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1

Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess stockpile reliability, but have been used extensively in various forms outside Sandia National Laboratories. It is hoped that this report will encourage the use of 'nontraditional' reliabilty and uncertainty techniques in gaining insight into stockpile reliability issues.

Robinson, David G.

1999-04-01

2

Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)

Chrzanowski, P.

1991-03-20

3

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

4

Hierarchical Linear Models of Factors Associated with Public Participation among Residents Living near the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate public involvement among residents living near the US Army's eight Chemical Weapons Stockpile sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted across 10 states. Primary data were obtained through a random digit dialling population survey. The study sample consisted of 8315 residents living within emergency response zones surrounding the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile

BRYAN L. WILLIAMS; HOI K. SUEN; Sylvia Brown; Roberta Bruhn; Rich De Blaquiere; SARAH E. RZASA

2001-01-01

5

Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-06-01

6

Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.  

PubMed

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

Greenberg, Michael R

2003-08-01

7

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition  

E-print Network

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons's Budget. Page 105 #12;Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY

8

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and  

E-print Network

(Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction Signed at London, Moscow and Washington on 10 April and complete disarmament, including the prohibition and elimination of all types of weapons of mass destruction and bacteriological (biological) weapons and their elimination, through effective measures, will facilitate

Sussex, University of

9

A Research of Weapon System Storage Reliability Simulation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at the problem of the new, complicated weapon equipment system storage reliability analyze, the paper researched on the methods of fuzzy fault tree analysis and fuzzy system storage reliability simulation, discussed the path that regarded weapon system as fuzzy system, and researched the storage reliability of weapon system based on fuzzy theory, provided a method of storage reliability research for the new, complicated weapon equipment system. As an example, built up the fuzzy fault tree of one type missile control instrument based on function analysis, and used the method of fuzzy system storage reliability simulation to analyze storage reliability index of control instrument.

Shi, Yonggang; Wu, Xuguang; Chen, Haijian; Xu, Tingxue

10

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18

11

Weapon size is a reliable indicator of strength and social dominance in female slender crayfish (Cherax dispar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Weapons are specialized structures that are commonly used by animals to signal fighting ability and resource holding potential during agonistic encounters. Current theory predicts weapon size should reliably indicate weapon strength and unreliable signals should only occur at very low frequencies in nature. However, a recent study found weapon size was an unreliable signal of strength during agonistic

C. L. Bywater; R. S. Wilson

2008-01-01

12

Nonnuclear Consolidation Environmental Assessment. Executive summary, Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a proposal, known as Complex 21, to reconfigure the Nation`s Nuclear Weapons Complex (Complex). The complex is a set of interrelated facilities that design, manufacture, test, and maintain this country`s nuclear weapons. The Complex also produces and/or recycles the nuclear materials used in building weapons and stores nuclear materials for future use. DOE also dismantles the weapons retired from the stockpile. In addition, DOE conducts surveillance and maintenance activities to ensure the reliability and safety of the stockpiled weapons throughout their operational life.

Not Available

1993-06-01

13

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

14

Architectures & requirements for advanced weapon controllers.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done in FY2003 under Advanced and Exploratory Studies funding for Advanced Weapons Controllers. The contemporary requirements and envisioned missions for nuclear weapons are changing from the class of missions originally envisioned during development of the current stockpile. Technology available today in electronics, computing, and software provides capabilities not practical or even possible 20 years ago. This exploratory work looks at how Weapon Electrical Systems can be improved to accommodate new missions and new technologies while maintaining or improving existing standards in nuclear safety and reliability.

McMurtrey, Brian J.; Klarer, Paul Richard; Bryan, Jon R.

2004-02-01

15

Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile as well as the nuclear-weapons enterprise needs to continue to change to reflect this evolving role. Stockpile reductions in the early 1990s and the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), established after the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992, began this process of change. Further evolution is needed to address changing security environments, to enable further reductions in the number of stockpiled weapons, and to create a nuclear enterprise that is cost effective and sustainable for the long term. The SSP has successfully maintained the U.S. nuclear stockpile for more than a decade, since the end of nuclear testing. Current plans foresee maintaining warheads produced in the 1980s until about 2040. These warheads continue to age and they are expensive to refurbish. The current Life Extension Program plans for these legacy warheads are straining both the nuclear-weapons production and certification infrastructure making it difficult to respond rapidly to problems or changes in requirements. Furthermore, refurbishing and preserving Cold-War-era nuclear weapons requires refurbishing and preserving an infrastructure geared to support old technology. Stockpile Stewardship could continue this refurbishment approach, but an alternative approach could be considered that is more focused on sustainable technologies, and developing a more responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure. Guided by what we have learned from SSP during the last decade, the stewardship program can be evolved to address this increasing challenge using its computational and experimental tools and capabilities. This approach must start with an improved vision of the future stockpile and enterprise, and find a path that moves us toward that future. The goal of this approach is to achieve a more affordable, sustainable, and responsive enterprise. In order to transform the enterprise in this way, the SSP warhead designs that drive the enterprise must change. Designs that emphasize manufacturability, certifiability, and increased safety and security can enable enterprise transformation. It is anticipated that such warheads can be certified and sustained with high confidence without nuclear testing. The SSP provides the tools to provide such designs, and can develop replacement designs and produce them for the stockpile. The Cold War currency of optimizing warhead yield-to-weight can be replaced by SSP designs optimizing margin-to-uncertainty. The immediate challenge facing the nuclear weapons enterprise is to find a credible path that leads to this vision of the future stockpile and enterprise. Reliable warheads within a sustainable enterprise can best be achieved by shifting from a program of legacy-warhead refurbishment to one of warhead replacement. The nuclear weapons stockpile and the nuclear weapons enterprise must transform together to achieve this vision. The current Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) program represents an approach that can begin this process of transformation. If the RRW program succeeds, the designs, manufacturing complex, and certification strategy can evolve together and in so doing come up with a more cost-efficient solution that meets today's and tomorrow's national security requirements.

O'Brien, K H

2005-08-15

16

ORGANISATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS  

E-print Network

ORGANISATION FOR THE PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION, STOCKPILING AND USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION OPCW #12;#12;CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION, STOCKPILING AND USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS

Sussex, University of

17

Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

2009-10-11

18

Quality control of meteorological data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Meteorological Support Project ensures the accuracy and reliability of data acquired by meteorological monitoring stations located at seven U.S. Army chemical weapons depots where storage and weapons destruction (demilitarization) activities are ongoing. The data are delivered in real time to U.S. Army plume dispersion models, which are used to plan for and respond to a potential accidental release of a chemical weapons agent. The project provides maintenance, calibration, and audit services for the instrumentation; collection, automated screening, visual inspection, and analysis of the data; and problem reporting and tracking to carefully control the data quality. The resulting high-quality meteorological data enhance emergency response modeling and public safety.

Liljegren, J.C.; Tschopp, S.; Rogers, K.; Wasmer, F.; Liljegren, L.; Myirski, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

2009-08-01

19

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

20

Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos  

ScienceCinema

"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

2014-08-12

21

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological Warfare Issues  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION BULLETIN News, Background and Comment on Chemical and Biological DUPLICATION Graham S Pearson HSP Advisory Board The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) was opened biological weapons and prohibit their development, produc- tion, stockpiling, acquisition and retention

Sussex, University of

22

Citizen-State Interaction and Technical Controversy: The U.S. Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

E-print Network

This paper explores the development and transformation of a local collective campaign opposing the U.S. Army's ChemicaL Weapons Stockpile Disposal Program into a social movement with national and international dimensions. ...

Futrell, Robert

1997-04-01

23

From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation`s aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian

K. S. Gant; M. V. Adler

1991-01-01

24

From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation's aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian

K. S. Gant; M. V. Adler

1991-01-01

25

hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW)  

E-print Network

hspthe harvard sussex program on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) Resource Guide of the use of chemical weapons Never to develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile or retain chemical weapons Never to assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engag To destroy chemical weapons

Sussex, University of

26

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

SciTech Connect

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The most definitive tests typically destroy the weapons so a given unit is tested only once. Surveillance managers need to decide how many units should be tested, how often they should be tested, what tests should be done, and how the resulting data are used to estimate the stockpile's current and future reliability. These issues are particularly critical from a planning perspective: given what has already been observed and our understanding of the mechanisms of stockpile aging, what is an appropriate and cost-effective surveillance program? Surveillance programs are costly, broad, and deep, especially in the DOE, where the US nuclear weapons surveillance program must 'ensure, through various tests, that the reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained' in the absence of full-system testing (General Accounting Office, 1996). The DOE program consists primarily of three types of tests: nonnuclear flight tests, that involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed; and nonnuclear and nuclear systems laboratory tests, which detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, and design of the nonnuclear and nuclear portions of the weapons. Fully integrated analysis of the suite of nuclear weapons surveillance data is an ongoing area of research (Wilson et al., 2007). This paper introduces a simple model that captures high-level features of stockpile reliability over time and can be used to answer broad policy questions about surveillance programs. Our intention is to provide a framework that generates tractable answers that integrate expert knowledge and high-level summaries of surveillance data to allow decision-making about appropriate trade-offs between the cost of data and the precision of stockpile reliability estimates.

Vanderwiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Alyson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reese, Christopher S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-07-22

27

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

28

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition  

E-print Network

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2011, and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapons without nuclear testing. The program provides this capability and pulsed power facilities. Science- based weapons assessments and certification requires

29

Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

1991-07-01

30

16 CFR 1207.12 - Stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.12 Stockpiling...Stockpiling means manufacturing or importing swimming pool slides between the date of promulgation...importation) means the total number of swimming pool slides manufactured (or...

2010-01-01

31

Recycle and treatment approaches for weapon components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent national and world events indicate that nuclear weapon stockpiles will be reduced. To meet these requirements will necessitate the dismantlement and safe disposal, in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, of a wide variety of components (representing more than 30 years of hardware development). The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Wheelis

1992-01-01

32

Burning weapons-grade plutonium in reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of massive reductions in deployed nuclear warheads, and their subsequent dismantlement, large quantities of surplus weapons- grade plutonium will be stored until its ultimate disposition is achieved in both the US and Russia. Ultimate disposition has the following minimum requirements: (1) preclude return of plutonium to the US and Russian stockpiles, (2) prevent environmental damage by precluding

1993-01-01

33

Multiscale science for science-based stockpile stewardship  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project has been to develop and apply the methods of multi scale science to the problems of fluid and material mixing due to instability and turbulence, and of materials characterization. Our specific focus has been on the SBSS (science-based stockpile stewardship) issue of assessing the performance of a weapons with off-design, aged, or remanufactured components in the absence of full-scale testing. Our products are physics models, based on microphysical principles and parameters, and suitable for implementation in the large scale design and assessment codes used in the nuclear weapons program.

Margolin, L.; Sharp, D.

2000-12-01

34

Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program  

SciTech Connect

The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

1994-09-01

35

From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program  

SciTech Connect

The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation's aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

1991-01-01

36

From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program  

SciTech Connect

The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation`s aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig.

Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

1991-12-01

37

WEAPONS ON CAMPUS REGULATION WEAPONS ON CAMPUS  

E-print Network

WEAPONS ON CAMPUS REGULATION CHAPTER 20 WEAPONS ON CAMPUS 8VAC115-20-10. Definitions, including the Virginia Institute of Marine Science. "Weapon" means any firearm or any other weapon listed115-20-20. Possession of weapons prohibited. Possession or carrying of any weapon by any person

Lewis, Robert Michael

38

Environmental and safety obligations of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Among its many unique and precedent-setting provisions, the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) includes important requirements for States Parties to protect the public safety and the environment in the course of carrying out the treaty. These obligations will apply to the destruction of chemical weapons, of former chemical weapons production facilities, and to other activities under the Convention such as the verification scheme. This morning, I will briefly discuss the Convention`s safety and environmental obligations, concentrating on their effects in this country as the United States chemical weapons stockpile is destroyed.

Tanzman, E.A.

1994-04-07

39

Handling leachate from glass cullet stockpiles.  

PubMed

Mixed glass cullet (crushed recycled glass containers) is stockpiled uncovered before use as roadway construction aggregate or daily cover in landfills. Rainwater that leaches through the stockpiles dissolves and suspends contaminants such as those from food residuals and paper labels. The objective of this study was to determine leachate quantity and quality from cullet stockpiles as a basis for development of Best Management Practices (BMPs). Four 35-tonne field stockpiles were set up for leachate analysis and to determine the effects of mechanical turning treatment on the leachate. Field-collected leachate and laboratory-generated washwater of cullet (water:cullet=3:1 by weight) were both analyzed for basic wastewater parameters, which showed pollutant levels comparable to or higher than those of untreated domestic wastewater or urban stormwater. While organic contamination decreased substantially (e.g., washwater BOD>95% reduction), TKN and total-phosphorus levels in leachate ranged between 11.6-154mgL(-1) and 1.6-12.0mgL(-1), respectively, and remained comparable to levels found in untreated domestic wastewater after four months. Turning enhanced the degradation of the organic constituents inside the stockpiles, which was confirmed by elevated temperatures. Based on this study, leachate from glass cullet stockpiles should not be released to surface water. For leachate from long-term cullet stockpiles, release to groundwater should be only done after treatment to reduce nitrogen levels. PMID:19121574

Tsai, C L; Krogmann, U; Strom, P F

2009-04-01

40

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

41

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

42

System reliability assessment with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The projected service life of weapons in the US nuclear stockpile will exceed the original design life of their critical components. Interim metrics are needed to describe weapon states for use in simulation models of the nuclear weapons complex. The authors present an approach to this problem based upon the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) that allows meaningful assessments to be made in an environment where reliability models are incomplete. AR models are designed to emulate the inference process used by subject matter experts. The emulation is based upon a formal logic structure that relates evidence about components. This evidence is translated using natural language expressions into linguistic variables that describe membership in fuzzy sets. The authors introduce a metric that measures the acceptability of a weapon to nuclear deterrence planners. Implication rule bases are used to draw a series of forward chaining inferences about the acceptability of components, subsystems and individual weapons. They describe each component in the AR model in some detail and illustrate its behavior with a small example. The integration of the acceptability metric into a prototype model to simulate the weapons complex is also described.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Helm, T.M.; Boerigter, S.T.

1998-12-31

43

Acquisition reform: Impact of conversion to performance and commercial specifications\\/standards on the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) was established to plan and execute the safe destruction of the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. Execution of the program requires that multiple public issues be addressed including the public`s concern regarding safety and the environment. Another relevant issue is reform of the acquisition process, specifically the DoD requirement to convert military-unique specifications

1996-01-01

44

Potential Radon222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of

2003-01-01

45

Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other

1993-01-01

46

16 CFR 1205.7 - Prohibited stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.7 Prohibited...Prohibited acts. Stockpiling of power lawn mowers that do not comply with this subpart...period. The base period for power lawn mowers is, at the option of each...

2010-01-01

47

Cost of capital for oil stockpiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of capital for public and private investments in petroleum stockpiles is addressed. The concept underlying the cost of capital and why it is important for investment decisions are explained. Empirical studies of the rates of return available from different classes of risks assets are reviewed. Estimates of the costs of capital for specific policy options being considered by

1982-01-01

48

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01

49

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

SciTech Connect

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-01-01

50

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

51

Small arms and light weapons: the tools used to violate human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

he availability, transfer and misuse of small arms have dramatic adverse consequences on human rights. Hundreds of thousands of men, women and children are killed or injured each year by small arms and light weapons. The estimated number of firearms in circulation in the world is 640 million.1 It is likely that the actual global stockpile of small arms is

Barbara A. FREY

52

30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section...STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be...

2010-07-01

53

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13

54

Availability of Weapon Systems with Air-attack Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

During air-attack operations, i.e., air-to-air and land-air operations in battles, maintaining a high level of availability of weapon systems (aircraft and weapons) becomes important from the point of view of winning the battle. Availability may depend on severity of combat operations, attrition factors (battle damage failures and reliability related failures), and logistic delays in weapons deployment and in the repair

K. Sadananda Upadhya; N. K. Srinivasan

2004-01-01

55

Speculation without Oil Stockpiling as a Signature: A Dynamic Perspective  

E-print Network

According to the standard analysis of commodity prices, stockpiling is a necessary signature of speculation. This paper develops an approach suggesting that speculation may temporarily push crude oil prices above the level ...

Babusiaux, Denis

56

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2011-07-01

57

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2010-07-01

58

Department of Energy weapons complex sizing study  

SciTech Connect

Contained in the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1988-89 (H.R. 1748, Section 3133), is a requirement for the President to conduct a study on the nuclear weapons complex for the purpose of determining the overall size and productive capacity necessary to meet national security objectives. Based on the study, the President is directed to formulate a plan to modernize the nuclear weapons complex including actions necessary to ensure operation of facilities in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner; a schedule for implementation of the plan; and the estimated costs of implementation of the plan. The Act calls for submission of a Report to the appropriate committees of the Congress including recommendations resulting from the Study and a description of the Plan. The report is to be submitted by February 15, 1988. In contrast to the Bill, the Committee report on H.R. 1748, Section 3133, calls for both a Study and a Plan to be submitted one year later than the aforementioned report, and puts much greater stress on recommendations concerning the capability of the weapons complex to be operated in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. Thus, the Report will be submitted by President Reagan and the Study and Plan will be submitted by a new president. This report discusses the implications of this schedule, suggests a plan of action for DOE, and summarizes possible deliverables: Predictable planning baseline; Environment, safety and health; Special nuclear material availability; Non-defense programs work; Content versus pace; Testing; Weapons research, development and testing versus production and stockpile integrity versus new builds; Integration with DOD programming cycle; Duality in research and development; and Program packaging.

Not Available

1987-11-02

59

Air weapon fatalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a

C. M. Milroy; J. C. Clark; N. Carter; G. Rutty; N. Rooney

1998-01-01

60

Weaponeers cultivate academics  

SciTech Connect

The US nuclear weapons program is preparing to build new bridges to US universities on a scale not seen since the start of the Cold War. Goals include shoring up warning academic programs in areas of interest to nuclear weaponeers such as radiochemistry and nuclear engineering.

Weiss, P. [Valley Times, Pleasanton, CA (United States)] [Valley Times, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1996-11-08

61

American Indian Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Pai-ute weapon, described by Mr. Mason in your last number (p. 107), although extremely interesting and quite new to me, appears scarcely sufficiently characteristic of a war weapon to form an exception to the statement of Schoolcraft, that the clubs of the North American Indians as a rule are curved. It would be interesting if it could be ascertained

1875-01-01

62

CRAX/Cassandra Reliability Analysis Software  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years Sandia National Laboratories has been moving toward an increased dependence on model- or physics-based analyses as a means to assess the impact of long-term storage on the nuclear weapons stockpile. These deterministic models have also been used to evaluate replacements for aging systems, often involving commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS). In addition, the models have been used to assess the performance of replacement components manufactured via unique, small-lot production runs. In either case, the limited amount of available test data dictates that the only logical course of action to characterize the reliability of these components is to specifically consider the uncertainties in material properties, operating environment etc. within the physics-based (deterministic) model. This not only provides the ability to statistically characterize the expected performance of the component or system, but also provides direction regarding the benefits of additional testing on specific components within the system. An effort was therefore initiated to evaluate the capabilities of existing probabilistic methods and, if required, to develop new analysis methods to support the inclusion of uncertainty in the classical design tools used by analysts and design engineers at Sandia. The primary result of this effort is the CMX (Cassandra Exoskeleton) reliability analysis software.

Robinson, D.

1999-02-10

63

Versatile attack weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The air defense threat to air strike forces continues to increase, both in quality and quantity. Third World countries now possess Integrated Air Defense (AID) capabilities equaling that of major powers. Radio Frequency (RF) only Anti-Radiation Homing (ARH) weapons are being effectively neutralized by countermeasure improvements in these land based and satellite IAD systems. The cost of piecemeal modification of existing weapon systems or the continuous fielding of threat specific weapon systems is becoming prohibitive. A low funded in-house project was started in 1988 that confronts this defense threat situation with a multi-mode multi-mission weapon system which is affordable to employ in large quantities. The system has capabilities as both a defense suppression weapon and a surgical strike weapon. Employment can be facilitated from a reduced threat environment to air strike forces. Other objectives for this innovative weapon system are the capabilities for high target damage, countermeasure resistance, real time aim point selection, and real time Battle Damage Assessment (BDA). Technical feasibility of the various system and subsystem elements were verified by theoretical analysis. Many were also verified by physical demonstration in prototype hardware.

Quist, D.

1992-11-01

64

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

65

Compatibility and Outgassing Studies for Directed Stockpile Work (FY05)  

SciTech Connect

Compatibility and outgassing studies of non-nuclear materials were carried out in support of the W80 Life Extension Program. These studies included small-scale laboratory experiments as well as participation in Sandia's Materials Aging and Compatibility test (MAC-1). Analysis of the outgassing signature of removable epoxy foam (REF) revealed unusually high levels of volatile organic compounds in the material. REF was replaced with the polyurethane PMDI. Laboratory compatibility tests of high priority materials were performed and revealed incompatibilities between Viton A (LX-07 binder) and syntactic polysulfide as well as Viton A and REF. With the removal of REF from the system, the incompatibility with Viton A is not an issue. In the case of the viton/polysulfide, both of these materials have a history of reliability in the stockpile, and the observed results, while scientifically interesting, appear to be a laboratory anomaly. Participation in the MAC-1 test led to a detailed study of Viton A degradation. At elevated temperatures up to 70 C, the Viton A samples darkened and exhibited increased crosslinking. Laboratory experiments were pursued to correlate the observed changes to exposure to specific compounds that were present in the MAC-1 canister atmospheres. Exposure to siloxanes resulted in changes similar to those seen in the MAC-1 samples. Knowledge gained from the MAC-1 test will be applied to the upcoming MAC-2 test planned for FY06. Finally, the suitability of isotopically labeled nitrogen fill gas ({sup 15}N{sub 2}) was addressed. This gas will behave as standard nitrogen with no compatibility concerns expected.

Alviso, C; Harvey, C; Vance, A

2005-11-23

66

Dose reduction through robotics and automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant  

E-print Network

With the end of the Cold War and subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need (Quirck et al., 1993). To compensate for this excess, an estimated 20...

Thompson, David Andrew

2012-06-07

67

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

68

Stockpiled tall fescue and livestock performance in an early stage midwest silvopasture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using stockpiled forage can substantially reduce livestock feed costs over the winter. However, little is known about utilizing\\u000a stockpiled forage in an early-stage silvopasture system. This study was conducted to determine if silvopasture production\\u000a practices utilizing stockpiled forage influence stocker steer performance. The treatments were: (1) stockpiled forage in a\\u000a non-forested pasture (OPEN) and (2) stockpiled forage in a silvopasture

R. L. KallenbachE; E. B. Venable; M. S. Kerley; N. J. Bailey

2010-01-01

69

cvm magazine Newest Weapon  

E-print Network

21 cvm magazine Newest Weapon in War on Pet Cancer Radiation Oncology Service includes state accelerator, made by Varian, with elements produced by Brainlab, is the same machine radiation oncologists use

Langerhans, Brian

70

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

71

Author's personal copy Evaluating the costs of a sexually selected weapon: big horns at a  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Evaluating the costs of a sexually selected weapon: big horns at a small assumption of sexual selection theory is that ornaments and weapons are costly. Such costs should maintain the reliability of ornaments and weapons as indicators of male quality, and therefore explain why choosy females

Emlen, Douglas J.

72

Ballistic-missile defense weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ballistic missile defense (BMD) weapons are discussed in relation to the elements, functions, interception process and principles of control and guidance of the BMD weapon system. The defense penetration and countermeasures, and the structure and characteristics of antiballistic missiles are also discussed. Other means for intercepting guided missiles, such as stimulated light weapons and particle beam weapons are examined.

Chin, L. S.; Lin, L. H.

1982-02-01

73

Potential Radon-222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of approximately 7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States (75% by weight at Curtis Bay, Maryland, and 25% by weight at Hammond, Indiana). The material is stored in several configurations in over 21,000 drums. The U.S. Congress has declared the entire DNSC thorium nitrate stockpile to be in excess of the needs of the Department of Defense. Part of DNSC's mission is to safely manage the continued storage, future sales, and/or disposition of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Historically, DNSC has sold surplus thorium nitrate to domestic and foreign companies, but there is no demand currently for this material. Analyses conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2001 demonstrated that disposition of the thorium nitrate inventory as a containerized waste, without processing, is the least complex and lowest-cost option for disposition. A characterization study was conducted in 2002 by ORNL, and it was determined that the thorium nitrate stockpile may be disposed of as low-level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was used as a case study for the disposal alternative, and special radiological analyses and waste acceptance requirements were documented. Among the special radiological considerations is the emission of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from buried material. NTS has a performance objective on the emissions of radon: 20 pCi m{sup -2} sec{sup -1} at the surface of the disposal facility. The radon emissions from the buried thorium nitrate stockpile have been modeled. This paper presents background information and summarizes the results of modeling radon emissions and compares those results with the NTS performance objective.

