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1

Risk in the Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

When it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile, risk must be as low as possible. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14

2

Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this reseach is the investigation of alternative methods for characterizing the reliability of systems with time dependent failure modes associated with stockpile aging. Reference to 'reliability degradation' has, unfortunately, come to be associated with all types of aging analyes: both deterministic and stochastic. In this research, in keeping with the true theoretical definition, reliability is defined as a probabilistic description of system performance as a funtion of time. Traditional reliability methods used to characterize stockpile reliability depend on the collection of a large number of samples or observations. Clearly, after the experiments have been performed and the data has been collected, critical performance problems can be identified. A Major goal of this research is to identify existing methods and/or develop new mathematical techniques and computer analysis tools to anticipate stockpile problems before they become critical issues. One of the most popular methods for characterizing the reliability of components, particularly electronic components, assumes that failures occur in a completely random fashion, i.e. uniformly across time. This method is based primarily on the use of constant failure rates for the various elements that constitute the weapon system, i.e. the systems do not degrade while in storage. Experience has shown that predictions based upon this approach should be regarded with great skepticism since the relationship between the life predicted and the observed life has been difficult to validate. In addition to this fundamental problem, the approach does not recognize that there are time dependent material properties and variations associated with the manufacturing process and the operational environment. To appreciate the uncertainties in predicting system reliability a number of alternative methods are explored in this report. All of the methods are very different from those currently used to assess stockpile reliability, but have been used extensively in various forms outside Sandia National Laboratories. It is hoped that this report will encourage the use of 'nontraditional' reliabilty and uncertainty techniques in gaining insight into stockpile reliability issues.

Robinson, David G.

1999-04-01

3

Maintaining the US stockpile of nuclear weapons during a Low-Threshold or Comprehensive Test Ban  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review here results of several classes of US nuclear weapons tests conducted withith the principal strengths and weaknesses of nuclear weapons themselves. It is found that a high degree of confidence in the reliability of the existing stockpile is justified, and that it is sufficiently robust to permit confidence in the reliability of remanufactured warheads in the absence of

Kidder

1987-01-01

4

Disposing of the US chemical weapons stockpile. An approaching reality  

SciTech Connect

A congressional mandate to dispose of the current US stockpile of lethal unitary weapons (Public Law 99-145, Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1986) has international implications and is responsible for a recent major assessment of available disposal alternatives. Eight installations in the continental United States currently host aging stockpiles of chemical warfare agents. The stockpiles are described, the toxicology and physical properties of each agent are characterized, disposal options considered by the US Army are identified, and the role of a programmatic health and environmental assessment in the decision-making process is outlined. Critical findings are that existing community emergency planning and preparedness are inadequate and that communication of risk information requires significant improvement. Measures are under way to address these needs. However, timely disposal of the stockpile entails less of a hazard than continued storage.

Carnes, S.A.; Watson, A.P.

1989-08-04

5

Stockpile reliability program for special purpose strap. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1962, web strap tie-down assemblies have been used to secure nuclear weapon containers on tactical vehicles. In 1968, a 36 month useful life (in use) requirement was placed on the straps used to secure war reserve nuclear weapons containers on vehicles. This means that no matter what condition the straps were in, after 36 months they could no longer be used. Due to the numerous problems with the straps for different reasons throughout the years, in 1986 the US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center was tasked to design a new special purpose strap. The US Armament, Munition and Chemical Command, Rock Island, was assigned to be the item manager and to procure the new design straps. Also, at that time, it was agreed that instead of placing the 36 month useful life requirement on the new straps, a stockpile reliability program would be established. This program was to determine whether real usage of tie-down strap could justify either the establishment of a 36 month useful life requirement or have no requirement at all and reject straps based on their condition as determined by inspections only. This report reflects the results, conclusions, and recommendations based on a 5 year stockpile reliability program.... Web strap tie-down assemblies, Stockpile Reliability Program(SPR), In-field use environment, Control storage sample, Base line, Ultimate load, Failure.

Mayfield, N.A.

