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1

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

2

Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess stockpile reliability, but have been used extensively in various forms outside Sandia National Laboratories. It is hoped that this report will encourage the use of 'nontraditional' reliabilty and uncertainty techniques in gaining insight into stockpile reliability issues.

Robinson, David G.

1999-04-01

3

Impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on strategic stability  

SciTech Connect

This presentation is to discuss the impact of a reduced nuclear weapons stockpile on the strategic stability. Methodologies used to study strategic stability issues include what are basically strategic-force exchange models. These models are used to simulate a massive nuclear exchange in which one side attacks and the other side retaliates. These models have been of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Researchers have been looking at issues concerning the stability of the transition period, during which some defenses have been deployed and during which deterrence and war-fighting capability reply partly on defense and partly on offense. Also, more recently, with interest in the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and force reductions beyond START, the same calculation engines have been used to examine the impact of reduced forces on strategic stability. For both the SDI and the START reduction cases, exchange models are able to address only a rather narrow class of strategic stability issues. Other broader stability questions that are unrelated to nuclear weapons or that relate to nuclear weapons but are not addressed by the calculational tools which are not included in this discussion. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (BN)

Chrzanowski, P.

1991-03-20

4

Sample preselection process designed to enhance early planning information. [Sampling program for evaluating nuclear weapon stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The DOE provides for the continuing evaluation of the nuclear weapon stockpiles through a stockpile sampling program in which randomly selected weapons are withdrawn for testing from the stockpiles each year. For some time, DOE has used a preselection scheme to obtain early identification of certain characteristics of the sample weapons for planning purposes, but which does so without jeopardizing the necessary randomization of sample selection. A DOD desire for additional and more detailed planning information to minimize weapon movements has led to an improvement of the original preselection scheme that enhances the planning information and its accuracy, while still preserving randomization.

Mueller, F.W.; Spencer, F.W.

1981-11-01

5

Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a predic...

D. L. Wright

1993-01-01

6

Stockpile surveillance: Past and future  

SciTech Connect

The US nuclear weapon stockpile is entering a different era. Continuous introduction of new weapons into the stockpile, a large production capacity, and underground nuclear testing played important roles in how the nuclear weapons stockpile was managed in the past. These are no longer elements of the nuclear weapons program. Adjustments need to be made to compensate for the loss of these elements. The history of the stockpile indicates that problems have been found in both nuclear and nonnuclear components through a variety of methods including the Stockpile Evaluation Program, stockpile management activities, underground nuclear tests, and research activities. Changes have been made to the stockpile when necessary to assure safety, performance, and reliability. There have been problems found in each of the weapon types expected to be in the stockpile in the year 2000. It is reasonable to expect problems will continue to arise in the stockpile as it ages beyond the original design expectations.

Johnson, K.; Keller, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ekdahl, C.; Krajcik, R.; Salazar, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kelly, E.; Paulsen, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-01-01

7

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01

8

Hierarchical Linear Models of Factors Associated with Public Participation among Residents Living near the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate public involvement among residents living near the US Army's eight Chemical Weapons Stockpile sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted across 10 states. Primary data were obtained through a random digit dialling population survey. The study sample consisted of 8315 residents living within emergency response zones surrounding the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile

BRYAN L. WILLIAMS; HOI K. SUEN; Sylvia Brown; Roberta Bruhn; Rich De Blaquiere; SARAH E. RZASA

2001-01-01

9

Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army.

Greenberg, Michael R.

2003-01-01

10

Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-06-01

11

Public health, law, and local control: destruction of the US chemical weapons stockpile.  

PubMed

Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decision making process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

Greenberg, Michael R

2003-08-01

12

Stockpile reliability program for special purpose strap. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1962, web strap tie-down assemblies have been used to secure nuclear weapon containers on tactical vehicles. In 1968, a 36 month useful life (in use) requirement was placed on the straps used to secure war reserve nuclear weapons containers on vehicles. This means that no matter what condition the straps were in, after 36 months they could no longer

Mayfield

1993-01-01

13

Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

14

Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.  

SciTech Connect

As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

Darby, John L.

2011-05-01

15

Stockpile Monitor Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent political changes have led to drastic reductions in the number of nuclear warheads in stockpile, as well as increased expectations for warhead-service lives. In order to support and maintain a shrinking and aging nuclear stockpile, weapon scientist...

G. A. Buntain, M. Fletcher, R. Rabie

1994-01-01

16

Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has ...

1996-01-01

17

Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has ...

1996-01-01

18

Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has ...

1996-01-01

19

Reentry, recovery, and restoration following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident: Offpost planning and preparedness aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is a need for pre-disaster recovery planning. The Department of Defense has recognized that need by strongly emphasizing recovery planning and coordination in its CSEP program. CSEPP is the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. It was d...

L. Lewis C. Herzenberg E. Tanzman K. Lerner R. Haffenden

1991-01-01

20

Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

Adams, Marvin L.

2014-05-01

21

The Stockpile Monitor Program  

SciTech Connect

Recent political changes have led to drastic reductions in the number of nuclear warheads in stockpile, as well as increased expectations for warhead-service lives. In order to support and maintain a shrinking and aging nuclear stockpile, weapon scientists and engineers need detailed information describing the environments experienced by weapons in the field. Hence, the Stockpile Monitor Program was initiated in 1991 to develop a comprehensive and accurate database of temperature and humidity conditions experienced by nuclear warheads both in storage and on-alert.

Buntain, G.A.; Fletcher, M.; Rabie, R.

1994-07-01

22

A Research of Weapon System Storage Reliability Simulation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at the problem of the new, complicated weapon equipment system storage reliability analyze, the paper researched on the methods of fuzzy fault tree analysis and fuzzy system storage reliability simulation, discussed the path that regarded weapon system as fuzzy system, and researched the storage reliability of weapon system based on fuzzy theory, provided a method of storage reliability research for the new, complicated weapon equipment system. As an example, built up the fuzzy fault tree of one type missile control instrument based on function analysis, and used the method of fuzzy system storage reliability simulation to analyze storage reliability index of control instrument.

Shi, Yonggang; Wu, Xuguang; Chen, Haijian; Xu, Tingxue

23

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18

24

The Future of the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will examine our plans for the future of the U.S. nuclear weapons program including efforts to ``transform'' the stockpile and supporting infrastructure. We proceed from the premise that the United States will need a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear deterrent for the foreseeable future. Moreover, the Stockpile Stewardship Program is working. Today's stockpile---comprised of legacy warheads left over from the Cold War---is safe and reliable. That said, we see increased risk, absent nuclear testing, in assuring the long-term safety and reliability of our current stockpile. Nor is today's nuclear weapons complex sufficiently ``responsive'' to fixing technical problems in the stockpile, or to potential adverse geopolitical change. Our task is to work to ensure that the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise, including the stockpile and supporting infrastructure, meets long-term national security needs. Our approach is to develop and field replacement warheads for the legacy stockpile---so-called Reliable Replacement Warheads (RRW)---as a means to transform both the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure.

Brooks, Linton F.

2007-03-01

25

Quality assurance and reliability sub-committee W88-0/Mk5 weapon assessment NSA lab test results (u)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to gather appropriate level of relevant stockpile surveillance data to assess trends in the NEP quality, reliability, performance, and safety over the life of the system. The objectives are to gather relevant stockpile data to assess NEP quality and trends and to develop metrics to assess the suitability of the surveillance sampling regime to meet assessment process requirements.

Whitney, Earl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-29

26

Estimated Russian stockpile, September 1996  

SciTech Connect

An estimate of the size and composition of the former Soviet nuclear stockpile, based on START I memorandum of understanding data, is provided. The estimate covers operational forces that are assumed to be in a ready condition available for use. Total warhead stockpiles are estimated at about 12,000. Strategic offensive warheads comprise 7500 of the total, strategic defense missiles are estimated at 1200, land-based nonstrategic bombers and fighters at 1600, and naval nonstrategic weapons at 1600. Subtotals are provided for weapons categories (missiles, bombers, etc.) and weapons launchers.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.

1996-09-01

27

Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Ős New Contained Firing Facility; The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 gŐs; A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests; High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy; Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB; JumpinŐ Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen; Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable; The Multibeam FabryĐPerot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurements of High Velocities; Theory and Modeling in Material Science; The Diamond Anvil Cell; Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometry; X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma

Storm, E

1998-04-08

28

Nuclear tests mean new weapons  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile maintenance does not require nuclear testing. With the consensus that there is not technical substitute for developmental nuclear weapons testing, there appears to be an unambiguous opportunity for a secure and meaningful comprehensive test ban. From a national security standpoint, nuclear innovations and nuclear tests are entirely dispensable. The prospects of nuclear retaliation are severe enough that no country could assume the ability to conduct a nuclear strike with impunity. The precise combination of yield, accuracy, and radiation effects from a nuclear weapon is insignificant, compared to the overall consequences of a nuclear attack. Deterrence, independent as it is of the details of nuclear warhead design, will persist whether or not nuclear tests are conducted. An abrupt adoption of a comprehensive test ban would interrupt the US nuclear weapons development program without harming the nation's ability to maintain a safe and reliable deterrent. But the nuclear weapons design laboratories have a long history of influential opposition to a test ban. In part, this is because the large-scale nuclear weapons research and development program gives the weapons laboratories not only a license but a mandate to continue introducing new weapons into the stockpile. A comprehensive test ban, accompanied by restructuring of the nuclear weapons program as a maintenance operation, would safeguard the nuclear deterrent while bringing the qualitative arms race to a halt. 5 references, 3 figures.

Stein, J.A.

1986-11-01

29

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large.

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

30

Chemical Weapons Convention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), entered into force. At that time, the United States and...

1997-01-01

31

Successful Strategies for Achieving Reliability Requirements in Weapon Systems Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reducing the logistics burden is a current focus for the Army as it works to develop and field the Objective Force. Increasing reliability is a proven way to achieve this goal, with an added benefit of reducing O&S costs and increasing the effectiveness o...

J. M. Thorne

2002-01-01

32

AAAS Assessment of the Role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a study of the role of the Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) in the US Nuclear Weapons Complex during the latter part of 2006. As the Chair of that study I will report our principal findings and recommendations. Our conclusions are based on the experience and knowledge of the committee members, the information available in numerous reports and related analyses, and on presentations and discussions with DOE/NNSA officials, staff members from the Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, and others with special expertise and perspectives.

Tarter, C. Bruce

2007-03-01

33

Mission Area Overview: Project Manager - Chemical Stockpile Elimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Project Manager Chemical Stockpile Elimination (PM-CSE) PM-CSE is an acquisition PM responsible for the safe destruction of the nation's unitary chemical agents and weapons. The destruction technologies used by PM- CSE include incineration and neutral...

2008-01-01

34

Big projects could threaten weapons labs` research base  

SciTech Connect

Every few seconds, a mushroom cloud explodes on Paul Cunningham`s Computer screen. The unsettling image is a screen saver in the office of the chief of nuclear materials and stockpile management at Los Alamos National Laboratory - and a wry reminder of the radical changes underway at the three US weapons labs. Now that the US has renounced underground nuclear testing, simulations are becoming the weapons designers chief tool for ensuring that the nuclear arsenal is reliable. The new approach to testing, stockpile stewardship, has triggered a fierce debate within the defense community. At issue is how to keep a balance between financing such new and costly stewardship projects as the $1.1 billion National Ignition Facility, which will simulate the conditions of nuclear detonation, and maintaining a critical mass of experienced weapons designers. This artical describes the debate and funding and political problems which go with it.

Lawler, A.

1996-05-24

35

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found

Darby; John L

2010-01-01

36

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

37

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention...BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention...Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction,...

2009-01-01

38

15 CFR 742.18 - Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). 742...BASED CONTROLS § 742.18 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC or Convention). ...Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, also...

2013-01-01

39

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. ...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2010-01-01

40

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744... Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. ...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2009-01-01

41

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

SciTech Connect

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The most definitive tests typically destroy the weapons so a given unit is tested only once. Surveillance managers need to decide how many units should be tested, how often they should be tested, what tests should be done, and how the resulting data are used to estimate the stockpile's current and future reliability. These issues are particularly critical from a planning perspective: given what has already been observed and our understanding of the mechanisms of stockpile aging, what is an appropriate and cost-effective surveillance program? Surveillance programs are costly, broad, and deep, especially in the DOE, where the US nuclear weapons surveillance program must 'ensure, through various tests, that the reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained' in the absence of full-system testing (General Accounting Office, 1996). The DOE program consists primarily of three types of tests: nonnuclear flight tests, that involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed; and nonnuclear and nuclear systems laboratory tests, which detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, and design of the nonnuclear and nuclear portions of the weapons. Fully integrated analysis of the suite of nuclear weapons surveillance data is an ongoing area of research (Wilson et al., 2007). This paper introduces a simple model that captures high-level features of stockpile reliability over time and can be used to answer broad policy questions about surveillance programs. Our intention is to provide a framework that generates tractable answers that integrate expert knowledge and high-level summaries of surveillance data to allow decision-making about appropriate trade-offs between the cost of data and the precision of stockpile reliability estimates.

Vanderwiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Alyson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reese, Christopher S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

42

Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

1999-04-01

43

Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessm...

W. R. Peters

1993-01-01

44

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

45

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

46

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

47

Lifetime predictive capabilities for materials in the enduring stockpile  

SciTech Connect

Although materials understanding and modeling is not currently advanced to the point of failure prediction for most critical areas for stockpile components, research should continue to extend the knowledge base and enable science based choices for future programs or upgrades. Several critical areas are lacking for a science-based lifetime extension of the current stockpile. Hermeticity is critical for many components but modeling and predicative capabilities are limited in these areas. PETN is prevalent throughout the stockpile but modeling and predictive capability for autocatalysis and non-hermetic lifetimes is limited. Corrosion is a frequently observed age-related finding from the historical stockpile but the ability to predict the initiation of corrosion is limited. Advanced electronics are in some current weapons types and will most likely be a part of any retrofits and upgrades in the future. Understanding of stress voiding and electromigration in microelectronics is limited and predictions are not yet available. Polymeric materials are prevalent throughout the stockpile and temperature dependent response mass transport properties are not well understood. Modeling and predictive capabilities for polymeric materials are limited.

Koeck, D.C.

1996-03-01

48

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States' largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county's emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-01-01

49

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States` largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county`s emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-06-01

50

An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

51

A Sandia weapon review bulletin : defense programs, Autumn 1992.  

SciTech Connect

Topics in this issue: (1) Focal Point and STEP. Sandia National Laboratories has always focused its advanced weapon development not only on future weapon needs, but also on the engineering and manufacturing sciences needed to meet them. Both areas are changing dramatically. As the nation dismantles many of its warheads, it becomes essential that those that remain are increasingly reliable, secure, capable, and safe. And as development resources diminish, it becomes vital that they are applied to the most critical technologies in a disciplined manner. The mission of the Focal Point program and the Stockpile Transition Enabling Program (STEP) is to develop processes for meeting these challenges. Focal Point offers a decision-making process for allocating Sandia's resources to meets its defense programs strategic goals. (2) Defense Programs news in brief. (3) Dismantling the nuclear stockpile. (4) W88/MK5: Arming, Fuzing, and Firing system meets all requirements and goals. (5) The Common Radar Fuze. (6) Insertable-explosive arming of firing sets. (7) Preparing for fewer underground tests.

Not Available

1992-09-01

52

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01

53

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile from Here to Eternity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 ...

W. H. Hermes T. D. Hylton C. H. Mattus S. N. Storch P. S. Singely J. W. Terry M. Pecullan F. K. Reilly

2003-01-01

54

Predictive method for weapon storage environments  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory Stockpile Monitor Program provides for the placement of Campbell Scientific Inc. data loggers in many weapons storage areas for the purpose of gathering environmental information such as relative humidity and temperature. Not all storage areas can be covered, however, so a means of estimating storage conditions is needed. This report describes one such technique.

Rabie, R.L.

1996-08-01

55

Weapons, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapons, used defensively or offensively, have provided humankind the tools to accomplish political objectives by other means since the dawn of humans. Weapons evolved from stone to club, long bow, cannon, machine gun, dumb bomb, precision guided munition...

2006-01-01

56

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744.4 Section 744...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a) General prohibition...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any country or...

2013-01-01

57

Stockpile Transition Enabling Program (STEP): Process and project requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Stockpile Transition Enabling Program (STEP) is aimed at identifying weapon components suitable for use in more than one weapon and for qualifying components so identified for multiple use. Work includes identifying the means to maintain the manufacturing capability for these items. This document provides the participants in STEP a common, consistent understanding of the process and requirements. The STEP objectives are presented and the activities are outlined. The STEP project selections are based on the customer needs, product applicability, and maturity of the technology used. A formal project selection process is described and the selection criteria are defined. The concept of {open_quotes}production readiness{close_quotes} is introduced, along with a summary of the project requirements and deliverables to demonstrate production readiness.

Ma, Kwok Kee

1993-06-01

58

Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June

Mattus

2003-01-01

59

Fissile Material Stockpiles and Production, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents estimates of global and national stockpiles of highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium based on the 2008 Global Fissile Material Report by the International Panel on Fissile Materials. The global stockpile of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is estimated to be 1670 ± 300 tons. It is declining as Russia and the United States blend down about 40

Alexander Glaser; Zia Mian

2008-01-01

60

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

Destruction., United S.

61

The use of depleted uranium ammunition under contemporary international law: is there a need for a treaty-based ban on DU weapons?  

PubMed

This article examines whether the use of Depleted Uranium (DU) munitions can be considered illegal under current public international law. The analysis covers the law of arms control and focuses in particular on international humanitarian law. The article argues that DU ammunition cannot be addressed adequately under existing treaty based weapon bans, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, due to the fact that DU does not meet the criteria required to trigger the applicability of those treaties. Furthermore, it is argued that continuing uncertainties regarding the effects of DU munitions impedes a reliable review of the legality of their use under various principles of international law, including the prohibition on employing indiscriminate weapons; the prohibition on weapons that are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment; and the prohibition on causing unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. All of these principles require complete knowledge of the effects of the weapon in question. Nevertheless, the author argues that the same uncertainty places restrictions on the use of DU under the precautionary principle. The paper concludes with an examination of whether or not there is a need for--and if so whether there is a possibility of achieving--a Convention that comprehensively outlaws the use, transfer and stockpiling of DU weapons, as proposed by some non-governmental organisations (NGOs). PMID:21314080

Borrmann, Robin

2010-01-01

62

The Threat of Low-Yield Earth-Penetrating Nuclear Weapons to Civilian Populations: Nuclear \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of a new generation of low-yield nuclear earth-penetrating weapons (EPWs), such as modified versions of the B61-11 currently in the US stockpile, claim that such weapons could be used against deeply buried and hardened underground bunkers with \\

Victor W. Sidel; H. Jack Geiger; Herbert L. Abrams; Robert W. Nelson; John Loretz

2003-01-01

63

Big Projects Could Threaten Weapons Labs' Research Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every few seconds, a mushroom cloud explodes on Paul Cunningham`s Computer screen. The unsettling image is a screen saver in the office of the chief of nuclear materials and stockpile management at Los Alamos National Laboratory - and a wry reminder of the radical changes underway at the three US weapons labs. Now that the US has renounced underground nuclear

Andrew Lawler

1996-01-01

64

Reliability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In essence, reliability is the consistency of test results. To understand the meaning of reliability and how it relates to validity, imagine going to an airport to take flight #007 from Pittsburgh to San Diego. If, every time the airplane makes the flight

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

65

Reliable  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is concerned with the reliable H? output feedback control problem against actuator failures for a class of uncertain discrete time-delay systems with randomly occurred nonlinearities (RONs). The failures of actuators are quantified by a variable varying in a given interval. RONs are introduced to model a class of sector-like nonlinearities that occur in a probabilistic way according to

Yisha Liu; Zidong Wang; Wei Wang

2011-01-01

66

16 CFR 1205.7 - Prohibited stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARD FOR WALK-BEHIND POWER LAWN MOWERS The Standard § 1205.7 Prohibited...Prohibited acts. Stockpiling of power lawn mowers that do not comply with this...Base period. The base period for power lawn mowers is, at the option of each...