Terry, J.W.

2003-09-04

74

New blast weapons.  

PubMed

Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

Dearden, P

2001-02-01

75

NIF system-design requirements for nuclear-weapons physics experiments  

SciTech Connect

One of the objectives of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is to provide an aboveground experimental capability for conducting weapons-physics experiments, for maintaining nuclear competence. To achieve the high-energy-density regimes needed for a science-based stockpile stewardship program, NIF must produce conditions similar to those in nuclear weapon explosions. This imposes fundamental facility design requirements on NIF. This document summarizes those requirements for opacity, radiation-flow, equation-of-state, non-LTE and x-ray laser, hydrodynamic, and capsule-implosion experiments.

Perry, T.S. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wilde, B.H. [ed.] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-04-01

76

U.S. weapons-grade plutonium disposition in commercial nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) is exploring the potential of fueling two of its nuclear power plants with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, comprising a mixture of uranium and surplus weapons-grade plutonium from U.S. stockpiles, in coordination with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The fissioning of MOX fuel in WPPSS reactors would simultaneously generate electricity for commercial consumption, offsetting

Burn

1994-01-01

77

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-07-01

78

Living with nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

At Harvard President Derek Bok's request, six Harvard professors explain nuclear arms issues to help citizens understand all sides of the national security debates. The goal is to encourage public participation in policy formulation. The book emphasizes that escapism will not improve security; that idealistic plans to eliminate nuclear weapons are a form of escapism. Learning to live with nuclear weapons, they suggest, requires an understanding of the current nuclear predicament and the implications of alternative weapons and policy choices. After reviewing these matters, they emphasize that informed persons will continue to disagree, but that knowledge will improve understanding and appreciation of their differences and improve the quality of policy debates. 54 references, 5 figures, 2 tables. (DCK)

Carnesale, A.; Doty, P.; Hoffmann, S.; Huntington, S.P.; Nye, J.S. Jr.; Sagan, S.D.

1983-01-01

79

Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

2004-05-01

80

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

81

Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others] and others

1995-02-01

82

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

83

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War, nuclear weapons were central to the U.S. strategy of deterring Soviet aggression against the United States and U.S. allies. Towards this end, the United States deployed a wide variety of systems that could carry nuclear warheads. Thes...

A. F. Woolf

2004-01-01

84

Versatile attack weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air defense threat to air strike forces continues to increase, both in quality and quantity. Third World countries now possess Integrated Air Defense (AID) capabilities equaling that of major powers. Radio Frequency (RF) only Anti-Radiation Homing (ARH) weapons are being effectively neutralized by countermeasure improvements in these land based and satellite IAD systems. The cost of piecemeal modification of

D. Quist

1992-01-01

85

Neutrino Counter Nuclear Weapon  

E-print Network

Radiations produced by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole can be used to heat up the primary stage of a thermonuclear warhead and can in principle detonate the device remotely. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation can also be used as a tactical assault weapon to target hideouts that are unreachable by conventional means.

Tang, Alfred

2008-01-01

86

Neutrino Counter Nuclear Weapon  

E-print Network

Radiations produced by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation at the Z0 pole can be used to heat up the primary stage of a thermonuclear warhead and can in principle detonate the device remotely. Neutrino-antineutrino annihilation can also be used as a tactical assault weapon to target hideouts that are unreachable by conventional means.

Alfred Tang

2008-05-26

87

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

88

30 CFR 77.211 - Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general...UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.211 Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations;...

2010-07-01

89

Nuclear power and nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

Vaughen, V.C.A.

1983-01-01

90

Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software  

SciTech Connect

This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

2007-05-02

91

Sweden's abortive nuclear weapons project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of developing a nuclear weapons potential under the cover of a civilian nuclear power program was illustrated by Sweden between the early 1950s and 1968. Indeed, this case shows that the development and use of nuclear power and the nuclear weapons proliferation problem are inextricably linked. Although Sweden's nuclear weapons option was officially closed in 1968, when the

Johansson

1986-01-01

92

Getting rid of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1945 disarmament negotiations have concentrated on the elimination of weapons of mass destruction. Before the end of the century multilateral agreements have been reached for the complete prohibition of biological and chemical weapons, but nuclear weapons will continue to occupy a prominent place in the arsenals of several countries. Recent experience demonstrates that governments around the world are not

1997-01-01

93

Determinants of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons proliferation is a topic of intense interest and concern among both academics and policy makers. Diverse opinions exist about the determinants of proliferation and the policy options to alter proliferation incentives. We evaluate a variety of explanations in two stages of nuclear proliferation, the presence of nuclear weapons production programs and the actual possession of nuclear weapons. We

Dong-Joon Jo; Erik Gartzke

2007-01-01

94

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by

Almond; H. H. Jr

1985-01-01

95

Test Procedure Conducted Energy Weapons  

E-print Network

Test Procedure for Conducted Energy Weapons Version 1.1 2010/07/31 #12;Contents Page 0.0 Disclaimer A TASER M26 13 Appendix B TASER X26 23 #12;1 Test Procedure for Conducted Energy Weapons 0.0 Disclaimer Energy Weapons ("CEWs") in a controlled and repeatable manner across jurisdictions. The consistent

Adler, Andy

96

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

97

Modular weapon control unit  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

1997-01-01

98

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig; Lane, David M.

2009-03-06

99

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

Maaranen, S.A.

1996-07-01

100

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

101

Emergency Preparedness Among People Living Near US Army Chemical Weapons Sites After September 11, 2001  

PubMed Central

We examined trust in the army and perceptions of emergency preparedness among residents living near the Anniston, Ala, and Richmond, Ky, US Army chemical weapons stockpile sites shortly after September 11, 2001. Residents (n = 655) living near the 2 sites who participated in a cross-sectional population were relatively unprepared in the event of a chemical emergency. The events of September 11 gave rise to concerns regarding the security of stored chemical weapons and the sites’ vulnerability to terrorist attacks. Although residents expressed trust in the army to manage chemical weapons safely, only a few expressed a desire to actively participate in site decisions. Compliance with procedures during emergencies could be seriously limited, putting residents in these sites at higher levels of risk of exposure to chemical hazards than nonresidents. PMID:17666684

Williams, Bryan L.; Magsumbol, Melina S.

2007-01-01

102

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

1993-10-01

103

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear

C. Cassel; M. McCally; H. Abraham

1984-01-01

104

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

105

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400, {sup 1} in which the risks of nuclear power accidents were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Recently, these techniques have begun to be adapted to nuclear weapon system applications. This report discusses this application to nuclear weapon systems.

Carlson, D.D.

1993-11-01

106

ENZYMES FOR DEGRADATION OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS AND DEMILITARIZATION OF EXPLOSIVES STOCKPILES, SERDP ANNUAL (INTERIM) REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001. over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed...

107

Fuzzy repairable reliability based on fuzzy gert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military equipment and weapon systems have become more advanced, precise and complex. Requirements of threat and readiness have been raised. Nowadays, the advance of weapon systems and their logistic support places the emphasis on the life cycle in the initial design. However, reliability analysis is the main work of logistic engineering. Its aim is to develop the best design for

Ching-Hsue Cheng

1996-01-01

108

Meteor Beliefs Project: meteoritic weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion of meteoritic iron weapons and weapon-like tools is given, drawing on fictional, mythological, and real-world examples. The evidence suggests that no great significance was attached to such metal purely because of its "heavenly" provenance prior to the early 19th century AD, despite later assumptions, including during the period of increased interest in meteorites, cratering events and the early usage of meteoritic iron, beginning in the early 20th century.

Kristine Larsen, K.; McBeath, A.

2012-01-01

109

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

110

Concealed weapons detection using electromagnetic resonances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concealed weapons pose a significant threat to both law enforcement and security agency personnel. The uncontrolled environments associated with peacekeeping and the move toward relaxation of concealed weapons laws here in the U.S. provide a strong motivation for developing weapons detection technologies which are noninvasive and can function noncooperatively. Existing weapons detection systems are primarily oriented to detecting metal and

Allan R. Hunt; R. Douglas Hogg; William Foreman

1998-01-01

111

Weapon focus, arousal, and eyewitness memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapon focus refers to the decreased ability to give an accurate description of the perpetrator of a crime by an eyewitness because of attention to a weapon present during that crime. In the first experiment, subjects viewed a mock crime scene in which a weapon was either highly visible or mostly hidden from view. Subjects in the highly visible weapon

Thomas H. Kramer; Robert Buckhout; Paul Eugeniot

1990-01-01

112

Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

1993-03-01

113

Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of potential proliferants.

Flores, Kristen Lee

2004-07-01

114

ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of thermonuclear-fusion energy  

E-print Network

This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of "points" highlighting the strategic-political and military-technical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and fo...

Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

2004-01-01

115

Is this the time for a high-energy laser weapon program?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has made large investments weaponizing laser technology for air defense. Despite billions of dollars spent, there has not been a successful transition of a high-energy laser (HEL) weapon from the lab to the field. Is the dream of a low-cost-per-shot, deep-magazine, speed-of-light HEL weapon an impossible dream or a set of technologies that are ready to emerge on the modern battlefield? Because of the rapid revolution taking place in modern warfare that is making conventional defensive weapons very expensive relative to the offensive weapons systems, the pull for less expensive air defense may necessitate a HEL weapon system. Also, due to the recent technological developments in solid-state lasers (SSL), especially fiber lasers, used throughout manufacturing for cutting and welding, a HEL weapon finally may be able to meet all the requirements of ease of use, sustainability, and reliability. Due to changes in warfare and SSL technology advances, the era of HEL weapons isn't over; it may be just starting if DoD takes an evolutionary approach to fielding a HEL weapon. The U.S. Navy, with its large ships and their available electric power, should lead the way.

Kiel, David H.

2013-02-01

116

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

Chang, Yu-Wen; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

1997-02-01

117

Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension  

SciTech Connect

One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

Turbiville, G.H.

1996-06-01

118

Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

2012-12-01

119

Weapon-carrying and youth violence.  

PubMed

Weapons, and firearms in particular, are widely available in the United States and are at the heart of youth violence. Many schools and communities throughout the nation have identified weapon-carrying among youth as a substantial health, educational, and social problem. In fact, one of the national health objectives for the year 2000 is to substantially reduce the incidence of weapon-carrying among adolescents. This paper reviews the prevalence of weapon-carrying by youth, reasons they carry weapons, ways that firearms are obtained, firearms and violence (especially youth violence), and the controlling of weapons in schools. PMID:9360727

Page, R M; Hammermeister, J

1997-01-01

120

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

121

Leaching of nutrients and trace elements from stockpiled turkey litter into soil.  

PubMed

In addition to nutrients, poultry are fed trace elements (e.g., As) for therapeutic purposes. Although a large proportion of the nutrients are assimilated by the birds, nearly all of the As is excreted. Hence, turkey litter constituents can leach into the soil and contaminate shallow ground water when it is stockpiled uncovered on bare soil. This study quantified the leaching of turkey litter constituents from uncovered stockpiles into the underlying soil. Four stockpiles were placed on Orangeburg loamy sand in summer 2004 for 162 d; 14 d after their removal, four stockpiles were created over the same footprints and left over winter for 162 d. Soil samples at depths of 7.6 to 30.5 cm and 30.5 to 61 cm adjacent to and beneath the stockpiles were compared for pH, electrical conductivity, total C, dissolved organic C, N species, P, water-extractable (WE)-P, As, WE-As, Cu, Mn, and Zn. All WE constituents affected the 7.6- to 30.5-cm layer, and some leached deeper; for example, NH(4)(+)-N concentrations were 184 and 62 times higher in the shallow and deep layers, respectively. During winter stockpiling, WE-As concentrations beneath the stockpiles tripled and doubled in the 7.6- to 30.5-cm and 30.5- to 61-cm layers, respectively, with WE-As being primarily as As(V). Heavy dissolved organic C and WE-P leaching likely increased solubilization of soil As, although WE-As concentrations were low due to the Al-rich soil and low-As litter. When used as drinking water, shallow ground water should be monitored on farms with a history of litter stockpiling on bare soil; high litter As; and high soil As, Fe, and Mn concentrations. PMID:19329693

Shah, Sanjay B; Hutchison, Kimberly J; Hesterberg, Dean L; Grabow, Garry L; Huffman, Rodney L; Hardy, David H; Parsons, James T

2009-01-01

122

New push for chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Reagan Administration's desire to produce new chemical weapons has stirred controversy on both sides of the Atlantic. In Europe, seven NATO members recently declared that they will never permit shipments of chemical weapons to US forces on their territory, and six others have placed conditions on such shipments. In the US, the Senate voted narrowly in August to authorize production of binary nerve gas to begin on October 1, and a week later the House voted just as narrowly to delay production. The controversy will not end soon, regardless of any compromise reached by the House and Senate, because it touches on US relations with its allies, the Soviet Union, and international negotiations for a global ban on chemical weapons. Negotiations for such a ban have been conducted by the 40-nation Conference on Disarmament in Geneva since 1968. At the heart of the issue lies the notion of chemical deterrence, the disputed theory that nations need chemical weapons to deter their use by other nations. Ways in which chemical deterrence differs from nuclear deterrence are discussed.

Weickhardt, G.G.; Finberg, J.M.

1986-11-01

123

Reliability guarantees, demonstration, and control for weapon systems proposals  

E-print Network

factor and the failure rate and t = time required for suocessful operation. The use of the last two methods is illustrated in Table I for a typical stabili~wtion system and in Table II for the missile borne portion of a typioal guidance system. /or... factor and the failure rate and t = time required for suocessful operation. The use of the last two methods is illustrated in Table I for a typical stabili~wtion system and in Table II for the missile borne portion of a typioal guidance system. /or...

Lanier, Ross Edwin

2012-06-07

124

MN4602 Crouch 2004 REASSESSING WEAPON SYSTEM  

E-print Network

MN4602 Crouch 2004 REASSESSING WEAPON SYSTEM OPERATIONAL TEST & EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES LTC Thom support assessing a weapon systems true cost and performance characteristics? S1: Can/should cost methodologies adequately address weapon systems total ownership cost (TOC)? S3: Are there critical cost

125

Policy on Firearms, Explosives, and Other Weapons  

E-print Network

Page | 1 Policy on Firearms, Explosives, and Other Weapons Responsible Administrative Unit for the Colorado School of Mines. Unregulated possession of weapons on the university campus creates forth the policy on the use and storage of firearms, explosives and other dangerous or illegal weapons

Szymczak, Andrzej

126

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEWs): A BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEWs): A BIBLIOGRAPHY Compiled by Greta E. Marlatt Dudley Knox Library://www.nps.edu/Library/Research%20Tools/Bibliographies/index.html #12;DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEWs): A BIBLIOGRAPHY Complied INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK #12;4 Table of Contents DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS GENERAL

127

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force  

E-print Network

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

Liolios, T E

1999-01-01

128

Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Expert System (RAMES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A RAM modeling, analysis, and decision support system-the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Expert System (RAMES)-has been developed to assist a weapon system program manager (SPM) in weapon system RAM performance analysis, master planning of RAM performance enhancements, assessment of RAM enhancement payoffs, and evaluation of mission capability, wartime operational rates, fix rates, and stock level support. These capabilities extend to five levels of indenture within the weapon system from shop replaceable units and line replaceable units to assemblies, subsystems, and systems, and to three levels of maintenance (organizational, intermediate, and depot). RAMES uses standard US Air Force maintenance data systems and compensates for certain anomalies in those systems. Wartime or extreme environment conditions can be factored into the models. In addition, RAMES is designed for integration with life cycle cost analysis and weapon system effectiveness evaluation models for a total weapon system performance analysis capability.

Hansen, Willard A.; Edson, Bruce N.; Larter, Patrick C.

129

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

Roberts, G.B.

1996-02-01

130

Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster. PMID:24901104

Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

2014-01-01

131

Threat is in the sex of the beholder: Men find weapons faster than do women.  

PubMed

In visual displays, people locate potentially threatening stimuli, such as snakes, spiders, and weapons, more quickly than similar benign stimuli, such as beetles and gadgets. Such biases are likely adaptive, facilitating fast responses to potential threats. Currently, and historically, men have engaged in more weapons-related activities (fighting and hunting) than women. If biases of visual attention for weapons result from selection pressures related to these activities, then we would predict such biases to be stronger in men than in women. The current study reports the results of two visual search experiments, in which men showed a stronger bias of attention toward guns and knives than did women, whether the weapons were depicted wielded or not. When the weapons were depicted wielded, both sexes searched for them with more caution than when they were not. Neither of these effects extended reliably to syringes, a non-weapon-yet potentially threatening-object. The findings are discussed with respect to the "weapons effect" and social coercion theory. PMID:25353710

Sulikowski, Danielle; Burke, Darren

2014-01-01

132

Dangerous surplus. [Management of weapons plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of existing arms control reduction commitments, approximately 50 metric tons of weapon-grade plutonium is expected to become surplus in the United States--and a similar or larger amount in Russia--over the next 10 years. It is crucial that this surplus weapons plutonium be managed in a way that minimizes the danger that it will be re-used for weapons,

Holdren

2009-01-01

133

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

1996-07-01

134

An empirical analysis of the dynamic programming model of stockpile acquisition strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world's future oil price is affected by many factors. The challenge, therefore, is how to select optimal stockpile acquisition strategies to minimize the cost of maintaining a reserve. This paper provides a new method for analyzing this problem using an uncertain dynamic programming model to analyze stockpile acquisition strategies for strategic petroleum reserve. Using this model, we quantify the

Gang Wu; Ying Fan; Lan-Cui Liu; Yi-Ming Wei

2008-01-01

135

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making high-density concrete, and loading conveyor near TAN-607 construction site. Date: September 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 8710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

136

Antiviral resistance during pandemic influenza: implications for stockpiling and drug use  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The anticipated extent of antiviral use during an influenza pandemic can have adverse consequences for the development of drug resistance and rationing of limited stockpiles. The strategic use of drugs is therefore a major public health concern in planning for effective pandemic responses. METHODS: We employed a mathematical model that includes both sensitive and resistant strains of a virus

Julien Arino; Christopher S Bowman; Seyed M Moghadas

2009-01-01

137

75 FR 54852 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile Disposals...State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal...Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...

2010-09-09

138

76 FR 58463 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Committee Request for Public Comments on the Potential Market Impact of Proposed Stockpile for...State, is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the proposed disposal...Committee is seeking public comments on the potential market impact of the sale of these...

2011-09-21

139

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

140

Air guns: toys or weapons?  

PubMed

Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent. PMID:16936506

Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

2006-09-01

141

Improved $?$-weapons for Higgs hunting  

E-print Network

In this work, we use the results from Higgs searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\tau\\tau$ decay channels at LHC and indirect bounds as BR$(B \\to X_s \\gamma)$ to constrain the parameter space of a generic MSSM Higgs sector. In particular, we include the latest CMS results that look for additional Higgs states with masses up to 1 TeV. We show that the $\\tau \\tau$ channel is the best and most accurate weapon in the hunt for new Higgs states beyond the Standard Model. We obtain that present experimental results rule out additional neutral Higgs bosons in a generic MSSM below 300 GeV for any value of $\\tan \\beta$ and, for instance, values of $\\tan \\beta$ above 30 are only possible for Higgs masses above 600 GeV. ATLAS stored data has the potential to render this bound obsolete in the near future.

G. Barenboim; C. Bosch; M. L. López-Ibáñez; O. Vives

2013-11-28

142

Policy Name: Weapons Policy Originating/Responsible Department: University Safety  

E-print Network

Policy Name: Weapons Policy Originating/Responsible Department: University Safety Approval the following concerns, obstacles, and risks: · Weapons (such as Firearms and Replica Weapons) have to display Weapons as an illustration or statement of their research; · Carleton University owns Weapons

Carleton University

143

The air gun: toy or weapon?  

PubMed

Originally used in warfare, air guns are commonly used in target shooting, as toys, and as "beginner" guns for children. The projectile force of these weapons can rival that of many conventional handguns. Pneumatic weapons pose a serious threat to the pediatric population, and their potential for serious injury must be recognized. PMID:8638171

Friedman, D; Hammond, J; Cardone, J; Sutyak, J

1996-05-01

144

Weapons of mass disruption and terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

New perceptions of weaponry have developed in some counter?terrorism circles, based on the concept of Weapons of Mass Disruption which target bonds and relationships, rather than things, at the systemic level. These capabilities are derived, in many instances, from advanced (cyber) forms of weapons which could eventually be employed by terrorists against the United States.

Robert J. Bunker

2000-01-01

145

US nuclear weapons production: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy's nuclear weapons complex is in trouble. The Reagan administration expects to continue and even increase production of the nuclear materials used in warheads. But the plants that produce these materials-plutonium, tritium, and weapon-grade uranium- are currently either shut down or operating at reduced capacity. Recent studies and declassified documents cite safety and environmental problems that

T. B. Cochran; R. S. Norris; W. M. Arkin

2009-01-01

146

Space weapon-The arms control dilemma  

SciTech Connect

Anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons, rather than ballistic missile defense, is the main focus of this volume, prepared by SIPRI. There are many authors from the West and the East. The volume as a whole argues a consistent case for a bilateral moratorium on the testing of ASAT weapons, to be followed by a complete ban.

Jasani, B.

1985-01-01

147

Use of high power microwave weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The destructive power of high power microwave (HPM) generators allow them to be used as effective weapons by both law enforcement and criminal organizations. Now, with the desperate need for cash by some developing nations, devices such as relativistic magnetrons, capable of producing multi-megawatts and for use in weapons, have been offered for sale to other nations, groups, and individuals.

E. Van Keuren; J. Knighten

1995-01-01

148

International Criminalization of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

E-print Network

. As a biologist seeking the effective elimination of biological and chemical weapons and concerned with the needInternational Criminalization of Chemical and Biological Weapons Matthew Meselson The American to the late 1950s with the formation of the US Committee on the Pugwash Conference on Science and World

Sussex, University of

149

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

150

Physical security technologies for weapons complex reconfiguration facilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was a member of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration. The physical security systems in the new and upgraded facilities being considered for the WCR had to meet DOE orders and other requirements set forth in the WCR Programmatic Design Criteria (PDC), incorporate the latest physical security technologies using proven state-of-the-art systems and meet fundamental security principles. The outcome was to avoid costly retrofits and provide effective and comprehensive protection against current and projected threats with minimal impact on operations, costs and schedule. Physical security requirements for WCR facilities include: (1) reducing S&S life-cycle costs, (2) where feasible automating S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, (3) increasing the amount of delay to outsider adversary attack, (4) compartmentalizing the facility to minimize the number of personnel requiring access to critical areas and (5) having reliable and maintainable systems. To be most effective against threats physical security must be integrated with facility operations, safety and other S&S activities, such as material control and accountability, nuclear measurements and computer and information security. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical security technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

Jaeger, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Surety/Dismantlement Dept.

1994-07-01

151

The weapon potential of a microbe.  

PubMed

The designation of a microbe as a potential biological weapon poses the vexing question of how such a decision is made given the many pathogenic microbes that cause disease. Analysis of the properties of microbes that are currently considered biological weapons against humans revealed no obvious relationship to virulence, except that all are pathogenic for humans. Notably, the weapon potential of a microbe rather than its pathogenic properties or virulence appeared to be the major consideration when categorizing certain agents as biological weapons. In an effort to standardize the assessment of the risk that is posed by microbes as biological warfare agents using the basic principles of microbial communicability (defined here as a parameter of transmission) and virulence, a simple formula is proposed for estimating the weapon potential of a microbe. PMID:15165603

Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-anne

2004-06-01

152

Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.  

PubMed

The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life. PMID:19996725

Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

2009-11-01

153

[Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].  

PubMed

The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons. PMID:23802298

Kozachenko, I N

2013-01-01

154

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

2014-07-01

155

The use of thermal desorption in monitoring for the chemical weapons demilitarization program.  