1993-06-01

6

Lifetime predictions for alumina ceramics used in nuclear weapons stockpile components  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic materials are used extensively in non-nuclear components in the weapons stockpile including neutron tubes, firing sets, radar, strong link and weak link assemblies, batteries, and current/voltage stacks. Ceramics also perform critical functions in electronics, passively as insulators and actively as resistors and capacitors. Glass and ceramic seals also provide hermetic electrical feedthroughs in connectors for many weapons components. The primary goal of the ceramic material lifetime prediction program is to provide the enhanced surveillance program with the capability to specify the reliability and lifetimes of glass and ceramic-containing components under conditions typical of the stockpile environment. The authors have studied the reliability and subcritical crack growth (SCG) behavior of 94% alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which is likely the most common ceramic in the stockpile. Measurements have been made on aluminas manufactured by four war reserve qualified vendors (Coors, Wesgo, AlSiMag, and Diamonite). These materials are expected to be representative of typical product obtained from vendors who have supplied alumina for weapons components during the past several decades.

Glass, S.J.; Monroe, S.L.; Newton, C.

1997-09-01

7

National Certification Methodology for the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have developed a common framework and key elements of a national certification methodology called Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU). A spectrum from senior managers to weapons designers has been engaged in this activity at the two laboratories for on the order of a year to codify this methodology in an overarching and integrated paper. Following is the certification paper that has evolved. In the process of writing this paper, an important outcome has been the realization that a joint Livermore/Los Alamos workshop on QMU, focusing on clearly identifying and quantifying differences between approaches between the two labs plus developing an even stronger technical foundation on methodology, will be valuable. Later in FY03, such a joint laboratory workshop will be held. One of the outcomes of this workshop will be a new version of this certification paper. A comprehensive approach to certification must include specification of problem scope, development of system baseline models, formulation of standards of performance assessment, and effective procedures for peer review and documentation. This document concentrates on the assessment and peer review aspects of the problem. In addressing these points, a central role is played by a 'watch list' for weapons derived from credible failure modes and performance gate analyses. The watch list must reflect our best assessment of factors that are critical to weapons performance. High fidelity experiments and calculations as well as full exploitation of archival test data are essential to this process. Peer review, advisory groups and red teams play an important role in confirming the validity of the watch list. The framework for certification developed by the Laboratories has many basic features in common, but some significant differences in the detailed technical implementation of the overall methodology remain. Joint certification workshops held in June and December of 2001 and continued in 2002 have proven useful in developing the methodology, and future workshops should prove useful in further refining this framework. Each laboratory developed an approach to certification with some differences in detailed implementation. The general methodology introduces specific quantitative indicators for assessing confidence in our nuclear weapon stockpile. The quantitative indicators are based upon performance margins for key operating characteristics and components of the system, and these are compared to uncertainties in these factors. These criteria can be summarized in a quantitative metric (for each such characteristic) expressed as: (i.e., confidence in warhead performance depends upon CR significantly exceeding unity for all these characteristics). These Confidence Ratios are proposed as a basis for guiding technical and programmatic decisions on stockpile actions. This methodology already has been deployed in certifying weapons undergoing current life extension programs or component remanufacture. The overall approach is an adaptation of standard engineering practice and lends itself to rigorous, quantitative, and explicit criteria for judging the robustness of weapon system and component performance at a detailed level. There are, of course, a number of approaches for assessing these Confidence Ratios. The general certification methodology was publicly presented for the first time to a meeting of Strategic Command SAG in January 2002 and met with general approval. At that meeting, the Laboratories committed to further refine and develop the methodology through the implementation process. This paper reflects the refinement and additional development to date. There will be even further refinement at a joint laboratory workshop later in FY03. A common certification methodology enables us to engage in peer reviews and evaluate nuclear weapon systems on the basis of explicit and objective metrics. The clarity provided by such metrics enables each laboratory and our common customers to understand the meaning and logic

