockpile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bush administration is contemplating a new crop of nuclear weapons that could reduce the threat to civilian populations. However, they're still unlikely to work without producing massive radioactive fallout, and their development might require a return to underground nuclear testing.

Nelson, Robert W.

2003-11-01

396

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

397

Large bilateral reductions in superpower nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The plausibility and stability of alternative states of the world with large bilateral reductions in nuclear weapons are examined. The current state, with approximately 50,000 nuclear weapons, is compared with two alternative states with arms control agreements with significant verification provisions. The first, minimum deterrence, reduces each superpower's nuclear weapons to a few hundred each and prohibits strategic defense. The second, zero-nuclear-weapons deterrence, abolishes deployed nuclear weapons, but, the superpowers maintain the capability to assemble and deploy a few hundred nuclear weapons on short notice. Strategic defense is encouraged to decrease the incentive to violate the arms control agreements. A conceptual framework is described that captures the fundamental arms procurement and arms control structure in economic terms. The three states are considered the initial conditions and four analyses are performed: potential attack (either a false alarm, an accidental attack, or an intentional attack) stability, major superpower crisis stability, arms procurement stability (the incentives to procure weapons which, although not in violation of the arms control agreements, may be destabilizing), and arms control stability (the incentives to violate the agreements). The analysis focuses on arms procurement and arms control stability.

Parnell, G.S.

1985-01-01

398

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

399

Risk analysis in support of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Volume 1. Analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). This report presents the results of the integrated risk analysis of the CSDP - a continuation of the risk analyses prepared by GA Technologies Inc. for this same program. This report describes the risk analysis methodology, and presents the results of the risk analysis in a variety of ways, including: cumulative risk curves; expected fatalities values; individual risk data; estimates of time and person-years at risk; and, semi-quantitative picto-graphical comparisons of the major measures of both societal and individual risk. Differences in risk of the disposal alternatives are presented and discussed in light of the uncertainty in the analysis.

Fraize, W.E.; Cutler, R.; Duff, W.; Hughitt, E.; Perry, J.

1987-12-17

400

[New challenges in the biological weapons convention].  

PubMed

Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics. PMID:22428382

Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

2012-01-01

401

Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

402

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

Lundquist, Marjorie

2008-03-01

403

Willingness of healthcare workers to accept voluntary stockpiled H5N1 vaccine in advance of pandemic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare workers may be at risk during the next influenza pandemic. Priming with stockpiled vaccine may protect staff and reduce nosocomial transmission. Despite campaigns to increase seasonal influenza vaccine coverage, uptake among healthcare workers is generally low; creating uncertainty whether they would participate in pre-pandemic vaccine programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of healthcare workers in a UK hospital

Manish Pareek; Tristan Clark; Helen Dillon; Rajesh Kumar; Iain Stephenson

2009-01-01

404

Some samples of weapons and instruments used as weapon in criminal offenses in Turkey.  

PubMed

The variety of instruments used for crime of violence is wide. Besides the manufactured legal weapons, there are comparable numbers of purchased instruments, which are used as lethal weapons and significant numbers of comprising home-made ones. The instruments used during the commission of a crime shows similarity throughout the countries. Nevertheless, there are small differences to be seen. The topic of this subject features the types of weapons used in criminal offenses in Turkey. PMID:12711190

Uner, H Bülent; Gökdogan, Mira R; Cakan, Hüseyin

2003-03-27

405

Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Terrorist Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuing possibility of terrorist attacks using nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons is an ongoing concern in the national security policy arena in the face of a clear trend among terrorists to inflict greater numbers of casualties. Until the an...

S. Bowman

2002-01-01

406

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)|

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

407

Terahertz Imaging of Subjects With Concealed Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the growing interest in developing terahertz imaging systems for concealed weapons detection, the Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory (STL) at the University of Massachusetts Lowell has produced full- body terahertz imagery using coher...

A. J. Gatesman C. S. Joseph J. C. Dickinson T. M. Goyette Z. G. Root

2006-01-01

408

Weapons Systems Development Decision Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Defense budget cuts and the recent peace dividend have made weapons systems development decisions increasingly more difficult and subject to scrutiny. Meticulous planning is required to ensure tax dollars are spent wisely and effectively. This thesis pres...

R. K. Boyd

1992-01-01

409

Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

Sniegowski, J.J.