2010-01-01

67

Observations on Test Stockpiles of Dried Lignite and Subbituminous Coals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dried low rank coal stockpiles were monitored from 1974 to 1980. Moisture content, heating value, and pile temperature have shown little change since compaction. All indications are that dried coal can be stockpiled for extended periods. (ERA citation 06:...

S. A. Cooley L. E. Paulson R. C. Ellman

1980-01-01

68

Science and Technology Review: The State of the Stockpile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue contains the following articles: (1) 'National Security Is Our Unifying Theme.' (2) 'Annual Certification Takes a Snapshot of Stockpile's Health.' The annual assessment of the stockpile is central to Livermore's mission and vital to national nu...

2001-01-01

69

Technical basis for chemical stockpile emergency planning  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program, an Accident Planning Base Review Group (APBRG) was convened in December 1992. The APBRG`s mission was to update the accident basis for protective action strategy planning in the vicinity of eight US chemical agent stockpile sites. The results of the APBRG`s work are being issued as site-specific Emergency Planning Guides (EPGs). The EPGs give emergency planners--Army, State, and local--updated assessment of the chemical hazard and guidance on how to plan for a broad range of accidents by planning for a manageable number of accident categories. This paper addresses: (1) the rationale for updating the accident planning base; (2) the modeling methodology used to assess the chemical hazard; and (3) strategies that are advocated in the EPGs for the use of models by planners.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Paddock, R.A.; Absil, M.J.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.

1995-06-01

70

Sandia Human Factors Program for Weapon Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sandia Laboratories human factors program for weapon development is based primarily on Man-Machine Systems Analysis (including Task Analysis) and the Sandia human reliability model (THERP-Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction). Application of thes...

A. D. Swain

1976-01-01

71

Polymeric materials replacement issues for the LANL stockpile.  

SciTech Connect

A number of materials in the LANL stockpile are no longer available due to lack of availability or environment, safety and health issues. Silastic S-5370 a polysiloxane foam used to manufacture multiple components in LANL systems has been discontinued by Dow Corning. Kerimid 601 is a polyimide resin used as the binder for the syntactic foam used as a support material in the W76. It contains MDA, which has been identified by OSHA as a carcinogen and is no longer used in the nuclear weapons complex. In addition, the Thornel carbon mat used in the syntactic foam formulation is no longer available. These issues have created major challenges in the effort to reestablish aft support production capability for the W76 LEP. Urethane Encapsulant 7200, an adhesive used to bond explosive booster pellets and detonator components, was originally manufactured by Hexcel Corporation and is no longer available. The details of the projects currently underway to provide replacements for these materials will be discussed.

Sandoval, C. W. (Cynthia W.); Gladysz, G. M. (Gary M.); Stephens, T. S. (Thomas S.); Gleiman, S. S. (Seth S.); Mendoza, D. (Daniel); Baker, G. K. (G. Keith); Schoonover, J. R. (Jon R.); Schneider, Jim; Perry, B. (Brian); Lula, J. W.

2002-01-01

72

New technologies and the role of nuclear weapons in national-security strategy. Volume 8. S3 (safety, security, and survivability) concerns and primitive nuclear powers. A concept paper. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts an initial look at the potential roles of Safety, Security, and Survivability (S3) concerns in the design of the nuclear stockpiles of nascent nuclear powers. It address such issues as the influence of S3 concerns on a country's weapons design, its weapons-control system, its incentives to seek nuclear weapons in the first place, and the risks of

Brody

1983-01-01

73

Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

Mattus, CH

2003-12-30

74

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Rongrui Wang

1993-01-01

75

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Wang, Rongrui

1993-07-01

76

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01

77

Plutonium: Aging mechanisms and weapon pit lifetime assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for future refurbishment and manufacturing needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex critically depends on credible estimates for component lifetimes. One of the most important of these components is the pit, that portion of the weapon that contains the fissile element plutonium. The U.S. government has proposed construction of a new Modern Pit Facility, and a key variable in planning both the size and schedule for this facility is the minimum estimated lifetime for stockpile pits. This article describes the current understanding of aging effects in plutonium, provides a lifetime estimate range, and outlines in some detail methodology that will improve this estimate over the next few years.

Martz, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Adam J.

2003-09-01

78

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the way other major powers view their nuclear capability. Finally, and though of less cosmic importance, it will save money in the long run.

Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

79

Stockpiling Supplies for the Next Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems.

Magalian, Paul D.; Hollingsworth, Mary Kay; Baracco, Gio

2009-01-01

80

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

81

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

SciTech Connect

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-01-01

82

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

83

Excess weapons plutonium: How to reduce a clear and present danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons offers immeasurable benefits for the security of the United States and the world. But it is also creating a daunting new security challenge: controlling the risks of theft, proliferation and reversal of ongoing arms reductions posed by the growing U.S. and Russian stockpiles of excess separated plutonium

J. P. Holdren; J. F. Ahearne; R. L. Garwin

1996-01-01

84

Fixed denial system for access control of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Fixed Denial System (FDS) is a simple, low cost, vertical, underground silo used to store individual nuclear weapons within secured areas of present storage sites. The normal storage position of each weapon is at or near the top of the shaft, allowing rapid operational weapon access and removal. In response to a threat, the weapon within a storage canister can be dropped to the bottom of the shaft where it is automatically locked in place. Once the alert condition is resolved and control of the site reestablished, the weapon canister is unlocked with a coded signal and retrieved. This system offers a high degree of hardening and access denial that is characteristic of Vertical Underground Storage (VUGS) systems. An aboveground test apparatus was constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a pneumatic air cushion, which is generated by the free-fall of the weapon container, to control impact velocity and descent time. Stockpile weapons that might be stored in the FDS include the W33, W48, W79, and the W54 ADM.

Willan, V.O.; Gustafson, E.C.

1981-12-01

85

Requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts are discussed. This paper addresses third generation nuclear weapons, and the advance workshop literature describes third generation nuclear weapons as including earth penetrating warheads (EPWs) and maneuvering reentry vehicles (MARVs), as well as nuclear directed energy weapons (NDEWs). A historical context for the evolution of advanced nuclear weapon concepts is presented, discussing the types of advanced concepts and how they differ from conventional nuclear weapons currently in the stockpile. The policy context for doing R D on nuclear directed energy weapons and how this R D relates to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is discussed. Some military requirements for the various advanced concepts and discuss potential missions are provided, indicating the potential advantages and disadvantages of the various applications. Arms control and stability considerations as they relate to the development of advanced concepts and the implications of the rapidly changing political relationships between the US and the Soviets, and between their respective allies are also discussed.

Brown, P.S.

1990-01-15

86

Cost-Benefit of Stockpiling Drugs for Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

We analyzed strategies for the use of stockpiled antiviral drugs in the context of a future influenza pandemic and estimated cost-benefit ratios. Current stockpiling of oseltamivir appears to be cost-saving to the economy under several treatment strategies, including therapeutic treatment of patients and postexposure prophylactic treatment of patients' close contacts.

Huerta, Michael; Davidovitch, Nadav; Grotto, Itamar

2005-01-01

87

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity  

SciTech Connect

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC sought technical assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define and quantify the management options for the thorium nitrate stockpile. This paper describes methodologies and results comprising the work in Phase 1 and Phase 2. The results allow the DNSC to structure and schedule needed tasks to ensure continued safe long-term storage and/or phased disposal of the stockpile.

Hermes, W. H.; Hylton, T. D.; Mattus, C.H.; Storch, S. N.; Singley, P.S.; Terry. J. W.; Pecullan, M.; Reilly, F. K.

2003-02-26

88

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

89

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13

90

Science Based Stockpile Stewardship, Uncertainty Quantification, and Surrogate Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the thermonuclear yield of a device was often inferred through the use of radiochemical detectors. Conversion of the detector activations observed to thermonuclear yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Surrogate nuclear reactions at STARS/LIBERACE offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable nuclei and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One radiochemical detector that was loaded in devices was mono-isotopic yttrium ({sup 89}Y). Nuclear reactions produced {sup 87}Y and {sup 88}Y which could be quantified post-shot as a ratio of {sup 87}Y/{sup 88}Y. The yttrium cross-section set from 1988 is shown in Figure 1(a) and contains approximately 62 cross-sections interconnecting the yttrium nuclides. The 6 experimentally measured cross-sections are shown in Figure 1(b). Any measurement of cross-sections on {sup 87}Y or {sup 88}Y would improve the quality of the cross-section set. A recent re-evaluation of the yttrium cross-section set was performed with many more calculated reaction cross-sections included.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D P; Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A

2009-08-06

91

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

92

Science based stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification, and fission fragment beams  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. The extent to which underground experimental data can be matched with simulations is one measure of the credibility of our capability to predict weapon performance. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the fission yield of a device was often determined by measuring fission products. Conversion of the measured fission products to yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable neutron-rich fission fragments and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One of the fission products measured was {sup 95}Zr, the accumulation of all mass 95 fission products of Y, Sr, Rb and Kr (see Fig. 1). Subsequent neutron-induced reactions on these short lived fission products were assumed to cancel out - in other words, the destruction of mass 95 nuclides was more or less equal to the production of mass 95 nuclides. If a {sup 95}Sr was destroyed by an (n,2n) reaction it was also produced by (n,2n) reactions on {sup 96}Sr, for example. However, since these nuclides all have fairly short half-lives (seconds to minutes or even less), no experimental nuclear reaction cross-sections exist, and only theoretically modeled cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity, should the beam intensity be sufficient, to measure cross-sections on a few important nuclides in order to benchmark the theoretical calculations and significantly improve the nuclear data. The nuclides in Fig. 1 are prioritized by importance factor and displayed in stoplight colors, green the highest and red the lowest priority.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D; Burke, J; Bernstein, L A; Wu, C Y

2009-09-14

93

DOD Rental of Defense National Stockpile Center Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a memorandum dated December 19, 1991, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Production and logistics) requested that an audit be made of costs associated with renting Defense National Stockpile Center facilities from the General Services Ad...

D. K. Steensma R. B. Jolliffe G. A. Hopper E. L. Grimm M. E. Avers

1993-01-01

94

Turveaumojen lentovalvonta laempoekameralla. (Supervision of peat stockpiles using aerial thermography).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thus work concerns the technical and economic feasibility of aerial infrared thermography for observing spontaneous heat generation in peat stockpiles. The theoretical section is concerned with the physical basis of heat radiation, the measuring instrumen...

M. Tervo

1990-01-01

95

Stockpile levels for pediatric vaccines: how much is enough?  

PubMed

In recent years, several factors have led to pediatric vaccine manufacturers experiencing vaccine production interruptions that resulted in vaccine supply shortages. One unfortunate consequence of such events is that not all children in the United States could be vaccinated on time, as set forth by the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule, and hence, created the potential for epidemic outbreaks of several childhood diseases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have responded to such events by releasing vaccine supplies from the national pediatric vaccine stockpiles, which were designed to mitigate the impact of vaccine production interruptions. This paper analyzes the CDC-proposed vaccine stockpile levels using a stochastic inventory model. The results from this analysis examine the adequacy of the proposed pediatric vaccine stockpile levels, as well as provide insights into what the appropriate pediatric vaccine stockpile levels should be to achieve prespecified vaccination coverage rates. Given that the average pediatric vaccine production interruption has lasted more than 1 year, the model is used to compute appropriate pediatric vaccine stockpile levels sufficient to absorb the effect of such vaccine production interruptions. The level of funding needed to create such pediatric vaccine stockpile levels is also reported. PMID:16522344

Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C; Proano, Ruben A; Jokela, Janet A

2006-04-24

96

Dose reduction through automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War and the subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need. To compensate for this excess an estimated 20,000 nuclear warheads have been earmarked for dismantlement and storage at the Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It is

D. A. Thompson; J. W. Poston

1996-01-01

97

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

98

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

99

Concealed Weapon Detection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses various Concealed Weapon Detection (CWD) efforts and technologies which have evolved over the past few years. Information provided in this final technical report summarized programs being pursued based on National Institute of Justic...

D. R. Rauscher M. P. Hartnett

1998-01-01

100

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

101

Investigating disease outbreaks under a protocol to the biological and toxin weapons convention.  

PubMed Central

The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, and stockpiling of biological weapons agents or delivery devices for anything other than peaceful purposes. A protocol currently in the final stages of negotiation adds verification measures to the convention. One of these measures will be international investigation of disease outbreaks that suggest a violation of the convention, i.e., outbreaks that may be caused by use of biological weapons or release of harmful agents from a facility conducting prohibited work. Adding verification measures to the current Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention will affect the international public health and epidemiology communities; therefore, active involvement of these communities in planning the implementation details of the protocol will be important.

Wheelis, M.

2000-01-01

102

Chemical weapons convention: Will it assure the end of chemical warfare. Study project report  

SciTech Connect

After more than a generation of negotiations, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) has completed a draft treaty banning the development, production, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons (CW). Unfortunately, despite all the successful work put into the CWC it will not, and cannot assure a permanent halt to chemical warfare. This paper analyzes the merits of having a CWC treaty to thwart chemical weapons proliferation. It will offer a way to strengthen the verification regime. Finally, from this analysis, the paper reaches conclusions concerning what CW policy best supports US national interests.

Cain, E.; Walsh, M.W.

1993-02-22

103

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-07-01

104

NEAR REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS, ANOTHER ASTD SUCCESS STORY.  

SciTech Connect

As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil, contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials and heavy metals, remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project, co-funded by the BNL Environmental Management Directorate and the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. Project objectives were to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles, ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}, were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpiles'' after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2 inch screen removed gravel and almost all non-conforming items, which were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a subpile. Eight samples plus QA duplicates were collected from each subpile for chemical analysis, and a 1-Liter jar of material for gamma spectroscopy. A field lab equipped for chemical analysis and gamma spectroscopy was set up in a trailer close by the stockpile site. Chemical analysis included X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to screen for high (>260 ppm) total mercury concentrations, and modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests to verify that the soils were not RCRA hazardous. The modified (1/10th scale) TCLP tests minimized secondary (leachate) waste and maximized tumbler capacity and sample throughput. TCLP leachate analysis was accomplished using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80). Gamma spectroscopy provided verification of previously measured Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60 contamination levels. After analyses were completed and reviewed, the stockpiles were reconstructed for later disposal as discrete entities within a disposal site profile. The ASTD field laboratory completed more than 2,500 analyses of total Hg (XRF) and TCLP/DMA analyses over an 18-week period. Reliable statistical verification was accomplished for more than 98% of the stockpile sub-piles; for most sub-piles, TCLP analyses were completed within two days. This enhanced level of confidence in soil characterization was accomplished at a cost far below equivalent baseline techniques. One of the most significant aspects of the project success was schedule acceleration. The original schedule projected activities extending from early April until September 30. Due to efficiency and reliability of the vibratory screening operation and cooperative, dry summer weather, stockpile reconstruction was completed in the third week of August. Reduction of the planned sample collection rate, from three samples per 5 yd{sup 3} to two, resulted in further schedule acceleration. The resulting sample frequency, however, was still 22 times greater than the baseline frequency (one per 55 yd{sup 3}).

BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

2003-02-23

105

Stockpiled Forage Kochia to Maintain Beef Cows During Winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending grazing into the winter, as opposed to feeding of harvested forages, can increase the sustainability of ranching in the western US. This study was conducted to determine the economic value of grazing stockpiled forage kochia (Kochia prostrata (L.) Scrad.) and crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. Ex Link) Schultes) during the fall and winter. Changes in cow body weight, body

Blair L. Waldron; Dale R. ZoBell; Kenneth C. Olson; Kevin B. Jensen; Donald L. Snyder

2006-01-01

106

Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

2004-05-01

107

Making weapons, talking peace  

SciTech Connect

The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle.

York, H.F.

1987-01-01

108

New blast weapons.  

PubMed

Over the last decade a large number of weapon systems have appeared that use blast as their primary damage mechanism. This is a notable trend; until recently very few warheads relied on blast as their primary output. Most warheads in service use explosives to drive metal such as fragments and shaped charge jets to engage targets. New technologies are now being integrated into warheads that claim to have enhanced blast performance. Blast weapons could have been designed to fill a gap in capability; they are generally used for the attack of 'soft' targets including personnel, both in the open and within protective structures. With the increased number and range of these weapons, it is likely that UK forces will have to face them in future conflicts. This paper briefly describes fuel-air explosive blast weapons and reviews a range of enhanced blast weapons that have been developed recently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the reasons why enhanced blast technologies may be proliferating and how this could affect the Defence Medical Services. PMID:11307681

Dearden, P

2001-02-01

109

Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others] and others

1995-02-01

110

Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.  

PubMed

The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system. PMID:22523138

Anderson, Peter D

2012-04-01

111

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

112

Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis of the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear s...

1996-01-01

113

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass Army Depot (BGAD), located outside Richmond, Kentucky. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at BGAD. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-05-02

114

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal.  

SciTech Connect

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA), located outside Pine Bluff, Arkansas. This volume presents technical and process information on each of the destruction technologies applicable to treatment of the specific ACW stored at PBA. The destruction technologies described are those that have been demonstrated as part of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) selection process (see Volume 1).

Kimmell, T.; Folga, S., Frey, G.; Molberg, J.; Kier, P.; Templin, B.; Goldberg, M.

2001-05-04

115

Numerical Simulation of Chemical Weapon Detonations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Huntsville Engineering and Support Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is currently involved in the location, removal, and demilitarization of stockpiled and non-stockpiled chemical munitions. To support the development of safe, efficient, and cost-...

D. J. Stevens I. J. Serena

1996-01-01

116

Weaponeering the Future: Direct Energy Weapons Effectiveness Now and Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Direct Energy weapons can exist on the battlefield of today, and the warfighter needs to know what Probability of Damage these weapons can attain. Currently, the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual calculates a Single Sortie Probability of Damage for con...

C. F. Fager

2007-01-01

117

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons useable fissile materials. Final report, March-June 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium), much of which is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union, is a clear and present danger to international society. Given the widespread availability of the materials and technology for bomb making, the ever increasing amounts of fissile materials is highly susceptible to theft or

1995-01-01

118

Cyber Weapons Convention  

Microsoft Academic Search

World leaders are beginning to look beyond temporary fixes to the challenge of securing the Internet. One possible solution may be an international arms control treaty for cyberspace. The 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) provides national security planners with a useful model. CWC has been ratified by 98% of the world’s governments, and encompasses 95% of the world’s population. It

Kenneth Geers

2010-01-01

119

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

120

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

121

Weapon Storage Technology Demonstration Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of the Weapon Storage Technology Demonstration Facility is to (1) improve monitoring of weapons storage facility security status, (2) to improve detection of unauthorized access into the storage facilities, and (3) enhance inventory accounting o...