PubMed

Under international treaty, the United States and Russia are disposing of their aging stockpile of chemical weapons. Incineration and chemical neutralization are options for sites in the United States, although Russia prefers the latter. The storage and disposal of bulk and chemical agents and weapons involve unique hazards of handling extremely toxic materials. There are three major areas of concern--the storage stockpile, the disposal area, and the discovery and destruction of "found" material not considered part of the stockpile. Methods have been developed to detect the presence of chemical agents in the air, and these are used to help assure worker protection and the safety of the local population. Exposure limits for all chemical agents are low, sometimes nanograms per cubic meter for worker control limits and picograms per cubic meter for general population limits. There are three types of monitoring used in the USA: alarm, confirmation, and historical. Alarm monitors are required to give relatively immediate real-time responses to agent leaks. They are simple to operate and rugged, and provide an alarm in near real-time (generally a few minutes). Alarm monitors for the demilitarization program are based on sorbent pre-concentration followed by thermal desorption and simple gas chromatography. Alarms may need to be confirmed by another method, such as sample tubes collocated with the alarm monitor and analyzed in a laboratory by more sophisticated chromatography. Sample tubes are also used for historical perimeter monitoring, with sample periods typically of 12 h. The most common detector is the flame photometric detector, in sulfur or phosphorous mode, although others, such as mass-selective detectors, also have been used. All agents have specific problems with collection, chromatography and detection. Monitoring is not made easier by interferences from pesticide spraying, busy roadways or military firing ranges. Exposure limits drive the requirements for analytical sensitivity. Lowering limits adds additional difficulties to the monitoring efforts. The various monitoring methods and the role they play in ensuring worker and general population safety are discussed. PMID:12400916

Harper, Martin

2002-10-01

156

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

157

Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 ?g/Nm3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

2013-04-01

158

University Management of Weapons Labs? No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reasons why universities should not manage weapons laboratories, such as the Los Alamos and Livermore national laboratories, operated by the University of California. (A viewpoint favoring such university management is presented in SE 538 518.) (JN)

Archer, Dane

1986-01-01

159

Chapter 13 -Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices  

E-print Network

a projectile by the action of black powder, smokeless powder, compressed air, gas, compressed spring or by any to smokeless powder, black powder, primers and percussion caps, dangerous chemicals, weapons, or destructive

160

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

161

Nuclear Weapons Complex Network Management Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Weapons Complex Network (NWCnet) is a computer network being built by the Department of Energy's Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) program. New NWCnet software is nearing completion and is receiving a comprehensive security evaluation pr...

D. J. Bailey

1989-01-01

162

Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems AxOy–ZrO2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of

W. L. Gong; W. Lutze; R. C. Ewing

2000-01-01

163

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

164

Nuclear weapons and power-reactor plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-10 that for making nuclear bombs, 'reactor-grade' plutonium produced by the normal operation of uranium-fuelled power reactors is necessarily much inferior to specially made 'weapons-grade' Pu: so infe- rior in explosive power or predictability that its potential use by amateurs is not a serious problem and that governments would instead make the higher-performance weapons-grade Pu in special production reactors. Although

Amory B. Lovins

1980-01-01

165

The weapon focus effect in child eyewitnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether children would exhibit the weapon focus effect that has been demonstrated with adult eyewitnesses. Participants (4- and 5-year-olds, 7- and 8-year-olds, and adults) watched a videotape in which a target individual portraying one of two schema roles and holding either a weapon or a neutral object steals some money. Witnesses of all ages described the

Kerri L. Pickel; Dana B. Narter; Molly M. Jameson; Thomas T. Lenhardt

2008-01-01

166

China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler.

Fieldhouse, R. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-05-01

167

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

168

[Scientific progress and new biological weapons].  

PubMed

The biological weapons are different from conventional weapons, because living germs hold an extraordinary and predictable potential for multiplication, propagation and genetic variation during their dissemination in a susceptible population. Only natural pathogens (1rst generation weapons) have been used in the past (smallpox virus, plague, anthrax, toxins...). However, new threats are emerging, due to the rapid progress of scientific knowledge and its exponential worldwide diffusion. It is possible to synthesize microorganisms from in silico sequences widely diffused on Internet (poliovirus, influenza...), thus resulting in the accessibility of very dangerous virus confined today in high-security laboratories (virus Ebola...). It is possible also to "improve" pathogens by genetic manipulations, becoming more resistant or virulent (2nd generation weapons). Finally, one can now create de novo new pathogens by molecular breeding (DNA shuffling), potentially highly dangerous for naive populations (3rd generation weapons). Making biological weapons does not require too much technological resources and appears accessible to terrorists, due to low cost and easy use. Although the destructive consequences are difficult to predict, the psychological and social damages should be considerable, because of the highly emotional burden in the population associated to the transgression by man of a taboo of life. PMID:16457765

Berche, Patrick

2006-02-01

169

Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons  

PubMed Central

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-01-01

170

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new

Senglaub

1996-01-01

171

Non-Lethal Weapons: The Potential and the Pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of non-lethal weapons by the police could significantly reduce the number of episodes involving deadly force. This paper discusses reasons why more effective nonlethal weapons have not been produced, noting in particular the priorities of military research. It also examines logistic barriers to more widespread adoption of non-lethal weapons, including the awkwardness of having the correct weapon on hand

Gilbert Geis; Arnold Binder

1990-01-01

172

Color image fusion for concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in passive and active imaging sensor technology offer the potential to detect weapons that are concealed underneath a person's clothing or carried along in bags. Although the concealed weapons can sometimes easily be detected, it can be difficult to perceive their context, due to the non-literal nature of these images. Especially for dynamic crowd surveillance purposes it may be impossible to rapidly asses with certainty which individual in the crowd is the one carrying the observed weapon. Sensor fusion is an enabling technology that may be used to solve this problem. Through fusion the signal of the sensor that depicts the weapon can be displayed in the context provided by a sensor of a different modality. We propose an image fusion scheme in which non-literal imagery can be fused with standard color images such that the result clearly displays the observed weapons in the context of the original color image. The procedure is such that the relevant contrast details from the non-literal image are transferred to the color image without altering the original color distribution of this image. The result is a natural looking color image that fluently combines all details from both input sources. When an observer who performs a dynamic crowd surveillance task, detects a weapon in the scene, he will also be able to quickly determine which person in the crowd is actually carrying the observed weapon (e.g. "the man with the red T-shirt and blue jeans"). The method is illustrated by the fusion of thermal 8-12 ?m imagery with standard RGB color images.

Toet, Alexander

2003-09-01

173

Yeshiva University Weapons Policy The possession of any weapon (as defined in local, state and federal statutes, and includes, without  

E-print Network

Yeshiva University Weapons Policy The possession of any weapon (as defined in local, state in criminal prosecution. In addition, the University reserves the right to confiscate the weapon. This Policy of whether the possessor is licensed to carry that weapon. Exceptions to this Policy may only be made

Yates, Andrew

174

Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the

R. S. Norris; A. S. Burrows; R. W. Fieldhouse

1994-01-01

175

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban  

E-print Network

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban 1 MAY 2003-7, and Forum Moderator OPENING REMARKS Mr Rogelio Pfirter, OPCW Director-General KEYNOTE ADDRESS H.E. Dr Adolf Malcolm Dando, Department of Peace Studies at Bradford University Questions & Answers #12;2OPEN FORUM

Sussex, University of

176

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

177

Hedging against Antiviral Resistance during the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Small Stockpiles of an Alternative Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains. Methods and Findings We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage) of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available); and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug). We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR) and the resistant attack rate (RAR) unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug pA was so low (less than 1 in 10,000) that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20) that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if pA?=?0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model using travel data between 105 large cities to investigate the robustness of these resistance-limiting strategies at a global scale. We found that as long as populations that were the main source of resistant strains employed these strategies (SMC or ECC), then those same strategies were also effective for populations far from the source even when some intermediate populations failed to control resistance. In essence, through the existence of many wild-type epidemics, the interconnectedness of the global network dampened the international spread of resistant strains. Conclusions Our results indicate that the augmentation of existing stockpiles of a single anti-influenza drug with smaller stockpiles of a second drug could be an effective and inexpensive epidemiological hedge against antiviral resistance if either SMC or ECC were used. Choosing between these strategies will require additional empirical studies. Specifically, the choice will depend on the safety of combination therapy and the synergistic effect of one antiviral in suppressing the emergence of resistance to the other antiviral when both are taken in combination. PMID:19440354

Wu, Joseph T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lipsitch, Marc; Cooper, Ben S.; Riley, Steven

2009-01-01

178

Improved avionics reliability through phase change conductive cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been found that, in the case of aircraft type weapons systems, two major limitations to system reliability and availability are related to avionics thermal management and electrical interconnects. The present investigation is concerned with an approach for improving avionics reliability. Attention is given to the impact of thermal management, direct refrigerant cooling (DRC), aspects of modular standardization, the

R. A. Morrison

1982-01-01

179

The Employment of Emergency Medical Units of the National Medical Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Canada has a good National Medical Stockpile valued at 21 million dollars and consisting of packaged emergency medical units ready for use in peacetime or wartime disaster. These units are available for release to provinces for pre-positioning in selected communities provided that certain storage conditions are met and that physicians and other key health workers are prepared to take operational charge of the equipment. The major packaged units are the Emergency Hospital with a capacity of 200 beds, the Advanced Treatment Centre with equipment to give emergency medical care to 500 casualties, the Casualty Collecting Unit with equipment to give first-aid care to 500 casualties, the Emergency Blood Depot, the Emergency Clinic and the Emergency Public Health Laboratory. In addition, training equipment, supplies and units are provided. The value of the stockpile has already been demonstrated in disasters occurring inside and outside Canada. Ten Emergency Hospitals have been shipped to South Vietnam for civilian use. A similar Emergency Hospital was flown to Yellowknife, N.W.T., within 24 hours of the destruction, by fire, of the Stanton Yellowknife Hospital in May 1966. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6015738

Hacon, William S.

1967-01-01

180

Toward Armageddon: The proliferation of unconventional weapons and ballistic missiles in the Middle East. Occasional Paper No. 36  

SciTech Connect

The author concludes that it is probable that unconventional weapons and their associated delivery systems will form a permanent part of future political and strategic calculations in the Middle East. Some possible consequences of this situation can be divided into three classes: intra-regional, inter-regional and extra-regional. There is no doubt that Israel, driven by the need for security,precipitated the proliferation of unconventional weapons and of surface-to-surface missiles in the Middle East. It will now be driven to secure itself from the new threat to its security posed by its regional opponents. The most significant extra-regional consequence of developments in the Middle East may be further complication of great power arms control negotiations. To the re-discovery by the United States and the Soviet Union of their obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty to reduce the level of their nuclear weapons must now be added the desire to reduce, if not entirely eliminate, their chemical weapons stockpiles in advance of a global ban. It is possible that lesser powers will learn from the evidence of the great powers behavior, although that contradicts much of what we know of the psychology of decision making in international politics. What is necessary, though not necessarily sufficient, is that the U.S. and the USSR as the two external powers with potentially the greatest leverage, work together toward the resolution of the underlying causes of conflict in a region marked by more than a generation of competition between them.

Miller, A.J.

1989-12-01

181

US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

1997-08-01

182

Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) establishes environmental policy, sets goals, and provides means for implementing the policy. NEPA contains provisions to ensure that Federal agencies adhere to the letter and spirit of the Act. The key provision requires preparation of an environmental impact statement on ''major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'' (40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' [CFR] {section}1502.3). NEPA ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and actions are taken (40 CFR {section}1500.1[b]). DOE has a policy to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements documents for certain large, multiple-facility sites such as LLNL (10 CFR {section}1021.330). In August 1992, DOE released the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operations of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore'' (LLNL EIS/EIR). A Record of Decision (ROD) (58 ''Federal Register'' [FR] 6268) was issued in January 1993. With the passage of more than 10 years since the publication of the 1992 LLNL EIS/EIR (DOE/EIS-0157) and because of proposed modifications to existing projects and new programs, NNSA determined that it was appropriate to prepare a new LLNL SW/SPEIS.

N /A

2004-02-27

183

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

Miller, G.

1993-03-16

184

LTR analysis for fast Concealed Weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Concealed Weapon and Explosive (CWE) detection by the analysis of the Late Time Response (LTR) of the complex human-explosive object when the illuminating signal is characterised as UWB, has been presented in (1). The efficiency of detection methods critically depend on the feasibility of real-time detection, along with the detection capability of various CWEs. This paper investigates

Averkios Vasalos; Ioannis Vasalos; Heung-Gyoon Ryu; Stavroula-Evita Fotinea

2011-01-01

185

China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests.

Fieldhouse

1991-01-01

186

China's nuclear weapons strategy: tradition within evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the evolution of China's nuclear weapons strategy both in the vertical context of Chinese strategic tradition and the horizontal context of the nuclear strategies of today's major powers. It incorporates hitherto untapped Chinese sources from China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It directs attention to core, rather than peripheral, issues such as nuclear-armor inventory and arms control. China's

Lin

1986-01-01

187

Estimating China's Production of Plutonium for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the history of China's production of plutonium for nuclear weapons, and uses that history and analogies to the production process in the United States and Russia to estimate the amount of plutonium China produced at its two known facilities. That analysis leads to an estimate that China produced 2 to 5 tonnes of plutonium at these facilities

David Wright; Lisbeth Gronlund

2003-01-01

188

University Management of Weapons Labs? Yes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promulgates the view that university management of weapons laboratories provides the best scientific results, and more independent advice than could be possible under government or industrial management. Focuses on Los Alamos and Livermore national laboratories, operated by the University of California. (An opposing viewpoint is presented in SE…

Kahn, James S.

1986-01-01

189

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

190

Multiple weapon system distributed sensor concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed Sensor Concept-DISCO was proposed for multiplication of individual weapon capability through cooperative target engagement. DISCO creates practically distributed in space sensor network that performs sensing by exchanging of pre-track frame and GNC data. Concept of operations for DISCO is based on complete absence of any kind of host vehicle with its weight allocated for unique and costly propulsion, communication and avionics, and, in the same time DISCO preserves the original idea of multiplicity of lightweight effective weapon dispensed from an unitary payload Three major benefits of DISCO are: immediate PBO deployment; absence of any kind of carrier or "central" vehicle or bus; multiplicity of weapon. DISCO sensor network supports target handover without active ranging but by triangulating. Digital video-signal processing that supports DISCO is Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration of Limited data. Each sensor disseminates to and receives frame, calibration and GNC data from other sensors in the network. In this paper efficiency of DISCO weapon system is discussed for acquisition, accurate handover and track correlation.

Rafailov, Michael K.

2009-05-01

191

HWIL testing of smart weapon systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in sophistication of shoulder and gun launched smart weapon systems have increased the demands placed on the flight motion simulator. The high spin rate and accelerations seen during launch drastically exceed the capability of the roll axes on today\\

Michael Swamp; Howard Havlicsek

2005-01-01

192

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-09-01

193

Less lethal weapons: a technologist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide a comprehensive picture of the wide range of technical, operational, and management issues that must be considered when developing, acquiring or using less lethal weapons for law enforcement agencies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The source of the insights provided in this paper come from a careful reading and critique of the less lethal technology literature and the organization

Raymond L. Downs

2007-01-01

194

Impulse noise trauma during army weapon firing.  

PubMed

A 100 infanty personnel firing modern weapons such as the Anti Tank Guided Missile, 106mm Recoiless Gun (RCL), 84mm Rocket Launcher (RL) and 81mm Mortar were studied for the effect of impulse noise on the ear and the evolution of the Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS), Recovery Time (RT) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) was traced. PMID:23119288

Munjal, K R; Singh, V P

1997-04-01

195

Reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to search for and demonstrate approaches and concepts for fast wafer probe tests of mechanisms affecting the reliability of MOS technology and, based on these, develop and optimize test chips and test procedures. Progress is reported on four important wafer-level reliability problems: gate-oxide radiation hardness; hot-electron effects; time-dependence dielectric breakdown; and electromigration.

1985-01-01

196

Shelf-life extension program (SLEP) as a significant contributor to Strategic National Stockpile Maintenance: the Israeli experience with ciprofloxacin.  

PubMed

In the past decade, the 2001 anthrax incident in the U.S. and the 2003 SARS epidemic have highlighted the biological threat to civilian populations. The risk posed by the natural or manmade spread of biological agents among the population dictates a need for better national preparedness. One key component of this preparation is the establishment of a Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) of pharmaceuticals that would provide appropriate medical countermeasures in case of an outbreak. However, to reduce the expense of such a stockpile and to make it worthwhile, there is also a need for a shelf-life extension program (SLEP) through which pharmaceuticals could be extended beyond manufacturer-ascribed shelf life, as long as they meet regulation standards. In this article, we review the Israeli experience with the national ciprofloxacin stockpile procurement and shelf-life extension program. PMID:22578017

Bodas, Moran; Yuval, Landschaft; Zadok, Ron; Hess, Zippora; Haran, Batya; Kaplan, Mimi; Eisenkraft, Arik

2012-06-01

197

Special Issue Potential Biological Weapons Threats  

E-print Network

The list of agents that could pose the greatest public health risk in the event of a bioterrorist attack is short. However, although short, the list includes agents that, if acquired and properly disseminated, could cause a difficult public health challenge in terms of our ability to limit the numbers of casualties and control the damage to our cities and nation. The use of biological weapons has occurred sporadically for centuries, culminating in sophisticated research and testing programs run by several countries. Biological weapons proliferation is a serious problem that is increasing the probability of a serious bioterrorism incident. The accidental release of anthrax from a military testing facility in the former Soviet Union in 1979 and Iraq’s admission in 1995 to having quantities of anthrax, botulinum toxin, and aflatoxin ready to use as weapons have clearly shown that research in the offensive use of biological agents continued, despite the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (1,2). Of the seven countries listed by the U.S. Department of State as sponsoring international terrorism (3), at least five are suspected to have biological warfare programs. There is no evidence at this time, however, that any state has provided biological weapons expertise to a terrorist organization (4). A wide range of groups or individuals might use biological agents as instruments of terror. At the most dangerous end of the spectrum are large organizations that are well-funded and possibly state-supported. They would be expected to cause the greatest harm, because of their access to scientific expertise, biological agents, and most importantly, dissemination technology, including the capability to produce refined dry agent, deliverable in milled particles of the proper size for aerosol dissemination. The

Mark G. Kortepeter; Gerald W. Parker

198

31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

...TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official...

2014-07-01

199

36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.  

...false Weapons and explosives. 702.7 Section 702.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.7 Weapons and explosives. Except where duly authorized by law, and in the...

2014-07-01

200

Exact and Heuristic Methods for the Weapon Target Assignment Problem  

E-print Network

The Weapon Target Assignment (WTA) problem is a fundamental problem arising in defense-related applications of operations research. This problem consists of optimally assigning n weapons to m targets so ...

Ahuja, Ravindra

2004-12-10

201

Pathogens as weapons : the international security implications of biological warfare  

E-print Network

This dissertation assesses the international security implications of biological weapons and the strategic consequences of their proliferation. It examines the impact of biological weapons on four key areas of concern for ...

Koblentz, Gregory D

2004-01-01

202

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

203

Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs  

SciTech Connect

The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

Reynolds, R.R.

1996-01-01

204

J. David Janiec Director for the Weapons and Energetics  

E-print Network

J. David Janiec Director for the Weapons and Energetics Department Naval Air Systems Command Mr. J. David Janiec is the Director for the Weapons and Energetics Department of the Naval Air Systems Command teams for weapons systems, as well as leadership responsibility for over 100 contractors and over 200

205

Aegis Combat and Weapon Systems Overview 24 hours, $1495  

E-print Network

Aegis Combat and Weapon Systems Overview 24 hours, $1495 Launched from the Advanced Surface Missile that led to the initiation of Aegis. Topics Include: · AegisOverviewandHistory · AegisBMD · AegisWeaponSEprocessensuresthatsystemsaredevelopedtomeet affordable, operationally effective, and timely mission objectives. FocusonengineeringtheWeapon

Fork, Richard

206

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive weapons assessment is now easier and less expensive because of a new technology developed by scientists

207

31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section...BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2014-07-01

208

EU STRATEGY AGAINST PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION  

E-print Network

EU STRATEGY AGAINST PROLIFERATION OF WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION At Thessaloniki, the European Council adopted a Declaration on non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Member States made. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery such as ballistic missiles

Sussex, University of

209

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 520.15 Section...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.15 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2014-07-01

210

Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection  

E-print Network

Millimetre -Wave Personnel Scanners for Automated Weapon Detection Beatriz Grafulla-Gonz´alez1 of realistic millimetre-wave images and a sys- tem for detecting metallic weapons automatically. The latter of weapons concealed under clothes. Existing MMW simulation packages, e.g., PMWCM or Speos, are not designed

Harvey, Andy

211

INVASIONS AND INFECTIONS Invading with biological weapons: the importance of  

E-print Network

INVASIONS AND INFECTIONS Invading with biological weapons: the importance of disease with introduced parasites), there is the potential that the disease can act as a `biological weapon' leading weapons ­ their diseases ­ with them, and concurrently, the emergence of disease within the native

White, Andrew

212

UN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs  

E-print Network

UN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs 7 September 2011 Denouncement weaponization of its nuclear program. The United States, Germany, France and Britain joined forces in exposing Tehran's advanced 20-per-cent uranium enrichment, which is considered military weapons grade. Tehran said

213

PHIL 20628/ Ethics of Emerging STV 20228 Weapons Technologies  

E-print Network

PHIL 20628/ Ethics of Emerging STV 20228 Weapons Technologies TTh 11:00-12:15 204 DeBartolo Spring a research outline (narrative plus bibliography, minimum five pages) on a specific weapons technology about 20228 Spring 2011 Page 2 Ethics of Emerging Weapons Technologies Schedule: Date: Jan. 18 Jan. 20 Jan. 25

Howard, Don

214

Improving weapons of mass destruction intelligence Arnold Kanter  

E-print Network

1 Improving weapons of mass destruction intelligence Arnold Kanter The Scowcroft Group 900;2 Combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is one of the most important foreign policy of nuclear capability by sub-national states and the security of WMD weapons, materials, and technology

Deutch, John

215

Towards Optimal Placement of Bio-Weapon Chris Kiekintveld  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Placement of Bio-Weapon Detectors Chris Kiekintveld Department of Computer Science, USA Email: lolerma@episd.edu Abstract--Biological weapons are difficult and expensive to detect. Within a limited budget, we can afford a limited number of bio-weapon detector stations. It is therefore

Ward, Karen

216

36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 504.14 Section...INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2014-07-01

217

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002.4 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except...are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a...

2014-07-01

218

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section 91...MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2014-07-01

219

Manufacturing & Reliability  

E-print Network

(i.e liquid nitrogen) up to 1400C. Monotonic as well as cyclic fatigue testing is possible via remote.) and mechanical characterization (e.g. mechanical testing, reliability testing, fatigue, etc.) expertise

Rollins, Andrew M.

220

Defense programs: A Sandia weapon review bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s mission to explore technology that enhances US nuclear weapons capabilities has been the primary impetus for the development of a class of inertial measurement units not available commercially. The newest member of the family is the Ring Laser Gyro Assembly. The product of a five-year joint effort by Sandia and Honeywell`s Space and Strategic Systems Operation, the RLGA is a small, one-nautical-mile-per-hour-class inertial measurement unit that consumes only 16 watts - attributes that are important to a guidance and control capability for new or existing weapons. These same attributes led the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman Air Force Base to select the RLGA for their newest test instrumentation pod. The RLGA sensor assembly is composed of three Honeywell ring laser gyroscopes and three Sundstrand Data Control accelerometers that are selected from three types according to the user`s acceleration range and accuracy needs.

Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

1993-11-01

221

Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses as Biological Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biological agents have a number of attractive features for use as weapons. Not only do they have the potential to result in\\u000a substantial morbidity and mortality, but also their use would result in fear and public panic. This may be sufficient to produce\\u000a severe social and economic results disproportionate to the actual damage caused by the disease itself in terms

Allison Groseth; Steven Jones; Harvey Artsob; Heinz Feldmann

222

Chemical weapons: documented use and compounds on the horizon.  

PubMed

Man's inhumanity to man is expressed through a plethora of tools of modern warfare and terror. The use of chemical and biological weapons with the goals of assault, demoralisation and lethality has been documented in recent history, both on the battlefield and in urban terror against civilians. A general review of a few of the currently employed chemical weapons and biological toxins, along with a look at potential chemical weapons and tools of counter-terrorism, follows. While these weapons are fearsome elements, the dangers should be viewed in the context of the widespread availability and efficacy of conventional weapons. PMID:15093243

Bismuth, Chantal; Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J; Barriot, Patrick

2004-04-01

223

Willingness of healthcare workers to accept voluntary stockpiled H5N1 vaccine in advance of pandemic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare workers may be at risk during the next influenza pandemic. Priming with stockpiled vaccine may protect staff and reduce nosocomial transmission. Despite campaigns to increase seasonal influenza vaccine coverage, uptake among healthcare workers is generally low; creating uncertainty whether they would participate in pre-pandemic vaccine programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of healthcare workers in a UK hospital

Manish Pareek; Tristan Clark; Helen Dillon; Rajesh Kumar; Iain Stephenson

2009-01-01

224

Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

Reeves, Glen I

2010-12-01

225

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

226

PERSPECTIVE D Passive Antibody Administration (Immediate Immunity) as a Specific Defense against Biological Weapons  

E-print Network

The potential threat of biological warfare with a specific agent is proportional to the susceptibility of the population to that agent. Preventing disease after exposure to a biological agent is partially a function of the immunity of the exposed individual. The only available countermeasure that can provide immediate immunity against a biological agent is passive antibody. Unlike vaccines, which require time to induce protective immunity and depend on the host’s ability to mount an immune response, passive antibody can theoretically confer protection regardless of the immune status of the host. Passive antibody therapy has substantial advantages over antimicrobial agents and other measures for postexposure prophylaxis, including low toxicity and high specific activity. Specific antibodies are active against the major agents of bioterrorism, including anthrax, smallpox, botulinum toxin, tularemia, and plague. This article proposes a biological defense initiative based on developing, producing, and stockpiling specific antibody reagents that can be used to protect the population against biological warfare threats. efense strategies against biological weapons include such measures as enhanced epidemiologic surveillance, vaccination, and use of antimicrobial agents, with the important caveat that the final line of defense is the immune system of

Arturo Casadevall

227

Air gun wounding and current UK laws controlling air weapons.  