1996-12-31

410

Disarming Libya: Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 19, 2003, Libya announced it would dismantle its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs. Since then, U.S., British, and international officials have inspected and removed or destroyed key components of those programs,...

A. Feickert S. A. Squassoni

2004-01-01

411

Disarming Libya: Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 19, 2003, Libya announced it would dismantle its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs. Since then, U.S., British, and international officials have inspected and removed or destroyed key components of those programs,...

S. Squassoni

2006-01-01

412

Declaration requirements of the chemical weapons convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The declaration requirements of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) are among its most important provisions. Because accurate and timely declarations are necessary for the Convention's verification system to function properly, they are a pre-requisite f...

E. Tanzman B. Kellman

2000-01-01

413

Environmental Effects of Nuclear Weapons. Volume Three.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapons effects capable of covering large areas are divided into four major categories, based on physical damage mechanisms. Radiological: damage to biological organisms caused by ionizing radiation. Thermal: damage caused by heat or fire. Meteorological:...

R. U. Ayres

1965-01-01

414

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-12-01

415

DOE battery program for weapon applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting and production support. The ...

R. P. Clark A. R. Baldwin

1992-01-01

416

Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)|

Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

417

SSD Reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SSD are complex electronic systems prone to wear-out and failure mechanisms mainly related to their basic component: the Flash memory. The reliability of a Flash memory depends on many technological and architectural aspects, from the physical concepts on which the store paradigm is achieved to the interaction among cells, from possible new physical mechanisms arising as the technology scales down to the countermeasures adopted within the memory controller to face erroneous behaviors.

Zambelli, C.; Olivo, P.

418

Nuclear electric power and the proliferation of nuclear weapon states  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and elimination of the strategic nuclear weapons held by the nuclear weapon states remains the central problem in the arms control and disarmament field. Whether the proliferation of nations with nuclear weapons can be stopped is dubious. A sovereign nation will launch a nuclear weapons program if it has the motivation and resource. Motivation depends on military and political

Walske

2009-01-01

419

Ultrasound sensor for remote imaging of concealed weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A breadboard ultrasound sensor was developed for remotely detecting and imaging concealed weapons. The breadboard sensor can detect metallic and non-metallic weapons concealed on a human body under heavy clothing at ranges up to 8 m and image the concealed weapons at ranges up to 5 m. This breadboard sensor has produced the only remote ultrasound images of concealed weapons

Franklin S. Felber; Charles Mallon; Norbert C. Wild; Christopher M. Parry

1997-01-01

420

EVALUATING THE THREAT OF BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN EASTERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological, chemical and nuclear weapons, often referred to as weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have captured global public attention in recent years. The war in Iraq in 2003 and 2004 was waged because some countries, led by the United States, believed Iraq had chemical and biological weapons and wished to prevent the transfer of these weapons to terrorists or terrorist

JAMES THUO NJUGUNA

2005-01-01

421

Safety studies and reviews of nuclear-weapon systems. Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Directive replaces DoD Directive 5030.15. It updates the policy, responsibilities, and procedures for applying safety standards to nuclear weapons and to nuclear weapon systems, developing and processing nuclear weapon system safety rules, and conducting safety studies and operational safety reviews of nuclear weapon systems.

Gilson

1984-01-01

422

Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of

1996-01-01

423

A magic sword or a big itch: an historical look at the United States biological weapons programme.  

PubMed

In the late 1950s interest in entomological warfare increased, and literature describing the US biological warfare programmes on the use of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector for transmitting yellow fever, has now been released. Yellow fever was considered as a suitable disease to use in southern regions of the former Soviet Union. The US destroyed its biological weapon stockpiles in the early 1970s. In addition to its offensive biological warfare programme, the US conducted extensive trials to assess its own vulnerability to biological attack. These trials and a later series of threat analyses indicate that biological agents could, indeed, affect large areas of the US if the attackers were allowed to proceed unmolested. Some of the threat analyses present highly questionable scenarios. PMID:10472190

Hay, A

424

Video-rate concealed weapons detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

W-band radiometer have been shown to be effective in detecting metallic and non-metallic weapons concealed under heavy garments in both indoor and outdoor situations. We now have a system providing near real time-time display and weapon detection in a man portable demonstration system. The system consists of 34 W-Band detectors in a 12 inch Cassegrain system with a mechanical scanner.