G. A. Mann A. Sviridov K. Zimovets

2000-01-01

122

Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis  

SciTech Connect

This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

NONE

1997-12-01

123

Ethics and nuclear weapons research  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons are the ultimate weapons. Hence, many believe that in the realm of military research and development, research on nuclear weapons represents the ultimate. Those of us involved in nuclear weapon research are frequently asked why we do what we do, rather than get involved in the more ''peaceful'' endeavors open to scientists and engineers. There is a variety of answers to this question. 15 refs.

Brown, P.S.

1989-01-20

124

Army pushes new weapons effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is conducting research for a directed energy weapons program which is to provide particle beam and high-energy laser weapons for ballistic missile defense in the late 1980s. A space-based neutral beam weapon and a ground-based charged particle device are being considered. The feasibility of a space-based laser weapon system is also explored. A ground-based technology demonstration program

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

125

Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software  

SciTech Connect

This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

2007-05-02

126

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

Maaranen, S.A.

1996-07-01

127

Methods for measuring the oil-import reduction premium and the oil-stockpile premium. [Use of stockpile model  

SciTech Connect

Near-term energy vulnerability from oil-supply disruptions and overdependence on oil imports are discussed in terms of two premiums: the oil stockpile and oil import reduction. Quantifying these two premiums in terms of benefit will have policy significance because they measure the optimal rate for filling a stockpile and the value per barrel of reducing oil imports. An economic analysis of the two premiums is derived for normal years, compared with disruption years, and examined again for the period following disruption years. The analysis considers the micro- and macro-economic gross national product gains for monopsony buying power and the expected disruption loss avoided to derive the total departure from perfect markets and their policy implications. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

Plummer, J.L.

1981-01-01

128

Modular weapon control unit  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Modular Weapon Control Unit (MWCU) program was to design and develop a reconfigurable weapon controller (programmer/sequencer) that can be adapted to different weapon systems based on the particular requirements for that system. Programmers from previous systems are conceptually the same and perform similar tasks. Because of this commonality and the amount of re-engineering necessary with the advent of every new design, the idea of a modular, adaptable system has emerged. Also, the controller can be used in more than one application for a specific weapon system. Functionality has been divided into a Processor Module (PM) and an Input/Output Module (IOM). The PM will handle all operations that require calculations, memory, and timing. The IOM will handle interfaces to the rest of the system, input level shifting, output drive capability, and detection of interrupt conditions. Configuration flexibility is achieved in two ways. First, the operation of the PM is determined by a surface mount Read-Only Memory (ROM). Other surface-mount components can be added or neglected as necessary for functionality. Second, IOMs consist of configurable input buffers, configurable output drivers, and configurable interrupt generation. Further, these modules can be added singly or in groups to a Processor Module to achieve the required I/O configuration. The culmination of this LDRD was the building of both Processor Module and Input/Output Module. The MWCU was chosen as a test system to evaluate Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) technology, desirable for high component density and good thermal characteristics.

Boccabella, M.F.; McGovney, G.N.

1997-01-01

129

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

130

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig; Lane, David M.

2009-03-06

131

Third-generation nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons would be as removed from current nuclear weapons in terms of military effectiveness as a rifle is technologically distant from gunpowder. It would be logical for a weapon designer to build on the legacy of the first- and second-generation nuclear weapons, all of which transform mass into an abundance of energy that is then uniformly dissipated in a roughly spherical pattern. Such a new generation of nuclear weapons might selectively enhance or suppress certain types of energy from the vast energy source provided by a nuclear explosion. Moreover, the lethal effects of a selected energy carrier (such as electromagnetic radiation, subatomic particles or expelled material) might be increased by distorting its normal pattern of emission into a highly asymmetrical one - in essence concentrating the energy in a certain direction. Indeed, nuclear weapons that deliver 1000 or more times the energy per unit area on a target than does a conventional nuclear weapon are entirely plausible. 9 figures.

Taylor, T.B.)

1987-04-01

132

Modeling the national pediatric vaccine stockpile: Supply shortages, health impacts and cost consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric vaccine stockpiles have been in place in the U.S. since 1983 to address the potential disruption in supply of routine pediatric vaccines. Increases in the number of vaccines recommended for pediatric and adolescent patients have increased the cost of stocking and maintaining the stockpile. Based on a spreadsheet-based model (VacStockpile) we developed, we estimated potential supply shortages of 14

Sundar S. Shrestha; Gregory S. Wallace; Martin I. Meltzer

2010-01-01

133

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When 'The Effects of Atomic Weapons' was published in 1950, the explosive energy yields of the fission bombs available at that time were equivalent to some thousands of tons (i.e., kilotons) of TNT. With the development of thermonuclear (fusion) weapons, ...

P. J. Dolan S. Glasstone

1977-01-01

134

Future of Nuclear Weapon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The next few years will bring decisions that are critical for the future of the nation's nuclear weapons program and for the role of the national weapons laboratories. To meet this challenge, the United States needs to develop both a clear, cohesive, nati...

G. H. Miller P. S. Brown P. T. Herman R. D. Neifert P. L. Chrzanowski

1988-01-01

135

Investigating Concurrency in Weapons Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concurrency in a weapons program -- the actual production of the weapons system while some portions of the design are still being completed -- has been a topic of debate for decades. While there have been some investigations into certain programs that poi...

D. Birchler E. Groo G. Christle

2010-01-01

136

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

2001-01-01

137

Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of sewage sludge that are dried and then often stored in biosolid stockpiles in treatment plants. Because the biosolids are rich in decomposable organic matter they could be a significant source for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yet there are no direct measurements of GHG from stockpiles. We therefore measured the direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a monthly basis from three different age classes of biosolid stockpiles at the Western Treatment Plant (WTP), Melbourne, Australia, from December 2009 to November 2011 using manual static chambers. All biosolid stockpiles were a significant point source for CH4 and N2O emissions. The youngest biosolids (<1 year old) had the greatest CH4 and N2O emissions of 60.2 kg of CO2-e per Mg of biosolid per year. Stockpiles that were between 1 and 3 years old emitted less overall GHG (?29 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)) and the oldest stockpiles emitted the least GHG (?10 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)). Methane emissions were negligible in all stockpiles but the relative contribution of N2O and CO2 changed with stockpile age. The youngest stockpile emitted two thirds of the GHG emission as N2O, while the 1-3 year old stockpile emitted an equal amount of N2O and CO2 and in the oldest stockpile CO2 emissions dominated. We did not detect any seasonal variability of GHG emissions and did not observe a correlation between GHG flux and environmental variables such as biosolid temperature, moisture content or nitrate and ammonium concentration. We also modeled CH4 emissions based on a first order decay model and the model based estimated annual CH4 emissions were higher as compared to the direct field based estimated annual CH4 emissions. Our results indicate that labile organic material in stockpiles is decomposed over time and that nitrogen decomposition processes lead to significant N2O emissions. Carbon decomposition favors CO2 over CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. PMID:24835360

Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

2014-10-01

138

Biological Weapons--The Poor Man's Nuke.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There ...

B. R. Schneider T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

139

Chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program (CSEPP) recovery plan workbook.  

SciTech Connect

The Recovery Plan Workbook is designed for use by U.S. Army chemical installations and state and local authorities who participate in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). The workbook includes a model recovery plan that provides a template for preparation of an integrated CSEPP recovery plan. The workbook also provides background, explanatory, and reference materials to aid planners. The model plan provides a general example and framework for planning but is not complete without input from the local CSEPP community. Each chemical stockpile location has site-specific needs, resources, and organizational differences that will shape recovery planning. Therefore, the purpose of the model plan, in part, is to raise questions that installation, state, and local planners will have to answer to develop a site-specific recovery plan. It is recommended that a single, overarching recovery plan be developed to coordinate the activities of the installation, state, and local jurisdictions at a given site. As stated in Planning Guidance for the CSEPP, Appendix M, ''The reentry/restoration plan should be integrated and coordinated among the Army installation and other state and local jurisdictions in the IRZ and PAZ.'' The integrated approach is more efficient from a planning perspective (compared to separate, parallel plans for each jurisdiction) and will facilitate coordination among the organizations. To be effective, many aspects of recovery must also be coordinated. For example, if several jurisdictions submit competing requests to the Army for monitoring services, confusion might result, and some important monitoring activities might be delayed. A coordinated plan would ensure that monitoring is conducted in proper order of priority. A single integrated recovery plan can be designed to accommodate the decision-making prerogatives of all included organizations. Jurisdiction-specific annexes may be appropriate in some cases to accommodate the unique needs of particular jurisdictions.

Lerner, K.; Yantosik, G.; Vasco, M.B.; Motz, L.

2003-07-30

140

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

141

Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P. F.; Schenk, G.A.

2001-01-01

142

Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

1993-03-01

143

Generalized Weapon Target Assignment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dynamic command and control and battle management functions require fast and effective decision aids to provide optimal allocation of resources (object/sensor pairing, weapon/target assignment) for effective engagement and real-time battle damage assessme...

A. Yucel H. S. Hwang J. M. Rosenberger R. L. Wilson R. P. Pallerla

2005-01-01

144

Theoretical Principles of Torpedo Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains the theoretical fundamentals of present-day torpedo weapons: dynamics, destructive effect, proximity fuzes, gas-steam energy sources and engines, electric energy sources and motors, guidance control and homing systems.

A. I. Nosov G. M. Podobrii V. S. Beloborodyi V. V. Khalimonov

1976-01-01

145

Provisioning an Aircraft Weapons System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research reviews the elements and stages of the provisioning cycle and describes the provisioning model used by the United States Navy Aviation Supply Office to select a repair parts inventory for an operational site supporting a new aircraft weapons ...

R. B. Renner

1975-01-01

146

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

SciTech Connect

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by customary international law, attempts by opposing states to establish illegality through declarations fall short of an effectively shared strategy. The author concludes that we must use the time that deterrence permits to forcefully promote policies optimizing the claims of people for human dignity rather than focusing on the fruitless search to make nuclear weapons illegal.

Almond, H.H. Jr.

1985-05-01

147

32 CFR 234.10 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 234.10 Section 234.10 National...THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.10 Weapons. (a) Except as otherwise authorized...are prohibited: (1) Possessing a weapon. (2) Carrying a weapon....

2013-07-01

148

Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.  

PubMed

Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

2010-06-11

149

Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

Ozdeniz, H [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

150

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

151

Excess weapons plutonium: How to reduce a clear and present danger  

SciTech Connect

The ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons offers immeasurable benefits for the security of the United States and the world. But it is also creating a daunting new security challenge: controlling the risks of theft, proliferation and reversal of ongoing arms reductions posed by the growing U.S. and Russian stockpiles of excess separated plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). As some of us warned three years ago in the first volume of a two-part National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study of this issue, these materials pose a {open_quotes}clear and present danger to national and international security.{close_quotes} It is vital that these stockpiles be safely and securely transformed as quickly as possible into forms much harder to use for bomb building. Doing so will reduce the danger of theft of the materials for weapons use by rogue states or terroists and will create significant barriers against its reincorporation into U.S. and Russian arsenals. This action, which will send a signal to the world that the United States and Russia do not intend to reuse these materials, will improve prospects for further nuclear arms reductions and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime. 2 figs.

Holdren, J.P.; Ahearne, J.F.; Garwin, R.L. [and others

1996-11-01

152

Is this the time for a high-energy laser weapon program?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) has made large investments weaponizing laser technology for air defense. Despite billions of dollars spent, there has not been a successful transition of a high-energy laser (HEL) weapon from the lab to the field. Is the dream of a low-cost-per-shot, deep-magazine, speed-of-light HEL weapon an impossible dream or a set of technologies that are ready to emerge on the modern battlefield? Because of the rapid revolution taking place in modern warfare that is making conventional defensive weapons very expensive relative to the offensive weapons systems, the pull for less expensive air defense may necessitate a HEL weapon system. Also, due to the recent technological developments in solid-state lasers (SSL), especially fiber lasers, used throughout manufacturing for cutting and welding, a HEL weapon finally may be able to meet all the requirements of ease of use, sustainability, and reliability. Due to changes in warfare and SSL technology advances, the era of HEL weapons isn't over; it may be just starting if DoD takes an evolutionary approach to fielding a HEL weapon. The U.S. Navy, with its large ships and their available electric power, should lead the way.

Kiel, David H.

2013-02-01

153

Acoustic Analysis of Plutonium and Nuclear Weapon Components at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary missions of Los Alamos National Laboratory is to use science based techniques to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile of the United States. As such we use numerous NDE techniques to monitor materials and systems properties in weapons. Two techniques will be discussed in this presentation, Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) and Acoustic Emission (AE). ARS is used to observe manufacturing variations or changes in the plutonium containing component (pit) of the weapon system. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons can be used to determine variation in the pit components. Piezoelectric transducer driven acoustic resonance experiments will be described along with initial qualitative and more complex analysis and comparison techniques derived from earthquake analysis performed at LANL. Similarly, AE is used to measure the time of arrival of acoustic signals created by mechanical events that can occur in nuclear weapon components. Both traditional time of arrival techniques and more advanced techniques are used to pinpoint the location and type of acoustic emission event. Similar experiments on tensile tests of brittle phases of plutonium metal will be described.

Saleh, T. A.; Reynolds, J. J.; Rowe, C. A.; Freibert, F. J.; Ten Cate, J. A.; Ulrich, T. J.; Farrow, A. M.

2012-12-01

154

Weapons proliferation and organized crime: The Russian military and security force dimension  

SciTech Connect

One dimension of international security of the post-Cold War era that has not received enough attention is how organized crime facilitates weapons proliferation worldwide. The former Soviet Union (FSU) has emerged as the world`s greatest counterproliferation challenge. It contains the best developed links among organized crime, military and security organizations, and weapons proliferation. Furthermore, Russian military and security forces are the principle source of arms becoming available to organized crime groups, participants in regional conflict, and corrupt state officials engaged in the black, gray, and legal arms markets in their various dimensions. The flourishing illegal trade in conventional weapons is the clearest and most tangible manifestation of the close links between Russian power ministries and criminal organizations. The magnitude of the WMD proliferation problem from the FSU is less clear and less tangible. There have been many open reports of small-scale fissile material smuggling out of the FSU. The situation with regard to the proliferation of chemical weapon usually receives less attention but may be more serious. With an acknowledged stockpile of 40,000 metric tons of chemical agents, the potential for proliferation is enormous.

Turbiville, G.H.

1996-06-01

155

Strategic and Critical Non-Fuel Materials and the National Defense Stockpile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since June of 1988, the Institute for Defense Analyses has been assisting the Department of Defense in developing a systematic process to estimate U.S. stockpile requirements for strategic and critical materials. This annotated briefing provides a capsule...

J. S. Thomason E. L. Schwartz D. S. Barnett A. J. Tai

1996-01-01

156

62 FR 25587 - National Defense Stockpile Market Impact Committee Request for Public Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Columbium (Ferro), Graphite, and Vanadium Pentoxide in the Fiscal Year (FY) 1997...Columbium (Ferro), Graphite, and Vanadium Pentoxide from the National Defense Stockpile...Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 and (except Vanadium Pentoxide) FY 1998 AMPs. In order...

1997-05-09

157

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950's. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemic...

B. Vogt J. Sorensen C. Coomer B. Shumpert H. Hardee

1998-01-01

158

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

159

Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.  

PubMed

To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs. PMID:20236719

Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

2010-05-01

160

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

Chang, Yu W.; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

1997-02-01

161

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

162

Validation of piezoelectric measurement system for weapon firing pin percussion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional reliability of a service firearm is essential. A failure to fire at a critical moment could lead to disastrous consequences. The firing pin of a weapon must hit the primer hard enough to ascertain reliable detonation of the primer which then ignites the powder. Depths of firing pin created indent on an inert primer and on a copper cylinder

Jorma Jussila

2010-01-01

163

Weapons plutonium: Just can it  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dilemma plaguing the U.S. Energy Department (DOE) in dealing with 50 years of manufacturing nuclear weapons is choosing a way to dispose of surplus warhead plutonium. The Clinton administration pledged in March 1995 to dispose of approximately 200 metric tons of highly enriched uranium and plutonium. It was later disclosed that this included 38.2 tons of plutonium, of which

Lyman

1996-01-01

164

Weapons engineering tritium facility overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20

165

Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to promote an understanding of and research into a new category of weapons, designated nonlethal by military services, and less than lethal or less lethal by law enforcement agencies. The intent is to create an initial term an...

R. J. Bunker

1997-01-01

166

The Soviet Market for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military market places display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but that of the Soviet Union was unusual for its degree of monopoly and exclusive relationships between buyer and seller. This presented a particular problem for the quality of weapons. The present chapter analyses the problem of quality in terms of an issue that is well-known in market economies, the hold-up

Mark Harrison; Andrei Markevich

167

No Recall of Weapon Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for police officers to discharge their weapons in the line of duty yet have no memory of having done so. Case histories of such events are presented. Research on perceptual and memory distortions during critical incidents is reviewed, along with the research on involuntary discharges. Both areas of research offer explanations why it is possible for officers

Alexis Artwohl

2003-01-01

168

Manufacturing high reliability weapon grade transformers in small lots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia has used flyback transformers for many years, primarily to charge capacitors for capacitive discharge units. Important characteristics of the transformer design are to meet inductance, turns ratio, and high voltage breakdown requirements as well as not magnetically saturating during each energy transfer cycle. Sandia has taken over production responsibility for magnetic components from a previous GE\\/LM, General Electric\\/Lockheed Martin,

W. E. Archer; R. O. Sanchez

1998-01-01

169

Weapons: A Report on the Industry 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The weapons industry provides critical support directly to the military element and indirectly to other (e.g., diplomatic, informational, and economic) elements of national power. The industry, with products ranging from nuclear weapons to non-lethal arms...

S. Maybaumwisniewski W. Kreitler L. Kerr J. Laurence

2004-01-01

170

Fire Control Apparatus for a Laser Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenar...

R. H. Worsham

1985-01-01

171

Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory at Pantex: Testing and data handling capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories at the Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Weapons Evaluation Test Laboratory (WETL), operated by Sandia Laboratories at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, is engaged primarily in the testing of weapon systems in the stockpile or of newly produced weapon systems for the Sandia Surety Assessment Center. However, the WETL`s unique testing equipment and data-handling facilities are frequently used to serve other organizations. Service to other organizations includes performing special tests on weapon components, subassemblies, and systems for purposes such as basic development and specific problem investigation. The WETL staff also sends equipment to other laboratories for specific tests that cannot be performed at Pantex. For example, we modified and sent equipment to Brookhaven National Laboratory for testing with their Neutral Particle Beam. WETL supplied the engineering expertise to accomplish the needed modifications to the equipment and the technicians to help perform many special tests at Brookhaven. A variety of testing is possible within the WETL, including: Accelerometer, decelerometer, and G-switch g-level/closure testing; Neutron generator performance testing; weapon systems developmental tests; weapon system component testing; weapon system failure-mode-duplication tests; simultaneity measurements; environmental extreme testing; parachute deployment testing; permissive action link (PAL) testing and trajectory-sensing signal generator (TSSG) testing. WETL`s existing equipment configurations do not restrict the testing performed at the WETL. Equipment and facilities are adapted to specific requirements. The WETL`s facilities can often eliminate the need to build or acquire new test equipment, thereby saving time and expense.