PubMed

Air weapons whether rifles or pistols are, potentially, lethal weapons. The UK legislation is complex and yet little known to the public. Hunting with air weapons and the laws controlling those animals that are permitted to be shot with air weapons is even more labyrinthine due to the legal power limitations on the possession of air weapons. Still relatively freely available by mail order or on the Internet, an increasing number of deaths have been reported from the misuse of air weapons or accidental discharges. Ammunition for air weapons has become increasingly sophisticated, effective and therefore increasingly dangerous if misused, though freely available being a mere projectile without a concomitant cartridge containing a propellant and an initiator. PMID:20211450

Bruce-Chwatt, Robert Michael

2010-04-01

228

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to a high speed impact  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to an accident is critical in determining the safety of a weapon. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of the weapon based on the acceleration histories of its safety components. The accident scenario was a 80 feet/second impact of the weapon onto a railroad rail. Large deformations and many contacts were expected due to the severity of the impact condition. The complexity of this analysis required a nonlinear finite element code which could track many contact surfaces simultaneously and simulate material failure using element death. The damage to the structure and its contents was simulated using PRONTO3D (an explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Laboratories). Some of PRONTO3D`s advanced features used in the calculations included the self-contacting algorithms, material death, and rigid body mechanics. Throughout the analysis, a large number of mechanical contacts, both normal and sliding with friction, were detected and tracked by PRONT03D. The analysis predicted large deformations and material failure that took the form of tears in the aluminum shroud and in the housing of the components. The predicted acceleration histories were then used to determine if the components remained functional.

Gruda, J.D.

1994-12-31

229

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department  

E-print Network

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department What is a weapon? A weapon is basically anything somebody could use to hurt or harm somebody else. Weapons could that could be used to hurt somebody else What kind of weapon can't I bring to school? Most weapons

Rose, Michael R.

230

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01

231

DOE battery program for weapon applications  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

Clark, R.P.; Baldwin, A.R.

1992-11-01

232

DOE battery program for weapon applications  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

Clark, R.P.; Baldwin, A.R.

1992-01-01

233

HWIL testing of smart weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in sophistication of shoulder and gun launched smart weapon systems have increased the demands placed on the flight motion simulator. The high spin rate and accelerations seen during launch drastically exceed the capability of the roll axes on today"s motion simulators. Improvements are necessary to the bearing and drive system to support these requirements. This paper documents the requirements, design, and testing of a flight motion simulator produced to meet these challenges. This design can be incorporated into a new flight motion simulator, or as this paper describes, can be retrofitted into an existing flight motion simulator to improve its capability.

Swamp, Michael; Havlicsek, Howard

2005-05-01

234

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A&N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A&N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

235

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

236

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.  

PubMed Central

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

1992-01-01

237

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

238

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

239

Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons.  

PubMed

The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male-male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W; Emlen, Douglas J

2014-10-01

240

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01

241

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

242

Riot Control Agents, Tasers, and Other Less Lethal Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less lethal weapons have become increasingly popular for law enforcement use when confronting dangerous, combative individuals\\u000a in the field. On the use-of-force continuum, these technologies occupy an intermediate level between verbal and physical control\\u000a methods and lethal force such as actual firearms. Less lethal weapons include riot control agents, electric stun devices such\\u000a as tasers, and other blunt projectile weapons.

Christian Sloane; Gary M. Vilke

243

Terahertz imaging of subjects with concealed weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the growing interest in developing terahertz imaging systems for concealed weapons detection, the Submillimeter-Wave Technology Laboratory (STL) at the University of Massachusetts Lowell has produced full-body terahertz imagery using coherent active radar measurement techniques. The proof-of-principle results were readily obtained utilizing the compact radar range resources at STL. Two contrasting techniques were used to collect the imagery. Both methods made use of in-house transceivers, consisting of two ultra-stable far-infrared lasers, terahertz heterodyne detection systems, and terahertz anechoic chambers. The first technique involved full beam subject illumination with precision azimuth and elevation control to produce high resolution images via two axis Fourier transforms. Imagery collected in this manner is presented at 1.56THz and 350GHz. The second method utilized a focused spot, moved across the target subject in a high speed two dimensional raster pattern created by a large two-axis positioning mirror. The existing 1.56THz compact radar range was modified to project a focused illumination spot on the target subject several meters away, and receive the back-reflected intensity. The process was repeated across two dimensions, and the resultant image was assembled and displayed utilizing minimal on-the-fly processing. Imagery at 1.56THz of human subjects with concealed weapons are presented and discussed for this scan type.

Dickinson, Jason C.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Gatesman, Andrew J.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Root, Zachary G.; Giles, Robert H.; Waldman, Jerry; Nixon, William E.

2006-05-01

244

Zirconia ceramics for excess weapons plutonium waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesized a zirconia (ZrO 2)-based single-phase ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste. ZrO 2 has large solubility for other metallic oxides. More than 20 binary systems A xO y-ZrO 2 have been reported in the literature, including PuO 2, rare-earth oxides, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. We show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (additional stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO 2, together with plutonium (simulated by Ce 4+, U 4+ or Th 4+) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single-phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, zirconia is extremely radiation resistant and does not undergo amorphization. Baddeleyite (ZrO 2) is suggested as the natural analogue to study long-term radiation resistance and chemical durability of zirconia-based waste forms.

Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

2000-01-01

245

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

2005-01-01

246

76 FR 45548 - Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for the Continued Operation of the Department of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the NNSS are supporting nuclear stockpile reliability...to conduct underground nuclear weapons tests, if so...by the President; DOE waste management activities...Stewardship and Management, Nuclear Emergency Response...which includes the Waste Management and...

2011-07-29

247

Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies and focuses on the period since 1982. The section on nuclear weapons policies and capabilities discusses China`s land, sea, and airborne deterrent forces, the development of tactical nuclear weapons, and nuclear doctrine and policy. The section on arms control policy describes Beijing`s stance on disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control talks, the United States-Soviet space race, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. The conclusion examines the military and political objectives of nuclear weapons and arms control policies in China`s independent foreign policy.

Sismanidis, R.D.

1985-12-04

248

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

249

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODCs) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-Free cleaning procedures. One leg of that philosophy is the initiation of a several tier testing program which will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with original surface analysis comparisons between ODC and various ODC-Free cleaning technologies. The other leg is the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years with a number of important tribological questions unanswered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life mechanism based on a number of parameters, including a comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODCs based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; Woods, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

250

Network reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1985-01-01

251

Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.  

PubMed

The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and formulation development. This paper provides a review of recent work and collaborations supported by the RNCP. PMID:24648046

Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

2014-02-01

252

Improved $\\tau$-weapons for Higgs hunting  

E-print Network

In this work, we use the results from Higgs searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $\\tau\\tau$ decay channels at LHC and indirect bounds as BR$(B \\to X_s \\gamma)$ to constrain the parameter space of a generic MSSM Higgs sector. In particular, we include the latest CMS results that look for additional Higgs states with masses up to 1 TeV. We show that the $\\tau \\tau$ channel is the best and most accurate weapon in the hunt for new Higgs states beyond the Standard Model. We obtain that present experimental results rule out additional neutral Higgs bosons in a generic MSSM below 300 GeV for any value of $\\tan \\beta$ and, for instance, values of $\\tan \\beta$ above 30 are only possible for Higgs masses above 600 GeV. ATLAS stored data has the potential to render this bound obsolete in the near future.

Barenboim, G; López-Ibáñez, M L; Vives, O

2013-01-01

253

Weapons-grade MOX PWR benchmark calculations  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model of a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly has been proposed as a weapons-grade mixed-oxide (MOX) benchmark. The bundle design consists of a uniform plutonium loading that would be appropriate for a full MOX core. The benchmark consists of several state point calculations at zero burnup, a multicycle depletion to 45 MWd/kg, and several state point calculations at end of life. Calculations of the PWR MOX benchmark have been performed with the KENO Monte Carlo code and the VENTURE diffusion theory code using cross sections created using the SCALE system and with the HELIOS system. The benchmark has been proposed as a light water reactor MOX benchmark with initial results being submitted by the participants by September 1998. The complete specifications for the benchmark are available at http://www.engr.utk.edu/org/ans/benchmark/ansmoxbm.html.

Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-12-31

254

New initiatives a condition of weapons lab's vitality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Directors of the nation's three nuclear weapons research laboratories say shrinking budgets and loss of staff may seriously affect defense capabilities in the coming years. To safeguard this capacity, the steady recent erosion of funding for defense-related activities must be halted, and the federal government must commit to building large new research instruments that are needed to evaluate weapons performance

1994-01-01

255

Assignment algorithm for kinetic energy weapons in boost phase defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents weapon target assignment (WTA) algorithms for space-based interceptors in boost phase defense of ICBMs. The objective is to develop effective (including both solution optimality and computation efficiency) algorithms for the large-scale, many weapon on many target assignment problem. Both static and dynamic WTA problems are considered. We first develop an Iterative LInear NEtwork programming algorithm (ILINE) for

Shi-Chung Chang; Ronald M. James; Jonh J. Shaw

1987-01-01

256

A Short History of Biological Warfare and Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although biological weapons have been used only sporadically throughout human history, and their military effectiveness has never been clearly demonstrated by use in war, the impact of natural disease outbreaks continually reminds us that they are potentially very effective weapons. For that reason there has been a continual fascination with them by nations in the last century, a fascination that

Mark Wheelis; K. Chomiczewski; M. R. Dando; H. Garrigue; G. Granasztoi

257

A strategy for weapons-grade plutonium disposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A political as well as technical analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of glassification (vitrification) for weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) disposition. The political analysis provided the criteria necessary to compare alternative storage forms. The technical areas of weapon useability and environmental safety were then computationally and experimentally explored and a vitrification implementation strategy postulated. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon

Sylvester; K. W. B

1994-01-01

258

Design Methodology for Satisfying Fleet Weapon System Performance Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical approach that can be used in the design of a weapon system fire control so as to ensure performance compliance for a given percentage of a fleet weapon system is described. Specifically, by taking into consideration the statistical nature of...

R. C. Pfeilsticker, W. J. Dziwak

1998-01-01

259

Progress in the development of gyroscopes for use in tactical weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past and current research efforts initiated in the Government and industry for the development of gyroscopes for tactical weapon system applications are discussed in this paper. Spinning mass gyroscopes were used in the early long-range missiles for precision guidance. During the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in advancing the performance capability of solid-state optical gyroscope for use in tactical weapon systems. A number of Army missile systems currently use ring laser gyroscopes as part of their navigation systems. A few years, ago, the Government awarded several contrasts to industry to develop small, reliable, low-cost fiber optic gyroscopes (FOG) that can operate in military environments. Recently, the Government awarded several contracts for the development of rugged, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes to support emerging Army missions, which are moving toward low-cost, small diameter precision guided weapons for use against light targets. The RLG, FOG, and the MEMS-based gyroscopes are traded-off in this paper with respect to cost, size and performance for applications in current and future Army missile systems. The status of ongoing MEMS projects at the US Army Aviation and Missile Command will also be discussed.

Ruffin, Paul B.

2000-06-01

260

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

261

Optimization of weapon-target pairings based on kill probabilities.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a novel optimization algorithm for assigning weapons to targets based on desired kill probabilities. For the given weapons, targets, and desired kill probabilities, our optimization algorithm assigns weapons to targets that satisfy the desired kill probabilities and minimize the overkill. The minimization of overkill assures that any proper subset of the weapons assigned to a target results in a kill probability that is less than the desired kill probability on such a target. Computational results for up to 120 weapons and 120 targets indicate that the performance of this algorithm yields an average improvement in quality of solutions of 26.8% over the greedy algorithms, whereas execution times remained on the order of milliseconds. PMID:24273148

Bogdanowicz, Zbigniew R; Tolano, Antony; Patel, Ketula; Coleman, Norman P

2013-12-01

262

Shield optimization program: Part 3, Effects of x-ray radiation from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage to the silicon electronic components and other sensitive areas (fuel tanks) carried on a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for the blackbody x-ray radiation environment emanating

J. O. Johnson; T. A. Gabriel; J. M. Barnes; J. D. Drischler; M. S. Smith; R. T. Santoro

1989-01-01

263

Nuclear Weapons and the Laws of War: Does Customary International Law Prohibit the use of Nuclear Weapons in all Circumstances?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note argues that customary international law does not prohibit the use of nuclear weapons in self-defense. Part I describes the characteristics of nuclear weapons, including their destructive capabilities and health effects. Part I also discusses the development of the laws of war and the process by which a generally accepted principle or practice ascends to customary international law. Further,

Jill M. Sheldon

1996-01-01

264

77 FR 59891 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Chemical Weapons Convention Declaration and Report Handbook...and Security. ACTION: Notice...Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation...Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...submission of declarations, reports and...Convention (CWC), an international arms control...

2012-10-01

265

Probabilistic Representation of the Threat and Consequences of Weapon Attacks on Commercial  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Representation of the Threat and Consequences of Weapon Attacks on Commercial of the Threat and Consequences of Weapon Attacks on Commercial Aircraft CREATE Report 29 November 2005 John P FLIGHT PATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 WEAPON LETHALITY MODEL

Wang, Hai

266

ITAR Categories Category I -Firearms, Close Assault Weapons and Combat Shotguns  

E-print Network

ITAR Categories Category I - Firearms, Close Assault Weapons and Combat Shotguns Category II - Guns and Associated Equipment Category XVI - Nuclear Weapons, Design and Testing Related Items Category XVII Energy Weapons Category XIX - [Reserved] Category XX - Submersible Vessels, Oceanographic and Associated

267

15 CFR 740.11 - Governments, international organizations, international inspections under the Chemical Weapons...  

...Weapons Convention, and the International Space Station (GOV). 740.11 Section...Weapons Convention, and the International Space Station (GOV). This License Exception...Weapons Convention; and the International Space Station. (a) International...

2014-01-01

268

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-12-01

269

BB and pellet guns--toys or deadly weapons?  

PubMed

BB and pellet weapons are not included in gun control laws and are often sold as children's toys. Injuries caused by these weapons have been considered trivial unless they involve vulnerable surface organs such as the eye. The purpose of this study was to review the management of six cases of pellet or BB gun injuries that required abdominal exploration at the University of South Alabama Medical Center from January 1980 through June 1982. Five of the six patients had significant internal injuries including perforations of the stomach, jejunum, liver, and pancreas. The ballistics of pneumatic weapons are reviewed. The muzzle velocities of many of these weapons necessitate that wounds caused by these weapons be handled with the same principles as for any small-caliber, low-velocity (less than 1,200 feet/second) weapons. Public education programs are urgently needed to educate parents as to the potential danger involved in purchasing these weapons for unsupervised use as toys by children. PMID:6876209

Harris, W; Luterman, A; Curreri, P W

1983-07-01

270

Solid Phase Microextraction for the Analysis of Nuclear Weapons  

SciTech Connect

This document is a compendium of answers to commonly asked questions about solid phase microextraction as it relates to the analysis of nuclear weapons. We have also included a glossary of terms associated with this analytical method as well as pertinent weapons engineering terminology. Microextraction is a new collection technique being developed to nonintrusively sample chemicals from weapon headspace gases for subsequent analysis. The chemicals that are being targeted outgas from the high explosives and other organic materials used in the weapon assembly. This technique is therefore a valuable tool to: (1) remotely detect and assess the aging of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and, in some cases, Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) organic materials; and (2) identify potential compatibility issues (i.e., materials interactions) that should be more carefully monitored during surveillance tear-downs. Microextraction is particularly attractive because of the practical constraints inherent to the weapon surveillance procedure. To remain transparent to other core surveillance activities and fall within nuclear safety guidelines, headspace analysis of the weapons requires a procedure that: (1) maintains ambient temperature conditions; (2) allows practical collection times of less than 20 min; (3) maintains the integrity of the weapon gas volume; (4) provides reproducible and quantitative results; and (5) can identify all possible targets.

Chambers, D M

2001-06-01

271

Defense against filoviruses used as biological weapons.  

PubMed

The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are classified as Category A biowarfare agents by the Centers for Disease Control. Most known human infections with these viruses have been fatal, and no vaccines or effective therapies are currently available. Filoviruses are highly infectious by the airborne route in the laboratory, but investigations of African outbreaks have shown that person-to-person spread requires direct contact with virus-containing material. In consequence, filovirus epidemics can be halted by isolating patients and instituting standard infection control and barrier nursing procedures. The filovirus disease syndrome resembles that caused by other hemorrhagic fever viruses, necessitating studies in a biocontainment laboratory to confirm the diagnosis. Some progress has been made in developing vaccines and antiviral drugs, but efforts are hindered by the limited number of maximum containment laboratories. Terrorists might have great difficulty acquiring a filovirus for use as a weapon, but my attempt to do so because of the agents' ability to inspire fear. Accurate information is the best tool to prevent panic in the event of an attack. PMID:12615303

Bray, Mike

2003-01-01

272

Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.  

PubMed

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

Forge, John

2009-03-01

273

Detection of weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

Bjorkholm, Paul J.

2003-07-01

274

Foams for barriers and nonlethal weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our times demand better solutions to conflict resolution than simply shooting someone. Because of this, police and military interest in non-lethal concepts is high. Already in use are pepper sprays, bean-bag guns, flash-bang grenades, and rubber bullets. At Sandia we got a head start on non- lethal weapon concepts. Protection of nuclear materials required systems that went way beyond the traditional back vault. Dispensable deterrents were used to allow a graduated response to a threat. Sticky foams and stabilized aqueous foams were developed to provide access delay. Foams won out for security systems simply because you could get a large volume from a small container. For polymeric foams the expansion ratio is thirty to fifty to one. In aqueous foams expansion ratios of one thousand to ne are easily obtained. Recent development work on sticky foams has included a changeover to environmentally friendly solvents, foams with very low toxicity, and the development of non-flammable silicone resin based foams. High expansion aqueous foams are useful visual and aural obscurants. Our recent aqueous foam development has concentrated on using very low toxicity foaming agents combined with oleoresin capsicum irritant to provide a safe but highly irritating foam.

Rand, Peter B.

1997-01-01

275

[Viral hemorrhagic fevers as a biological weapon].  

PubMed

Viral haemorrhagic fevers are zoonoses caused by a group of phylogenetically diverse RNA-viruses, capable of causing serious haemorrhagic complications in humans. The West-African Ebola and Marburg viruses pose the most significant threat because of their easy spreading through direct contact with the ill person and high death rate reaching 90%. They are considered among the most dangerous agents possibly used in bioterrorist attack and have been studied as a part of the Soviet biological weapons programme. The first symptoms of the Ebola haemorrhagic fever appear 4 to 16 days after the infection and are rather unspecific (fever, flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, cough, sore throat, conjunctivitis). Within a few days the disease leads to weight loss, haemorrhagic complications and circulatory insufficiency. The infection may be transmitted through direct contact with the patient, his/her body fluids and cadavers; droplet transmission is much less likely. There is no specific prophylaxis nor treatment; still, isolation of patients and use of personal protection means by persons providing care to patients seem efficient in stopping the infection. The knowledge of the biology and epidemiology of Filoviridae is still limited, which makes the results of bioterrorist attack using these pathogens hard to predict. PMID:12728677

Grygorczuk, Sambor; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, Teresa

2003-02-01

276

An Optimal Dynamic Threat Evaluation and Weapon Scheduling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time scheduling problems demand high level of flexibility and robustness under complex dynamic scenarios. Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA), together TEWA is one such complex dynamic system having optimal or near optimal utilization of scarce defensive resources of supreme priority. Several static solutions of TEWA have been proposed. This paper discusses an optimal dynamic multi-air threat evaluation and weapon allocation algorithm using a variant of Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA). WA uses a new dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution. Testing part of this paper shows feasibility of this approach for a range of scenarios.

Naeem, H.; Masood, A.

277

Macroencapsulation Equivalency Guidance for Classified Weapon Components and NNSSWAC Compliance  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has a surplus of classified legacy weapon components generated over the years with no direct path for disposal. The majority of the components have been held for uncertainty of future use or no identified method of sanitization or disposal. As more weapons are retired, there is an increasing need to reduce the amount of components currently in storage or on hold. A process is currently underway to disposition and dispose of the legacy/retired weapons components across the DOE complex.

Poling, J.

2012-05-15

278

Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects  

E-print Network

The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped charged jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.

Gsponer, A

2005-01-01

279

Shield optimization program: Part 4, Effects of neutron and gamma-ray radiations from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms  

SciTech Connect

Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage in silicon based electronic components onboard a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for neutrons and gamma rays emanating from a nuclear weapon detonation in space. Results indicate dose levels to the sensitive components within the SBI weapon platform may exceed design limits if the weapon is detonated within a critical radius. For example, a 1962 Starfish detonation at a distance of 91.4 km from the SBI weapon platform generates a total dose in the central instrument bay of 964 rads(Si). The dose rate, /dot /gamma//, assuming a 40 nsec deposition time, is 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ rads(Si)/sec. All of the calculations were carried out for an unshielded SBI weapon platform to determine the radiation levels for which shielding must be designed to ensure survivability of the electronic systems. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Smith, M.S.; Johsnon, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.; Santoro, R.T.

1989-03-01

280

[Pump-gun as a weapon. Type of injuries, prohibition of weapons].  

PubMed

Pumpguns are shotguns with pump action whose injuries and wound mechanisms have several special features: extremely high kinetic energy of the shot (2500 to 3500 J) frequent cases of "Krönlein shots" (exenteration of the brain) punchmark/imprint immediately adjacent to the entrance wound from the front of the pipe magazine exit wounds from buckshot may be similar to pellet entrance injuries from a distant shotgun discharge the use of various shotgun cartridges (plastic ammunition, slug bullet, various lead pellets) within the same weapon. The change in the Austrian gun law and the banning of the pumpgun in 1995 is also discussed in the article. PMID:10198691

Missliwetz, J; Risser, D; Bauer, G; Reiter, C; Denk, W; Mortinger, H; Stellwag-Carion, C

1999-01-01

281

The reliability of general vague fault-tree analysis on weapon systems fault diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm of vague fault-tree analysis is proposed in this paper to calculate fault interval of system components from\\u000a integrating expert's knowledge and experience in terms of providing the possibility of failure of bottom events. We also modify\\u000a Tanaka et al's definition and extend the new usage on vague fault-tree analysis in terms of finding most important basic system\\u000a component

J.-R. Chang; K.-H. Chang; S.-H. Liao; C.-H. Cheng

2006-01-01

282

Security Considerations For Network-Centric Weapon Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis describes the security risks for network-centric weapon systems as a combination of different aspects of security, each with its own threats and mitigation strategies. Computer and network security deals with cryptography, authentication, and ...

E. A. Nesteruk

2009-01-01

283

Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

2013-05-01

284

32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.  

...property shall carry or possess, either openly or concealed, firearms, any illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars, switchblades), explosives, or items intended to be used to fabricate an explosive or incendiary device, except as...

2014-07-01

285

Paradigms of Development and Employment of Weapon Systems  

E-print Network

Weapons procurement decisions are extremely complex, with an unmanageable quantity of variables to take into account. The human brain, unable to process such a complex problem in a strictly rational way, seeks mechanisms ...

Gillespie, Daniel M.

2008-10-23

286

An assessment of North Korea's nuclear weapons capabilities  

E-print Network

In February of 2013, North Korea conducted its third nuclear weapons test. Speculations are that this test was conducted to further develop a warhead small enough to fit on an intercontinental ballistic missile. This test ...

Sivels, Ciara (Ciara Brooke)

2013-01-01

287

A thousand suns : political motivations for nuclear weapons testing  

E-print Network

Nuclear weapon testing is the final step in the nuclear development process, an announcement of ability and strength. The consequences of a nuclear test are far from easy to bear, however: economic sanctions can be crippling ...

Raas, Whitney

2006-01-01

288

Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D

2008-10-01

289

Novel lightweight uncooled thermal weapon sight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INO in collaboration with DRDC Valcartier has been involved in the design and development of uncooled IR bolometric detector technology since the early 1990s for a broad range of military and commercial applications. From the beginning, the strategy has been to develop small-size bidimensional detector arrays and specialty linear arrays, both equipped with on-chip readout electronics. The detector arrays have been implemented in various instruments for both imaging and non-imaging applications. This paper describes two TWS1 and TWS2 prototypes of single band thermal weapon sights (TWS) making use of a novel catadioptric, i.e. refractive/reflective, optics and INO's miniature IR cameras. These cameras employ a 160x120 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA with a 52 ?m pitch and NETD at 50 mK, and modular electronics consisting of three boards stacked together to fit into a 3-inch cube volume. The ultra lightweight catadioptric objective is inherently athermalized in the -30°C to +40°C range. The TWS1 is also equipped with a miniature RF link allowing bi-directional video transmission. This TWS1 weighs only 900 g and has a total volume of about 75 in3. Its power consumption is 2 W. The experimental performance showed that human detection, recognition and identification could be achieved at 800 m, 200 m, and 120 m, respectively. Construction of an improved TWS2 model is in progress. The objective is the reduction of TWS2 model weight down to 700 g, its volume down to 50 in3, replacing the RF video link with a wireless digital link, and increasing resolution to 320x240 pixels.