Al Pergande; Chen-Jung Lui; Larry T. Anderson

2000-01-01

425

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

426

The Bulgarian connection: Drugs, weapons, and terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bulgarian government is involved in sub?version of Western governments, almost certainly orchestrated in Moscow, involving drugs, weapons, and terrorism. Despite U.S. efforts to work with Bulgaria to curb the illicit traffic of drugs and weapons, cooperation has been virtually nil. This has prompted some members of Congress to probe Bulgaria's motives, and on February 26, 1985, Senator Alphonse D'Amato

Juliana Geran Pilon

1987-01-01

427

New details on nuclear weapons program bared  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuing effort to be more candid about Department of Energy nuclear weapons programs, Energy Secretary Hazel R. O'Leary recently declassified a substantial amount of information. On June 27, she revealed details about total US weapons-grade uranium production, testing of a bomb made of reactor-grade plutonium, radiation experiments conducted on humans since the 1920s, and underground and atmospheric nuclear

Hileman

1994-01-01

428

Massachusetts weapon-related injury surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Surveillance data on nonfatal weapon-related injuries—particularly those treated only in the emergency department (ED)—have been largely unavailable.Objective: To develop a surveillance system for fatal and nonfatal gunshot wounds and sharp instrument assaults.Design: The Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) developed an ED-based reporting system for weapon-related injuries. Inpatient discharges and mortality data were linked to ED data, and police

Catherine W Barber; Victoria V Ozonoff; Maxine Schuster; Beth C Hume; Heather McLaughlin; Laurie Jannelli; Linda E Saltzman

1998-01-01

429

Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is a collection of 11 government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by nine different contractors and the US DOE Albuquerque Operations Office. An effort is under way to automate the exchange of product-definition data between members of the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). A description is presented of network components, their

R. L. Elliott

1988-01-01

430

Medical Defense Against Protein Toxin Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “toxin weapon” has been used to describe poisons, classically of natural origin but increasingly accessible by modern\\u000a synthetic methods, which are suitable for delivery on a battlefield in a form that causes death or severe incapacitation at\\u000a relatively low concentrations (reviewed in ref. 1). Several of the most important toxin weapons are proteins, and these molecules are the

Charles B. Millard

431

Directed-energy weapons: a juridical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpower development of directed-energy laser or particle-beam weapons has strategic and legal implications. The rapid development of these weapons and the classified nature of the research make it difficult to evaluate these implications on a factual basis. International laws dealing with treaties and strategic-arms control and with armed conflict are applied to this issue to determine the permissibility of directed-energy

Fessler

1979-01-01

432

The case for eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary reasons for the elimination of NATO's BNW are two. First, BNW are superfluous for deterrence. Other weapons are better suited for that purpose. Second, and more important, any deployment of nuclear weapons in Western Europe necessarily involves three critical trade-offs: a trade-off between deterrence and reassurance in peacetime, a trade-off between deterrence and crisis stability in times of

Sigal

1989-01-01

433

Nuclear weapons and power-reactor plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-10 that for making nuclear bombs, 'reactor-grade' plutonium produced by the normal operation of uranium-fuelled power reactors is necessarily much inferior to specially made 'weapons-grade' Pu: so infe- rior in explosive power or predictability that its potential use by amateurs is not a serious problem and that governments would instead make the higher-performance weapons-grade Pu in special production reactors. Although

Amory B. Lovins

1980-01-01

434

Toward Armageddon: The proliferation of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East. Occasional Paper No. 36  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that it is probable that unconventional weapons and their associated delivery systems will form a permanent part of future political and strategic calculations in the Middle East. Some possible consequences of this situation can be divided into three classes: intra-regional, inter-regional and extra-regional. There is no doubt that Israel, driven by the need for security,precipitated the proliferation of unconventional weapons and of surface-to-surface missiles in the Middle East. It will now be driven to secure itself from the new threat to its security posed by its regional opponents. The most significant extra-regional consequence of developments in the Middle East may be further complication of great power arms control negotiations. To the re-discovery by the United States and the Soviet Union of their obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty to reduce the level of their nuclear weapons must now be added the desire to reduce, if not entirely eliminate, their chemical weapons stockpiles in advance of a global ban. It is possible that lesser powers will learn from the evidence of the great powers behavior, although that contradicts much of what we know of the psychology of decision making in international politics. What is necessary, though not necessarily sufficient, is that the U.S. and the USSR as the two external powers with potentially the greatest leverage, work together toward the resolution of the underlying causes of conflict in a region marked by more than a generation of competition between them.