Peters, W.R.

1993-08-01

172

Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Expert System (RAMES)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A RAM modeling, analysis, and decision support system-the Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) Expert System (RAMES)-has been developed to assist a weapon system program manager (SPM) in weapon system RAM performance analysis, master planning of RAM performance enhancements, assessment of RAM enhancement payoffs, and evaluation of mission capability, wartime operational rates, fix rates, and stock level support. These capabilities extend to five levels of indenture within the weapon system from shop replaceable units and line replaceable units to assemblies, subsystems, and systems, and to three levels of maintenance (organizational, intermediate, and depot). RAMES uses standard US Air Force maintenance data systems and compensates for certain anomalies in those systems. Wartime or extreme environment conditions can be factored into the models. In addition, RAMES is designed for integration with life cycle cost analysis and weapon system effectiveness evaluation models for a total weapon system performance analysis capability.

Hansen, Willard A.; Edson, Bruce N.; Larter, Patrick C.

173

Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.  

PubMed

The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

1998-12-13

174

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed? Second, how compliance by adverse can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and to national comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections? Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that weak enforcement mechanism that the treaty will have such a although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the ``balance of terror.`` The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-05-01

175

University Management of Weapons Labs? No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University-based weapons laboratories are often assumed to be objective, scientific organizations with no direct financial stake in a particular weapons system, but they are in fact dependent on weapons systems for their continued funding and existence, sometimes lobbying in violation of federal policy. (MSE)

Archer, Dane

1987-01-01

176

32 CFR 1903.10 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons. 1903.10 Section 1903.10 National...ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.10 Weapons. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...knowingly possessing or causing to be present a weapon on an Agency installation, or...

2013-07-01

177

48 CFR 25.301-3 - Weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons. 25.301-3 Section 25.301-3...Outside the United States 25.301-3 Weapons. The contracting officer shall follow agency procedures and the weapons policy established by the...

2013-10-01

178

Weapons in an Affluent Suburban School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the self-reported violence and weapon carrying behaviors of largely affluent, suburban adolescents in San Francisco, California. Survey data indicated that weapons carrying was a significant issue for these high school students. Predictors of weapon carrying did not differ in comparison to predictors among inner city youth. Distinct…

Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Campanaro, Amy; Pitts, Traci Bice; Steiner, Hans

2002-01-01

179

Overview of directed energy weapon developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In future defence scenarios directed energy weapons are of increasing interest. Therefore national and international R&D programs are increasing their activities on laser and high power microwave technologies in the defence and anti terror areas. The paper gives an overview of the German R&D programmes on directed energy weapons. A solid state medium energy weapon laser (MEL) is investigated at

Th. H. G. G. Weise; M. Jung; D. Langhans; M. Gowin

2004-01-01

180

Eyewitness identification: Simulating the “Weapon effect”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiment investigates the effect of weapons on eyewitness recall and recognition using a new experimental paradigm in which a syringe serves as weapon simulation. Contrary to previous weapon manipulations using slides or films of armed targets, the syringe paradigm is personally threatening to the subject. In a 2×2 design, 86 nonpsychology students were approached by an experimenter who

Anne Maass; Günther Köhnken

1989-01-01

181

Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries` military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities.

Jardine, L.J.

1997-01-01

182

Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

183

Historical Nuclear Weapons Test Films  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the product of a recent joint effort between the US Department of Energy and Department of Defense to declassify films on the nuclear weapons program, place them on videotape, and make them publicly available. Taken as a whole, the films document the history of nuclear weapon development in the US, beginning with the first bomb tested at Trinity Site in southeastern New Mexico in July 1945. As the site notes, while portions of these films were previously released, this is the first time the films have ever been edited for declassification and public release. The films are grouped in five sections, with listings giving operation name date, length of film, and format (color or black and white). Clicking on an individual entry for a film brings up a two-paragraph description and short clips in .mpeg and RealPlayer format, the latter offering four connection speed choices. Video purchase information is provided at the site.

184

RADIOCARBON FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution in time and space of C 1 from the 196.1-1962 nuclear weapons tests of the U.S. and the USSR is used as a tracer for atmospheric mixing phenomena and exchange of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the sea. The mean residence time of Cinjected into the stratosphere by the tests or produced by cosmic rays is about

James A. Young; A. W. Fairhall

1968-01-01

185

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

SciTech Connect

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

Latter, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Martinelli, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

186

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials  

SciTech Connect

Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

Roberts, G.B.

1996-02-01

187

Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster. PMID:24901104

Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

2014-06-01

188

Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability  

SciTech Connect

Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

1999-01-01

189

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

1996-07-01

190

Prevention of Spontaneous Combustion in Coal in Stockpiles in South Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control of the ever present danger of spontaneous combustion in a stockpile requires a knowledge of the incipient combustion criteria, latent and mainly restricted to the chemical and physical properties of the coal surface and to the macro and micro ...

S. D. Coetzee

1983-01-01

191

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

A&M. Special shielding materials. Stockpile of magnetite, used for making high-density concrete, and loading conveyor near TAN-607 construction site. Date: September 25, 1953. INEEL negative no. 8710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

192

The use of quantified structural descriptors to physically characterise stockpiled milled peat of different genetic origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research examining water movement in milled peat stockpiles has focused on macroscale physical data. Structure is important with respect to water movement and storage; the number, shape and size of macropores is thought to be particularly important in influencing by-pass flow. A study of pore structures quantified by image analysis techniques was conducted starting with a field impregnation to

S. J Mooney; N. M Holden; S. M Ward; J. F Collins

2000-01-01

193

Dust emission modelling around a stockpile by using computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust emissions can have significant effects on the human health, environment and industry equipment. Understanding the dust generation process helps to select a suitable dust preventing approach and also is useful to evaluate the environmental impact of dust emission. To describe these processes, numerical methods such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are widely used, however nowadays particle based methods like Discrete Element Method (DEM) allow researchers to model interaction between particles and fluid flow. In this study, air flow over a stockpile, dust emission, erosion and surface deformation of granular material in the form of stockpile are studied by using DEM and CFD as a coupled method. Two and three dimensional simulations are respectively developed for CFD and DEM methods to minimize CPU time. The standard ?-? turbulence model is used in a fully developed turbulent flow. The continuous gas phase and the discrete particle phase link to each other through gas-particle void fractions and momentum transfer. In addition to stockpile deformation, dust dispersion is studied and finally the accuracy of stockpile deformation results obtained by CFD-DEM modelling will be validated by the agreement with the existing experimental data.

Derakhshani, S. M.; Schott, D. L.; Lodewijks, G.

2013-06-01

194

Risk Analysis in Support of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Volume 1. Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document has been prepared for the U.S. Army to support the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). This report presents the results of the integrated risk analysis of the CSDP - a continu...

E. Hughitt J. Perry R. Cutler W. Duff W. E. Fraize

1987-01-01

195

Laser weapons come down to earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of

1985-01-01

196

Does the Gun Pull the Trigger? Automatic Priming Effects of Weapon Pictures and Weapon Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 30 years ago, Berkowitz and LePage (1967) published the first study demonstrating that the mere presence of a weapon increases aggressive behavior. These results have been repli- cated in several contexts by several research teams. The standard explanation of this weapons effect on aggressive behavior involves priming; identification of a weapon is believed to automatically increase the accessibility

Craig A. Anderson; Arlin J. Benjamin; Bruce D. Bartholow

1998-01-01

197

Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management. Comment response document. Volume 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis on the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear s...

1996-01-01

198

Requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, requirements for the development of advanced nuclear weapon concepts are discussed. This paper addresses third generation nuclear weapons, and the advance workshop literature describes third generation nuclear weapons as including earth penetrating warheads (EPWs) and maneuvering reentry vehicles (MARVs), as well as nuclear directed energy weapons (NDEWs). A historical context for the evolution of advanced nuclear weapon

1990-01-01

199

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997. One hundred forty-five of the 174 signatories have...

S. R. Bowman

2002-01-01

200

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997, and 153 of the 178 signatories have ratified it. O...

S. R. Bowman

2003-01-01

201

Chemical Weapons Convention: Issues for Congress. 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

More than 100 years of international efforts to ban chemical weapons culminated January 13, 1993, in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention entered into force April 29, 1997. One hundred forty-five of the 174 signatories have...

S. R. Bowman

2002-01-01

202

Breaking the fuel\\/weapons connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of weapons-usable material for both military and civilian purposes must be constrained to the maximum extent possible if efforts to reduce nuclear arsenals and to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to additional countries and to terrorist groups are to succeed. To this end, the authors propose the following: (1) separation of plutonium from spent reactor fuel and

H. A. Feiveson; F. von Hippel; D. Albright

1986-01-01

203

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Updated August 10, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analysts have identified a number of issues with the continued deployment of U.S. and Russian nonstrategic nuclear weapons. These include questions about the safety and security of Russia's weapons and the possibility that some might be lost, stolen, or s...

A. F. Woolf

2009-01-01

204

Evaluating weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method to deal with the performance evaluation of weapon systems using fuzzy arithmetic operations. An example of tactical missile systems selection is used to illustrate the performance evaluation process of weapon systems. Because the proposed methods uses simplified fuzzy arithmetic operations of fuzzy numbers rather than the complicated entropy weight calculations mentioned in

Shyi-Ming Chen

1996-01-01

205

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from

Sloss

1990-01-01

206

Directed-Energy Weapons: Invisible and Invincible.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A military weapon is any tool used to increase the reach or power of a nation. Simply, it can be said that each era witnesses the deployment of new and powerful mass destruction weaponry. What will this century's most powerful weapon be. Directed-energy w...

B. M. Deveci

2007-01-01

207

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

208

Russian/Soviet weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Russia's Ministry of Atomic Energy has opened a museum at the Arzamas-16 nuclear weapon design laboratory with an exhibit on some early weapons. This exhibit and recent articles in the Russian press provide previously unknown details on the early Soviet nuclear program. This article compiles some of this information to provide a refined record of the development of the H-bomb.

Norris, R.S.

1993-04-01

209

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

210

Squeeze Casting of Steel Weapon Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was initiated to study the feasibility of applying the squeeze casting process to produce two specific steel weapon components - the receiver base and the barrel support of the M85 weapon. Dies were designed and fabricated for both components ...

D. A. Stawarz K. M. Kulkarni K. R. Iyer R. B. Miclot

1974-01-01

211

Basics of Electric Weapons and Pulsed-Power Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most conventional weapons rely on chemical energy (explosives) as their destruction mechanism, either to explode on target, like bombs, or to create kinetic energy, like a bullet. Electric weapons are different. Electric weapons use stored electrical ener...

S. Moran

2012-01-01

212

48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...multiyear contract forâ (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system; and (b) Advance procurement...parts, and materials necessary to manufacture a weapon system, including advance...

2010-10-01

213

48 CFR 217.173 - Multiyear contracts for weapon systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...multiyear contract forâ (a) A weapon system and associated items, services, and logistics support for a weapon system; and (b) Advance procurement...parts, and materials necessary to manufacture a weapon system, including advance...

2009-10-01

214

76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY...manufacturers, etc.) of electroshock weapons that provide stand-off delivery of an...performance requirements for electroshock weapons, the Law Enforcement Standards...

2011-01-07

215

32 CFR 552.125 - Disposition of confiscated weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposition of confiscated weapons. 552.125 Section 552.125 National... § 552.125 Disposition of confiscated weapons. Commanders will maintain confiscated weapons in the unit arms room pending final...

2013-07-01

216

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

217

Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of roles lobbied the US President to deploy the long-range weapons being developed by the Defense Department. In the course of deliberations, political preferences suppressed military considerations of deterrence and only a small portion of the original modernization program was implemented.

Yaffe, Michael David

218

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2011-0017] RIN 3150-AI49 Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...on a draft guidance document entitled ``Weapons Safety Assessment'' (WSA). This...

2011-02-03

219

NEAR REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS, ANOTHER ASTD SUCCESS STORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 ydÂł of stockpiled soil, contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials and heavy metals, remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical\\/Animal\\/Glass Pits disposal area. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous\\/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a

B. S. BOWERMAN; J. W. ADAMS; P. D. KALB; A. LOCKWOOD

2003-01-01

220

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

221

Advances and Challenges In Uncertainty Quantification with Application to Climate Prediction, ICF design and Science Stockpile Stewardship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is a critical field within 21st century simulation science that resides at the very center of the web of emerging predictive capabilities. The science of UQ holds the promise of giving much greater meaning to the results of complex large-scale simulations, allowing for quantifying and bounding uncertainties. This powerful capability will yield new insights into scientific predictions (e.g. Climate) of great impact on both national and international arenas, allow informed decisions on the design of critical experiments (e.g. ICF capsule design, MFE, NE) in many scientific fields, and assign confidence bounds to scientifically predictable outcomes (e.g. nuclear weapons design). In this talk I will discuss a major new strategic initiative (SI) we have developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to advance the science of Uncertainty Quantification at LLNL focusing in particular on (a) the research and development of new algorithms and methodologies of UQ as applied to multi-physics multi-scale codes, (b) incorporation of these advancements into a global UQ Pipeline (i.e. a computational superstructure) that will simplify user access to sophisticated tools for UQ studies as well as act as a self-guided, self-adapting UQ engine for UQ studies on extreme computing platforms and (c) use laboratory applications as a test bed for new algorithms and methodologies. The initial SI focus has been on applications for the quantification of uncertainty associated with Climate prediction, but the validated UQ methodologies we have developed are now being fed back into Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SSS) and ICF UQ efforts. To make advancements in several of these UQ grand challenges, I will focus in talk on the following three research areas in our Strategic Initiative: Error Estimation in multi-physics and multi-scale codes ; Tackling the "Curse of High Dimensionality"; and development of an advanced UQ Computational Pipeline to enable complete UQ workflow and analysis for ensemble runs at the extreme scale (e.g. exascale) with self-guiding adaptation in the UQ Pipeline engine. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and was funded by the Uncertainty Quantification Strategic Initiative Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project at LLNL under project tracking code 10-SI-013 (UCRL LLNL-ABS-569112).

Klein, R.; Woodward, C. S.; Johannesson, G.; Domyancic, D.; Covey, C. C.; Lucas, D. D.

2012-12-01

222

Guidance for Preparing and Managing the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Cooperative Agreement (CA) Application. Fiscal Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) application changes for FY 2006; Program narratives; Work plans for all CSEPP funded personnel; Preparation guidance for CSEPP budget submission; Post award administration; CS...

2005-01-01

223

Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?  

SciTech Connect

The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union`s economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. {open_quotes}Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,{close_quotes} says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. {open_quotes}With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,{close_quotes} Ustinov concludes.

Ustinov, A. [U.S. and Canada Studies Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

224

Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and for materials whose chemical/physical properties might degrade. To perform this analysis, a three dimensional ORNL computer model of a SBI weapon platform was devised to estimate the effects of natural and nuclear weapon radiation on the external surfaces and materials and on the internal components. It should be noted that the SBI weapon platform used in this study represents the author's concept of such a system. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Johnson, J.O.; Smith, M.S.; Santoro, R.T.

1990-01-01

225

Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cost growth in weapon system development, one result of the inherent risk of developing advanced systems, has been a prevalent problem for many years. A systematic bias in cost estimates can undermine the basis of resource allocation decisions, an importa...

J. A. Drezner J. M. Jarvaise R. W. Hess P. G. Hough D. Norton

1993-01-01

226

Disarming Libya: Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On December 19, 2003, Libya announced it would dismantle its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missile programs. Since then, U.S., British, and international officials have inspected and removed or destroyed key components of those programs,...

S. Squassoni

2006-01-01

227

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

228

Weapons Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Weapons Industry includes products that span from munitions, delivery systems, uninhabited vehicles, to sensors. The U.S. government procures these products, which are produced by both government organizations, such as depots, and commercial firms acr...

B. Cottrell C. Bailey G. Goshorn M. Danehy S. Altizer

2007-01-01

229

Sensitivity Analysis of a Weapon Effectiveness Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several publications have been issued by the Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manual/Surface-to-Surface (JMEM/SS) Methodology and Evaluation Working Group presenting the effectiveness of various US Army mortar and artillery weapons systems against personnel ...

G. M. Gaydos

1973-01-01

230

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syria has produced, stored, and weaponized chemical agents, but it remains dependent on foreign suppliers for chemical precursors. The regime of President Bashar al Asad possesses stocks of nerve (sarin, VX) and blister (mustard gas) agents, possibly weap...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

231

The physic and employment of neutron weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well known physical relationships make it possible to estimate the military effects of low yield nuclear weapons. Since weapons effects tables already exist for fission explosives, it is possible to calculate approximately the impact of thermonuclear and enhanced radiation weapons (ERWs) on a tactical situation. The principal physical problem is the calculation of the ratio of neutron production in an ERW explosion to that in a fission explosion. Our calculation indicate that the ERW is less effective against tanks than is widely believed. The collateral damage for an ERW with a reasonable ratio of fission to fusion yield is shown to extend to a distance of about 75% of that of a fission weapon with the same energy release.

Zimmerman, Peter D.

1983-10-01

232

Physics and employment of neutron weapons  

SciTech Connect

Well known physical relationships make it possible to estimate the military effects of low yield nuclear weapons. Since weapons effects tables already exist for fission explosives, it is possible to calculate approximately the impact of thermonuclear and enhanced radiation weapons (ERWs) on a tactical situation. The principal physical problem is the calculation of the ratio of neutron production in an ERW explosion to that in a fission explosion. The author's calculations indicate that the ERW is less effective against tanks than is widely believed. The collateral damage for an ERW with a reasonable ratio of fission to fusion yield is shown to extend to a distance of about 75% of that of a fission weapon with the same energy release. 15 references, 5 figures.

Zimmerman, P.D.

1983-01-01

233

Armored Vehicle Vulnerability to Conventional Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The engineering test procedure describes test techniques for determining the effectiveness of combat vehicle armor in protecting crew, vehicle and components from attack by conventional (non-CBR) weapons. (Author)

1970-01-01

234

Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilitie...

N. Joeck

1993-01-01

235

Acquisition of the Sensor Fuzed Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the SFW acquisition management to decide whether the weapon was being cost-effectively prepared for production and deployment. We reviewed requirements' evolution and affordability, acquisition plan...

D. E. Reed R. K. West J. E. Meling M. H. Claypool J. A. Hoyt

1995-01-01

236

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed Central

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-01-01

237

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

238

Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.  

PubMed

The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

2000-11-01

239

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Slesnick, Irwin

2004-01-01

240

Directed-energy weapons: a juridical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpower development of directed-energy laser or particle-beam weapons has strategic and legal implications. The rapid development of these weapons and the classified nature of the research make it difficult to evaluate these implications on a factual basis. International laws dealing with treaties and strategic-arms control and with armed conflict are applied to this issue to determine the permissibility of directed-energy

Fessler

1979-01-01

241

M549A1 Projectile Delay Assembly Predictive Engineering Analysis in Support of the Ammunition Stockpile Reliability Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted on M549A1 High Explosive Rocket Assisted projectiles to evaluate the effects of thermal degradation and moisture on the delay assembly, and on the potential for premature rocket ignitions. Accelerated aging experiments for up to...