Bergeron, Alain; Jerominek, Hubert; Lacoursiere, Jean; Desnoyers, Nichola; Alain, Christine; Laou, Philips

2004-08-01

290

Overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

My subject this morning is a very brief overview of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Much has already been written describing and summarizing the Convention, including several of the Supplementary Papers and the Annex contained within the draft Manual. It is not my goal to restate what many of you already know. Rather, in the short time available, I want to focus on the parts of the Convention that are addressed in the draft Manual, that is, I want to highlight for you those aspects of the CWC that require implementation by individual State Parties. As I do so, I will show you where in the draft Manual each of these matters is addressed so that you can see how our document corresponds to the Convention`s requirements. This will provide a bridge between the plenary sessions and workshops that will consider the implementing measures and the Supplementary Papers in the Manual. In organizing my talk to focus on aspects of the Convention requiring national implementing measures, I necessarily leave out certain of its provisions. Among these intentional omissions are, with all due respect to our hosts, the structure and function of the OPCW, the Annex on Chemicals, and various operational aspects of the Convention such as sanctions, duration and withdrawal, entry into force, reservations, the depository, and the various authentic texts. The provisions that require national implementing measures can be conveniently regarded as creating three different kinds of obligations. First, the Convention obligates the government of each State Party to carry out certain actions, which I will refer to as ``executory obligations.`` Second, each State Party must impose certain requirements on persons over whom it has jurisdiction, which I will call ``enforcement obligations.`` Finally, ``cooperation obligations`` are those requiring State Parties to assist one another and the OPCW to achieve the Convention`s goals.

Tanzman, E.A.

1993-12-02

291

Weapons injuries during and after periods of conflict: retrospective analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relative frequency of weapon injuries during conflict and after periods of conflict in the absence of disarmament. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a database of war wounds. SETTING: Region with a protracted conflict between rival combatant groups and a subsequent transition to the uncontested military authority of a single power. SUBJECTS: 2332 people who received weapons injuries during the conflict or post-conflict periods and were admitted to hospital within 24 hours of injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage change in mean monthly admission rate by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods; annual incidence of injury by weapon type during conflict and post-conflict periods; percentage change in annual incidence by weapon type between conflict and post-conflict periods. RESULTS: Mean monthly admission rates for injuries from fragmentation munitions decreased by 8% between conflict and post-conflict periods and by 23% for injuries from mines and 32% for gunshot injuries. The decline in admissions for all injuries was 23%. After adjustment for population growth over the study period, declines in annual incidence were 22% for fragmentation munitions injuries, 34% for mine injuries, and 40% for gunshot injuries. The decline in incidence for all injuries was 33%. In-hospital mortality from weapons related injuries increased from 2.5% to 6.1% (P < 0.001) between conflict and post-conflict periods. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, continued availability of weapons is associated with increased mortality and a level of injuries from weapons that is only somewhat reduced from that observed during a period of conflict. PMID:9418089

Meddings, D. R.

1997-01-01

292

these guidelines remain an unresolved issue. This means that the Secretariat cannot confirm that chemical weapons  

E-print Network

that chemical weapons declared as OCW by states parties are, in fact, old chemical weapons. Because of this, all the provisions for chemical weapons. This would have major resource implications for the Secre- tariat no 3 Strengthening the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention A further one week meeting, the tenth

Sussex, University of

293

FIREARM/WEAPON PROCEDURE Following is The University of Montana's policy governing firearms and ammunitions. In  

E-print Network

FIREARM/WEAPON PROCEDURE Following is The University of Montana's policy governing firearms area. A. Check-in Procedure 1. Request photo I.D. Weapons may only be accepted by those presenting a VALID photo ID. 2. Have owner read and sign the Weapon Contract . The officer checking in the weapon

Steele, Brian

294

Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming.

Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

1996-12-31

295

European Working Group on Non Lethal Weapons 6th European Symposium Page 1 TOWARDS A TEST STANDARD FOR CONDUCTED ENERGY WEAPONS  

E-print Network

European Working Group on Non Lethal Weapons ­ 6th European Symposium Page 1 TOWARDS A TEST STANDARD FOR CONDUCTED ENERGY WEAPONS Andy Adler, David Dawson Carleton University, Ottawa ON Canada ABSTRACT: Conducted Energy Weapons (CEWs) are increasingly used by police in many countries as a less

Adler, Andy

296

The Navy's high-energy laser weapon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 25 years, in an attempt to develop a speed-of- light hard-kill weapon system, the U.S. Navy has successfully reduced megawatt-class chemical laser and high power beam control technologies to engineering practice. This Navy program was established during the cold war era when defending naval battle group was the primary concern of the U.S. Navy. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, however, an urgent and challenging issue facing the U.S. Navy is the self-defense against cruise missile in a littoral battlefield environment against threats originating from shore and/or scattered low- value platforms. This fundamental shift in the battlefield environment and engagement configuration profoundly affected the basic performance requirements placed on potential shipboard high energy laser weapon systems (HELWS). In a littoral maritime environment, thermal blooming limits atmospheric propagation of an HEL beam, and thus limits the weapon's effectiveness. This paper identifies and discusses the technical issues associated with HELWS requirements in this new environment. It also discuses the collateral capabilities that enhance and complement the performance of other weapon and sensor systems onboard ship. This paper concludes that the HELWS using a free electron laser (FEL) offers a unique weapon option for our warships in facing the new defense challenges of the future.

Cook, Joung R.; Albertine, John R.

1997-05-01

297

New approach for detecting and classifying concealed weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possession of a weapon in the courtroom of our American justice system is a Federal offense. A weapon in the courtroom is a particularly serious problem for judges, plaintiffs, defendants, and bystanders because of the emotional nature and environment of the courtroom. Potential violators include organized criminals and gangsters, individuals with personal vendettas, and otherwise sane and reasonable people who, because of the emotion of the moment, lose sight of right and wrong in our justice system. Most Federal courthouses incorporate some sort of metal detection apparatus used to screen and prevent individuals from carrying personal weapons into courtrooms. These devices are considered conventional in the sense that they employ an active electromagnetic induction technique that is sensitive to the presence of metal. This technique provides no information concerning the massiveness and location of the offending metal object and is prone to false alarms. This work introduces an alternative method for weapons discrimination that is based on passive magnetics technology in concert with simple comparative algorithms such that massiveness and location of suspected weapons may be determined. Since this system provides information not available from conventional metal detectors, false alarms will be greatly reduced, allowing remote monitoring of all entrances into a courtroom from a single vantage point, thereby saving considerable resources used on personnel costs.

Roybal, Lyle G.; Rice, Philip M.; Manhardt, Joseph M.

1997-02-01

298

Chemical Weapons: The legacy of Operation Desert Storm. Final report  

SciTech Connect

United States and allied forces deploying in the 1991 War in the Persian Gulf region faced a formidable Iraqi offensive chemical weapons capability. This threat immediately challenged U.S. policy and resolve as outlined in the 1990 bilateral chemical weapons treaty with the Soviet Union. The necessity to assess retaliatory options, in the event of Iraqi chemical use, was apparent, and are evaluated in this analysis. The proliferation of chemical weapons worldwide, disarmament efforts, and chemical defense readiness are also reviewed in the context of the 1991 Gulf War. The conclusion that retaliation by conventional means alone as the only acceptable alternative supporting the presidential goal of increased stability in the Middle East is reached. Prospects for revitalized post-war multilateral chemical disarmament efforts, and a reduction in chemical warfare proliferation are also assessed. Recommendations for a post-war national chemical defense policy are made.

Henscheid, M.R.

1991-06-21

299

Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.  

PubMed Central

The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

Reutter, S

1999-01-01

300

Chemical and biological weapons: new questions, new answers.  

PubMed Central

The words "chemical and biological weapons" (CBW) send a shiver down most spines these days. With the end of the Cold War, the possibility of a massive nuclear confrontation appears remote, so today many popular doomsday scenarios center on the aggressive use of chemical or biological warfare by rogue nations or terrorist groups. As exaggerated as some of the accounts are, with CBW cast as the latest unseen, unstoppable enemy, the threat posed by these weapons is all too real, and growing. Images p931-a PMID:10585899

Hood, E

1999-01-01

301

Going nuclear: The spread of nuclear weapons 1986-1987  

SciTech Connect

In the third annual report of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace on the spread of nuclear weapons, Spector provides a critical survey of the status of nuclear proliferation throughout the world and examines the nuclear potential of nations in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Drawing on both historical documents and up-to-date reports, the author addresses such specific topics as Israel's nuclear arsenal, nuclear terrorism and its global security implications, arms control and nuclear safeguards, international treaties, weapons buildup, and political radicalism and unrest in nuclear-threshold nations.

Spector, L.S.

1987-01-01

302

Identification of the murder weapon by intricate patterned injury measurements.  

PubMed

Critical studies of an intricate blunt force injury pattern in a brutal homicide led to the identification of the murder weapon. A 50-year-old male was bludgeoned to death in his apartment during a robbery allegedly engineered by his daughter. Careful measurements and overlay construction of the wounds relative to the magazine catch, lanyard ring, magazine chamber, and butt of a 32-caliber Eistegui Hermanos fibar (España) automatic pistol led to the conclusion that either the alleged weapon or one identical to it caused the fatal injuries. PMID:3711845

Zugibe, F T; Costello, J T

1986-04-01

303

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

304

DOE weapons laboratories' contributions to the nation's defense technology base  

SciTech Connect

The question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons laboratories can contribute to a stronger defense technology base is addressed in testimony before the Subcommittee on Defense Industry and Technology of the Senate Armed Services Committee. The importance of the defense technology base is described, the DOE technology base is also described, and some technology base management and institutional issues are discussed. Suggestions are given for promoting a more stable, long-term relationship between the DOE weapons laboratories and the Department of Defense. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Hecker, S.S.

1988-04-01

305

The future of nonnuclear strategic weapons. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

In this brief study, Pan Heuristics (PAN) has (1) evaluated the future importance of nonnuclear strategic weapons (NNSW), (2) considered their impact on forces and operations, and (3) investigated the technical requirements to support NNSW. In drawing conclusions, PAN has emphasized aspects that might be important to Los Alamos National Laboratory over the long run. It presents them here in a format similar to that used in a briefing at the laboratory. This paper reflects independent PAN research as well as conclusions drawn from discussions with other offices and individuals involved in nonnuclear strategic weapons development.

Brody, R.; Digby, J. [Pan Heuristics, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

1989-01-31

306

Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

Smith, Julie M.

2011-01-01

307

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01

308

Can there be reliability without reliability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent article by Pamela Moss asks the title question, 'Can there be validity without reliability?' If by reliability we mean only KR-2O coefficients or inter-rater correlations, the answer is yes. Sometimes these particular indices for evaluating evidence suit the problem we encounter; sometimes they don't. If by reliability we mean credibility of evidence, where credibility is defined as 'appropriate to the intended inference, the answer is no, we cannot have validity without reliability. Because 'validity' encompasses the process of reasoning as well as the data, uncritically accepting observations as strong evidence, when they may be incorrect, misleading, unrepresentative, or fraudulent, may lead coincidentally to correct conclusions but not to valid ones. This paper discusses and illustrates a broader conception of 'reliability' in educational assessment, to ground a deeper understanding of the issues raised by Professor Moss's question.

Mislevy, Robert J.

1994-10-01

309

SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

SECURITY GATE FOR WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3584), CONVENTIONAL MUNITIONS SHOP (BUILDING 3580), AND SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL BUILDING (BUILDING 3582). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

310

Tactical nuclear weapons responsibility: Ordnance versus field artillery. Study project  

SciTech Connect

There has existed and still exists an operational dichotomy in the area of the provision of tactical nuclear weapons to United States Army forces versus those allied forces in a combined theater of operations. Specifically, within the NATO environment and to a very small degree within Combined Forces Korea, there exists a condition where tactical nuclear weapons are supplied to the U.S. firing unit by an organization under the proponency of the Ordnance Corps. On the other hand, within the same theater, the non-U.S. force receives their tactical nuclear weapons by an organization under the proponency of the Field Artillery. This paper will examine the functions performed by this duplication of supply organizations and briefly list the supporting structure. It will then explore any possible purpose for the duplication which would justify this apparent mission replication. Discussion will then follow which will list the pros and cons of staying with the status quo or the possible assignment of the supply function to a single branch proponency. Conclusions are then drawn and recommendations made for improving the current system of tactical nuclear weapon support.

Fields, J.A.

1990-03-08

311

The chromosomal polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura: a microevolutionary weapon  

E-print Network

REVIEW The chromosomal polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura: a microevolutionary weapon to monitor of the rich chromosomal polymorphism of the species, as the same clinal patterns than those observed. The karyotype of D. subobscura consists of five acrocentric chromosomes, named A, J, U, E and O, plus a small

Huey, Raymond B.

312

Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since World War I, in the management and treatment of mass casualties contaminated by chemical agents, and has never treated casualties resulting from the use of nuclear or biological weapons used against our soldiers. Management and diagnosis of casualties will be complicated by their possible exposure to a mixture of chemical warfare and biological warfare agents. Triage is an essential aspect in the management of mass casualties since the number of injured patients will exceed the maximum medical capability to treat each patient on arrival. All levels of medical support must be prepared to protect themselves, their equipment and supplies, and their patients from contamination. In contaminated operations on the integrated battlefield, it will be of utmost importance to incorporate flexibility and innovation to match the medical and tactical situation.

Knudson, G.B. (Department of Pathology, Letterman Army Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA (USA))

1991-06-01

313

Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon  

PubMed Central

Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. PMID:20823965

Jones, Robert; Wills, Brandon; Kang, Christopher

2010-01-01

314

Nonnuclear strategic weapons: implications for arms control policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future acquisition of nonnuclear strategic weapons (NNSW) is likely to have profound consequences for a wide range of U.S. foreign and defense policy issues. This paper examines the implications of NNSW acquisition for arms control policy, focusing on the most salient technological, strategic, and political considerations associated with the introduction of this weaponry. Today's tactical precision guided munitions (PGMs)

A. Platt; A. Vick

1984-01-01

315

Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

1995-06-01

316

A proposal for the classification of biological weapons sensu lato.  

PubMed

Due to historical and legislation reasons, the category of bioweapons is rather poorly defined. Authors often disagree on involving or excluding agents like hormones, psychochemicals, certain plants and animals (such as weeds or pests) or synthetic organisms. Applying a wide definition apparently threatens by eroding the regime of international legislation, while narrow definitions abandon several important issues. Therefore, I propose a category of 'biological weapons sensu lato' (BWsl) that is defined here as any tool of human aggression whose acting principle is based on disciplines of biology including particularly microbiology, epidemiology, medical biology, physiology, psychology, pharmacology and ecology, but excluding those based on inorganic agents. Synthetically produced equivalents (not necessarily exact copies) and mock weapons are also included. This definition does not involve any claim to subject all these weapons to international legislation but serves a purely scholarly purpose. BWsl may be properly categorized on the base of the magnitude of the human population potentially targeted (4 levels: individuals, towns, countries, global) and the biological nature of the weapons' intended effects (4 levels: agricultural-ecological agents, and non-pathogenic, pathogenic, or lethal agents against humans). PMID:24992886

Rozsa, Lajos

2014-12-01

317

Introduction to Pits andWeapons Systems (U)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming,

Kautz

2012-01-01

318

SILENT NO MORE: RAPE AS A WEAPON OF  

E-print Network

SILENT NO MORE: RAPE AS A WEAPON OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE Saturday, September 17­ Tuesday September 20..." when African women and girls continue to suffer the traumas of rape because of their political a culture of impunity. Delete text and insert image here. This interdisciplinary conference will provide

Sibille, Etienne

319

Report of the first annual airborne weapons training technology review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the First Annual Airborne Weapons Training Technology Review. The Review was held at Oak Ridge Associated Universities from March 29 to 31, 1989. It was an exchange of ideas and information among the members of the network supporting the Naval Air Systems Command's (NAVAIR's) PMA205-11, Program Manager for Ordnance Training. This report describes the briefings and demonstrations

C. E. Snyder; G. B. Payne; I. E. Treitler

1990-01-01

320

Kinetic Energy Anti-Satellite Weapon System (KE ASAT WS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The KE ASAT WS which aimed at providing capabilities to negate satellites in space and deny ability to collect critical land and ocean surveillance data is presented. The KE ASAT WS includes two subsystems: the missile subsystem consisting of a kill vehicle, a three-stage booster, and a launcher; and the weapon control subsystem consisting of the mission control element, battery

J. T. Stegmaier; M. J. Grannan

1992-01-01

321

Effects of directed and kinetic energy weapons on spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the various directed energy beams are reviewed, and their damaging effects on typical materials are examined for a wide range of energy pulse intensities and durations. Representative cases are surveyed, and charts are presented to indicate regions in which damage to spacecraft structures, particularly radiators for power plants, would be likely. The effects of kinetic energy weapons,

Fraas

1986-01-01

322

Kids and Assault WeaponsSocial Problem or Social Construction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sunset of the federal assault weapons ban in September 2004 increased the political and scholarly debate about the criminal use of such firearms. Some of the debate is alarmist, suggesting that juveniles have easy access to these firearms and are likely to use them in violent offenses. These perspectives are reinforced on television and in films and contribute to

Rick Ruddell; Scott H. Decker

2005-01-01

323

Nuclear proliferation today: The spread of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Announced as the first of a series of annual reports on the spread of nuclear weapons, this endeavor of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace may stimulate increased public awareness of this critical topic. A good part of the book contains the historical setting of the nuclear issue in the eight most likely proliferators.

Spector, L.S.

1984-01-01

324

Television's Action Arsenal: Weapon Use in Prime Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to fill a basic information gap in the television violence research literature, namely, or lack of information on the instruments of violence. Weapon use was chosen not only because it is a manageable component of the entire television violence issue, but because it is one that is clearly subject to modification by the…

Higgins, Patricia B.; Ray, Marla W.

325

VARIABLE AFFECTING THE ACQUISITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS BY TERRORIST GROUPS  

E-print Network

for nuclear capability: Examples from Al Qaeda and Aum Shinrikyo Today, there are multiple sub-state terrorist confirmed intentions to reach such capability. Groups such as Al-Qaeda have a confirmed specific intent to use nuclear weapons against the United States. Al-Qaeda's "defensive jihad" ideology suggests

Wang, Hai

326

International humanitarian law and nuclear weapons: Irreconcilable differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the International Court of Justice issued an opinion that the use of nuclear weapons is “scarcely reconcilable” with international humanitarian law and concluded that nations have an obligation to pursue good-faith negotiations leading to disarmament. The 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference reaffirmed the need for all states to comply with international humanitarian law, which governs the use

Dean Granoff; Jonathan Granoff

2011-01-01

327

Human cardiovascular effects of a new generation conducted electrical weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is used by law enforcement to control potentially violent people. Much of the research in CEW safety has focused on the TASER X26, which uses a single deployment cartridge. New Generation CEW (NGCEW) technology has been developed that uses a different circuit and multiple cartridges that can be simultaneously deployed. The objective of this study

Jeffrey D. Ho; Donald M. Dawes; Robert F. Reardon; Seth R. Strote; Sebastian N. Kunz; Rebecca S. Nelson; Erik J. Lundin; Benjamin S. Orozco; James R. Miner

2011-01-01

328

Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Sudden death after a conducted electrical weapon exposure has not been well studied. We examine the effects of a single Taser exposure on markers of physiologic stress in healthy humans. Methods: This is a prospective trial investigating the effects of a single Taser exposure. As part of their police training, 32 healthy law enforcement officers received a 5-second

Gary M. Vilke; Christian M. Sloane; Katie D. Bouton; Fred W. Kolkhorst; Saul D. Levine; Tom S. Neuman; Edward M. Castillo; Theodore C. Chan

2007-01-01

329

Operation TEAPOT, 1955 continental nuclear weapons test series. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the activities of an estimated 11,000 DOD personnel, both military and civilian, in Operation TEAPOT, the fifth atmospheric nuclear weapons testing series conducted in Nevada from 18 February to 15 May 1955. Activities engaging DOD personnel included Exercise Desert Rock VI observer programs, troop tests, and technical service programs; AEC scientific and diagnostic experiments to evaluate the

J. Ponton; C. Maag; M. Wilkinson; R. F. Shepanek

1981-01-01

330

Veteran Transfer Students and Concealed Weapons on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case details the challenges faced by various members of a 4-year university regarding Kathryn, a non-traditional transfer student and military veteran who recently returned from a traumatic deployment in Afghanistan. Precisely, this study identifies ambiguities pertaining to (a) threat assessment, (b) university weapons policies, (c) transfer…

Pesetski, Christine; Ofstein, Jennifer; Outlaw, Stacy; Brooks, Racheal

2014-01-01

331

Attitudes toward nuclear weapons: France, Great Britain, and Germany  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to explore current attitudes in the major European countries (France, Great Britain, and Germany) toward the possession of nuclear weapons and the eventual pooling of existing national nuclear capabilities in a European nuclear force, as part of an emerging European security structure under the aegis of the European community (EC).

Zinner, P.E.

1991-10-01

332

Chinese tactical nuclear weapons. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

The United States, Russia and Great Britain have retired all nonstrategic nuclear weapons. Surprisingly, China has not, China seems to value highly tactical nuclear weapons (TNWs). Most studies of China`s nuclear arsenal focus on strategic nuclear weapons. This focus could mislead those trying to understand PRC TNW strategy. The purpose of this thesis is to explain China`s TNW development. China`s nuclear arsenal evolution can be described in three phases. In the first phase, China developed a limited strategic nuclear deterrent. China`s arsenal was driven by threat. Technology supplanted threat as the dominant driver during the next phase. While conducting research to miniaturize strategic warheads, were developed. During the third phase, a reduced threat caused political leaders to restrain the nuclear program. The nuclear program reverted to its primary objective - building strategic weapons, causing TNW production to level off. This study explains the last two phases of TNW development. The research goals are twofold: to compare threat and technology, the primary motivations driving TNW production; and to examine the relationship between doctrine and development, describing how one influences the other. The conclusion offers U.S. foreign policy recommendations.

Owens, G.B.

1996-06-01

333

Hot Cell Examination of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured with weapons-grade MOX and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg. As part of the fuel qualification process, five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This is the first hot cell examination of weapons-grade MOX fuel. The rods have been examined nondestructively with the ADEPT apparatus and are currently being destructively examined. Examinations completed to date include length measurements, visual examination, gamma scanning, profilometry, eddy-current testing, gas measurement and analysis, and optical metallography. Representative results of these examinations are reviewed and found to be consistent with predictions and with prior experience with reactor-grade MOX fuel. The results will be used to support licensing of weapons-grade MOX for batch use in commercial power reactors.

Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; McCoy, Kevin [Areva NP

2010-01-01

334

Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard.{close_quotes} One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed.

Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1998-03-01

335

The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

Not Available

1990-01-01

336

A Low Cost, Reliable, Hermetically Sealed, Chip Slapper Detonator Suitable for Various Aerospace Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

EG&G Optoelectronics has developed a low cost, reliable, hermetically sealed, chip slapper detonator for the US Army's anti-tank weapons platforms. This detonator is also qualified and under consideration for several US Navy and Air Force programs. This detonator would also be suitable for various aerospace applications. The design goal for this detonator was to develop a detonator that was as

Barry T. Neyer; John T. Adams; James C. Edwards; Terry S. Stoutenborough; Robert J. Tomasoski

337

Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

1994-04-01

338

Concealed weapons detection using low-frequency magnetic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Military personnel, law-enforcement officers, and civilians face ever-increasing dangers from persons carrying concealed handguns and other weapons. In direct correspondence with this danger is a need for more sophisticated means of detecting concealed weapons. We have developed a novel concealed-weapons detector based on the principle of low- frequency magnetic imaging. The detector is configured as a portal, and constructs an image of electrically conductive objects transported through it with a potential spatial resolution of approximately 1 inch. Measurements on a breadboard version of the weapons detector have, to date, yielded a resolution of 2 inches. In operation, magnetic dipole radiation, emitted by transmitting antennas in the perimeter of the portal, is scattered from conductive objects and is picked up by receive antennas, also positioned around the portal. With sufficient measurements, each with a different geometry, a solution to the inverse scattering problem can be found. The result is an image of conductive objects in the detector. The detector is sensitive to all metals, semiconductors, and conductive composites. The measured conductivity image formed by the detector is combined with the video signal from a visible CCD camera to form a composite image of persons transiting the detector portal and the conductive objects they are carrying. Accompanying image recognition software could be used to determine the threat level of objects based upon shape, conductivity, and placement on the person of the carrier, and provide cueing, logging, or alarm functions to the operator if suspect weapons are identified. The low- power, low-frequency emissions from the detector are at levels considered safe to humans and medical implants..