Miller, A.J.

1989-12-01

435

Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 ?m imagery with standard RGB color images.

Toet, Alexander

2003-09-01

436

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

437

Diagnostic Approach to Weapon System Lifecycle Support: The Phalanx Close-in Weapon System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study discusses a diagnostic approach to examining the lifecycle support system of a weapon system specifically illustrating the approaches for the US Navy Phalanx Close-in Weapon System (CIWS). The study gauges the status of current readiness and an...

A. Apte R. Rendon

2009-01-01

438

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and\\/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a

C. L. Perez; J. O. Johnson

1994-01-01

439

A Diagnostic Approach to Weapon System Lifecycle Support: The Phalanx Close-in Weapon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses a diagnostic approach to examining the lifecycle support system of a weapon system—specifically illustrating the approaches for the US Navy Phalanx Close- in Weapon System (CIWS). The study gauges the status of current readiness and analyzes a snapshot of cost structures. The study identifies the program's influential cost factors and system performance drivers. As a diagnostic approach

Aruna Apte; Rene Rendon

440

Nuclear weapons in the 1980s: NATO and nuclear weapons - reasons and unreason  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current controversy in Europe over nuclear weapons results from diverging interests and from different world views and priorities than those held by the US. Popular opposition to deploying new long-range nuclear weapons in Europe reveals a destabilizing gap between civilians and the governments of Europe and between Western Europe and the US. Unlike previous opposition, the new movement is

Hoffmann

2009-01-01

441

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

442

Advances in Data Combination, Analysis and Collection for System Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systems that statisticians are asked to assess, such as nuclear weapons, infrastructure networks, supercomputer codes and munitions, have become increasingly complex. It is often costly to con- duct full system tests. As such, we present a review of methodology that has been proposed for addressing system reliability with limited full system testing. The first approaches presented in this paper

Alyson G. Wilson; Todd L. Graves; Michael S. Hamada; C. Shane Reese

443

Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the political turmoil and economic hardship that beset these countries. The history of the British nuclear weapons program includes the most comprehensive collection of photos and specifications of British warheads and nuclear tests ever assembled in one publication. The role of the United States in the French nuclear weapons program is discussed. This is a comprehensive source for the mechanics and politics of nuclear weapons proliferation.

Norris, R.S.; Burrows, A.S.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

1994-12-31

444

A comparison of commercial\\/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial\\/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial\\/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors

R. R. Bennett; D. A. Summers

1996-01-01

445

Chemical Weapon's: Army's Emergency Preparedness Program Has Financial Management Weaknesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As requested, we reviewed how the Army's Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) funds about $281 million appropriated in fiscal years 1988 to 1994 were spent. We have previously reported problems the Army experienced in improving the em...

1995-01-01

446

The case for eliminating battlefield nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The primary reasons for the elimination of NATO's BNW are two. First, BNW are superfluous for deterrence. Other weapons are better suited for that purpose. Second, and more important, any deployment of nuclear weapons in Western Europe necessarily involves three critical trade-offs: a trade-off between deterrence and reassurance in peacetime, a trade-off between deterrence and crisis stability in times of high political tension, and a trade-off between deterrence and controlled use in war. Whatever purpose BNW purportedly serve as deterrents come at a disproportionate cost to peacetime reassurance, crisis stability, and wartime control. The continued presence of BNW in Western Europe is hard to explain in rational terms; it is more readily explicable by organizational and political inertia. To see why continued inertia is dangerous, the author first examine briefly the military purposes that nuclear weapons allegedly serve for NATO - that is, what they are said to deter and how. Then, he examines the paradoxes in the logic of deterrence of conventional attack in Europe and, flowing from those paradoxes, the critical policy dilemmas posed by BNW. Next, and fundamental to the discussion, he raises the critical organizational and political predicaments that any coherent strategy for continued deployment of these weapons must overcome. Finally, he discusses the political ramifications of keeping these weapons in place.

Sigal, L.V.