E. R. Bixon M. J. Cassiello J. J. McEwan

2006-01-01

242

Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons  

PubMed Central

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.

Pitschmann, Vladimir

2014-01-01

243

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

244

China's mixed signals on nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Ultimately, it is nuclear whether the Chinese leadership has made up its collective mind on practical nuclear weapons. It is known from Chinese official sources, including articles in Communist Party and military publications and histories of the Chinese nuclear program, that an internal debate has proceeded for more than two decades, punctuated by occasional nuclear exercises or low-yield warhead tests. But China presumably has less reason now to pursue development of tactical nuclear weapons than in previous decades: relations with the Soviet Union have improved and military confrontation has eased; China's relations with India and Vietnam are also improving. The decision may already have been made, however, and the weapons built. The mystery surrounding Chinese tactical nuclear weapons is itself interesting, but it is also symbolic of the difficulty of understanding China's nuclear weapons program and policies. The West has accumulated a considerable body of knowledge about China's nuclear forces, especially historical material. But important aspects of China's nuclear behavior and its future as a nuclear power are hard to discern. A key question is China's future role in the spread of nuclear-capable weapons to other countries. China might add to international efforts to stem the proliferation of nuclear related technology, or it might become the world's missile merchant. It could make a constructive contribution to arms control efforts in general, or it could act as a spoiler.

Fieldhouse, R. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-05-01

245

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002.4 Section 1002.4 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

2012-07-01

246

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002.4 Section 1002.4 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

2011-07-01

247

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2010-07-01

248

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2012-07-01

249

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section 13.30 Parks...Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant chemical devices... (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a weapon, trap,...

2011-07-01

250

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 1002.4 Section 1002.4 Parks...RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap...

2010-07-01

251

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4 Section 2.4 Parks, Forests...RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or...

2011-07-01

252

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4 Section 2.4 Parks, Forests...RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or...

2010-07-01

253

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4 Section 2.4 Parks, Forests...RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise... (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or...

2012-07-01

254

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new

Senglaub

1996-01-01

255

Terrorists and Laser Weapons Use: An Emergent Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trends leading to the emergent threat of terrorist laser weapons use are that a military weaponry transition from conventional to Directed Energy Weapons is taking place; that laser weapons offer clear tactical and operational advantages over conventional weapons; that laser prices are dropping while laser performance is increasing; that criminals, criminal-soldiers, and foreign militaries have all utilized laser devices

Robert J. Bunker

2008-01-01

256

The Navy's Best Practices Approach to Reliability and Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time in recent history, the US Army, Navy, and Air Force are in fundamental agreement on the priority of reliability in their weapon system requirements. Even more significant is mutual recognition that reliability is achieved not by setting numerical requirements and testing for compliance, but by focusing on the fundamentals of design and manufacturing; and that quality

W. J. Willoughby

1987-01-01

257

Hedging against Antiviral Resistance during the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Small Stockpiles of an Alternative Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains. Methods and Findings We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage) of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics. We considered two strategies for the use of the secondary stockpile: early combination chemotherapy (ECC; individuals are treated with both drugs in combination while both are available); and sequential multidrug chemotherapy (SMC; individuals are treated only with the secondary drug until it is exhausted, then treated with the primary drug). We investigated all potentially important regions of unknown parameter space and found that both ECC and SMC reduced the cumulative attack rate (AR) and the resistant attack rate (RAR) unless the probability of emergence of resistance to the primary drug pA was so low (less than 1 in 10,000) that resistance was unlikely to be a problem or so high (more than 1 in 20) that resistance emerged as soon as primary drug monotherapy began. For example, when the basic reproductive number was 1.8 and 40% of symptomatic individuals were treated with antivirals, AR and RAR were 67% and 38% under monotherapy if pA?=?0.01. If the probability of resistance emergence for the secondary drug was also 0.01, then SMC reduced AR and RAR to 57% and 2%. The effectiveness of ECC was similar if combination chemotherapy reduced the probabilities of resistance emergence by at least ten times. We extended our model using travel data between 105 large cities to investigate the robustness of these resistance-limiting strategies at a global scale. We found that as long as populations that were the main source of resistant strains employed these strategies (SMC or ECC), then those same strategies were also effective for populations far from the source even when some intermediate populations failed to control resistance. In essence, through the existence of many wild-type epidemics, the interconnectedness of the global network dampened the international spread of resistant strains. Conclusions Our results indicate that the augmentation of existing stockpiles of a single anti-influenza drug with smaller stockpiles of a second drug could be an effective and inexpensive epidemiological hedge against antiviral resistance if either SMC or ECC were used. Choosing between these strategies will require additional empirical studies. Specifically, the choice will depend on the safety of combination therapy and the synergistic effect of one antiviral in suppressing the emergence of resistance to the other antiviral when both are taken in combination.

Wu, Joseph T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Lipsitch, Marc; Cooper, Ben S.; Riley, Steven

2009-01-01

258

The impact of weathering and aging on a LIMB ash stockpile material  

SciTech Connect

A 1,500 ton temporary storage pile of water conditioned LIMB (Lime Injected Multistage Burner) ash by-product from the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant Lorain, OH was constructed in July, 1991 at a coal company near New Philadelphia, Ohio. This stockpile was created for dry FGD by-product material to be held in reserve for a land application uses field demonstration. High volume, beneficial uses of dry FGD by-products, such as for mine reclamation and embankment stabilization, will require temporary stockpiling of the by-product. Purpose for constructing this pile was to study changes with time in the LIMB by-product material when exposed to weathering. This by-product material was studied over a 2 1/2 year period. The water to control fugitive dust was added in the ash conditioner at the power plant while being loaded into dump trucks. Amount of water normally added in the conditioning process is close to the optimum moisture content of 40--50 % (dry weight basis), to construct a compacted road embankment or road base. Four environmental operating permits required for construction of the storage pile were obtained, three from Ohio EPA (air, water and solid waste), and one from the Ohio Division of Reclamation (revised reclamation area permit). There was no significant environmental impacts from storm runoff or leachate water from the LIMB ash stockpile during the initial 18 month period through December, 1992. After 2 1/2 years of storage, the potential value of the LIMB material for use as a road embankment material or soil conditioner has declined significantly. Ettringite formation occurs. Aging allows the expansive reaction to take place before its potential use as compacted structural fill or embankment.

Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bigham, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources; Wolfe, W.B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-03-01

259

Fresh, stockpiled, and composted beef cattle feedlot manure: nutrient levels and mass balance estimates in Alberta and Manitoba.  

PubMed

The fate of manure nutrients in beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlots is influenced by handling treatment, yet few data are available in western Canada comparing traditional practices (fresh handling, stockpiling) with newer ones (composting). This study examined the influence of handling treatment (fresh, stockpiled, or composted) on nutrient levels and mass balance estimates of feedlot manure at Lethbridge, Alberta, and Brandon, Manitoba. Total carbon (TC) concentration of compost (161 kg Mg(-1)) was lower (P < 0.001) than stockpiled (248 kg Mg(-1)), which was in turn lower (P < 0.001) than fresh manure (314 kg Mg(-1)). Total nitrogen (TN) concentration was not affected by handling treatment while total phosphorus (TP) concentration increased with composting at Lethbridge. The percent inorganic nitrogen (PIN) was lower (P < 0.01) for compost (5.1%) than both fresh (24.7%) and stockpiled (28.9%) manure. Composting led to higher (P < 0.05) dry matter (DM) losses (39.8%) compared to stockpiling (22.5%) and higher (P < 0.05) total mass (water + DM) losses (65.6 vs. 35.2%). Carbon (C) losses were higher (P < 0.01) with composting (66.9% of initial) than with stockpiling (37.5%), as were nitrogen (N) losses (46.3 vs. 22.5%, P < 0.05). Composting allowed transport of two times as much P as fresh manure and 1.4 times as much P as stockpiled manure (P < 0.001) on an "as is" basis. Our study looked at one aspect of manure management (i.e., handling treatment effects on nutrient concentrations and mass balance estimates) and, as such, should be viewed as one component in the larger context of a life cycle assessment. PMID:16899756

Larney, Francis J; Buckley, Katherine E; Hao, Xiying; McCaughey, W Paul

2006-01-01

260

Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons useable fissile materials. Final report, March-June 1995  

SciTech Connect

The growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium), much of which is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union, is a clear and present danger to international society. Given the widespread availability of the materials and technology for bomb making, the ever increasing amounts of fissile materials is highly susceptible to theft or diversion to a clandestine nuclear weapons program. Material control, accounting and physical security of these materials in the FSU is nonexistent and there are few viable solutions to the growing stockpiles of plutonium. Strategies to convince likely proliferators will be unsuccessful unless larger security concerns are addressed. On going efforts to address this problem are examined and a number of proposals are offered to strengthen and enhance the nonproliferation regime. With the US taking the lead, continuous and simultaneous exercise of a number of cooperative measures will slow and eventually reverse the availability of these materials for illicit purposes. There is no silver bullet and the regime is not foolproof, but time and commonality of purpose will change the motivations of proliferators to eventually end this proliferation risk.

Roberts, G.B.

1995-05-26

261

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

262

Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the

R. S. Norris; A. S. Burrows; R. W. Fieldhouse

1994-01-01

263

A magic sword or a big itch: an historical look at the United States biological weapons programme.  

PubMed

In the late 1950s interest in entomological warfare increased, and literature describing the US biological warfare programmes on the use of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector for transmitting yellow fever, has now been released. Yellow fever was considered as a suitable disease to use in southern regions of the former Soviet Union. The US destroyed its biological weapon stockpiles in the early 1970s. In addition to its offensive biological warfare programme, the US conducted extensive trials to assess its own vulnerability to biological attack. These trials and a later series of threat analyses indicate that biological agents could, indeed, affect large areas of the US if the attackers were allowed to proceed unmolested. Some of the threat analyses present highly questionable scenarios. PMID:10472190

Hay, A

1999-01-01

264

Nuclear weapons databook. Volume V: British, French, and Chinese nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

How insecurity and the search military independence drove post World War II nuclear proliferation beyond the United States and the Soviet Union is the subject of the latest and most voluminous title in the Natural Resources Defense Council`s highly acclaimed Nuclear Weapons Databook series. Volume 5 explains how atomic and thermonuclear weapons spread to Britain, France, and China despite the political turmoil and economic hardship that beset these countries. The history of the British nuclear weapons program includes the most comprehensive collection of photos and specifications of British warheads and nuclear tests ever assembled in one publication. The role of the United States in the French nuclear weapons program is discussed. This is a comprehensive source for the mechanics and politics of nuclear weapons proliferation.

Norris, R.S.; Burrows, A.S.; Fieldhouse, R.W.

1994-12-31

265

The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin

2006-06-01

266

Reliability analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to search for and demonstrate approaches and concepts for fast wafer probe tests of mechanisms affecting the reliability of MOS technology and, based on these, develop and optimize test chips and test procedures. Progress is reported on four important wafer-level reliability problems: gate-oxide radiation hardness; hot-electron effects; time-dependence dielectric breakdown; and electromigration.

1985-01-01

267

Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

2007-08-01

268

A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R. [Army Defense Ammunition Center and School, Savanna, IL (United States)

1994-05-01

269

Laser weapons come down to earth  

SciTech Connect

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of development. The Stingray, a low-energy, tank-mounted laser that targets enemy electro-optical systems and crazes the inside of the tank cockpit, uses an innovative slab design instead of the conventional rod. The slab neutralizes the heating effect, improving beam quality tenfold. The author discusses the possibility that the psychological impact of battlefield lasers could match or exceed the physiological effects because of eye damage.

Morrison, D.C.

1985-05-01

270

Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) establishes environmental policy, sets goals, and provides means for implementing the policy. NEPA contains provisions to ensure that Federal agencies adhere to the letter and spirit of the Act. The key provision requires preparation of an environmental impact statement on ''major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'' (40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' [CFR] {section}1502.3). NEPA ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and actions are taken (40 CFR {section}1500.1[b]). DOE has a policy to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements documents for certain large, multiple-facility sites such as LLNL (10 CFR {section}1021.330). In August 1992, DOE released the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operations of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore'' (LLNL EIS/EIR). A Record of Decision (ROD) (58 ''Federal Register'' [FR] 6268) was issued in January 1993. With the passage of more than 10 years since the publication of the 1992 LLNL EIS/EIR (DOE/EIS-0157) and because of proposed modifications to existing projects and new programs, NNSA determined that it was appropriate to prepare a new LLNL SW/SPEIS.

N /A

2004-02-27

271

Nuclear Weapons - ChemCases.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fissionable materials, solid uranium tetrafluoride from Oak Ridge and plutonium nitrate paste from Hanford, began to arrive at a secret laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, in late 1944. On the lava flows of an extinct volcano 35 miles north of Santa Fe, Robert Oppenheimer, a brilliant physicist from the University of California, led the development of the first nuclear fission weapons. Chemists purified the two metals and metallurgists shaped them into forms suitable for the weapons. Plutonium presented unique problems because it had never been isolated in large amounts and because the solid had six separate phases.

Settle, Frank

272

Closing loopholes in the Biological Weapons Convention.  

PubMed

The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) received two major blows in the past months. Negotiations for a protocol to strengthen the BTWC came to a halt and the Fifth Review Conference was unable to reach agreement on a final declaration. In addition, ongoing research projects, predominantly in the United States, are threatening to undermine the comprehensive ban on the development, production and use of biological weapons. This article provides two examples of research that exploit perceived loopholes in the BTWC or impinge on the scope of the Convention, namely the planned use of biological agents for forced drug eradication and the development of anti-material agents. PMID:12044027

van Aken, Jan; Hammond, Edward

2002-01-01

273

Nuclear Bunker Busters, Mini-Nukes, and the US Nuclear Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bush administration is contemplating a new crop of nuclear weapons that could reduce the threat to civilian populations. However, they're still unlikely to work without producing massive radioactive fallout, and their development might require a return to underground nuclear testing.

Robert W. Nelson

2003-01-01

274

Reliability training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

Lalli, Vincent R. (editor); Malec, Henry A. (editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

1992-01-01

275

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

276

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-09-01

277

Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons. Updated January 28, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War, the United States and Soviet Union both deployed thousands of 'nonstrategic' nuclear weapons that were intended to be used in support of troops in the field during a conflict. These included nuclear mines; artillery; short, medium, an...

A. F. Woolf

2009-01-01

278

Protection Against a Ship as a Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stopping a ship commandeered and used as a weapon to attack shore infrastructure in the Strait of Malacca is a challenging problem. The purpose of this thesis is to determine systems that constitute architectures of an SoS to stop oil tanker that is hijac...

C. D. Epp

2008-01-01

279

Defense Against Ship as a Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As an example of ships used as weapons (SAW), an oil tanker is hijacked and commandeered by terrorists to collide with a high-value maritime or shore target. If sunk or destroyed in a shipping lane as a result of a counter measure, the SAW's collateral da...

K. W. Yung

2011-01-01

280

Dynamic Weapon-Target Assignment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a progress report on our recent results on the dynamic version of the Weapon to Target Assignment (WTA) problem. In this paper we will present result for the Asset-Based problem. In the static Asset-Based WTA problem, the offense launches missi...

M. Athans P. Hosein

1989-01-01

281

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain

Canavan

1997-01-01

282

Innovation in Non-Lethal Weapon Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ZARC is the founder of Oleoresin Capsicum (0C Pepper Agent) non- lethal weapon technology. This proprietary OC technology is currently packaged in an aerosol form under the recognized brandname CAP-STUN, the very first pepper spray on the market developed...

C. Logman

1998-01-01

283

Concealed weapon detection: an image fusion approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to image fusion for concealed weapon detection (CWD) applications. In this work, we use image fusion to combine complementary image information from different sensors to obtain a single composite image with more detailed and complete information content. As a result of this processing, the new images are more useful for human perception and automatic computer

Mucahit K. Uner; Liane C. Ramac; Pramod K. Varshney; Mark G. Alford

1997-01-01

284

Radar waveform design for detection of weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present waveform design based on signature exploitation techniques for improved detection of weapons in urban sensing applications. We consider a single-antenna monostatic radar system. Under the assumption of exact knowledge of the target orientation and, hence, known impulse response, matched illumination approach is used for optimal target detection. For the case of unknown target orientation, we propose waveform design

Fauzia Ahmad; Moeness G. Amin

2010-01-01

285

Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50

H. Alsaed; P. Gottlieb

2000-01-01

286

Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses what is being done to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. He says that two mechanisms need to be strengthened: international safeguards to ensure that civilian nuclear materials and technology are not diverted to military purposes, and controls on the export of such materials and technology. While 135 nations signed the 1970 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), it is

1987-01-01

287

Multiple weapon system distributed sensor concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributed Sensor Concept-DISCO was proposed for multiplication of individual weapon capability through cooperative target engagement. DISCO creates practically distributed in space sensor network that performs sensing by exchanging of pre-track frame and GNC data. Concept of operations for DISCO is based on complete absence of any kind of host vehicle with its weight allocated for unique and costly propulsion, communication and avionics, and, in the same time DISCO preserves the original idea of multiplicity of lightweight effective weapon dispensed from an unitary payload Three major benefits of DISCO are: immediate PBO deployment; absence of any kind of carrier or "central" vehicle or bus; multiplicity of weapon. DISCO sensor network supports target handover without active ranging but by triangulating. Digital video-signal processing that supports DISCO is Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration of Limited data. Each sensor disseminates to and receives frame, calibration and GNC data from other sensors in the network. In this paper efficiency of DISCO weapon system is discussed for acquisition, accurate handover and track correlation.

Rafailov, Michael K.

2009-05-01

288

Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

289

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create

Gennady P. Zhukov

2002-01-01

290

WEAPONS AS AGGRESSION-ELICITING STIMULI  

Microsoft Academic Search

TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STIMULI COMMONLY ASSOCIATED WITH AGGRESSION CAN ELICIT AGGRESSIIVE RESPONSES FROM PEOPLE READY TO ACT AGGRESSIVELY. 100 MALE UNIVERSITY SS RECEIVED EITHER 1 OR 7 SHOCKS, SUPPOSEDLY FROM A PEER, AND WERE THEN GIVEN AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOCK THIS PERSON. IN SOME CASES A RIFLE AND REVOLVER WERE NEAR THE SHOCK KEY. THESE WEAPONS WERE SAID TO

LEONARD BERKOWITZ; ANTHONY LEPAGE

1967-01-01

291

The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

Garwin, Richard L.

2014-05-01

292

Impulse noise trauma during army weapon firing.  

PubMed

A 100 infanty personnel firing modern weapons such as the Anti Tank Guided Missile, 106mm Recoiless Gun (RCL), 84mm Rocket Launcher (RL) and 81mm Mortar were studied for the effect of impulse noise on the ear and the evolution of the Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS), Recovery Time (RT) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) was traced. PMID:23119288

Munjal, K R; Singh, V P

1997-04-01

293

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administration s plan...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2013-01-01

294

Syria's Chemical Weapons: Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use or loss of control of chemical weapons stocks in Syria could have unpredictable consequences for the Syrian population and neighboring countries as well as U.S. allies and forces in the region. Congress may wish to assess the Administration s plan...

A. Feickert M. B. Nikitin P. K. Kerr

2012-01-01

295

Cyber Weaponization: Analysis of Internet Arms Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet attacks are a familiar part of cyber residency for every modern institution. While the criminals behind the attacks, their business practices, and the illicit economy that propels most of the acts have been the subjects of many researchers, the refinement of the tools employed has not. We posit the concept of weaponization as an important facet of Internet security

Jason Gordon

296

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

Miller, G.