Zollars, Byron G.; Sallee, Bradley; Durrett, Michael G.; Cruce, Clay; Hallidy, William

1997-02-01

339

The future of nuclear weapons: Proliferation in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

The signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987, followed by the dramatic changes in East-West relations since 1989 and the more recent Soviet-American strategic arms limitation agreement, have greatly eased public concerns about the danger of nuclear war. The context has also changed for the Nonaligned Movement, which had made nuclear disarmament and condemnation of the concept of nuclear deterrence the primary themes of its multilateral disarmament diplomacy. More important would be the interrelationship among the states possessing nuclear weapons (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan). In any case, there is little risk of a revival of nuclear competition. Both France and China have decided to sign the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); they are the only two nuclear-weapon states that have stayed outside the regime. Meanwhile, Brazil and Argentina have moved further down the nonproliferation road by engaging in confidence-building measures and moving closer to joining the Latin American nuclear-weapons-free zone established under the Treaty of Tlatelolco in 1967. South Africa has also agreed to embrace the NPT as well as a nuclear-weapons-free zone regime for the entire African continent, while North Korea has agreed to sign a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), thereby allowing in principle international inspection of its nuclear facilities. In the third world regions, the dangers of nuclear proliferation and competitive nuclear buildup are most pronounced in South Asia, a region where a variety of complicating problems exist: acute threat perceptions, historical emity, religious and sectarian animosity, ethnic antagonism, territorial disputes, ambitions for regional dominance, and domestic political instability. This chapter will focus primarily on South Asia, although references will also be made to other regions, where relevant. 17 refs.

Kamal, N. [Institute of Strategic Studies, Islamabada (Pakistan)

1992-12-31

340

48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Major weapon systems as commercial items. 212.270 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon...

2013-10-01

341

48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Major weapon systems as commercial items. 212.270 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon...

2012-10-01

342

48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Major weapon systems as commercial items. 212.270 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon...

2010-10-01

343

48 CFR 212.270 - Major weapon systems as commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Major weapon systems as commercial items. 212.270 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.270 Major weapon...

2011-10-01

344

Chapter Nine: Logic Clue Game (continued) Suspects, Weapons, and Scenes of the Crime  

E-print Network

Chapter Nine: Logic ­ Clue Game (continued) Suspects, Weapons, and Scenes of the Crime The following is a list of the possible suspects, murder weapons, and murder scenes. There are six suspects, six

Morton, Dena - Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Xavier University

345

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-12-31

346

Development of glass vitrification at SRL as a waste treatment technique for nuclear weapon components  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the development of vitrification for the waste treatment of nuclear weapons components at the Savannah River Site. Preliminary testing of surrogate nuclear weapon electronic waste shows that glass vitrification is a viable, robust treatment method.

Coleman, J.T.; Bickford, D.F.

1991-01-01

347

IF GEORGE BUSH spent more time and money on mobilising Weapons of Mass  

E-print Network

IF GEORGE BUSH spent more time and money on mobilising Weapons of Mass Salvation (WMS) in addition to combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), we might actually get somewhere in making this planet a safer

348

ORIGINAL PAPER Invading with biological weapons: the role of shared disease  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Invading with biological weapons: the role of shared disease in ecological invasion. This scenario where the parasites acts as a "biological weapon" has been Theor Ecol (2009) 2:53­66 DOI 10.1007/s

Sherratt, Jonathan A.

349

An analysis of technical and policy drivers in Current U.S. nuclear weapons force structure  

E-print Network

U.S. nuclear weapons force structure accounts for the number and types of strategic and nonstrategic weapon systems in various locations that comprise the nuclear arsenal. While exact numbers, locations, and detailed designs ...

Baker, Amanda, S. B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

350

PUBLIC SAFETY WEAPON CONTRACT Following is the Public Safety Weapon Storage Contract. This contract outlines The University of Montana's policy  

E-print Network

in and out by University of Montana Police Officers. Police Officers will give priority to calls for service students may use weapons storage facilities. 6.) Only U of M Police Officers are allowed in these storage. It is the owner's responsibility to notify the Police Officer, at the time of check in, of any change in condition

Steele, Brian

351

20 CFR 30.615 - What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers may...  

...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons employers...Provisions Effect of Tort Suits Against Beryllium Vendors and Atomic Weapons Employers...What type of tort suits filed against beryllium vendors or atomic weapons...

2014-04-01

352

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

353

Power electronics reliability analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2009-12-01

354

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 2: Preliminary evaluation and analysis of CSEPP exercise database  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the quality and usefulness of the information in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) exercise database. It incorporates the results of two separate analytical efforts. The first effort investigated the process of assigning standardized codes to issues identified in CSEPP exercise reports. A small group of issues was coded independently by each of several individuals, and the results of the individual codings were compared. Considerable differences were found among the individuals` codings. The second effort consisted of a statistical multivariate analysis, to investigate whether exercise issues are evenly distributed among exercise tabs, sites, and objectives. It was found that certain tabs, sites, and objectives were disproportionately associated with problem areas in exercises. In some cases, these problem areas have persisted over time, but in other cases they have undergone significant shifts over the time span of the investigation. The study concludes that the database can be a useful resource for analyzing problem areas and setting priorities for CSEPP program resources. However, some further analyses should be performed in order to more fully explore the data and increase confidence in the results.

Wernette, D.; Lerner, K.

1998-06-01

355

Reliability and structural integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

Davidson, J. R.

1976-01-01

356

Reliability in aposematic signaling  

PubMed Central

In light of recent work, we will expand on the role and variability of aposematic signals. The focus of this review will be the concepts of reliability and honesty in aposematic signaling. We claim that reliable signaling can solve the problem of aposematic evolution, and that variability in reliability can shed light on the complexity of aposematic systems. PMID:20539774

2010-01-01

357

Bayesian Approach to Exploiting prior Targeting Information within a Weapon Seeker  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an automatic target recognition (ATR) application in which a targeting sensor is used to guide a seeker-equipped weapon to an area containing high-value relocatable targets. The weapon seeker then needs to engage the high value targets, while minimising collateral damage. A Bayesian approach is proposed that enables the weapon seeker to exploit the targeting information before making

Keith Copsey; Sunil Manchanda; Andrew R. Webb

358

Weapon Design Patterns in Shooter Games Robert Giusti, Kenneth Hullett, Jim Whitehead  

E-print Network

for communicating game design concepts. Categories and Subject Descriptors K.8 [Personal Computing]: Games. General on terminology used to describe real-life weapons. To define and discuss weapons, game and level designers have the fictional aspects of digital games. Knowing how a particular weapon functions in real life does not actually

Whitehead, James

359

Why Do States Build Nuclear Weapons?: Three Models in Search of a Bomb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central purpose of this article is to challenge conventional wisdom about nuclear proliferation. The author argues that the consensus view, focusing on national security considerations as the cause of proliferation, is dangerously inadequate because nuclear weapons programs also serve other, more parochial and less obvious objectives. Nuclear weapons, like other weapons, are more than tools of national security; they

Scott D. Sagan

1996-01-01

360

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon  

E-print Network

Underwater Bomb Trajectory Prediction for Stand-off Assault (Mine/IED) Breaching Weapon Fuse To support the development and evaluation of the Stand-off Assault Breaching Weapon Fuse Improvement (SOABWFI/surf zones to VSW-zone, i.e., the Stand-off Assault Breaching Weapon Fuse Improvement (SOABWFI) program. #12

Chu, Peter C.

361

EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION  

E-print Network

1 EIGHTH SESSION OF THE CONFERENCE OF STATES PARTIES TO THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Declaration Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the Thessaloniki European Council on 20 June 2003 which stresses that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction

Sussex, University of

362

TOWARDS A PORTABLE, MEMORY-EFFICIENT TEST SYSTEM FOR CONDUCTED ENERGY WEAPONS  

E-print Network

TOWARDS A PORTABLE, MEMORY-EFFICIENT TEST SYSTEM FOR CONDUCTED ENERGY WEAPONS Peyman Rahmati1. The proposed PTS has been de- velopped for the most widely used Conducted Energy Weapons (CEW), Taser X26, and memory-efficient. Index Terms-- Conducted Energy Weapons, Calibration, Electrical Stimulation

Adler, Andy

363

Ris-R-1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium in the Arctic  

E-print Network

Risø-R-1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium in the Arctic Environment (Thule, Greenland) Mats Eriksson Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark April 2002 #12;Risø­R­1321(EN) On Weapons Plutonium particles. The most interesting result is that the fission material in the weapons involved in the accident

364

that it has something to hide at these weapons laboratories? How can the  

E-print Network

that it has something to hide at these weapons laboratories? How can the world know without to sidestep the testing protocols developed to adequately implement the Biological Weapons Convention cosigned. The post-attack atmosphere regarding terroristic use of biological weapons is, however, approaching hys

Newman, Stuart A.

365

String-and Permutation-Coded Genetic Algorithms for the Static Weapon-Target Assignment Problem  

E-print Network

String- and Permutation-Coded Genetic Algorithms for the Static Weapon-Target Assignment Problem julstrom@stcloudstate.edu ABSTRACT In the Weapon-Target Assignment Problem, m enemy tar- gets are inbound, each with a value Vj representing the dam- age it may do. The defense has n weapons, and the prob

Julstrom, Bryant A.

366

A SUBSPACE SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE FOR CONCEALED WEAPONS Ahmed S. Ibrahim, K. J Ray Liu *  

E-print Network

A SUBSPACE SIGNAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUE FOR CONCEALED WEAPONS DETECTION Ahmed S. Ibrahim, K. J Ray, kjrliu}@umd.edu ABSTRACT Concealed weapons detection is one ofthe greatest challenges facing national security nowadays. Recently, it has been shown that each weapon can have a uniquefingerprint, which

Liu, K. J. Ray

367

hemical and biological weapons are rightly re-garded with a special sense of horror. Their  

E-print Network

C hemical and biological weapons are rightly re- garded with a special sense of horror spread through a population. Moreover, chemical and biological weapons are especially attractive alter- natives for groups that lack the ability to construct nuclear weapons. The 1995 release of sarin gas

Spirtes, Peter

368

Mission Emphasis and the Determination of Needs for New Weapon Daniel Mark Gillespie  

E-print Network

Mission Emphasis and the Determination of Needs for New Weapon Systems by Daniel Mark Gillespie B and the Determination of Needs for New Weapon Systems by Daniel Mark Gillespie Submitted to the Engineering Systems in Engineering Systems ABSTRACT Efforts to understand the determination of needs of new weapon systems must take

de Weck, Olivier L.

369

36 CFR 1280.18 - May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property?  

...2014-07-01 false May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? 1280.18 Section...1280.18 May I bring guns or other weapons onto NARA property? No, you may not bring firearms or other dangerous or deadly weapons either openly or concealed onto NARA...

2014-07-01

370

THE US REJECTION OF THE PROTOCOL AT THE ELEVENTH HOUR DAMAGES INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AGAINST BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS Graham S Pearson HSP Advisory Board The twenty-fourth session of the Ad Hoc Group and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) opened on 23 July (see Report from Geneva in this Bulletin). There had with others to conclude the negotiations on the Verification Protocol to strengthen the Biological Weapons

Sussex, University of

371

Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons  

E-print Network

Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons of Biological Weapons (BW) proliferation is important, but challenging. We describe and use a joint socio, ARO or the U.S. government. #12;Keywords: Arms races, biological weapons, bioweapons, arms control

372

From the lab to the battlefield? Nanotechnology and fourth generation nuclear weapons  

E-print Network

The paper addresses some major implications of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) engineering and nanotechnology for the improvement of existing types of nuclear weapons, and the development of more robust versions of these weapons, as well as for the development of fourth generations nuclear weapons in which nanotechnology will play an essential role.

Gsponer, A

2002-01-01

373

A human reliability analysis of a nuclear explosives dismantlement  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the methodology used in a human reliability analysis (HRA) conducted during a quantitative hazard assessment of a nuclear weapon disassembly process performed at the Pantex plant. The probability of human errors during the disassembly process is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons processing. The methods include the systematic identification of potential human-initiated or enabled accident sequences using an accident-sequence fault tree, the extensive use of walkthroughs and videotaping of the disassembly process, and hands-on testing of postulated human errors. THERP modeling of rule-based behavior and operational data analysis of errors in skill-based behavior are described. A simple method for evaluating the approximate likelihood of nonmalevolent violations of procedures was developed and used to examine the process. The HRA occurred concurrently with process design, so considerable interaction between the analysts and designers occurred and resulted in design changes that are discussed in the paper.

Bott, T.F.

1995-07-01

374

Ensuring preparedness for potential poliomyelitis outbreaks: Recommendations for the US poliovirus vaccine stockpile from the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).  

PubMed

Paralytic poliomyelitis was once endemic in the United States; however, because of high vaccination levels, the last case of wild disease occurred in 1979. Although worldwide polio eradication may be achieved in the near future, the presence of undervaccinated children in urban areas and among groups who refuse vaccination creates an outbreak risk, should importation of wild virus occur. In 1999, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) be used for routine immunization of the US population and that oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) be reserved for "mass vaccination campaigns to control outbreaks of paralytic polio." Subsequently, the sole US manufacturer of OPV withdrew from the market. In 2003, a joint National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC)/ACIP working group was charged with reporting to its parent bodies concerning the need for a poliovirus vaccine stockpile. Based on that working group's report, the NVAC and ACIP have concluded that stockpiles of both IPV and OPV should be maintained. In the event of an outbreak in which OPV continues not to be available, IPV should be used for control, and a stockpile of 8 million doses seems to be sufficient. Should IPV be manufactured only in combination with other vaccines, appropriate procurement actions should be taken to ensure that uncombined IPV continues to be stockpiled. Under circumstances of diminished population immunity, OPV may offer outbreak control advantages. The NVAC and ACIP recommend that the United States collaborate with international agencies to provide guaranteed and rapid access to at least 8 million doses of trivalent OPV or 8 million doses of each of the 3 types of monovalent OPV. The regulatory and practical obstacles to implementation of this recommendation will require assertive facilitation at high levels of the federal government and careful planning at the state and local levels. PMID:15583093

Alexander, Lorraine; Birkhead, Guthrie; Guerra, Fernando; Helms, Charles; Hinman, Alan; Katz, Samuel; LeBaron, Charles W; Modlin, John; Murphy, Trudy V

2004-12-01

375

Circular scanned millimeter-wave imaging system for weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel wideband millimeter-wave imaging system concept has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the detection of concelaed weapons. Millimeter-waves are ideal for personnel surveillance applications since they will readily penetrate common clothing materials, and have relatively short wavelengths allowing for high resolution imaging. This system concept is based on a circular synthetic aperture imaging technique, in which a circular aperture is scanned and an image is formed of the target located near the scanned aperture. A laboratory imaging system has been developed and results have been obtained using both mannequins and humans with concealed weapons. The technique is readily adaptable to a real- time imaging system using a relatively small number of transceivers and a relatively slow scanner speed.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Collins, H. D.

1995-09-01

376

Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well suited for the detection of concealed weapons or other contraband carried on personnel, since millimeter waves are non-ionizing, readily penetrate common clothing material, and are reflected from the human body and any concealed items. In this paper, wide-bandwidth, three-dimensional, holographic microwave imaging techniques and a full-body, planar, millimeter-wave imaging system are described.

McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.

2003-07-01

377

Development of the Weapon Borne Sensor parachute system  

SciTech Connect

A parachute system was designed and prototypes built to deploy a telemetry package behind an earth-penetrating weapon just before impact. The parachute was designed to slow the 10 lb. telemetry package and wire connecting it to the penetrator to 50 fps before impact occurred. The parachute system was designed to utilize a 1.3-ft-dia cross pilot parachute and a 10.8-ft-dia main parachute. A computer code normally used to model the deployment of suspension lines from a packed parachute system was modified to model the deployment of wire from the weapon forebody. Results of the design calculations are presented. Two flight tests of the WBS were conducted, but initiation of parachute deployment did not occur in either of the tests due to difficulties with other components. Thus, the trajectory calculations could not be verified with data. Draft drawings of the major components of the parachute system are presented.

Behr, V.L.

1998-06-01

378

The Gravest Danger:. Nuclear Weapons and Their Proliferation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear weapons are unique in their terrifying potential. With an energy release a million times larger than that of previous explosives, mass destruction is inevitable. The prospect of the spread of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies into the hands of suicidal terrorists and rogue nations unrestrained by the norms of civilized behavior has led President Bush to remark that "the gravest danger our nation faces lies at the crossroads of radicalism and technology." This talk will address what can and should be done, in the face of new challenges in times punctuated by terrorist threats, to sustain and strengthen the non-proliferation regime, taking into consideration technical realities, and the roles and limits of diplomatic initiatives and of military force.

Drell, S.

2005-02-01

379

Applications of image analysis in precision guided weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An autonomous fire and forget weapon will have to automatically navigate from the launch site to the target area, detect and recognize the target, home on to it, and select an aim-point in the terminal phase. All of these tasks can be performed by using an imaging seeker-head. Image based target acquisition and tracking are well established ideas and implemented in weapons in operation or under development. A brief survey of the involved image processing techniques are provided, including a few examples of state-of-the-art algorithms. The basic ideas of image based navigation and aim-point selection are introduced and accompanied by examples, and the possibility of replacing the gyro stabilization by image processing is discussed. Finally, the problems concerning the implementation of image analysis for real time processing are addressed, and some principles for system design are provided.

Grinaker, S.

1988-11-01

380

A simple method for rapidly processing HEU from weapons returns  

SciTech Connect

A method based on the use of a high temperature fluidized bed for rapidly oxidizing, homogenizing and down-blending Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons is presented. This technology directly addresses many of the most important issues that inhibit progress in international commerce in HEU; viz., transaction verification, materials accountability, transportation and environmental safety. The equipment used to carry out the oxidation and blending is simple, inexpensive and highly portable. Mobile facilities to be used for point-of-sale blending and analysis of the product material are presented along with a phased implementation plan that addresses the conversion of HEU derived from domestic weapons and related waste streams as well as material from possible foreign sources such as South Africa or the former Soviet Union.

McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

1994-01-01

381

Comments on implementation: Contingency options for chemical weapons demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the need to formulate contingency options for complying with U.S./U.S.S.R. chemical weapon (C.W.) demilitarization timetables that start in 1992. These timetables could be overly optimistic in the face of emerging environmental concerns and potential political, technical, and operational difficulties. A similar approach may also be relevant to the situation in Iraq, where several years are likely to pass before a suitable C.W. destruction system is available for use.

Aroesty, J.

1991-01-01

382

Model national implementing legislation for the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

Good day. It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. I am grateful to the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (PTS) for sponsoring it. I also want to express my gratitude to the DePaul University Human Rights Law Institute, the Merck Foundation, and Argonne National Laboratory for supporting my participation here. This workshop is an another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting I speak only for myself, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. Today, I shall discuss model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Such implementing legislation is likely to be required in every State Party--not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme. This new need for national measures to implement multilateral arms control agreements has generated unease due to a perception that implementation may be burdensome and at odds with existing national law. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried but.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law

1995-12-31

383

Millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full body, real-time, millimeter-wave imaging systems have been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of body-worn, concealed weapons and contraband at security checkpoints. These security systems employ methods derived from microwave holography techniques that utilize phase and amplitude information recorded over a two-dimensional aperture to reconstruct a focused image of the target. Millimeter-wave imaging is well

Douglas L. McMakin; David M. Sheen; Thomas E. Hall

2003-01-01

384

Evaluating the Community Health Legacy of WWI Chemical Weapons Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring Valley, Washington, DC, was built over a World War I chemical weapons development site. Testing activities caused wide\\u000a dispersal of arsenic in soil and waste disposal resulted in localized subsurface contamination. Spring Valley presents an\\u000a interesting case study, a contaminated physical environment, but a strongly health-protective social environment. To address\\u000a a possible “healthy community” bias we selected a nearby

Mary Fox; Frank Curriero; Kathryn Kulbicki; Beth Resnick; Thomas Burke

2010-01-01

385

SNL/NM weapon hardware characterization process development report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process used by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico to characterize weapon hardware for disposition. The report describes the following basic steps: (1) the drawing search process and primary hazard identification; (2) the development of Disassembly Procedures (DPs), including demilitarization and sanitization requirements; (3) the generation of a ``disposal tree``; (4) generating RCRA waste disposal information; and (5) documenting the information. Additional data gathered during the characterization process supporting hardware grouping and recycle efforts is also discussed.

Graff, E.W.; Chambers, W.B.

1995-01-01

386

Virtual Weapons for Real Wars: Text Mining for National Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, the threat of large scale wars has been substituted by new threats: terrorism, organized crime,\\u000a trafficking, smuggling, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The new criminals, especially the so called “jihadist”\\u000a terrorists are using the new technologies, as those enhanced by Web2.0, to fight their war. Text mining is the most advanced\\u000a knowledge

Alessandro Zanasi

387

Physiological effects of the TASER ® C2 conducted energy weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, exposure to conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (such as TASER International’s Advanced TASER X26 device)\\u000a resulted in leg muscle contraction, acidosis, increased blood electrolytes, and other biochemical and physiological changes.\\u000a In the current study, experiments were performed to examine the effects of exposures to TASER International’s “C2” CEW, which\\u000a is specifically marketed to civilian rather than law-enforcement users.

James R. Jauchem; Ronald L. Seaman; Curtis M. Klages

2009-01-01

388

Summary of the hypervelocity weapon system field experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hypervelocity Launcher Product Office of the US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command has completed the first field experiment for the Hypervelocity Weapon System (NVWS). The HVWS is being developed as a cost-effective, bottom-tier element of the overall Theater Missile Defense (TMD) architecture. The HVWS is C-130 transportable and will complement the total spectrum of TMD assets. The objective

T. C. Aden; J. L. Brown; V. D. Churchwell; P. Dewer; A. Juhasz; Z. Kaplan; J. Williams

1997-01-01

389

Information Resources and Database Development for Defense Against Biological Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The events in the United States on September 11, 2001, the subsequent dissemination of anthrax through the mail, and the existence\\u000a of biological weapons programs in other nations have raised the public’s concern about the detection and medical management\\u000a of biological agents, whether on the battlefield or in a civilian environment. This concern is heightened by advances in molecular\\u000a biology,

Frank J. Lebeda; Murray Wolinsky; Elliot J. Lefkowitz

390

Bikini and Enewetak marshallese: Their atolls and nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the end of World War H, the U.S. Government decided to commence nuclear weapons testing and consequently searched for a suitable test site. Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands were selected for various reasons discussed in this manuscript. Sixty?six nuclear devices of various types were detonated from 1945 through mid?1958 at these atolls. During this period and

Susan C. Schultz M. A

1994-01-01

391

Chinese strategic weapons and the plutonium option (U)  

SciTech Connect

In their article "Chinese Strategic Weapons and the Plutonium Option," John W. Lewis and Xue Litai of the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University's International Strategic Institute present an unclassified look at plutonium processing in the PRC. The article draws heavily on unclassified PRC sources for its short look at this important subject. Interested readers will find more detailed information in the recently available works referenced in the article.

Lewis, John W.; Xui Litai

1988-04-01

392

Conducted Electrical Weapons: A User’s Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the mid-1970s, law enforcement officials have used conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) with varying degrees of success\\u000a to control violent individuals who resist arrest or help. The TASER® devices have been the most widely used CEWs, ranging\\u000a from the original 7-watt models (minimally effective as pain-compliance tools) to the 26-watt M-26 model (very effective as\\u000a neuromuscular incapacitation tools) and now

Greg Meyer

393

Use of commercial manipulator to handle a nuclear weapon component  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a manipulator workcell to load and unload nuclear weapon pit assemblies from a cart. To develop this workcell, PNL procured a commercially available manipulator, equipped it with force-sensing and vision equipment, and developed manipulator control software. Manipulator workcell development demonstrated that commercially available manipulator systems can successfully perform this task if the appropriate manipulator is selected and the manipulator workcell tooling and software are carefully designed.

Baker, C.P.

1994-08-01

394

An overview of weapons technologies used to improve US healthcare  

SciTech Connect

At Sandia National Laboratories the Biomedical Engineering Program uses existing weapons-related technology in medical applications in order to reduce health care costs, improve diagnoses, and promote efficient health care delivery. This paper describes several projects which use Sandia technologies to solve biomedical problems. Specific technical capabilities that are important to this program include sensor data interpretation, robotics, lasers and optics, microelectronics, image processing and materials.

Fahrenholtz, J.; Kovarik, T.L.

1995-05-01

395

A fast track to zero nuclear weapons: the Middle Powers Initiative and the New Agenda Coalition.  