1989-09-01

447

Reliability Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliability offers significant modeling challenges. Typically, parts cannot be tested until failure under normal operating conditions. Since the target is frequently a decade or longer of useful life, this is impractical. Consequently, accelerated testing is performed. This procedure only works when the physics is well understood, and the failure mechanism is not accelerated by factors not under the control of the testing. Consequently, modeling of the failure mechanism is crucial in making extrapolated predictions of lifetime. Technology Computer-Aided Design tools have advanced to the point where multiple physics can be included and the testing simulated fully. This chapter describes such an extended tool and provides examples of applying it to the understanding of two different failure mechanisms.

Law, M. E.; Griglione, M.; Patrick, E.; Rowsey, N.; Horton, D.

448

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.  

PubMed Central

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects.

Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

1992-01-01

449

ACAM2000(TM): The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc.), was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™), a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.

Nalca, Aysegul; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E

2010-01-01

450

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

451

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

452

Stockpiling of transitional and classic primary follicles in ovaries of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

Recently, we proposed an oocyte-growth differentiation factor-9 hypothesis that predicts alterations in the initial stages of folliculogenesis in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ovaries. Here, we test this hypothesis by scoring the composition of follicles in normal and PCOS ovaries. Follicles were classified as primordial, transitional primary, classic primary, secondary, and Graafian. A total of 2274 follicles were scored. The total number of growing follicles was significantly greater in PCOS ovaries than normal, but the number of nongrowing primordial follicles did not differ. Consequently, the increase in growing follicles in PCOS cannot be explained by increased primordial follicle recruitment. Differential counts showed that the number of growing follicles at each stage of development was significantly greater: PCOS had 2.7-fold more primary, 1.8-fold more secondary, and 2-fold more Graafian follicles than normal. The greatest effect was on the classic primary follicles where the number was almost 5-fold greater in PCOS ovaries. The absence of apoptosis in normal and PCOS preantral follicles argues that the increase in growing follicles in PCOS cannot be explained by changes in atresia. We conclude, therefore, that primary follicle growth is abnormally slow in PCOS and the dynamics are reflected in a stockpiling of classic primary follicles. PMID:15531477

Maciel, Gustavo A R; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Benda, Jo Ann; Markham, Sanford M; Hensinger, Krista; Chang, R Jeffrey; Erickson, Gregory F

2004-11-01

453

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program  

SciTech Connect

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-11-01

454

Study of Windows Effects for Shock Wave Temperature Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements of shocked plutonium are needed for improved understanding of its equation of state (EOS) and will enable better understanding and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile.

W. D. Turley, G. Stevens, L. Veeser, D. Holtkamp, A. Seifter

2011-05-25

455

Management Controls over Defense Related High Risk Property.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was established to maintain and enhance the safety, security, reliability, and performance of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. To help NNSA perform its mission, both Los Ala...

2008-01-01

456

New technologies and the role of nuclear weapons in national-security strategy. Volume 8. S3 (safety, security, and survivability) concerns and primitive nuclear powers. A concept paper. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This paper attempts an initial look at the potential roles of Safety, Security, and Survivability (S3) concerns in the design of the nuclear stockpiles of nascent nuclear powers. It address such issues as the influence of S3 concerns on a country's weapons design, its weapons-control system, its incentives to seek nuclear weapons in the first place, and the risks of proliferation for regional conflict and outside powers (including the United States). It also examines the implications of all of these factors for U.S. policy, especially the possibility of aiding or otherwise encouraging nascent nuclear powers to improve the S3 of their weapons. Improving S3 is particularly important in light of the strongly voiced belief that if we must have further proliferation, let each new arsenal contain as few and as primitive nuclear systems as possible. This argument has obvious superficial attractions--a weak primitive nuclear force would seem to have less potential for doing damage. On the other hand, a weak force may lead to a fragile, unstable, accident-prone arsenal and heighten the risk of regional nuclear war. Thus, some suggest actually aiding nascent atomic powers to develop more sophisticated safety and security systems for their weapons. (JHD)

Brody, R.

1983-12-01

457

Weapons in the Lives of Battered Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed weapon use in intimate partner violence and perspectives on hypothetical firearm policies. Methods. We conducted structured in-person interviews with 417 women in 67 battered women’s shelters. Results. Words, hands/fists, and feet were the most common weapons used against and by battered women. About one third of the battered women had a firearm in the home. In two thirds of these households, the intimate partner used the gun(s) against the woman, usually threatening to shoot/kill her (71.4%) or to shoot at her (5.1%). Most battered women thought spousal notification/consultation regarding gun purchase would be useful and that a personalized firearm (“smart gun”) in the home would make things worse. Conclusions. A wide range of objects are used as weapons against intimate partners. Firearms, especially handguns, are more common in the homes of battered women than in households in the general population.