1993-03-16

297

AH-1Z: Weapons Upgrade or Downgrade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

BELL Helicopter advertises the weapons capability of the new and improved AH-1Z as 'the most capable and flexible multi+mission attack helicopter in the world.' One of the main differences between the AH-1Z and its predecessor, the AH-1W, is the removal o...

D. T. Smith

2006-01-01

298

Non-Linear Acoustic Concealed Weapons Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major findings of this effort clearly demonstrate that Non- linear Acoustics is a low cost alternative to conventional imaging methods for concealed weapons detection. Our approach is to use ultrasonics to create a localized zone where non-linear inte...

A. Achanta

2006-01-01

299

Uses for plutonium: Weapons, reactors, and other  

SciTech Connect

This document begins with a introduction on criticality and supercriticality. Then, types and components, design and engineering, yields, and disassembly of nuclear weapons are discussed. Plutonium is evaluated as a reactor fuel, including neutronics and chemistry considerations. Finally, other uses of plutonium are analyzed.

Condit, R.H.

1994-05-01

300

Particle beam weapons - A technical assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical feasibility, principles, problems and potential of particle beam weapons are assessed. The mechanisms by which deposition of the energy of a beam of energetic particles leads to target damage and the energy required to inflict such damage are discussed, and effects which impede the propagation of charged particle beams in space are examined; problems with neutral hydrogen beams

G. Bekefi; B. T. Feld; J. Parmentola; K. Tsipis

1980-01-01

301

Underwater Weapon System Having a Rotatable Gun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses an underwater weapon system having a rotating gun system mounted in a vehicle housing. The gun system includes a gun and ammunition sealed within a waterproof housing with the gun muzzle protruding from the housing. The g...

T. J. Gieseke

2003-01-01

302

Challenges of Networks as a Weapon System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Navy has developed the FORCEnet concept to be able to compete and win in the Network Centric Operations and Warfare environment. This paper addresses the challenges of moving from the stove-piped collection of networks to a weapon system architecture comprised of networks that collect, analyze, synchronize, and disseminate information from the networks as a combat capability and networked

John Pomfret

2007-01-01

303

APS study of directed energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before being considered seriously for defense against potential ballistic missile attacks, all existing candidates for directed energy weapons (DEW) require improvement by a factor of at least 100 in power output and beam quality, according to an American Physical Society (APS) report released April 23.

Barbara T. Richman

1987-01-01

304

Directed Energy Weapons Testing Raises Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testing directed energy weapons (DEWs) represents a special challenge to the 21st Century tester. Continuing research and development of lasers and high-power microwave devices drives a need for the test community to create the test technology needed to e...

1997-01-01

305

APS study of directed energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before being considered seriously for defense against potential ballistic missile attacks, all existing candidates for directed energy weapons (DEW) require improvement by a factor of at least 100 in power output and beam quality, according to an American Physical Society (APS) report released April 23.

Richman, Barbara T.

306

Strategic Defense and Directed-Energy Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 8 months after President Reagan called on the US scientific community to develop SDI, the American Physical Society commissioned a study to evaluate the status of directed-energy weapons (DEW). Focus was on DEW because they would be needed in almost all stages of the destruction of a missile, including: detecting the launch; locating and tracking the target; distinguishing warheads

C. Kumar; N. Patel; Nicolaas Bloembergen

1987-01-01

307

Directed energy technologies; weaponization and barrier applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less than lethal technologies are of interest to the military, Department of Justice as well as other agencies dealing with law enforcement type issues. The Office of the Army for Research and Development has expressed a need for effective weapons\\/techniques which will enable an operator to control a situation, stop escalation\\/initiate decline in status, provide zone or facility protection, while

1996-01-01

308

DOD Weapon Systems Software Management Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report to the Office of the Secretary of Defense summarizes the findings of a Weapon System Software Management Study and presents 17 recommendations directed to the alleviation of the more serious problems encountered. The first part of the report c...

A. Kossiakoff E. C. Prettyman J. M. Park P. L. Hazan T. P. Sleight

1975-01-01

309

Simulator, Weapon, Firing and Ranging (Laser) System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Laser Weapon Simulator system--a device developed around a laser that simulates the important effects of a tankgun fired at a target, and accordingly enhances the training of tank gunners is described. In operation, this simulator is boresighted with th...

P. Redmond

1965-01-01

310

Non-Lethal Weapons Activities at ICT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The German definition of Nonlethal Weapons is a technical means whose intention is to obviate (prevent or stop) hostile operations without causing death or lasting injury to human beings. In addition, secondary effects caused by the use of those means to ...

K. Thiel

1998-01-01

311

Banning of Chemical Weapons: Tantalus Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the mid-nineteenth century, nations have sought to limit the use of chemical weapons with varying degrees of success. On-going negotiations in Geneva by the 40-member Committee on Disarmament seek the elaboration of an international convention banni...

F. M. Durel

1983-01-01

312

Directed Energy Weapon System for Ballistic Missile Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ballistic missiles carrying nuclear weapons and the proliferation of nuclear weapons and related technologies represent two of the gravest threats to the security of the United States and its service members deployed overseas. The threat environment the U...

D. M. Mason

2009-01-01

313

Asynchronous Data-Driven Classification of Weapon Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using S...

A. Ray K. Mukherjee S. Gupta S. Phoha X. Jin

2009-01-01

314

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Privately owned weapons-security. 552.116 Section 552...Washington § 552.116 Privately owned weaponsâsecurity. Privately owned arms...secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from...

2013-07-01

315

Unmanned Undersea Weapon Deployment Structure With Cylindrical Payload Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An unmanned undersea vehicle system includes an axisymmetrical cylindrically shaped self propelled undersea deployment vehicle of predetermined diameter having an amidships undersea weapon bay. The amidships undersea weapon bay includes a plurality of wea...

C. F. Hillenbrand

1995-01-01

316

72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) LOOKING NORTH. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

317

76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

318

The Effect of Price Competition on Weapon System Acquisition costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the impact of price competition on weapon systems acquisition. The multidimensional impact of competition on price and non-price aspects of weapon system production and acquisition are discussed. The importance of cost quantity relatio...

G. G. Daly H. P. Gates J. A. Schuttinga

1979-01-01

319

Preliminary Perspective on Regulatory Activities and Effects in Weapons Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many managers and executives responsible for weapons acquisition, both in industry and the Department of Defense, argue that regulations are inhibiting the timely and economical development of weapon systems. This report presents quantitative analyses of ...

G. K. Smith J. A. Drezner J. J. Milanese W. C. Martel W. E. Mooz

1988-01-01

320

On-Board Data Recorder for Hard-Target Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center is conducting several hard target penetration weapons development programs. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty, due to the hostile nature of the environment, of measuring acceleration-tim...

W. A. Niven M. F. Jaroska

1981-01-01

321

On-Board Data Recorder for Hard-Target Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center has several hard target penetration weapons development programs in progress. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests due to the host...

W. A. Niven M. F. Jaroska

1981-01-01

322

Achieving Better Acquisition Outcomes. GAO's 2008 Assessment of Weapon Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents: Achieving Better Acquisition Outcomes,Major Weapon System Portfolio Analysis, DOD Has Increased Its Commitment In Major Defense Acquisitions Programs...,. But DOD Outcomes Are Not Improving, 2008 Weapon System Assessments, Little Evidenc...

2008-01-01

323

Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA): Root Cause Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Demilitarization - Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) program is responsible for the destruction of the chemical weapons stored in Pueblo, CO and Blue Grass, KY. In June 2010, the Program Manager (PM) for the ACWA program notified...

C. L. O'Connell J. S. Byun P. F. Bronson

2011-01-01

324

User's Guide to the Experimental Surface Weapon Control Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, is conducting an exploratory development program in surface weapon control systems under the direction of the Naval Ordnance Systems Command. To carry on this program effectively, NWC has established a special in-hous...

1968-01-01

325

Nuclear Weapons R&D Organizations in Nine Nations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seven nations -- China, France, India, Pakistan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States -- possess nuclear weapons. In addition, North Korea tested a nuclear explosive device, and Israel is widely thought to have nuclear weapons. As an aid to C...

C. Migdalovitz D. E. Mix J. Medalia P. K. Kerr S. A. Kan

2009-01-01

326

Prospects for International Terrorist Groups Employing Chemical Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There has been much discussion and debate among security analysts, scholars, and politicians about the possible use of weapons of mass destruction. This paper examines the prospects for international terrorist groups employing chemical weapons. Specifical...

D. W. Webb

1999-01-01

327

Some samples of weapons and instruments used as weapon in criminal offenses in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variety of instruments used for crime of violence is wide. Besides the manufactured legal weapons, there are comparable numbers of purchased instruments, which are used as lethal weapons and significant numbers of comprising home-made ones.The instruments used during the commission of a crime shows similarity throughout the countries. Nevertheless, there are small differences to be seen.The topic of this

H. Bülent Üner; Mira R. Gökdo?an; Hüseyin Çakan

2003-01-01

328

A meta-analytic review of the weapon focus effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analytic review examined 19 tests of the weapon focus effect—the hypothesis that the presence of a weapon during\\u000a commission of a crime will negatively affect an eyewitness's ability to later identify the perpetrator. A significant overall\\u000a difference between weapon-present and weaponabsent conditions was demonstrated, with weapon presence leading to reduced identification\\u000a accuracy. Overall, the size of the effect was

Nancy Mehrkens Steblay

1992-01-01

329

An Overview of Concealed Weapons Detection for Homeland Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an immediate requirement for law enforcement and homeland security to identify concealed weapons which may present a threat to official personnel and the general public. This involves suicide bomb vests, handguns, knife blades, and other threatening weapons. The weapons may be composed of a large range of materials such as metals, nonmetals, plastics and explosives. The Homeland Security

Peter J. Costianes

2005-01-01

330

Weapon research project cost evaluation method based on technology readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional weapon research project pricing method makes the bigger valuation cost, the more profit research department is got. The weapon research department always loses the driver of saving cost and controlling expenditure. This paper identifies the technology units, evaluates technology risk based on technology readiness theory. According to value engineering methods, it provides weapon research project cost evaluation method from

Tengda Guo; Mengjun Li; Chaomin Ou

2011-01-01

331

49 CFR 1544.219 - Carriage of accessible weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Carriage of accessible weapons. 1544.219 Section 1544.219 ...§ 1544.219 Carriage of accessible weapons. (a) Flights for which screening...201(d), with respect to accessible weapons, do not apply to a law...

2013-10-01

332

46 CFR 386.23 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons and explosives. 386.23 Section...MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.23 Weapons and explosives. No person shall carry...possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons or parts thereof, explosives or...

2013-10-01

333

31 CFR 700.11 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 700.11 Section...BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 700.11 Weapons and explosives. No person, while...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

334

32 CFR 228.7 - Prohibition on weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Prohibition on weapons and explosives. 228.7 Section 228...PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.7 Prohibition on weapons and explosives. No persons entering...firearms, any illegal or legally controlled weapon (e.g., throwing stars,...

2013-07-01

335

36 CFR 702.7 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 702.7 Section 702...CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.7 Weapons and explosives. Except where duly...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

336

Adolescents Who Carry Weapons to School: A Review of Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple self-report surveys have collected data about weapons in school. This record review study considers characteristics of 47 adolescents adjudicated for carrying weapons at school and provides a descriptive analysis against a comparison group of 37 juveniles with other offenses. Demographics, weapon type, legal history, prior school…

Finkenbine, Ryan D.; Dwyer, R. Gregg

2006-01-01

337

25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians...Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is...

2011-04-01

338

31 CFR 407.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 407.13 Section...AND THE TREASURY ANNEX § 407.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

339

36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4 Section 2...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except...are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a...

2013-07-01

340

36 CFR 1002.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons, traps and nets. 1002.4 Section...PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except...are prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net. (ii) Carrying a...

2013-07-01

341

36 CFR 13.30 - Weapons, traps and nets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 13.30 Section...ALASKA General Provisions § 13.30 Weapons, traps and nets. (a) Irritant...are prohibitedâ (1) Possessing a weapon, trap, or net; (2) Carrying a...

2013-07-01

342

4 CFR 25.14 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Weapons and explosives. 25.14 Section 25...BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while...possess firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, explosives or items intended to be...

2011-01-01

343

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 520.15 Section...SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.15 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

344

36 CFR 504.14 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Weapons and explosives. 504.14 Section...INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.14 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

345

31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives. 0.215 Section 0...of Conduct § 0.215 Possession of weapons and explosives. (a) Employees shall...explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons, either openly or concealed,...

2013-07-01

346

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons and explosives. 91.13 Section 91...MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or...

2013-07-01

347

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11 Section 15.11 Public... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or...guns, harpoons, or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef...

2013-10-01

348

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks...WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.30 Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks...exceptions: (1) You must not have a weapon in your possession when at or in a...

2013-10-01

349

TURKEY ? S PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND DISARMAMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle, Turkey would welcome the global elimination of nuclear weapons. For the current government, the possession of nuclear weapons by other states is a factor that, indirectly at least, reduces Turkey ?s regional (if not global) aspirations and power. However, in the medium term, it remains deeply ambivalent on the future of nuclear weapons and its own plans regarding

Henri J. Barkey

350

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

351

Vulnerability of digitized platforms to modern rf electromagnetic weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio Frequency Directed Energy Weapons (RF DEW) have the potential to disrupt the operation of, or cause the failure of, a broad range of military electronic equipment. Over the past 30 years, there has been considerable effort in the development of these weapons. Recent reports suggest that a number of countries, including the USA and Russia, have fielded such weapons.

Michael R. Frater; Michael J. Ryan

2001-01-01

352

25 CFR 11.444 - Carrying concealed weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Carrying concealed weapons. 11.444 Section 11.444 Indians...Offenses § 11.444 Carrying concealed weapons. A person who goes about in public places armed with a dangerous weapon concealed upon his or her person is...

2013-04-01

353

Why do New Zealand high school students carry weapons?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined weapon carrying, including both the type of weapons being carried and reasons for carrying, in a sample of New Zealand high school students. A self-report online survey was administered to 1169 secondary students in the Otago region of New Zealand. Overall, 17 per cent had carried a weapon in the past year at school, and 24 per

Louise Marsh; Rob McGee; Sheila Williams

2011-01-01

354

32 CFR 552.104 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552.104 Section 552.104 National...AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Firearms and Weapons § 552.104 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition,...

2013-07-01

355

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2011-11-10

356

32 CFR 552.124 - Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition. 552.124 Section...124 Transportation of privately owned weapons and ammunition. (a) Privately owned...transported in the following manner: (1) Weapons, other than weapons being...

2013-07-01

357

32 CFR 552.130 - Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. 552.130 Section 552.130 ...Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.130 Disposition of confiscated/seized weapons. All weapons, ammunition,...

2013-07-01

358

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2010-11-08

359

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November...of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and...

2013-01-01

360

Willingness of healthcare workers to accept voluntary stockpiled H5N1 vaccine in advance of pandemic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare workers may be at risk during the next influenza pandemic. Priming with stockpiled vaccine may protect staff and reduce nosocomial transmission. Despite campaigns to increase seasonal influenza vaccine coverage, uptake among healthcare workers is generally low; creating uncertainty whether they would participate in pre-pandemic vaccine programmes. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of healthcare workers in a UK hospital

Manish Pareek; Tristan Clark; Helen Dillon; Rajesh Kumar; Iain Stephenson

2009-01-01

361

The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

2001-01-01

362

Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better understanding of the various effects. A new chapter has been added on the electromagnetic pulse. The chapter titles are as follows: general principles of nuclear explosions; descriptions of nuclear explosions; air blast phenomena in air and surface bursts; air blast loading; structural damage from air blast; shock effects of surface and subsurface bursts; thermal radiation and its effects; initial nuclear radiation; residual nuclear radiation and fallout; radio and radar effects; the electromagnetic pulse and its effects; and biological effects. (LTN)

Glasstone, S.; Dolan, P.J.

1977-01-01

363

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

364

Ending the scourge of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

Brin, J.

1993-04-01

365

Rethinking ‘Rape as a Weapon of War’  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant shifts in current thinking on war and gender is the recognition that rape in wartime is not a\\u000a simple by-product of war, but often a planned and targeted policy. For many feminists ‘rape as a weapon of war’ provides a\\u000a way to articulate the systematic, pervasive, and orchestrated nature of wartime sexual violence that marks

Doris E. Buss

2009-01-01

366

Evaluating weapon systems using ranking fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will point out that Chen's (1996) paper has some errors. A weapon system is large and complex, it has multi-level, multi-factor and multi-hierarchy features. Chen's method does not normalize each criterion's scores, which will make a wrong decision under the following conditions: (I) there are many levels for rank scores; (II) a criterion has many factors;

Ching-Hsue Cheng

1999-01-01

367

Impulse noise trauma during army weapon firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100 infanty personnel firing modern weapons such as the Anti Tank Guided Missile, 106mm Recoiless Gun (RCL), 84mm Rocket\\u000a Launcher (RL) and 81mm Mortar were studied for the effect of impulse noise on the ear and the evolution of the Temporary Threshold\\u000a Shift (TTS), Recovery Time (RT) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) was traced.

K. R. Munjal; V. P. Singh

1997-01-01

368

Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

Reeves, Glen I

2010-12-01

369

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

370

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

371

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to a high speed impact  

SciTech Connect

The dynamic response of a weapon`s internal components to an accident is critical in determining the safety of a weapon. The primary objective of this study was to determine the safety of the weapon based on the acceleration histories of its safety components. The accident scenario was a 80 feet/second impact of the weapon onto a railroad rail. Large deformations and many contacts were expected due to the severity of the impact condition. The complexity of this analysis required a nonlinear finite element code which could track many contact surfaces simultaneously and simulate material failure using element death. The damage to the structure and its contents was simulated using PRONTO3D (an explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Laboratories). Some of PRONTO3D`s advanced features used in the calculations included the self-contacting algorithms, material death, and rigid body mechanics. Throughout the analysis, a large number of mechanical contacts, both normal and sliding with friction, were detected and tracked by PRONT03D. The analysis predicted large deformations and material failure that took the form of tears in the aluminum shroud and in the housing of the components. The predicted acceleration histories were then used to determine if the components remained functional.

Gruda, J.D.

1994-12-31

372

Warheads aren't Forever  

Microsoft Academic Search

A government program for improving the reliability of America's nuclear stockpile is being transformed into an initiative to churn out a new generation of nuclear weapons. And nobody is even bothering to ask why they're necessary.

Stephen I. Schwartz

2005-01-01

373

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

374

A Method for Computing Lower Confidence Limits on System Reliability Using Component Failure Data with Unequal Sample Sizes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is presented for constructing system reliability using component failure data when the sample sizes for testing on the component parts differ greatly. The procedure can be applied to weapons systems as easily as subsystems. No assumptions about f...