PubMed

The Middle Powers Initiative is a network of international citizen organizations working to encourage the nuclear weapon states and their influential allies to move rapidly to eliminate nuclear weapons via practical steps including a Nuclear Weapons Convention. The New Agenda Coalition is a group of middle-ranking nations whose governments have also called for the early elimination of nuclear weapons via similar steps. The work of MPI and NAC at the United Nations and elsewhere is described, and their impact on NATO nuclear weapons policy discussed. PMID:10824520

Green, R

2000-01-01

396

Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).  

SciTech Connect

Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or contaminants that can cause movable structures to adhere. These analysis methods also indicated significant variability in the coverage of lubricating molecules from one coating process to another, even for identical processing conditions. The variability was due to residual molecules left in the deposition chamber after incomplete cleaning. The coating process was modified to result in improved uniformity and total coverage. Still, a direct correlation was found between the resulting static friction behavior of MEMS interfaces, and the absolute monolayer coverage. While experimental results indicated that many devices would fail to start after aging, the modeling approach used here predicted that all the devices should start. Adhesion modeling based upon values of adhesion energy from cantilever beams is therefore inadequate. Material deposition that bridged gaps was observed in some devices, and potentially inhibits start-up more than the adhesion model indicates. Advances were made in our ability to model MEMS devices, but additional combined experimental-modeling studies will be needed to advance the work to a point of providing predictive capability. The methodology developed here should prove useful in future assessments of device aging, however. Namely, it consisted of measuring interface properties, determining how they change with time, developing a model of device behavior incorporating interface behavior, and then using the age-aware interface behavior model to predict device function.

Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

2006-06-01

397

Blocking the spread of nuclear weapons. American and European perspectives  

SciTech Connect

This volume is the product of separate but parallel studies undertaken by two panels of experts-one from the United States, the other from Western Europe-on new approaches to preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons to additional countries. Neither panel sounded a doomsday alarm; each concluded that the chances for controlling proliferation lie in good part on building on the sound foundation of existing policies and institutional structures. Among the other conclusions derived from the parallel studies: The threat of nuclear proliferation is a specific, definable danger in a limited number of countries. The incentives that appear to make nuclear weapons an interesting option to some states must be understood, and potential proliferators must be persuaded that their acquisition will not lead to national security. Effective persuasion is more likely to come from non-nuclear weapon nations. Europe and the United States must collaborate in engaging such third-party persuaders in this endeavor. The panels' intensive examination of the six states of greatest near-term concern leads to the conclusion that the uneasy status quo will probably prevail for the next several years, yet these are volatile situations. The nature of the threat demands an extraordinary degree of international collaboration.

Smith, G.C.; Holst, J.J.

1986-01-01

398

Toy weapons and firecrackers: a source of hearing loss.  

PubMed

Although acoustic injury as a result of exposure to noisy toys and firecrackers has been reported previously, most of these studies have been conducted on adults. The purpose of this prospective study, conducted at the time of Deepawali, an Indian festival of fireworks, was two-fold: 1. to measure the acoustic output of representative samples of toy weapons and firecrackers and the intensity level at critical spectator points from the site of emission; and 2. to determine the auditory status of a cross section of the target population, involving 600 participants from various age groups, before and after exposure to firecracker noise at Deepawali. The average sound level at a distance of 3 m was 150 dB, thus exceeding the damage risk criterion for adults (i.e., 130 dB peak level). An average 30 dB persistent sensorineural hearing loss was found in 2.5% of the target population as a result of toy weapon/firecracker noise during Deepawali. The 9- to 15-year-old age group was most affected. A judicious approach in the manufacture and use of toy weapons and firecrackers, in addition to legal restraints, is advocated. PMID:2918804

Gupta, D; Vishwakarma, S K

1989-03-01

399

Primary tasks to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. In 1993, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law could cause some nations to implement the Convention without regard to what others nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Conventional would be carried out. As a result, the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared. The Manual is designed to assist States Parties by increasing understanding of the Convention and identifying its obligations as well as suggesting methods to meet them, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems. It acknowledges areas of ambiguity that States Parties should address, and it analyzes legal initiatives that may be undertaken to strengthen the Convention`s enforcement. This paper draws from the Manual and briefly addresses the two tasks that every CWC State Party must undertake first in order to effectively fulfill its extensive requirements. First, each State Party must establish a National Authority. Second, each State Party must enact implementing measures to ensure that its government as well as its businesses and citizens comply with the treaty. As this paper generally discusses how States Parties from different legal backgrounds can accomplish these two tasks, it cannot address every detail of how each State Party should proceed.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Coll. of Law; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

400

Weapons sponsorship: Promoting strategic defense in the nuclear era  

SciTech Connect

This study develops a framework for an elite network analysis using a concept called weapons sponsorship (i.e., the utilization of resources by individuals and groups for the promotion of new weapons systems) and traces the evolution of U.S. policy regarding Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) from the immediate post-World War II period up to, and including, President Reagan's decision to initiate the Strategic Defense Initiative. The analysis of the major networks of BMD sponsors found relations between these policy-planning groups to be largely uncoordinated, often competitive, and sometimes antagonistic. In addition, several of these networks were highly polarized internally. These discoveries led to a reassessment of the influence and interests of the military-industrial complex, resulting in several findings concerning strategic defense in particular, and the arms race in general. For many BMD proponents, exotic BMD schemes offered a chance to break out of the strategic stalemate in offensive weaponry. Thus, a failed Star Wars would indicate that the political power of weapons sponsors interested in pursuing strategic superiority in the nuclear age is weakening.

Pratt, E.K.

1989-01-01

401

Specificity of model facility agreements under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) contains the most extensive verification inspection provision of any arms control agreement in history. Among its innovations are provisions for facility agreements to govern on-site verification inspections of certain facilities. A facility agreement is an agreement or arrangement between a State Party and the Organization [for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons] relating to a specific facility subject to on-site verification pursuant to Articles 4, 5 and 6. The purpose of this very brief paper is to discuss the value of specificity in the model facility agreements that are to serve as the basis for facility agreements. The views expressed herein are those of the author alone, and not necessarily those of the government of the US of America or any other institution. The model facility agreements are a key document to national implementation of the CWC. As explained in the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, facility agreements are among the important protections the CWC provides for confidential business information at facilities subject to CWC inspections. Thus, the structure of the models for these agreements will fundamentally determine how national implementation of the Convention will affect various private firms. A particularly salient question that must be addressed in drafting model facility agreements under the CWC is how specific they should be.

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-06-27

402

Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores  

E-print Network

The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

Gsponer, A

2003-01-01

403

Using a Dynamic Model to Consider Optimal Antiviral Stockpile Size in the Face of Pandemic Influenza Uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian National Antiviral Stockpile (NAS) contains treatment for 17.5% of Canadians. This assumes no concurrent intervention strategies and no wastage due to non-influenza respiratory infections. A dynamic model can provide a mechanism to consider complex scenarios to support decisions regarding the optimal NAS size under uncertainty. Methods We developed a dynamic model for pandemic influenza in Canada that is structured by age and risk to calculate the demand for antivirals to treat persons with pandemic influenza under a wide-range of scenarios that incorporated transmission dynamics, disease severity, and intervention strategies. The anticipated per capita number of acute respiratory infections due to viruses other than influenza was estimated for the full pandemic period from surveys based on criteria to identify potential respiratory infections. Results Our results demonstrate that up to two thirds of the population could develop respiratory symptoms as a result of infection with a pandemic strain. In the case of perfect antiviral allocation, up to 39.8% of the population could request antiviral treatment. As transmission dynamics, severity and timing of the emergence of a novel influenza strain are unknown, the sensitivity analysis produced considerable variation in potential demand (median: 11%, IQR: 2–21%). If the next pandemic strain emerges in late spring or summer and a vaccine is available before the anticipated fall wave, the median prediction was reduced to 6% and IQR to 0.7–14%. Under the strategy of offering empirical treatment to all patients with influenza like symptoms who present for care, demand could increase to between 65 and 144%. Conclusions The demand for antivirals during a pandemic is uncertain. Unless an accurate, timely and cost-effective test is available to identify influenza cases, demand for antivirals from persons infected with other respiratory viruses will be substantial and have a significant impact on the NAS. PMID:23805303

Greer, Amy L.; Schanzer, Dena

2013-01-01

404

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program: Review and comment on the Phase 1 environmental report for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at the Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) in Pueblo, Colorado. The Phase I report addresses new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). These concerns are addressed by examining site-specific data for the PUDA. On the basis of our review of the Phase I report, we concluded that on-site meteorological data from December 1988 to June 1992 appear to be of insufficient quality to have been used instead of the off-site Pueblo airport data. No additional meteorological data have been collected since June 1992. The Phase I report briefly mentions problems with the air pollution control system. These problems will likely require the systems to be upgraded at the Johnston Atoll site and at each of the other depots in the continental United States. Without such improvements, the probability of accidents during start-up and shutdown would likely increase. The Army has a lessons-learned program to incorporate improvements into the design of future facilities. The Phase I report does not make any design change commitments. These issues need to be fully evaluated and resolved before any final conclusion concerning the adequacy of the decision in the FPEIS can be made with respect to the PUDA. With the exception of this issue, the inclusion of other more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at the PUDA). We recommend that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process.

Olshansky, S.J.; Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1994-03-01

405

Report of the President's Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management  

SciTech Connect

The President established the Blue Ribbon Task Group on Nuclear Weapons Program Management at the direction of the Congress to address fiscal accountability and discipline in the nation's nuclear weapons program. The Task Group was asked to ''examine the procedures used by DOD and DOE in establishing requirements for, and providing resources for, the research, development, testing, production, surveillance, and retirement of nuclear weapons,'' and to recommend any needed change in coordination, budgeting, or management procedures. The Task Group was also asked to address ''whether DOD should assume the responsibility for funding current DOE weapon activities and material production programs.'' The Task Group found that the present relationship between DOD and DOE for managing the nuclear weapons program is sound. Accordingly, the Task Group sought a process for improving the integrated determination of nuclear weapon requirements and the management of nuclear weapon production.

Not Available

1985-07-01

406

Weapons used by juveniles and adult offenders in U.S. parricide cases.  

PubMed

In recent decades, attention has focused on juveniles who kill their parents. Research has indicated that increases in juvenile homicide have been associated with the availability of firearms, but little is known about the weapons juveniles use to kill their parents and whether their weapon usage is different from that of adult children who kill their parents. This article uses Supplementary Homicide Report data for the 24-year period 1976 to 1999 to investigate weapons selected by parricide offenders to kill biological mothers and fathers. Significant differences were found in the weapons used in matricide and patricide incidents and in the weapons selected by juvenile and adult offenders. A comparison with an earlier study by Heide revealed that weapon usage in parricide events is stable. Differences found in both studies between weapons used to kill parents and offender age are consistent with a physical strength hypothesis proposed by Heide in 1993. PMID:17925289

Heide, Kathleen M; Petee, Thomas A

2007-11-01

407

China's ASAT Weapon: Capabilities and the Potential Threat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much has been said about China's 11 January 2007 test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon but few analysts have based their comments on a scientific determination of the weapons capabilities. This paper presents such an analysis derived from the observed pattern of debris, as observed by NORAD and posted on-line by NASA. It is clear that this was a direct hit-to-kill weapon (as opposed to a fragmentation-type explosive warhead), it massed about 600 kg, and was capable of accelerations of at least 6 Gs. It can be inferred with a reasonable degree of confidence that it used an on-board optical tracker, most likely operating in visible light. Furthermore, since the closing speed between the target satellite and the interceptor was 8 km/s during the test, this weapon could be used to attack satellites at higher altitude orbits, such as NAVSTAR/GPS and geostationary satellites that include communications and early warning satellites. This test produced ten times as many pieces of debris as an earlier US hit-to-kill ASAT test which, because of their higher altitudes, will last thousands of years---hundreds of times longer than the debris in the US test. China's test increased the chances of some low earth orbit satellite being hit by a piece of debris by 50%, from about 12% to 18% each year. Given this weapon's capabilities, it is possible to ``war game'' what an all-out Chinese ASAT attack would look like and what responses the US could take. (It is important to emphasize that this is a capabilities-based exercise and not based on Chinese intentions.) If China did launch such an attack, it could eliminate a large fraction of US military satellites in low earth orbit including photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence satellites, but not all of them, in the first 24 hours; the requirement that the target satellites be illuminated by the sun limits the attack. Furthermore, the US could maneuver its LEO satellites in the first hours of the attack and greatly complicate the task of their destruction. If coupled by attacks on China's largest radars, the US could save a number of their LEO satellites. China would have to choose to attack either US GPS satellites or communications satellites, but not both, since its launch capabilities are insufficient. If it attacked the GPS constellation, it could not prevent the US from using precision guided munitions.

Forden, Geoffrey

2008-04-01

408

Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on the basis of their structural attributes. Similarly, we have shown3-5 that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. These findings validate that AFM can identify species/formulation-specific signatures that could used to reconstruct production conditions. In addition, we showed that internal structures of pathogens could be revealed by chemical and enzymatic dissection, thus providing additional AFM threat agent signatures. We have developed AFM-based immunochemical labeling procedures for threat-specific epitope visualization, which extend the specificity of structural information that AFM can provide. AFM enables sensitive detection/identification/detection of threat agents (e.g Sterne. B. anthracis spore sample having a concentration of {approx}10{sup 6} spores/ml) and allows their identification in environmental cluttered samples. AFM analysis has the capacity for accessing forensically important data and rapid BW identification and weaponization characterization.

Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

2006-09-25

409

Western Michigan University is a weapon free school. By order of the Board of Trustees: "No person shall possess on university property any firearms or other dangerous weapons with the exception of  

E-print Network

Western Michigan University is a weapon free school. By order of the Board of Trustees: "No person shall possess on university property any firearms or other dangerous weapons with the exception of police officers, transfer agents licensed to carry weapons and persons using any such weapons for class

de Doncker, Elise

410

Recalibrating software reliability models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

1989-01-01

411

Stockpile stewardship program  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, which has been extracted and edited from a Department of Energy publication that LLNL helped write, we present an overview of the current program and highlight some of the accomplishments and progress made to date.

Brown, P.S., LLNL

1998-06-01

412

Strategic National Stockpile (SNS)  

MedlinePLUS

... immediately loaded onto either trucks or commercial cargo aircraft for the most rapid transportation. Concurrent to SNS ... state emergency management offices, the Metropolitan Medical Response System cities, the Department of Veterans' Affairs, and the ...

413

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 2 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Anniston Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD), located outside Anniston, Alabama. This

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

414

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 4 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pueblo Chemical Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001c) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored at Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD), located outside Pueblo, Colorado. This

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

415

Detection and classification of concealed weapons using a magnetometer-based portal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concealed weapons detection technology was developed through the support of the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to provide a non intrusive means for rapid detection, location, and archiving of data (including visual) of potential suspects and weapon threats. This technology, developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been applied in a portal style weapons detection system using passive magnetic sensors as its basis. This paper will report on enhancements to the weapon detection system to enable weapon classification and to discriminate threats from non-threats. Advanced signal processing algorithms were used to analyze the magnetic spectrum generated when a person passes through a portal. These algorithms analyzed multiple variables including variance in the magnetic signature from random weapon placement and/or orientation. They perform pattern recognition and calculate the probability that the collected magnetic signature correlates to a known database of weapon versus non-weapon responses. Neural networks were used to further discriminate weapon type and identify controlled electronic items such as cell phones and pagers. False alarms were further reduced by analyzing the magnetic detector response by using a Joint Time Frequency Analysis digital signal processing technique. The frequency components and power spectrum for a given sensor response were derived. This unique fingerprint provided additional information to aid in signal analysis. This technology has the potential to produce major improvements in weapon detection and classification.

Kotter, Dale K.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Polk, Robert E.

2002-08-01

416

Reliability of Generation Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for estimation of the reliability of generation supply in a single compact system or in an interconnected system is described. Measures of reliability calculated using the new method are 1) capacity deficiency rate, 2) expected duration of capacity deficient period, and 3) \\

Alton Patton; Damon Holditch

1968-01-01

417

Storage reliability prediction handbook for parts count prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report contains storage reliability failure rates on all categories of missile related hardware on piece part level. The published failure rates are the result of extensive analysis of data collected during nationwide data collection effort over a period of several years. The storage failure rates in this document are intended for use by service organizations and contractors for prediction purposes and as an aid in parts selection relative to newly developing weapons systems, by logisticians for planning purposes and for a variety of other purposes. It is planned by the US Army Missile Command to update the document periodically to keep it current and of maximum usefulness.

Smith, H. B., Jr.; Rhodes, C. A., Jr.

1982-09-01

418

Controlling weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law  

SciTech Connect

Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the improvement in international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. The emphasis in the phrase ``Cold War`` was on the word ``cold,`` and relations with the former Communist regimes are now ``warm`` by comparison. It is equally valid to consider what has happened to the word ``was` in this highly descriptive phrase. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of the last fifty years, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to controlling weapons,of mass destruction through the ``rule of law.`` Rawls wrote that ``legal system is a coercive order of public rules addressed to rational persons for the purpose of regulating their conduct and providing the framework for social cooperation. The regular and impartial administration of public rules, becomes the rule of law when applied to the legal system.`` Inparticular, Rawls identifies as part of this system of public rules those laws that aim to prevent free riders on the economic system and those that aim to correct such externalities as environmental pollution.``

Tanzman, E.A.

1995-08-08

419

Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

1993-06-01

420

Cognitive task analysis: Techniques applied to airborne weapons training  

SciTech Connect

This is an introduction to cognitive task analysis as it may be used in Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) training development. The focus of a cognitive task analysis is human knowledge, and its methods of analysis are those developed by cognitive psychologists. This paper explains the role that cognitive task analysis and presents the findings from a preliminary cognitive task analysis of airborne weapons operators. Cognitive task analysis is a collection of powerful techniques that are quantitative, computational, and rigorous. The techniques are currently not in wide use in the training community, so examples of this methodology are presented along with the results. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Terranova, M.; Seamster, T.L.; Snyder, C.E.; Treitler, I.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Carlow Associates, Inc., Fairfax, VA (USA); Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

1989-01-01

421

Auditing nuclear weapons quality programs at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

Some of the problems involved in introducing quality assurance on a broad scale in a national laboratory are discussed. A philosophy of how QA can be utilized beneficially in research and development activities is described briefly, and our experiences at Los Alamos in applying QA to nuclear weapons activities are outlines. The important role of audits is emphasized; audits are used not merely to determine the effectiveness of QA programs but also to explain and demonstrate the usefulness of QA to a generally sceptical body of engineers and scientists. Finally, some ways of easing the application of QA in the future are proposed. 1 ref.

Davis, A.H.

1988-01-01

422

Detecting Chemical Weapons: Threats, Requirements, Solutions, and Future Challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although chemicals have been reportedly used as weapons for thousands of years, it was not until 1915 at Ypres, France that an industrial chemical, chlorine, was used in World War I as an offensive weapon in significant quantity, causing mass casualties. From that point until today the development, detection, production and protection from chemical weapons has be an organized endeavor of many of the world's armed forces and in more recent times, non-governmental terrorist organizations. The number of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) has steadily increased as research into more toxic substances continued for most of the 20^th century. Today there are over 70 substances including harassing agents like tear gas, incapacitating agents, and lethal agents like blister, blood, chocking, and nerve agents. The requirements for detecting chemical weapons vary depending on the context in which they are encountered and the concept of operation of the organization deploying the detection equipment. The US DoD, for example, has as a requirement, that US forces be able to continue their mission, even in the event of a chemical attack. This places stringent requirements on detection equipment. It must be lightweight (<2 lbs), detect a large array of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, detect and warn at concentration levels and time duration to prevent acute health effects, meet military ruggedness specifications and work over a wide range of temperature and humidity, and have a very high probability of detection with a similarly low probability of false positives. The current technology of choice to meet these stringent requirements is Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Many technologies are capable of detecting chemicals at the trace levels required and have been extensively developed for this application, including, but not limited to: mass spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, RAMAN spectroscopy, MEMs micro-cantilever sensors, surface acoustic wave sensors, differential mobility spectrometry, and amplifying fluorescence polymers. In the future the requirements for detection equipment will continue to become even more stringent. The continuing increase in the sheer number of threats that will need to be detected, the development of binary agents requiring that even the precursor chemicals be detected, the development of new types of agents unlike any of the current chemistries, and the expansion of the list of toxic industrial chemical will require new techniques with higher specificity and more sensitivity.

Boso, Brian

2011-03-01

423

The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to diver

Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

2008-12-23

424

Robotics applications for the staging of weapon components  

SciTech Connect

As the US nuclear stockpile is reduced, large numbers of nuclear components must be placed in storage. The necessity for periodic inventories of these components as well as the act of placement of the components in storage areas could result in increased radiation exposure to operations personnel. The use of robotics can significantly reduce or even eliminate such exposure. An automated system is being designed in a project at Sandia Laboratories to allow an operator to remotely stack and retrieve component containers in storage areas using a robotic loader and a portable control console. The operator need not enter the storage area. Operator commands for the loader would be implemented through a supervisory architecture that would insure that the loader did not violate safety constraints. Individual aspects of the loader's activities would be automated to reduce possible operator errors for many repetitive tasks. The loader will be outfitted with appropriate sensors so that the supervisory controller can enforce safe operations. The system will be configured so that monitoring of components for accountability can be accomplished.

Martin, F.; Caskey, B.

1992-01-01

425

Robotics applications for the staging of weapon components  

SciTech Connect

As the US nuclear stockpile is reduced, large numbers of nuclear components must be placed in storage. The necessity for periodic inventories of these components as well as the act of placement of the components in storage areas could result in increased radiation exposure to operations personnel. The use of robotics can significantly reduce or even eliminate such exposure. An automated system is being designed in a project at Sandia Laboratories to allow an operator to remotely stack and retrieve component containers in storage areas using a robotic loader and a portable control console. The operator need not enter the storage area. Operator commands for the loader would be implemented through a supervisory architecture that would insure that the loader did not violate safety constraints. Individual aspects of the loader`s activities would be automated to reduce possible operator errors for many repetitive tasks. The loader will be outfitted with appropriate sensors so that the supervisory controller can enforce safe operations. The system will be configured so that monitoring of components for accountability can be accomplished.

Martin, F.; Caskey, B.

1992-08-01

426

Dispersal and ejaculatory strategies associated with exaggeration of weapon in an armed beetle  

PubMed Central

Weapons used in male fighting can be costly to males and are often reported to trade off with other characters such as wings or spermatogenic investment. This study investigated whether increased investment into weapons can generate evolutionary changes in mating strategy for armed males. Male flour beetles, Gnatocerus cornutus, have enlarged mandibles that are used in male–male competition. We subjected these weapons to 12 generations of bidirectional selection and found trade-offs between weapons and two other male characters: wing and testis size. In addition, probably as a consequence of the observed changes in investment, dispersal ability and ejaculatory volume differ significantly between the lines. This indicates that the exaggeration of a weapon can be associated with dispersal and ejaculatory strategies. Thus, altered investment into weapons can lead to correlated changes in life-history traits. PMID:20129986

Yamane, Takashi; Okada, Kensuke; Nakayama, Satoshi; Miyatake, Takahisa

2010-01-01

427

The Effect of Non-Lethal Weapons on Police Officer Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1990 and 2000, there was an increase in the use of non-lethal weapons and a decline in the number and severity of attacks on police officers. Using longitudinal data on several hundred U.S. police agencies, I investigate the relationship between police officer safety and the adoption of non-lethal weapons. I find that the adoption of non-lethal chemical weapons had

Alex Yuskavage

428

Security after the revolutions of 1989 and 1991: The future with nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Political scientists typically view weapons within the realm of effects, not within the realm of cause. That is, weapons are a consequence of the great causal factors in international relations. Insecurity is the most important of these factors; it follows from the uneven distribution of power among states, the security dilemma, and the ever-present possibility that violence will be used to settle disagreements because there is no higher authority above states capable of enforcing rules. According to this logic weapons cause neither war nor peace. They are simply tools that states use to gain a share of the scarcest commodity - security - by fighting other states or by threatening to do so if necessary. Nuclear weapons are a product of great industrial capabilities, knowledge, and other resources. The United States and the Soviet Union had the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons because they were superpowers, not the other way around. On this logic, nuclear weapons reflect and reinforce a distribution of power that would exist in their absence. As the distribution of power among states changes, the status of nuclear weapons in the world will also change in a way that reflects the more fundamental causes that continue to drive state-state relationships in an anarchic world. In this chapter the author treat nuclears weapons within the realm of great causes. Arguing that nuclear weapons were a fundamental cause in bringing the Cold War, and with it the last vestiges of bipolarity, to an end. International life in the 1990s will not be the same as it was between 1945 and 1989. Will it be more like the multipolar world of the 1800s, with nuclear weapons simply grafted on the way other new weapons innovations have been in the past? That is not expected because nuclear weapons have altered the fundamental causal forces that drove previous international systems from peace to war and back again. 21 refs.