Sorenson, Susan B.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

2004-01-01

458

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

459

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

460

Reducing mortality from anthrax bioterrorism: strategies for stockpiling and dispensing medical and pharmaceutical supplies.  

PubMed

A critical question in planning a response to bioterrorism is how antibiotics and medical supplies should be stockpiled and dispensed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for maintaining and dispensing local and regional inventories of antibiotics and medical supplies for responses to anthrax bioterrorism. We modeled the regional and local supply chain for antibiotics and medical supplies as well as local dispensing capacity. We found that mortality was highly dependent on the local dispensing capacity, the number of individuals requiring prophylaxis, adherence to prophylactic antibiotics, and delays in attack detection. For an attack exposing 250,000 people and requiring the prophylaxis of 5 million people, expected mortality fell from 243,000 to 145,000 as the dispensing capacity increased from 14,000 to 420,000 individuals per day. At low dispensing capacities (<14,000 individuals per day), nearly all exposed individuals died, regardless of the rate of adherence to prophylaxis, delays in attack detection, or availability of local inventories. No benefit was achieved by doubling local inventories at low dispensing capacities; however, at higher dispensing capacities, the cost-effectiveness of doubling local inventories fell from 100,000 US dollars to 20,000 US dollars/life year gained as the annual probability of an attack increased from 0.0002 to 0.001. We conclude that because of the reportedly rapid availability of regional inventories, the critical determinant of mortality following anthrax bioterrorism is local dispensing capacity. Bioterrorism preparedness efforts directed at improving local dispensing capacity are required before benefits can be reaped from enhancing local inventories. PMID:16999586

Bravata, Dena M; Zaric, Gregory S; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Brandeau, Margaret L; Wilhelm, Emilee R; McDonald, Kathryn M; Owens, Douglas K

2006-01-01

461

Atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical memorandum examines the role of atmospheric dispersion modeling and meteorological monitoring in support of emergency planning and response for the US Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). Air dispersion modeling and meteorolog...

R. L. Miller

1990-01-01

462

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethyle...

R. Steinhoff M. T. Dugger K. S. Varga

1996-01-01

463

Low Frequency Magnetic Imaging Detector for Concealed Weapons Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military personnel, law-enforcement officers, and civilians face every-increasing dangers from persons carrying concealed handguns and other weapons. We have developed a novel concealed-weapons detector based on the principle of low-frequency magnetic ima...

B. Zollars M. Durrett W. Hallidy

1999-01-01

464

Unmanned Undersea Weapon Deployment Structure With Cylindrical Payload Deployment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An unmanned undersea vehicle system includes a remote controlled, unmanned undersea vehicle and a mother vehicle interconnected by a communication link. The unmanned undersea vehicle includes a weapon compartment and a control means. Within the weapon com...

C. F. Hillenbrand

1995-01-01

465

76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

466

Unmanned Undersea Weapon Deployment Structure With Cylindrical Payload Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An unmanned undersea vehicle system includes an axisymmetrical cylindrically shaped self propelled undersea deployment vehicle of predetermined diameter having an amidships undersea weapon bay. The amidships undersea weapon bay includes a plurality of wea...

C. F. Hillenbrand

1995-01-01

467

72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) LOOKING NORTH. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

468

Tactical Requirements Impact on Avionics/Weapon System Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complexity of tactical weapon delivery has been greatly increased by the advent of new weapons, the enormity of enemy air defenses and the awesome capability of new digital technology. However, careful assessment of the tactical requirements becomes e...

T. E. Spink J. F. Patton

1983-01-01

469

On-Board Data Recorder for Hard-Target Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center has several hard target penetration weapons development programs in progress. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests due to the host...

W. A. Niven M. F. Jaroska

1981-01-01

470

On-Board Data Recorder for Hard-Target Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center is conducting several hard target penetration weapons development programs. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty, due to the hostile nature of the environment, of measuring acceleration-tim...

W. A. Niven M. F. Jaroska

1981-01-01

471

Study of Gunner Aids for Automatic Cannon Type Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical study using HITPRO was conducted to extend the knowledge of automatic cannon weapon system performance by determining the improvement in target hit capability relative to an unaided rapid fire weapon system that could be achieved by the addi...