J. R. Borsting W. M. Woods

1968-01-01

375

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

376

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

377

ACAM2000(TM): The new smallpox vaccine for United States Strategic National Stockpile  

PubMed Central

Smallpox was eradicated more than 30 years ago, but heightened concerns over bioterrorism have brought smallpox and smallpox vaccination back to the forefront. The previously licensed smallpox vaccine in the United States, Dryvax® (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc.), was highly effective, but the supply was insufficient to vaccinate the entire current US population. Additionally, Dryvax® had a questionable safety profile since it consisted of a pool of vaccinia virus strains with varying degrees of virulence, and was grown on the skin of calves, an outdated technique that poses an unnecessary risk of contamination. The US government has therefore recently supported development of an improved live vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. This initiative has resulted in the development of ACAM2000™ (Acambis, Inc.™), a single plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax®, aseptically propagated in cell culture. Preclinical and clinical trials reported in 2008 demonstrated that ACAM2000™ has comparable immunogenicity to that of Dryvax®, and causes a similar frequency of adverse events. Furthermore, like Dryvax®, ACAM2000™ vaccination has been shown by careful cardiac screening to result in an unexpectedly high rate of myocarditis and pericarditis. ACAM2000™ received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in August 2007, and replaced Dryvax® for all smallpox vaccinations in February 2008. Currently, over 200 million doses of ACAM2000™ have been produced for the US Strategic National Stockpile. This review of ACAM2000™ addresses the production, characterization, clinical trials, and adverse events associated with this new smallpox vaccine.

Nalca, Aysegul; Zumbrun, Elizabeth E

2010-01-01

378

Cardiac fibrillation risk of taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

379

Proliferation of biological weapons: challenges and responses.  

PubMed

The threat posed by the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) confronts all strata of our society, from the individual, the nation, or the region to the truly international. The history of state-run offensive BW programmes and the attacks in the United States with powdered anthrax demonstrate that existing measures fall short of addressing this threat. This article examines the current regime and the concerns that confront it in order to suggest possible responses across the social strata that may mitigate future proliferation of BW. PMID:15015544

Millett, Piers D

2004-01-01

380

History of Nuclear Weapons Design and Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear build-up of the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War is often portrayed as an arms race. Some part was indeed a bilateral competition, but much was the result of automatic application of technical advances as they became available, without careful consideration of strategic implications. Thus, the history of nuclear weapon design is partly designers responding to stated military needs and partly the world responding to constant innovations in nuclear capability. Today, plans for a new nuclear warhead are motivated primarily by the desire to maintain a nuclear design and production capability for the foreseeable future.

Oelrich, Ivan

2007-04-01

381

European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

Gutteridge, W.

1982-01-01

382

Botulin toxin: a weapon in terrorism.  

PubMed

Clostridium botulinum, the causative agent of botulism is an anaerobic, spore forming gram-positive bacillus. C. botulinum causes three types of botulism; foodborne botulism, wound botulism, and infant botulism. Most strains of the bacterium produce a potent, muscle-paralyzing neurotoxin. Respiratory failure secondary to paralysis of the respiratory muscles can lead to death unless appropriate therapy is promptly initiated. Due to the severity and potency of this neurotoxin, its importance as a biological weapon is of major concern to public health officials. PMID:15011978

Josko, Deborah

2004-01-01

383

DOE battery program for weapon applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report discusses the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Battery program which originates from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and involves activities ranging from research, design and development to testing, consulting, and production support. The primary customer is the DOE/Office of Defense Programs, although work is also done for various Department of Defense agencies and their contractors. The majority of the SNL activities involve thermal battery (TB) and lithium ambient temperature battery (LAMB)technologies. Smaller efforts are underway in the areas of silver oxide/zinc and nickel oxide/cadmium batteries as well as double layer capacitors.

Clark, R. P.; Baldwin, A. R.

384

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01

385

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

Schumeyer, G.

1990-04-01

386

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODCs) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-Free cleaning procedures. One leg of that philosophy is the initiation of a several tier testing program which will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with original surface analysis comparisons between ODC and various ODC-Free cleaning technologies. The other leg is the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years with a number of important tribological questions unanswered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life mechanism based on a number of parameters, including a comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODCs based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; Woods, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

387

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-free cleaning procedures. The short term leg of the philosophy was the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. The long-term leg of that philosophy was the initiation of a several tier testing program that will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with accelerated lubricant life tests that compare lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC solvents with lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC-free solvents. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years before a number of important tribological questions can be answered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life lubricated mechanism based on a number of parameters, including 4 comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODC's based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; LeBoeuf, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

388

What Happens to Deterrence as Nuclear Weapons Decrease Toward Zero?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Steps reducing reliance on deployed nuclear weapons en route to zero will be discussed. They include broadly enhancing cooperation and transparency agreements beyond the provisions for verifying limits on deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in the New START treaty. Two questions that will be addressed are: What conditions would have to be established in order to maintain strategic stability among nations as nuclear weapons recede in importance? What would nuclear deterrence be like in a world without nuclear weapons?

Drell, Sidney

2011-04-01

389

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

390

The GT-MHR for destruction of weapons plutonium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of nearly 100 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) made surplus by the disarmament treaties is receiving urgent attention, highlighted by the recent seizure in Germany of small quantities of weapons-useful plutonium. Unlike highly enriched uranium, simple denaturing cannot make this plutonium worthless for use in future weapons. The use of physical security and institutional barriers, including long-term storage

A. M. Baxter; A. J. Neylan

1995-01-01

391

Vulnerability of digitized platforms to modern rf electromagnetic weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio Frequency Directed Energy Weapons (RF DEW) have the potential to disrupt the operation of, or cause the failure of, a broad range of military electronic equipment. Over the past 30 years, there has been considerable effort in the development of these weapons. Recent reports suggest that a number of countries, including the USA and Russia, have fielded such weapons. This paper examines the potential performance of non-nuclear RF DEW.

Frater, Michael R.; Ryan, Michael J.

2001-08-01

392

Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study examines Chinese nuclear weapons and arms control policies and focuses on the period since 1982. The section on nuclear weapons policies and capabilities discusses China`s land, sea, and airborne deterrent forces, the development of tactical nuclear weapons, and nuclear doctrine and policy. The section on arms control policy describes Beijing`s stance on disarmament, nonproliferation, arms control talks, the United States-Soviet space race, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. The conclusion examines the military and political objectives of nuclear weapons and arms control policies in China`s independent foreign policy.

Sismanidis, R.D.

1985-12-04

393

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

2005-01-01

394

The dangers of new weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

Clearly any effort to understand the impact of technological change on arms control must consider the nature of that change. It is this to which the first four papers in this volume are devoted. If there is conventional wisdom here, it says that change is rapid and rather unpredictable. Furthermore it is generated by large organisations of scientists, soldiers and officials in both East and West pursuing what they see as the technologically possible. Only rarely do they need to refer to each other's achievements to justify their own efforts. The papers in this section comment directly or indirectly on the elements in this conventional wisdom. Long's contribution, for instance, analyses US efforts to operate a decision-making system meant to produce weapons which fill a military need rather than just incorporate some appealing technological opportunity. His writing reminds us that technological advances rarely spring from the blue but from areas where progress seemed possible and to which funds had been directed. Tsipis, for his part, relies on the laws of physics to support his scepticism of the prospects for 'beam' weapons.

Gutteridge, W.; Taylor, T.

1983-01-01

395

East Europe report, political, sociological and military affairs, number 2097, nuclear weapons and protection against nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

This Title of this report is Nuclear Weapons and Protection Against Nuclear Weapons. Book by Lt. Col Docent Manfred Hoffmann, Dr. Mil. Sci.; textbook with 85 tables and 175 illustrations; Military Publishing House of the German Democratic Republic. This textbook takes up the most important combat properties and destructive effects of nuclear weapons and from that we derive and explain the necessary unit nuclear defense measures.

Hoffman, M.

1983-01-20

396

The Plutonium Transition from Nuclear Weapons to Crypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the ''Cold War'' thousands of nuclear warheads are being dismantled. The National Academy of Sciences termed this growing stockpile of plutonium and highly enriched uranium ''a clear and present danger'' to international security. DOE\\/MD selected a duel approach to plutonium disposition--burning MOX fuel in existing reactors and immobilization in a ceramic matrix surrounded by HLW glass.

Gray

2000-01-01

397

Application of Growth Curve Analysis to the Ammunition Stockpile Deterioration Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ammunition deterioration during storage has considerable economic consequences. A reliable prediction model for the ammunition deterioration rate is necessary for long-term procurement and maintenance planning. A random effect growth curve analysis is emp...

S. Y. So

1992-01-01

398

Why Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing Makes Sense for the Plants and Laboratories of the Nuclear Weapon Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this White Paper is to outline the benefits we expect to receive from Model-Based Engineering and Manufacturing (MBE\\/M) for the design, analysis, fabrication, and assembly of nuclear weapons for upcoming Life Extension Programs (LEPs). Industry experiences with model-based approaches and the NNSA\\/DP investments and experiences, discussed in this paper, indicate that model-based methods can achieve reliable refurbished

K W Franklin; L N Howell; D G Lewis; C A Neugebauer; D W OBrien; S A Schilling

2001-01-01

399

The spread of nuclear weapons in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons to several Third World countries, exemplified by recent events in Iraq, and the possibility of rapid acquisition of a nuclear weapons capability in developed countries. It considers the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations in preventing proliferation and calls for wider powers for the latter.

Paul Leventhal

1992-01-01

400

A new ATS architecture for depot testing of warheaded weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Weapons Complex (IWC) is a facility available at a number of UK armaments depots. These IWCs are used for the repair, assembly, test and storage of sophisticated weapons that contain explosives. They are suitable for processing virtually all types of missiles used by the UK Army, Navy, and Air Force. The configuration of buildings that make up an

J. Paul; P. Vincent

1999-01-01

401

Nuclear power and nuclear weapons: the connection is dangerous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part one of a two-part article points out that responsible nuclear advocates recognized the proliferation risks associated with the benefits of nuclear power and that the weapons connection should be included in the evaluation of energy-strategy choices. Analysts who emphasize only political motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons ignore the technical and economic barriers that can slow their spread, as well

Holdren

1983-01-01

402

Auction Algorithm for Weapons/Targets Pairing Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we propose and study the performance of optimizing weapons/targets pairing based on an auction algorithm. The weapons/targets pairing problem can be considered as an assignment optimization problem in mathematics. Hence, there are number of ...

Z. Bogdanowicz N. Coleman

2004-01-01

403

Ensuring Schedulability in the Weapon Target Assignment Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weapon Target Assignment (WTA): Given a set of weapon batteries and a set of incoming targets, what is the assignment of interceptors to targets that will maximize the value of targets killed. *Difficult problem to solve optimally for large numbers of wea...

D. Pederson

2008-01-01

404

Nuclear Weapons--A Suitable Topic for the Classroom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and implementation of curriculum materials that discuss nuclear weapons and the evaluation of those materials by administrators, teachers, and students. Also discusses the place of the study of nuclear weapons in the curriculum and aims of the materials. Suggested student activities are included. (JM)

Eijkelhof, Harrie; And Others

1984-01-01

405

Kemiska Vapen i Vaerlden (Chemical Weapons in the World).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention entered into force on 29 April 1997. Before the entry into force only the United States and the Russian Federation had declared on their own initiatives, possession of chemical weapons. Many of the states which are believed...

J. Johannesson

1997-01-01

406

67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. COPY OF UNDATED OBLIQUE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, FROM MASTER PLAN OF CARIBOU AFS. PHOTOGRAPH, PROBABLY TAKEN IN THE 1960'S LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

407

7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 522 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

408

75. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELD FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

75. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELD FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 328 LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING BUILDING 327-318. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

409

Rethinking the Development of Weapons and Their Impact  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one reads about the history of humans, he/she sees very early on that humans are naturally "tool users." More specifically, humans used tools as a means of subsistence and survival. Even today humans use tools to extend their capabilities beyond imagination. These tools are even used as weapons. However primitive, these early weapons would soon…

Katsioloudis, Petros J.; Jones, Mildred V.

2011-01-01

410

Guided Weapon Safety Template Generation - A Probabilistic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we outline an approach for the generation of guided weapon safety templates via probabilistic means. This approach involves the calculation of a ground impact distribution database for each weapon via Monte Carlo simulations performed on a 'farm' of computers. A safety template specific to a user-defined firing envelope is then generated. The template is a probability density

Duncan Fletcher; Shaun Wilson; Michael Jokic; Ivan Vuletich

411

Initiating-event frequencies for nuclear weapons dismantlement hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

A quantitative data base for initiating events encountered during nuclear weapons handling is described. This data base was assembled from incident reports at the plant where the weapons are handled. The strengths and pitfalls of constructing such a data base are elaborated using examples encountered in the data. Insights gained into accident sequences, human error probabilities, and other areas of concern are discussed.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Probabilistic Risk and Hazards Analysis Group

1996-08-01

412

Assignment algorithm for kinetic energy weapons in boost phase defence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents weapon target assignment (WTA) algorithms for space-based interceptors in boost phase defense of ICBMs. The objective is to develop effective (including both solution optimality and computation efficiency) algorithms for the large-scale, many weapon on many target assignment problem. Both static and dynamic WTA problems are considered. We first develop an Iterative LInear NEtwork programming algorithm (ILINE) for

Shi-Chung Chang; Ronald M. James; Jonh J. Shaw

1987-01-01

413

A Firing Time Selector for Precision Weapon Aiming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A time selector compares a predicted effective aim point of a weapon with an intended aim point and, when the predicted and intended aim points fall within a predetermined threshold, firing of the weapon is enabled. Selection of a firing time in this mann...

M. D. Kregel

1982-01-01

414

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

415

RAPID COMMUNICATION: Asynchronous data-driven classification of weapon systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication addresses real-time weapon classification by analysis of asynchronous acoustic data, collected from microphones on a sensor network. The weapon classification algorithm consists of two parts: (i) feature extraction from time-series data using symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF), and (ii) pattern classification based on the extracted features using the language measure (LM) and support vector machine (SVM). The proposed algorithm

Xin Jin; Kushal Mukherjee; Shalabh Gupta; Asok Ray; Shashi Phoha; Thyagaraju Damarla

2009-01-01

416

The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

2012-01-01

417

Minuteman Weapon System Test Set logic replacement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1960s, the Minuteman Weapon System Test Set was constructed as a part of the Minuteman development program. The missile Reentry Vehicle is that portion of the Minuteman missile system which reenters the atmosphere with the nuclear warhead. The test set has the objective to test the electrical/electro-mechanical systems and components of the reentry vehicle at both the repair depot and missile maintenance squadron levels. With the recent advances in semiconductor technologies, the Diode Transistor Logic (DTL) technology used to implement the test set logic became obsolete. The present paper is concerned with efforts to develop a prototype replacement for the test set logic. Attention is given to the functions of the test set, the documentation of existing logic, and the prototype design approach, which involves the subdivision of the logic into three basic functional groups. The logic replacement is based on the utilization of a multiple microprocessor system.

Royse, S. D.

418

Naval weapons center active fault map series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NWC Active Fault Map Series shows the locations of active faults and features indicative of active faulting within much of Indian Wells Valley and portions of the Randsburg Wash/Mojave B test range areas of the Naval Weapons Center. Map annotations are used extensively to identify criteria employed in identifying the fault offsets, and to present other valuable data. All of the mapped faults show evidence of having moved during about the last 12,500 years or represent geologically young faults that occur within seismic gaps. Only faults that offset the surface or show other evidence of surface deformation were mapped. A portion of the City of Ridgecrest is recommended as being a Seismic Hazard Special Studies Zone in which detailed earthquake hazard studies should be required.

Roquemore, G. R.; Zellmer, J. T.

1987-08-01

419

Imploding liner research at the weapons laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weapons Laboratory's imploding plasma liner and related research are discussed. This includes direct capacitor discharge driven implosions of cylindrical foil plasma shells and of cylindrical shell gas puffs, solid liner implosions and inductive store/opening switch and plasma flow switch driven implosions. Diagnostics include current, voltage, magnetic field, X-ray, neutron, fast photography, and radiography. Theoretical tools and predictions include circuit solver/slug models, 1D-MHD, and 2D-MHD codes. Experiment parameter ranges were 0.1 to 5 megajoules in initial stored energy, 1.5 to 15 megamps peak current, 0.2 to 8 microseconds current rise time, 0.5 to 12 microsecond implosion time, 2 cm/?sec to >~100 cm/?sec implosion velocity, and, for plasma implosions, radiation pulses with up to 1 megajoule energy and 5 trillion watt power.

Degnan, J. H.; Baker, W. L.; Turchi, P. J.

1989-12-01

420

Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?  

SciTech Connect

One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

Moore, G M

2003-06-01

421

Applications of internal translating mass technologies to smart weapons systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of guided projectile research has continually grown over the past several decades. Guided projectiles, typically encompassing bullets, mortars, and artillery shells, incorporate some sort of guidance and control mechanism to generate trajectory alterations. This serves to increase accuracy and decrease collateral damage. Control mechanisms for smart weapons must be able to withstand extreme acceleration loads at launch while remaining simple to reduce cost and enhance reliability. Controllable internal moving masses can be incorporated into the design of smart weapons as a mechanism to directly apply control force, to actively alter static stability in flight, and to protect sensitive components within sensor packages. This dissertation examined techniques for using internal translating masses (ITM's) for smart weapon flight control. It was first shown that oscillating a mass orthogonal to the projectile axis of symmetry generates reasonable control force in statically-stable rounds. Trade studies examined the impact of mass size, mass offset from the center of gravity, and reductions in static stability on control authority. A more detailed analysis followed in which a physical internal translating mass control mechanism was designed that minimizes force and power required using a vibrating beam as the internal moving mass. Results showed that this relatively simple mechanism provides adequate control authority while requiring low on-board power. Trade studies revealed the affect of varying beam lengths, stiffness, and damping properties. Then, the topic of static margin control through mass center modification was explored. This is accomplished by translating a mass in flight along the projectile axis of symmetry. Results showed that this system allows for greater control authority and reduced throw-off error at launch. Finally, a nonlinear sliding mode controller was designed for a projectile equipped with an internal moving mass as well as for a projectile equipped with both an ITM and canard control mechanisms. Monte Carlo simulations that incorporated realistic uncertainty demonstrated the robust nature of the control system. These dispersion simulations examined the effect of ITM size and incorporation of a variable stability mechanism. It is shown that use of an ITM as a direct control mechanism can reduce circular error probable by nearly half, while coupling ITM control with canard control can reduce required canard area by approximately half as well. Overall, it was determined that direct ITM control generates modest control authority for practical systems. Therefore, it can be used to reduce dispersion error but not eliminate it to levels commensurate with sensor noise. Likewise, the ITM variable stability mechanism provides a limited control authority enhancement to guided projectiles controlled by other means. Thus, while the mechanism may not be useful for guided munitions that exhibit ample control authority, it provides a useful supplement to projectiles requiring slight control authority improvement.

Rogers, Jonathan

422

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. 552.123 Section 552.123 National Defense Department...123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords,...

2009-07-01

423

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. 552.123 Section 552.123 National Defense Department...123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords,...

2010-07-01

424

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2006-01-01

425

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2007-01-01

426

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2004-01-01

427

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2008-01-01

428

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2007-01-01

429

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2005-01-01

430

Nonproliferation: Delays in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention Raise Concerns About Proliferation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) bans chemical weapons and requires their destruction by 2007, with possible extensions to 2012. The CWC also seeks to reduce the proliferation of these weapons by requiring member states to adopt comprehensive nationa...