Goodwin, B T; Juzaitis, R J

2006-08-07

8

DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

1999-04-01

9

Reliability Impact of Stockpile Aging: Stress Voiding  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to statistically characterize the aging of integrated circuit interconnects. This report supersedes the stress void aging characterization presented in SAND99-0975, ''Reliability Degradation Due to Stockpile Aging,'' by the same author. The physics of the stress voiding, before and after wafer processing have been recently characterized by F. G. Yost in SAND99-0601, ''Stress Voiding during Wafer Processing''. The current effort extends this research to account for uncertainties in grain size, storage temperature, void spacing and initial residual stress and their impact on interconnect failure after wafer processing. The sensitivity of the life estimates to these uncertainties is also investigated. Various methods for characterizing the probability of failure of a conductor line were investigated including: Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), quasi-Monte Carlo sampling (qMC), as well as various analytical methods such as the advanced mean value (Ah/IV) method. The comparison was aided by the use of the Cassandra uncertainty analysis library. It was found that the only viable uncertainty analysis methods were those based on either LHS or quasi-Monte Carlo sampling. Analytical methods such as AMV could not be applied due to the nature of the stress voiding problem. The qMC method was chosen since it provided smaller estimation error for a given number of samples. The preliminary results indicate that the reliability of integrated circuits due to stress voiding is very sensitive to the underlying uncertainties associated with grain size and void spacing. In particular, accurate characterization of IC reliability depends heavily on not only the frost and second moments of the uncertainty distribution, but more specifically the unique form of the underlying distribution.

ROBINSON,DAVID G.

1999-10-01

10

Recovery following a chemical weapons stockpile disposal program accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conjunction with disposal planning, the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) was developed to improve emergency preparedness at the eight installations involved and for the communities which surround them. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is assisting in the implementation of this program on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding established with the Office of the Assistant Secretary

T. Hess; C. Herzenberg; E. Tanzman; S. Meleski; R. Hemphill; R. Haffenden; L. Lewis; J. Adams

1991-01-01

11

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01

12

Hierarchical Linear Models of Factors Associated with Public Participation among Residents Living near the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate public involvement among residents living near the US Army's eight Chemical Weapons Stockpile sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted across 10 states. Primary data were obtained through a random digit dialling population survey. The study sample consisted of 8315 residents living within emergency response zones surrounding the US Army's Chemical Weapons Stockpile

BRYAN L. WILLIAMS; HOI K. SUEN; Sylvia Brown; Roberta Bruhn; Rich De Blaquiere; SARAH E. RZASA

2001-01-01

13

Defense Experimentation and Stockpile Stewardship  

ScienceCinema

A primary mission of the site is to help ensure that the nation's nuclear weapon stockpile remains safe, secure and reliable. The stockpile stewardship program, working with the national weapons laboratories conducts a wide range of experiments using advanced diagnostic technologies, many of which were developed right here at the NNSS.

None

2015-01-07

14

Defense Experimentation and Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

A primary mission of the site is to help ensure that the nation's nuclear weapon stockpile remains safe, secure and reliable. The stockpile stewardship program, working with the national weapons laboratories conducts a wide range of experiments using advanced diagnostic technologies, many of which were developed right here at the NNSS.

None

2014-10-28

15

Propulsion technology effect on weapon system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for estimating the reliability of weapon systems early in development, even before system testing, has been applied to four types of advanced gun propulsion (advanced solids, liquid propellant, electromagnetic, and electrothermal) for three different weapon system types (artillery, armor, and air defense). The goals were to determine the feasibility of developing a methodology by which the reliability of

1990-01-01

16

Nuclear Weapon Personnel-Reliability Program. Directive  

SciTech Connect

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 5210.42, April 23, 1981, to update policy governing the Nuclear Weapon Personnel Reliability Program. The program is designed to ensure the highest possible standards of individual reliability in personnel performing duties associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear components.

Pike, R.