P. G. Cushman

1973-01-01

472

Prospects for International Terrorist Groups Employing Chemical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much discussion and debate among security analysts, scholars, and politicians about the possible use of weapons of mass destruction. This paper examines the prospects for international terrorist groups employing chemical weapons. Specifical...

D. W. Webb

1999-01-01

473

Real-Time Targeting for Network Enabled Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continual movement within the Department of Defense to advance net-centric warfare capabilities in operational environments has presented new challenges for test and evaluation of network enabled weapons. The Network Enabled Weapon Real-Time Targeting...

S. R. Frame

2010-01-01

474

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2011-10-01

475

Sikten till Infanteripansarvaernsvapen (Sights for Light Antitank Weapons),  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sights and firing rules of current Swedish antitank weapons lack uniformity. This leads to training problems and difficulties in switching between different weapons. Since new systems are now under way, and old ones being modified, the time seems appr...

H. Widen

1988-01-01

476

Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of

2003-01-01

477

Nuclear weapons and the gray area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue facing the United States and its European allies is what to do about the nuclear threat to Western Europe, and to NATO's deterrent, posed by Soviet systems targeted on Western Europe - the SS-20 mobile missile and other Soviet weapons in the gray area between the strategic and the tactical. The prospect of strategic parity between the

Treverton

2009-01-01

478

Non-Linear Acoustic Concealed Weapons Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major findings of this effort clearly demonstrate that Non- linear Acoustics is a low cost alternative to conventional imaging methods for concealed weapons detection. Our approach is to use ultrasonics to create a localized zone where non-linear inte...

A. Achanta

2006-01-01

479

Non-Linear Acoustic Concealed Weapons Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of concealed weapons at a distance is a critical security issue that has been a great challenge for different imaging approaches. In this paper, we discuss the use of ultrasonics in a novel way to probe for metallic and nonmetallic materials under clothing. Conventional ultrasonics has problems penetrating clothing and produces false positives from specular reflections. Our approach

Anjani Achanta; Mark Mckenna; Joseph Heyman; Kevin Rudd; Mark Hinders; Peter J. Costianes

2005-01-01

480

Radiometric imaging for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described here is the opportunity of concealed weapon detection using a radiometric system. The single-channel passive imaging system, which operated in the W-band allows the detection and recognition of metal and plastic subjects under clothes on a human body.

V. N. Radzikhovsky; V. P. Gorishniak; S. E. Kuzmin; B. M. Shevchuk

2002-01-01

481

Image Fusion Based Concealed Weapon Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two concealed weapon detection methods based on image fusion are presented. The dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is used to image fusion processing because of its shift invariance and directional selectivity, and it is preferable to traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The fusion rules based on multi-scheme are put forward in the gray visual image and millimeter wave image

Wang Yajie; Lu Mowu

2009-01-01

482

Concealed weapon detection: an image fusion approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to image fusion for concealed weapon detection (CWD) applications. In this work, we use image fusion to combine complementary image information from different sensors to obtain a single composite image with more detailed and complete information content. As a result of this processing, the new images are more useful for human perception and automatic computer

Mucahit K. Uner; Liane C. Ramac; Pramod K. Varshney; Mark G. Alford

1997-01-01

483

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

484

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Updated January 16, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union both deployed thousands of 'nonstrategic' nuclear weapons that were intended to be used in support of troops in the field during a conflict. These included nuclear mines; artillery; short, medium, an...

A. F. Woolf

2008-01-01

485

Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms…

Nelson, Linden

486

Socioeconomic impacts of US nuclear weapons facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and 1950s, massive facilities were built in the United States to design, construct and test nuclear weapons. What has been the impact of these facilities on the employment, income and population of the surrounding areas? Doubt exists about whether the national security mission was good for the regions where the facilities were built. Using four counties adjacent

Michael Greenberg; Andrew Isserman; Donald Krueckeberg; Karen Lowrie; Henry Mayer; Darien Simon; David Sorenson

1998-01-01

487

Fractionation Phenomena in Nuclear Weapons Debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was previously determined that a chemical fractionation of nuclear ; weapon debris takes place during the particle formation which occurs within the ; first few minutes after the explosion. Results are reported from studies of the ; distribution of different fission products in air-borne bomb debris and an ; attempt is made to interpret the results. (C.H.);

K. Edvarson; Kerstin Löw; J. Sisefsky

1959-01-01

488

Legal Use of Terror as a Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the legal use of terror as a weapon to accomplish national goals and objectives. This study does not advocate using terrorism. Terrorism, for the purpose of this paper, is illegal. Legal terror, by my criteria, conforms to the stan...