2004-01-01

431

27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...22 U.S.C. 2778). (c) Manufacture and dealing in semiautomatic assault weapons. Subject to compliance with...dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons may manufacture and deal in such weapons manufactured after September...

2010-04-01

432

27 CFR 478.40 - Manufacture, transfer, and possession of semiautomatic assault weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...22 U.S.C. 2778). (c) Manufacture and dealing in semiautomatic assault weapons. Subject to compliance with...dealers in semiautomatic assault weapons may manufacture and deal in such weapons manufactured after September...

2009-04-01

433

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2009-01-01

434

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2010-01-01

435

32 CFR 552.123 - Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. 552...Washington § 552.123 Storage of personal weapons other than firearms or handguns. Privately owned weapons, such as knives, swords, air guns,...

2013-07-01

436

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive...proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...

2012-11-05

437

41 CFR 102-74.440 - What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? 102-74.440...MANAGEMENT Conduct on Federal Property Weapons § 102-74.440 What is the policy concerning weapons on Federal property? Federal law...

2013-07-01

438

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2009-01-01

439

32 CFR 552.121 - Possession or retention of prohibited weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Possession or retention of prohibited weapons. 552.121 Section 552.121 National Defense...552.121 Possession or retention of prohibited weapons. Prohibited weapons are defined as: (a) Any...

2013-07-01

440

77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the Export Administration...INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral arms...achieve an international ban on chemical weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use,...

2012-04-16

441

78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991...306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of...

2013-09-10

442

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2010-01-01

443

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section... Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted...west jetties at the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California,...

2013-07-01

444

36 CFR 327.13 - Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.13 Section 327...327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. (a) The possession...bows and arrows, crossbows, or other weapons is prohibited unless: (1) In...

2013-07-01

445

14 CFR 1204.1005 - Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous materials...Trespass or Unauthorized Introduction of Weapons or Dangerous Materials § 1204.1005 Unauthorized introduction of firearms or weapons, explosives, or other dangerous...

2009-01-01

446

28 CFR 552.25 - Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. 552...552.25 Use of less-than-lethal weapons, including chemical agents. (a...authorize the use of less-than-lethal weapons, including those containing...

2013-07-01

447

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2010-01-01

448

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2009-01-01

449

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2013-01-01

450

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section 745...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745.2 ...reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note: The...

2013-01-01

451

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742...Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons Note: Exports and reexports...i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare...

2013-01-01

452

15 CFR 742.2 - Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. 742.2 Section 742.2 Commerce...Proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. (a) License requirements. ...illegal use of chemical and biological weapons. (See also § 742.18 of this...

2013-01-01

453

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS (CWCR)...

2013-01-01

454

Shield optimization program: Part 3, Effects of x-ray radiation from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage to the silicon electronic components and other sensitive areas (fuel tanks) carried on a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for the blackbody x-ray radiation environment emanating

J. O. Johnson; T. A. Gabriel; J. M. Barnes; J. D. Drischler; M. S. Smith; R. T. Santoro

1989-01-01

455

Avionics Design for Reliability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction and overview--Reliability under austerity; Avionics reliability control during development; Reliability growth modelling for avionics; Illusory reliability growth; Experienced in-flight avionics malfunctions; Failures affecting reli...

1976-01-01

456

Combining a gas turbine modular helium reactor and an accelerator and for near total destruction of weapons grade plutonium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fissioning surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WG-Pu) in a reactor is an effective means of rendering this stockpile non-weapons useable. In addition the enormous energy content of the plutonium is released by the fission process and can be captured to produce valuable electric power. While no fission option has been identified that can accomplish the destruction of more than about 70% of the WG-Pu without repeated reprocessing and recycling, which presents additional opportunities for diversion, the gas turbine modular helium-cooled reactor (GT-MHR), using an annular graphite core and graphite inner and outer reflectors combines the maximum plutonium destruction and highest electrical production efficiency and economics in an inherently safe system. Accelerator driven sub-critical assemblies have also been proposed for WG-Pu destruction. These systems offer almost complete WG-Pu destruction, but achieve this goal by using circulating aqueous or molten salt solutions of the fuel, with potential safety implications. By combining the GT-MHR with an accelerator-driven sub-critical MHR assembly, the best features of both systems can be merged to achieve the near total destruction of WG-Pu in an inherently safe, diversion-proof system in which the discharged fuel elements are suitable for long term high level waste storage without the need for further processing. More than 90% total plutonium destruction, and more than 99.9% Pu-239 destruction, could be achieved. The modular concept minimizes the size of each unit so that both the GT-MHR and the accelerator would be straightforward extensions of current technology.

Baxter, A. M.; Lane, R. K.; Sherman, R.

1995-09-01

457

Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

458

Article on Trident Laser Facility for NA-11 Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly  

SciTech Connect

The Trident Intermediate-Scale Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an extremely versatile Nd:glass laser system dedicated to high energy density laboratory physics and weapons physics research and fundamental laser-matter interactions. Trident is a three-beam, 200 J/beam at the second harmonic for glass (527 nm wavelength), facility with tremendous flexibility and high beam quality. Pulse durations varying over 6 orders of magnitude, from 0.5 picoseconds to 1.0 microsecs, can be directed to either of two different target chambers with changeable illumination geometries, including the ability to achieve near-diffraction limited focus. This provides a unique range of capability at one facility from sub-picosecond pulses (and high-intensity laser science) to nanosecond pulses (and LPI physics relevant to ICF) to microsecond pulses (and driving flyer plates for supported shock dynamic materials science.) When in short-pulse mode (less than picosecond pulse), a single beam can provide up to 200 TW of power with uniquely controllable and measured pre-pulse contrast of 10 orders of magnitude. A recent external capability review at Los Alamos concluded that 'Trident is generating excellent, cutting edge science and is a leading intermediate scale laser system worldwide.'

Barnes, Cris W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

459

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-12-01

460

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Air Station, (MCAS) Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, HawaiiâUlupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training...

2009-07-01

461

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, HawaiiâUlupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... . (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2010-07-01

462

A nuclear-weapon-free world: Desirable? Feasible?  

SciTech Connect

The authors seeks answers to two key questions: Is an nuclear-weapons-free-world (NWFW) desirable, and is it feasible? Organized into six parts, the book begins with a historical review of attempts to abolish nuclear weapons. Five subsequent parts address the desirability of an NWFW, its feasibility, alternative routes to this goal, and intermediate steps to this end. The authors deals with many obstacles and difficulties facing those who wish to progress from today`s world of 50,000 or more nuclear weapons to one where none exist and strong international verification assures that no rogue state will resurrect these dread devices.

Rotblat, J.; Steinberger, J.; Udgaonkar, B. [eds.

1993-12-31

463

Macroencapsulation Equivalency Guidance for Classified Weapon Components and NNSSWAC Compliance  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has a surplus of classified legacy weapon components generated over the years with no direct path for disposal. The majority of the components have been held for uncertainty of future use or no identified method of sanitization or disposal. As more weapons are retired, there is an increasing need to reduce the amount of components currently in storage or on hold. A process is currently underway to disposition and dispose of the legacy/retired weapons components across the DOE complex.

Poling, J.

2012-05-15

464

On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Weapons Center is conducting several hard target penetration weapons development programs. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty, due to the hostile nature of the environment, of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests. The information is of vital importance in determining design criteria for survivability of components expected to function in such severe environments. This report describes the development of a small, rugged, solid-state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for testing hard target penetration weapons.

Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

1981-03-16

465

On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Weapons Center has several hard target penetration weapons development programs in progress. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests due to the hostile nature of the environment. The information is of vital importance in order to produce survivability design criteria for components expected to function in such severe environments. The development of a small, rugged, solid state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for hard target penetration weapon testing is described.

Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

1981-03-16

466

Innovations in weapons detector portal technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional concealed weapons detection portals, deployed worlwide at airports, governent buildings, courthouses, and other security critical facilities, are challenged by today's need for stringent and effective entry point screening. Modern threats, like exotic lightweight handguns, are becoming increasingly difficult to detect. Conventional portals do little, if anything, to assist security personnel in resolving the true nature of a potential threat. Systems that rely on blind operator intervention for alarm resolution invite too much human error so security is ultimately compromised. These systems do not instill confidence in the operator or the general public and thus do not present the necessary deterrent to those with sinister intent. Increased detection and improved discrimination do not adequately advance the utility of these security tools. High precision alarm object location information presented to the operator will result in the rapid resolution of the potential threat. Providing this information to the person under scrutiny via a static or streaming video image can enable self-divesting of the offending item without the need for security personnel intervention. Robust detection, effective discrimination, and precise object location information will result in superior entry point screening operations.

Perry, Alexander R.; Czipott, Peter V.; Beevor, Simon P.; Hanley, Gerard A.

2003-09-01

467

Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.  

PubMed

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed. PMID:18802788

Forge, John

2009-03-01

468

Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

2013-10-01

469

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

470

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology;Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

471

Foams for barriers and nonlethal weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our times demand better solutions to conflict resolution than simply shooting someone. Because of this, police and military interest in non-lethal concepts is high. Already in use are pepper sprays, bean-bag guns, flash-bang grenades, and rubber bullets. At Sandia we got a head start on non- lethal weapon concepts. Protection of nuclear materials required systems that went way beyond the traditional back vault. Dispensable deterrents were used to allow a graduated response to a threat. Sticky foams and stabilized aqueous foams were developed to provide access delay. Foams won out for security systems simply because you could get a large volume from a small container. For polymeric foams the expansion ratio is thirty to fifty to one. In aqueous foams expansion ratios of one thousand to ne are easily obtained. Recent development work on sticky foams has included a changeover to environmentally friendly solvents, foams with very low toxicity, and the development of non-flammable silicone resin based foams. High expansion aqueous foams are useful visual and aural obscurants. Our recent aqueous foam development has concentrated on using very low toxicity foaming agents combined with oleoresin capsicum irritant to provide a safe but highly irritating foam.

Rand, Peter B.

1997-01-01

472

Strategic defense and directed-energy weapons  

SciTech Connect

About 8 months after President Reagan called on the US scientific community to develop SDI, the American Physical Society commissioned a study to evaluate the status of directed-energy weapons (DEW). Focus was on DEW because they would be needed in almost all stages of the destruction of a missile, including: detecting the launch; locating and tracking the target; distinguishing warheads from decoys; and destroying the target itself and verifying the kill. Results of the study were released in the spring of 1987, and SDI partisans have attacked and SDI critics have invoked the findings of the APS committee. The authors were cochairmen of the 17-member committee, and here summarize their conclusions, namely: (1) although substantial progress has been made in many technologies of DEW over the last two decades, significant gaps remain in these technologies; (2) successful resolution of these issues is critical for extrapolation to performance levels needed for an effective BMD systems; (3) at present, there is insufficient information to decide whether the required extrapolations can be achieved; improvements of several orders of magnitude are needed; (4) under the best of circumstances, another decade of intensive research is needed to provide the knowledge needed for an informed decision; and (5) important issues of overall system integration and effectiveness depend critically upon information that does not yet exist.

Patel, C.K.N.; Bloembergen, N.

1987-09-01

473

Shield optimization program. Part 4: Effects of neutron and gamma-ray radiations from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage in silicon based electronic components onboard a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for neutrons and gamma rays emanating from a nuclear weapon detonation in space. Results indicate dose levels to the sensitive components within the SBI weapon platform may exceed design limits if the weapon is detonated within a critical radius. For example, a 1962 Starfish detonation at a distance of 91.4 km from the SBI weapon platform generates a total dose in the central instrument bay of 964 rads(Si). The dose rate, dotted gamma, assuming a 40 nsec deposition time, is 1 x 10 to the 10th power rads(Si)/sec. All of the calculations were carried out for an unshielded SBI weapon platform to determine the radiation levels for which shielding must be designed to ensure survivability of the electronic systems.

Smith, M. S.; Johnson, J. O.; Gabriel, T. A.; Barnes, J. M.; Drischler, J. D.; Santoro, R. T.

1989-03-01

474

Shield optimization program: Part 4, Effects of neutron and gamma-ray radiations from nuclear weapons on SDI weapon platforms  

SciTech Connect

Initial studies have been completed to estimate the radiation induced damage in silicon based electronic components onboard a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform. The SBI weapon platform model used in the studies represents the author's concept of such a system. The analysis was completed for neutrons and gamma rays emanating from a nuclear weapon detonation in space. Results indicate dose levels to the sensitive components within the SBI weapon platform may exceed design limits if the weapon is detonated within a critical radius. For example, a 1962 Starfish detonation at a distance of 91.4 km from the SBI weapon platform generates a total dose in the central instrument bay of 964 rads(Si). The dose rate, /dot /gamma//, assuming a 40 nsec deposition time, is 1 /times/ 10/sup 10/ rads(Si)/sec. All of the calculations were carried out for an unshielded SBI weapon platform to determine the radiation levels for which shielding must be designed to ensure survivability of the electronic systems. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Smith, M.S.; Johsnon, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.M.; Drischler, J.D.; Santoro, R.T.

1989-03-01

475

Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

1975-01-01

476

Cartagena declaration on renunciation of weapons of mass destruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document reproduces the text of the Cartagena Declaration on Renunciation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, signed by the Presidents of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela at Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, on 4 December 1991. (Atomindex citat...

1992-01-01

477

Nuclear weapon characteristics report, issue 61 (sanitized version)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes pertinent technical information for each nuclear warhead or bomb and its various applications. These summaries are published for information only. Appendix A is a bibliography on nuclear weapon effects.

NONE

1988-10-01

478

Adaptive Feedforward and Feedback Compensation for Flexible Weapon Pointing Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, active control of flexible structures, e.g., weapon systems, using feedback and feedforward compensation is considered. Specifically, dynamic feedback design utilizing signals from the accelerometer mounted on the structure is discussed. Fu...

F. Khorrami S. Jain M. Mattice N. Coleman J. Rastegar

1993-01-01

479

Weapons Support System Multisensor Simulation Software Program Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The multisensor simulation software is designed to analyze the effects of multisensor surveys of the gravity field on gravimetric estimation errors and weapon system performance. The analysis methodology on which this soft-ware is based was developed by T...

C. L. Ayres J. D. Goldstein J. R. Staudinger

1981-01-01

480

26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. WARDROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, AT TABLE, WEAPONS CLOSET, AND DESK. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

481

Friction and Wear Sciences for a Highly Durable Railgun Weapon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interior ballistics of multi-shot electromagnetic launchers are more complex than that of conventional propellant guns. To be effective, a weapon must be able to fire thousands of rounds without refurbishment. New approaches are needed to understand t...

C. Persad S. Satapathy

2007-01-01

482

Stealing the Sword: Limiting Terrorist Use of Advanced Conventional Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book examines one manifestation of the general technical competition between terrorist groups and security organizations: the balance between the potential use by terrorists of advanced conventional weapons and the responses available to deter or cou...

B. A. Jackson D. R. Frelinger G. Bergamo I. J. Gordon J. Bonomo

2007-01-01

483

Design and Verification of Electromagnetic Compatibility in Airborne Weapons Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To achieve electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) among the electric, electronic and electromechanical systems in a complex airborne weapons system, the coordination of many engineering disciplines is required from concept to delivery. Often the primary obje...

W. R. Johnson

1983-01-01

484

On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small, rugged, solid state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for testing hard target penetration weapons is described. A hydrodynamic computer is used to calculate the response of a warhead to typical ship target.

W. A. Niven; M. F. Jaroska

1981-01-01

485

Naval Weapons Station Charleston Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CHESNAVFACENGCOM designated and Engineer-in-Charge (EIC) to provide inspection planning and on-site technical direction for the underwater inspection of fleet moorings located at the Naval Weapons Station (NWS) Charleston, South Carolina. The actual under...

1983-01-01

486

Naval Weapons Station Charleston Fleet Moorings Underwater Inspection Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the results of the inspection of three fleet moorings located within the Naval Weapons Station, Charleston, SC. Of the three moorings inspected, the Mediterranean Mooring, ARDM-2, and the Auxiliary Mooring's chain were found to be in ...

1985-01-01

487

Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31

488

Hydraulic Circuit for Prevention of Inadvertent Weapon Launches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydraulic circuit for prevention of inadvertent weapons launches in which a hydraulic firing valve provides hydraulic pressure to a backup select valve rather than the backup select valve receiving hydraulic pressure directly from a ship supply header. ...

M. T. Ansay

2006-01-01

489

Pandora's Box Opened Wide: UAVs Carrying Genetic Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recent Rand report on chemical and biological weapons (CBW) identifies unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) as a feasible CBW delivery means by potential adversaries like North Korea. With significant concern regarding the ability to defend against a delivery...

D. J. Hauck

2005-01-01

490

Improving Effectiveness of Monetary Weapon Systems in Afghanistan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tenuous political and economic times call for increased oversight and improved results from military counterinsurgency programs in Afghanistan, programs that provide agile non-kinetic weapons, critical for commanders fighting in today's asymmetric battle ...

S. M. Lorimer

2012-01-01

491

Debate on APS directed-energy weapons study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is it unduly pessimistic to conclude that it would take a decade or more of intensive research just to determine the feasibility of shielding the US with a system of high-intensity laser and energetic particle beam weapons.

Gregory H. Canavan; Nicolaas Bloembergen; C. Kumar N. Patel

1987-01-01

492

Debate on APS directed-energy weapons study  

SciTech Connect

Is it unduly pessimistic to conclude that it would take a decade or more of intensive research just to determine the feasibility of shielding the US with a system of high-intensity laser and energetic particle beam weapons.

Canavan, G.H.; Bloembergen, N.; Patel, C.K.N.

1987-11-01

493

Naval Weapons Station, Concord Export Capability: A Simulation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper represents an analysis of the ocean ammunition export function of the Naval Weapons Station at Concord, California. The analysis, utilizing the general purpose transportation simulator TRANSIM, defines the system and adapts it to TRANSIM notati...

D. C. Fountain

1977-01-01

494

Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Should I Do? KidsHealth > Teens > School & Jobs > Bullying/Violence > Someone at School Has a Weapon. What ... name-calling, harassment, taunting, and other forms of bullying . People who are more likely to become violent ...

495

Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

2013-05-01

496

Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent Use of Mycotoxins as Biological Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aflatoxin exposure causes a broad range of adverse effects including acute hepatic failure hepatic carcinoma and immunosuppression. The ability to weaponize aflatoxins has already been demonstrated raising concern that these potent agents might be used fo...

M. Feldmesser

2007-01-01

497

The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal environments. This report presents safety considerations for the design and implementation of UQSs in the context of the overall safety system.

Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

1993-06-01

498

Dynamic IR Imaging of Nuclear Weapon Platforms for Treaty Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency's (DTRA) Arms Control Technology Division sponsored research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) into the efficacy of infrared (IR) classification of full-up nuclear weapons as an alternative technology for treaty verification. In our effort, dynamic IR measurements were made on a BG61-11 weapon casing. These measurements differ from normal (static) IR measurements in that

Marc L. Simpson; Ralph B. Dinwiddie; Ned E. Clapp; Brian Damiano; Michael J. Maston

499

Hot Cell Examination of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured with weapons-grade MOX and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd\\/kg. As part of the fuel qualification process,

Robert Noel Morris; Bruce Balkcom Bevard; McCoy Kevin

2010-01-01

500

Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel

Larry J Ott; Bruce Balkcom Bevard; Donald J Spellman; Kevin McCoy

2010-01-01