Weber, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1992-12-31

429

Zirconia -- A ceramic for excess weapons plutonium wastes  

SciTech Connect

The authors synthesized a ceramic containing simulated excess weapons plutonium waste in solid solution with zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}){sub ss}. ZrO{sub 2} has a large solubility for other metal oxides. More than twenty binary systems A{sub x}O{sub y}-ZrO{sub 2} have been reported in the literature, including PuO{sub 2}, rare earth elements, and oxides of metals contained in weapons plutonium wastes. The authors show that significant amounts of gadolinium (neutron absorber) and yttrium (stabilizer of the cubic modification) can be dissolved in ZrO{sub 2}, together with plutonium (simulated by Th{sup 4+}, Ce{sup 4+}, or U{sup 4+}) and impurities (e.g., Ca, Mg, Fe, Si). Sol-gel and powder methods were applied to make homogeneous, single phase zirconia solid solutions. Pu waste impurities were completely dissolved in the solid solutions. In contrast to other phases, e.g., zirconolite and pyrochlore, yttrium stabilized cubic zirconia does not undergo amorphization upon irradiation.

Gong, W.L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

1999-07-01

430

Cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique for concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the detection of metallic and non-metallic concealed weapons. This technique uses a vertical array of millimeter- wave antennas which is mechanically swept around a person in a cylindrical fashion. The wideband millimeter-wave data is mathematically reconstructed into a series of high- resolution images of the person being screened. Clothing is relatively transparent to millimeter-wave illumination,whereas the human body and concealed items are reflective at millimeter wavelengths. Differences in shape and reflectivity are revealed in the images and allow a human operator to detect and identify concealed weapons. A full 360 degree scan is necessary to fully inspect a person for concealed items. The millimeter-wave images can be formed into a video animation sequence in which the person appears to rotate in front of a fixed illumination source.This is s convenient method for presenting the 3D image data for analysis. This work has been fully sponsored by the FAA. An engineering prototype based on the cylindrical imaging technique is presently under development. The FAA is currently opposed to presenting the image data directly to the operator due to personal privacy concerns. A computer automated system is desired to address this problem by eliminating operator viewing of the imagery.

Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

1998-03-01

431

Optomechanical design of a field-deployable thermal weapon sight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of uncooled infrared (IR) imaging technology in Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) systems produces a unique tool that perfectly fulfills the all-weather, day-and-night vision demands in modern battlefields by significantly increasing the effectiveness and survivability of a dismounted soldier. The main advantage of IR imaging is that no illumination is required; therefore, observation can be accomplished in a passive mode. It is particularly well adapted for target detection even through smoke, dust, fog, haze, and other battlefield obscurants. In collaboration with the Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC Valcartier), INO engineering team developed, produced, and tested a rugged thermal weapon sight. An infrared channel provides for human detection at 800m and recognition at 200m. Technical system requirements included very low overall weight as well as the need to be field-deployable and user-friendly in harsh conditions. This paper describes the optomechanical design and focuses on the catadioptric-based system integration. The system requirements forced the optomechanical engineers to minimize weight while maintaining a sufficient level of rigidity in order to keep the tight optical tolerances. The optical system's main features are: a precision manual focus, a watertight vibration insulated front lens, a bolometer and two gold coated aluminum mirrors. Finite element analyses using ANSYS were performed to validate the subsystems performance. Some of the finite element computations were validated using different laboratory setups.

Boucher, Marc-André; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bernier, Sophie; Bergeron, Alain; Doucet, Michel; Lagacé, François; Laou, Philips

2007-09-01

432

Lubricant replacement in rolling element bearings for weapon surety devices  

SciTech Connect

Stronglink switches are a weapon surety device that is critical to the nuclear safety theme in modem nuclear weapons. These stronglink switches use rolling element bearings which contain a lubricant consisting of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fragments. Ozone-depleting solvents are used in both the manufacture and application of this lubricant. An alternate bearing lubrication for stronglink switches is needed that will provide long-term chemical stability, low migration and consistent performance. Candidates that were evaluated include bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers, bearings with TiC-coated balls, and bearings with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls and steel races. These candidates were compared to the lubricants currently used which are bearings lubricated with PTFE fragments of low molecular weight in a fluorocarbon solvent. The candidates were also compared to bearings lubricated with a diester oil which is representative of bearing lubricants used in industrial applications. Evaluation consisted of cycling preloaded bearings and subjecting them to 23 gRMS random vibration. All of the candidates are viable substitutes for low load application where bearing preload is approximately 1 pound. For high load applications where the bearing preload is approximately 10 pounds, bearings with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers appear to be the best substitutes. Bearings with TiC-coated balls also appear to be a viable candidate but these bearings did not perform as well as the sputtered MoS{sub 2}.

Steinhoff, R.; Dugger, M.T.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01

433

Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection  

SciTech Connect

Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

1992-11-01

434

Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection  

SciTech Connect

Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

1992-11-01

435

Evolutionary trade-off between weapons and testes  

PubMed Central

It has long been recognized that male mating competition is responsible for the evolution of weaponry for mate acquisition. However, when females mate with more than one male, competition between males can continue after mating in the form of sperm competition. Theory predicts that males should increase their investment in sperm production as sperm competition is increased, but it assumes that males face a trade-off between sperm production and other life-history traits such as mate acquisition. Here, we use a genus of horned beetle, Onthophagus, to examine the trade-off between investment in testes required for fertilizations and investment in weapons used to obtain matings. In a within-species study, we prevented males from developing horns and found that these males grew larger and invested relatively more in testes growth than did males allowed to grow horns. Among species, there was no general relationship between the relative sizes of horns and testes. However, the allometric slope of horn size on body size was negatively associated with the allometric slope of testes size on body size. We suggest that this reflects meaningful evolutionary changes in the developmental mechanisms regulating trait growth, specifically in the degree of nutrition-dependent phenotypic plasticity versus canalization of traits. Finally, we show how this resource allocation trade-off has influenced the evolutionary diversification of weapons, revealing a rich interplay between developmental trade-offs and both pre- and postmating mechanisms of sexual competition. PMID:17053078

Simmons, Leigh W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

2006-01-01

436

Noninvasive detection of weapons of mass destruction using terahertz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing and immediate threat of biological and chemical weapons has placed urgency on the development of chemical and biological warfare agent (CWA/BWA) screening devices. Specifically, the ability to detect CWA/BWA prior to deployment is paramount to mitigating the threat without exposing individuals to its effects. SPARTA, Inc. and NIST are currently investigating the feasibility of using far-infrared radiation, or terahertz (THz, 1 THz = 1012 Hz) radiation, to non-invasively detect biological and chemical agents, explosives and drugs/narcotics inside sealed containers. Small-to-medium sized molecules (3-100 atoms) in gas, liquid and solid phases consistently exhibit identifiable spectral features in the far-IR portion of the spectrum. Many compounds associated with weapons of mass destruction are made up of molecules of this size. The THz portion of the spectrum lies between visible light and radio waves, allowing for partial transmission of 0.3-10.0 THz (30-1000 ?m, 10-330 cm-1) light through most common materials. Therefore, transmission measurements of THz light can potentially be used to non-invasively detect the presence of CWA/BWA, explosives and drugs in the pathway of a THz radiation beam.

Campbell, Matthew B.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

2003-08-01

437

Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture.  

PubMed

For thousands of years insects have been incorporated into human conflict, with the goals of inflicting pain, destroying food, and transmitting pathogens. Early methods used insects as "found" weapons, functioning as tactical arms (e.g., hurled nests) or in strategic habitats (e.g., mosquito-infested swamps). In the twentieth century the relationship between insects and disease was exploited; vectors were mass-produced to efficiently deliver pathogens to an enemy. The two most sophisticated programs were those of the Japanese in World War II with plague-infected fleas and cholera-coated flies and of the Americans during the Cold War with yellow fever-infected mosquitoes. With continued advances, defenses in the form of insecticides and vaccines meant that insects were no longer considered as battlefield weapons. However, in recent times sociopolitical changes have put insects back into the realm of human conflict through asymmetrical conflicts pitting combatants from nonindustrialized regions against forces from militarily and economically superior nations. PMID:21910635

Lockwood, Jeffrey A

2012-01-01

438

Steps toward a Middle East free of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the Gulf War, all eyes are focused on the dangers of proliferation in the Middle East. President Bush, in his postwar address to Congress, called for immediate action to control the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the missiles used to deliver them, warning that it would be tragic if the nations of the Middle East and Persian Gulf were now, in the wake of war, to embark on a new arms race. Secretary of State James Baker has recently returned from a tour of the region, and consultations on proliferation were reportedly high on his agenda. At the same time, the fierce political antagonisms and unbridled military competitions that have long characterized the Middle East leave many skeptical as to what can realistically be done. While all states in the region - including Israel - have publicly supported the idea of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ) in the Middle East, doubt over the feasibility of the proposal runs high. Why on earth, it is asked, would Israelis give up the protection of their nuclear monopoly What assurances from their Arab adversaries or from the US could possibly replace this ultimate deterrent

Leonard, J.

1991-04-01

439

Constitutional implications of implementing a chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

While the United States Constitution declares treaties to be the supreme Law of the Land,'' most treaties the United States enters into require the Congress to enact legislation to fully implement the treaty's terms in American law. The implementing legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention will be very detailed and complex. In addition, this legislation must not conflict with any of the provisions of the Constitution. Much discussion has already taken place on the problem of ensuring access to private property during systematic inspections of Schedule 2 facilities and challenge inspections of other facilities. The problem is usually framed in terms of reconciling the Convention with the Fourth Amendment's prohibition on unreasonable searches and seizures.'' Even if the Convention includes a right of refusal for challenge inspections, the political costs of invoking such a right will require the government to seek some means of obtaining access to private property during inspections, so that the right of refusal is used only as a last resort. This document provides a discussion of the legal, constitutional, and political aspects of implementing chemical weapons convention legislation. 32 refs.

Carnahan, B.

1990-04-04

440

The cause and effect of exclusionary zoning within a jurisdiction, and, The stockpile of petroleum needed to contain OPEC's price shocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Part I, I model a jurisdiction where residents differ by income, and housing confers benefits on neighbors. By majority vote, residents choose minima on consumption of housing that differ by neighborhood, and they separate into neighborhoods by income. In practice, such laws take the form of minimum lot sizes, bans on multi-family units, building codes, and other restrictions. This policy maximizes a benefit-cost welfare criterion. Alternative policies include no minima and a uniform minimum citywide, based on libertarian and utilitarian welfare criteria, respectively. I compare the policies in terms of efficiency, implementability, and distributional consequences, and give numerical examples based on U.S. data. Willingness to pay for the benefit-cost optimum is convex in income. This helps to explain why neighborhood stratification by income has outpaced stratification of income itself in U.S metropolitan areas since 1970. In the examples, gains to a rich household are in the thousands and losses to the poor in the hundreds of dollars annually. In Part II, I estimate the stockpile of petroleum sufficient to contain a price shock perpetrated by the OPEC. I estimate world demand for petroleum such that the long run price elasticity exceeds that in the short run, and supply from non-OPEC producers with a similar kind of lagged response. Given this structure for elasticities, OPEC profits from sudden increases in price. I simulate interaction among consumers, non-OPEC producers, OPEC, and an International Energy Agency (IEA) that punishes OPEC by releasing oil onto the market. I endow the IEA with increasingly large stockpiles until they suffice to limit price shocks to specified levels. Every 5 reduction in the shock raises present-valued world GDP by about 650 billion. The IEA now has 1.4 billion barrels of petroleum, including 700 million in the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A 3 billion barrel stockpile would suffice to reduce a 35 price shock to 20, raising world GDP by about 2 trillion. A 5 billion barrel stockpile would cut the shock to 5. The benefits of doing so are in the trillions of dollars, while lost profits to OPEC are in the hundreds of billions.

Vatter, Marc H.

441

Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.  

PubMed

A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

2007-06-01

442

Research on Computer Aided Innovation Model of Weapon Equipment Requirement Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Firstly, in order to overcome the shortcoming of using only AD or TRIZ solely, and solve the problems currently existed in weapon equipment requirement demonstration, the paper construct the method system of weapon equipment requirement demonstration combining QFD, AD, TRIZ, FA. Then, we construct a CAI model frame of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, which include requirement decomposed model, requirement mapping model and requirement plan optimization model. Finally, we construct the computer aided innovation model of weapon equipment requirement demonstration, and developed CAI software of equipment requirement demonstration.

Li, Yong; Guo, Qisheng; Wang, Rui; Li, Liang

443

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay (that is non-technical) reader, outlining the history, threat, and possible countermeasures related to biological warfare agents. The intent is to heighten the awareness level regarding biological warfare as a military and terrorist threat.

Schneider, B.R.; Mayer, T.N.

1995-04-01

444

Identification and evaluation of the nonradioactive toxic components in LLNL weapon designs, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The proper industrial hygiene strategy and response to a weapons accident is dependent upon the nonradioactive toxic materials contained in each weapon system. For example, in order to use the proper sampling and support equipment, e.g., personal protective and air sampling equipment, the Accident Response Group (ARG) Team needs a detailed inventory of nonradioactive toxic and potentially toxic materials in the weapon systems. The DOE Albuquerque Office or Operations funded the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the nonradioactive toxic components of their respective weapons designs. This report summarizes LLNL`s first year`s activities and results.

Johnson, J.A.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.

1994-01-01

445

The Journey Toward Reliability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kansas State University faculty members have partnered with industry to assist in the implementation of a reliability centered manufacturing (RCM) program. This paper highlights faculty members experiences, benefits to industry of implementing a reliability centered manufacturing program, and faculty members roles in the RCM program implementation. The paper includes lessons learned by faculty members, short-term extensions of the faculty-industry partnership, and a long-term vision for a RCM institute at the university level.

Brockway, Kathy V.; Spaulding, Greg

2010-03-15

446

Software reliability studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The longterm goal of this research is to identify or create a model for use in analyzing the reliability of flight control software. The immediate tasks addressed are the creation of data useful to the study of software reliability and production of results pertinent to software reliability through the analysis of existing reliability models and data. The completed data creation portion of this research consists of a Generic Checkout System (GCS) design document created in cooperation with NASA and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) experimenters. This will lead to design and code reviews with the resulting product being one of the versions used in the Terminal Descent Experiment being conducted by the Systems Validations Methods Branch (SVMB) of NASA/Langley. An appended paper details an investigation of the Jelinski-Moranda and Geometric models for software reliability. The models were given data from a process that they have correctly simulated and asked to make predictions about the reliability of that process. It was found that either model will usually fail to make good predictions. These problems were attributed to randomness in the data and replication of data was recommended.

Wilson, Larry W.

1989-01-01

447

A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford, "Radiological Dispersal Devices: Assessing the Transnational Threat," Strategic Forum, No. 136, (March 1998), March 29, 2012, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/forum136.htm.

Donohue, Nathan

448

Proposed reliability cost model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

Delionback, L. M.

1973-01-01

449

Photovoltaic module reliability workshop  

SciTech Connect

The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

Mrig, L. (ed.)

1990-01-01

450

Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

Welch, D. Phillip

1993-01-01

451

Methodology for comparing a standoff weapon with current conventional munitions in a runway attack scenario. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

This research developed a SLAM discrete-event simulation model to support a methodology for comparing a standoff weapon with current conventional weapons. This study is limited to the defensive threats within a 20-NM terminal area surrounding a generic Warsaw Pact airfield. The emphasis of the study was simulation of the standoff weapon interactions with the terminal threats. Previous models have not attempted to model the threat reactions to the standoff-weapons. The resulting simulation enables the analyst to study the effects of weapon release conditions on weapon attrition, runway damage effectiveness, and aircraft attrition.

Coulter, D.M.; Fry, D.W.

1986-03-01

452

Duel between an ASAT with multiple-kill vehicles and a space-based weapons platform with kinetic-energy weapons. Final report, Oct 84Dec 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is described for a duel between a ground-based anti-satellite (ASAT) and a spaced-based weapons platform defending itself with kinetic energy weapons. The ASAT carries 1-6 kill vehicles and the space platform may first attack the ASAT booster with 1-3 defense missiles. If the ASAT kill vehicles collectively survive the boost phase, they are each subject to a

Cutchis

1986-01-01

453

Passive millimeter-wave imaging for weapons and contraband detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of its relatively short wavelength coupled with relatively high penetration of many materials, millimeter- wave imaging provides a powerful tool for the detection of concealed articles. By using a passive approach such as that implemented here, it is possible to image (detect) concealed weapons and articles or look through certain types of walls, all without generating any form of radiation that might raise health concerns. In this paper we show the results of two years of upgrades to our imager that have resulted in true 30 Hz imaging and 5 Kelvin instantaneous thermal sensitivity. High resolution ground based video and image data taken at distances from 12 to over 66 feet together with airborne flight test data will be presented as representing state-of-the-art in passive millimeter-wave imaging.

Clark, Stuart E.; Lovberg, John A.; Galliano, Joseph A., Jr.

2000-07-01

454

Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. PMID:21350673

Dando, Malcolm

2011-01-01

455

Cryptic asymmetry: unreliable signals mask asymmetric performance of crayfish weapons  

PubMed Central

Animals commonly use their limbs as signals and weapons during territorial aggression. Asymmetries of limb performance that do not relate to asymmetries of limb size (cryptic asymmetry) could substantially affect disputes, but this phenomenon has not been considered beyond primates. We investigated cryptic asymmetry in male crayfish (Cherax dispar), which commonly use unreliable signals of strength during aggression. Although the strength of a chela can vary by an order of magnitude for a given size, we found repeatable asymmetries of strength that were only weakly related to asymmetries of size. Size-adjusted strength of chelae and the asymmetry of strength between chelae were highly repeatable between environmental conditions, suggesting that asymmetries of strength stemmed from variation in capacity rather than motivation. Cryptic asymmetry adds another dimension of uncertainty during conflict between animals, which could influence the evolution of unreliable signals and morphological asymmetry. PMID:22417793

Angilletta, Michael J.; Wilson, Robbie S.

2012-01-01

456

Spinal cord injuries due to close combat weapons.  

PubMed

A 17-year-old patient was aggressively attacked and stabbed in the dorsal region of his back by a knife. He was admitted to the emergency room of the Hammoud Hospital University Medical Center, Saida, Lebanon lying in the prone position. The neurological examination revealed that the stabbing object was fixed at the dorsal spine level at the T-7 level, where it was inserted inside the vertebral body. Luckily, the blade of the knife was parallel to the nervous tracts of the spinal cord; thus, he showed no neurological deficits. This case provides an overview of how neurosurgical principles can be applied to trauma patients with spine injuries due to close combat weapons. PMID:24141462

Fares, Youssef H; Fares, Jawad Y; Gebeily, Souheil E; Khazim, Rabi M

2013-10-01

457

Calculation of the weapons-grade MOX VVER multiassembly benchmarks  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of the joint US-Russian fissile materials disposition program, a set of VVER benchmarks was formulated to verify and validate computer codes with reference to the problem of using mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in VVER reactors. This set consists of pin cell, single assembly, and multiassembly geometries with low-enriched uranium (LEU) and weapons-grade MOX fuel. Multiassembly geometries (variants V13 and V14) are of the most interest because they give information about an accuracy of neutron flux distribution calculation near the boundary between MOX and LEU. In this analysis, a uniform MOX bundle and a graded MOX bundle are studied. Benchmark calculations are performed for several states and for a depletion to 60 MWd/kg. The report is devoted to an intercomparison of calculation results for such geometries obtained with various codes.

Kalugin, M.A.; Lazarenko, A.P. [Kurchatov RRC (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, A.G. [IPPE (Russian Federation); Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-12-31

458

Implications of a North Korean Nuclear Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect

The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is one of the Cold War`s last remaining totalitarian regimes. Rarely has any society been as closed to outside influences and so distant from political, economic, and military developments around the globe. In 1991 and in 1992, however, this dictatorship took a number of political steps which increased Pyongyang`s interaction with the outside world. Although North Korea`s style of engagement with the broader international community involved frequent pauses and numerous steps backward, many observers believed that North Korea was finally moving to end its isolated, outlaw status. As the end of 1992 approached, however, delay and obstruction by Pyongyang became intense as accumulating evidence suggested that the DPRK, in violation of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), was seeking to develop nuclear weapons. On March 12, 1993, North Korea announced that it would not accept additional inspections proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to resolve concerns about possible violations and instead would withdraw from the Treaty. Pyongyang`s action raised the specter that, instead of a last act of the Cold War, North Korea`s diplomatic maneuvering would unravel the international norms that were to be the basis of stability and peace in the post-Cold War era. Indeed, the discovery that North Korea was approaching the capability to produce nuclear weapons suggested that the nuclear threat, which had been successfully managed throughout the Cold War era, could increase in the post-Cold War era.

Lehman, R.F. II

1993-07-01

459

A strategy for weapons-grade plutonium disposition  

SciTech Connect

A political as well as technical analysis was performed to determine the feasibility of glassification (vitrification) for weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) disposition. The political analysis provided the criteria necessary to compare alternative storage forms. The technical areas of weapon useability and environmental safety were then computationally and experimentally explored and a vitrification implementation strategy postulated. The Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) computer code was used to model the effect of blending WGPu with reactor grade Pu (RGPu). A mixture of 30% RGPu and 70% WGPu more than doubled the surface flux from a bare sphere of the mixture which assumedly correlates to a significantly increased predetonation probability. Rare earth diluents were also examined (using MCNP) for their ability to increase the compressed critical mass of the WGPu mixture. The rare earths (notably Eu) were effective in this regard. As Pu-239 has a 24,100 year half life, reactivity control in the long term is an environmental safety issue. Rare earths were investigated as criticality controllers due to their neutron absorption capabilities and insolubility in aqueous environments. Thorium (a Pu surrogate) and the rare earths Eu, Gd, and Sm were added to two standard frits (ARM-1 and SRL-165) and formed into glass. Aqueous leach tests were performed (using MCC-1P guidelines) to measure rare earth leaching and determine the added elements` effects on glass durability. Europium was much more leach resistant than boron in the glasses tested. The elements had no negative effect on the environmental durability of the glasses tested at 90 C and minimal effect at room temperature. No fission product releases were detected in the ARM-1 compositions (which contained numerous simulated fission products).

Sylvester, K.W.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1994-09-01

460

Installation of a single-building energy controller at the Public Works Center, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake. Final report Oct 77-Sep 83  

SciTech Connect

Single-building energy controllers can be installed in many buildings to conserve energy. These systems can provide significant energy savings with limited investment. This report details the installation of a single-building energy controller in the Public Works Center building at Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. The controller was installed by NCEL and Public Works personnel in about 3 days, and is working very well. The reasons for the success are a reliable controller, a dedicated user and the patience and cooperation of the building occupants.

Canfield, K.J.

1983-09-01

461

Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

NONE

1997-01-01

462

REGIONBASED IMAGE FUSION SCHEME FOR CONCEALED WEAPON Zhong Zhang and Rick S. Blum  

E-print Network

REGION­BASED IMAGE FUSION SCHEME FOR CONCEALED WEAPON DETECTION Zhong Zhang and Rick S. Blum are to be combined. Concealed weapon detection (CWD) is one interesting application. An image fusion scheme is proposed which combines aspects of feature­level fusion with the pixel­ level fusion. Images are fused

Blum, Rick

463

A STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH TO IMAGE FUSION FOR CONCELED WEAPON DETECTION1  

E-print Network

A STATISTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING APPROACH TO IMAGE FUSION FOR CONCELED WEAPON DETECTION1 J. Yang A statistical signal processing approach to multisensor image fusion is presented for concealed weapon detection of this approach by applying this method to fusion of visual and non-visual images with emphasis on CWD

Blum, Rick

464

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB`S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

465

Multiple Recycling Characteristics and Cost of MOX Fuel Using Weapons-Grade Plutonium in Commercial PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the ratification of START-I the question of how to dispose safely and effectively of excess weapons plutonium, of which there is estimated to be about 501 in the USA and 501 in Russia, has become an important international issue. One of the most likely options is the proposal to use the excess weapons plutonium as MOX fuel in commercial

Ichiro IKEMOTO; Keiji KANDA

1999-01-01

466

Waste component recycle, treatment, and disposal integrated demonstration (WeDID) nuclear weapon dismantlement activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the drivers in the dismantlement and disposal of nuclear weapon components is Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The primary regulatory driver for these components is the Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA). Nuclear weapon components are heterogeneous and contain a number of hazardous materials including heavy metals, PCB'S, selfcontained explosives, radioactive materials, gas-filled tubes, etc. The Waste Component Recycle,

Wheelis

1993-01-01

467

An evidential reason approach for operational effectiveness evaluation of weapon system under uncertain  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to deal with qualitative and quantitative information with various types of uncertainties in the process of evaluating the operational effectiveness (OE) of weapon system accurately is a key issue for the decision makers. Incompleteness and vagueness are among the most common uncertainties. In this paper, an OE evaluation approach and process for weapon system is proposed based on belief

Dejin Yin; Hongli Wang

2010-01-01