D. R. Hogg

1992-01-01

489

Chemical Weapons Convention: Boon or Bust.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 24, 1997 the Senate ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention by a vote of 74 to 26. This act of consent ended four years of critical debate by the Senate, the Executive Branch, the Department of Defense, the chemical industry and more importantly...

S. T. Chapman

1998-01-01

490

Innovations in weapons detector portal technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional concealed weapons detection portals, deployed worlwide at airports, governent buildings, courthouses, and other security critical facilities, are challenged by today's need for stringent and effective entry point screening. Modern threats, like exotic lightweight handguns, are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. Conventional portals do little, if anything, to assist security personnel in resolving the true nature of a potential threat.

Alexander R. Perry; Peter V. Czipott; Simon P. Beevor; Gerard A. Hanley

2003-01-01

491

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential

Yu W. Chang; Markku Juhola; William Grainger; Beining Wang; Brian Manahan

1997-01-01

492

Fast Concealed Weapon detection via LTR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Concealed Weapon and Explosive (CWE) detection by the analysis of the Late Time Response (LTR) of the complex human-explosive object when the illuminating signal is characterised as UWB, has been presented in (1). The functionality of CWE detection solutions critically depends on the ability of fast detection along with the detection capability of various CWEs. This paper

Averkios Vasalos; Ioannis Vasalos; Heung-Gyoon Ryu; Stavroula-Evita Fotinea

2011-01-01

493

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create

Gennady P. Zhukov

2002-01-01

494

Digital Simulation Models of Candidate Tactical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A five degree-of-freedom simulation has been constructed for each of four candidate tactical weapons for use in a program to develop/evaluate new techniques for emitter homing. The vehicle types include a powered missile, a projectile, a minidrone, and a ...

R. D'Amato J. Capon C. M. Sorrentino

1980-01-01

495

Environmental problems in the nuclear weapons complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provide the authors' views on the environmental problems facing the Department of Energy. Testimony is based on a large body of work, over 50 reports and testimonies since 1981, on environmental, safety, and health aspects of DOE's nuclear weapons complex. This work has shown that the complex faces a wide variety of serious problem areas including aging facilities,

Fultz

1989-01-01

496

Nuclear weapons safety: The case of trident  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accidental detonation or ignition of propellant in a Trident missile, or of explosive material in one of the warheads, could lead to dispersal of toxic plutonium into a populated area. We examine the details of Trident nuclear weapons safety and assess the feasibility, cost and consequences of safety?enhancing modifications to the missiles and warheads. We find that the operational

John R. Harvey; Stefan Michalowski

1994-01-01

497

University Management of Weapons Labs? Yes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promulgates the view that university management of weapons laboratories provides the best scientific results, and more independent advice than could be possible under government or industrial management. Focuses on Los Alamos and Livermore national laboratories, operated by the University of California. (An opposing viewpoint is presented in SE…

Kahn, James S.

1986-01-01

498

Maritime Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current multilateral and bilateral efforts to interdict the maritime transport of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), their delivery systems and related ‘precursors’ used in their construction. The US-led Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) has focused international attention on the proliferation of WMD, including proliferation by maritime transport. While the PSI's Statement of Interdiction Principles focuses on existing bases

Douglas Guilfoyle

2007-01-01

499

Radiation as a weapon of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events in the United States and abroad have heightened the awareness of the vulnerability of society to terrorist attacks. With the exception of the atomic bombs used during World War II at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, no attempt using radiation as a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) has been successful. The increasing applications of radiation in industry, laboratories, and

Joseph Y. Allen; Leah M. Matthews

2002-01-01

500

Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction emerge as a grim but inevitable topic whenever terrorism is discussed. Yet, the United States has thus far been spared a massive nuclear, chemical or biological attack. The older model of politically motivated, violent, but essentially rational terrorists who used some restraint in propagating their message is now defunct. This paper examines how biological and chemical

David Champion; Ronald Mattis

2003-01-01