1985-12-06

17

Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-29

18

Stockpile reliability program for special purpose strap. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1962, web strap tie-down assemblies have been used to secure nuclear weapon containers on tactical vehicles. In 1968, a 36 month useful life (in use) requirement was placed on the straps used to secure war reserve nuclear weapons containers on vehicles. This means that no matter what condition the straps were in, after 36 months they could no longer

Mayfield

1993-01-01

19

Techniques to evaluate the importance of common cause degradation on reliability and safety of nuclear weapons.  

SciTech Connect

As the nuclear weapon stockpile ages, there is increased concern about common degradation ultimately leading to common cause failure of multiple weapons that could significantly impact reliability or safety. Current acceptable limits for the reliability and safety of a weapon are based on upper limits on the probability of failure of an individual item, assuming that failures among items are independent. We expanded the current acceptable limits to apply to situations with common cause failure. Then, we developed a simple screening process to quickly assess the importance of observed common degradation for both reliability and safety to determine if further action is necessary. The screening process conservatively assumes that common degradation is common cause failure. For a population with between 100 and 5000 items we applied the screening process and conclude the following. In general, for a reliability requirement specified in the Military Characteristics (MCs) for a specific weapon system, common degradation is of concern if more than 100(1-x)% of the weapons are susceptible to common degradation, where x is the required reliability expressed as a fraction. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon subsystem if more than 0.1% of the population is susceptible to common degradation. Common degradation is of concern for the safety of a weapon component or overall weapon system if two or more components/weapons in the population are susceptible to degradation. Finally, we developed a technique for detailed evaluation of common degradation leading to common cause failure for situations that are determined to be of concern using the screening process. The detailed evaluation requires that best estimates of common cause and independent failure probabilities be produced. Using these techniques, observed common degradation can be evaluated for effects on reliability and safety.

Darby, John L.

2011-05-01

20

Risk associated with the demilitarization of the United States chemical weapons stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with Public Law 99-145 (Title 14, Part B, Section 1412) a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement was prepared to assess the environmental impact of destruction of the continental US (CONUS) stockpile of unitary lethal chemical agent and munitions. The CONUS supply of chemical munitions and agents accounted for 94.4% by weight of the entire US stockpile. The CONUS stockpile is currently stored at the eight sites. The hazards associated with the disposal process included those associated with (1) plant operation, (2) transportation, (3) handling, and (4) external events (pervasive among the other 3 hazard areas). 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

Flanagan, G.F.; Fraize, W.; Kartachak, T.

1989-01-01

21

Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

Adams, Marvin L., E-mail: mladams@tamu.edu [Institute for National Security Education and Research, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States)

2014-05-09

22

Stockpile stewardship past, present, and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Academies released a report in 2012 on technical issues related to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. One important question addressed therein is whether the U.S. could maintain a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear-weapons stockpile in the absence of nuclear-explosion testing. Here we discuss two main conclusions from the 2012 Academies report, which we paraphrase as follows: 1) Provided that sufficient resources and a national commitment to stockpile stewardship are in place, the U.S. has the technical capabilities to maintain a safe, secure, and reliable stockpile of nuclear weapons into the foreseeable future without nuclear-explosion testing. 2) Doing this would require: a) a strong weapons science and engineering program that addresses gaps in understanding; b) an outstanding workforce that applies deep and broad weapons expertise to deliver solutions to stockpile problems; c) a vigorous, stable surveillance program that delivers the requisite data; d) production facilities that meet stewardship needs. We emphasize that these conclusions are independent of CTBT ratification-they apply provided only that the U.S. continues its nuclear-explosion moratorium.

Adams, Marvin L.

2014-05-01

23

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and  

E-print Network

and complete disarmament, including the prohibition and elimination of all types of weapons of mass destruction the arsenals of States, through effective measures, such dangerous weapons of mass destruction as those using (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction Signed at London, Moscow and Washington on 10 April

Sussex, University of

24

A Research of Weapon System Storage Reliability Simulation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at the problem of the new, complicated weapon equipment system storage reliability analyze, the paper researched on the methods of fuzzy fault tree analysis and fuzzy system storage reliability simulation, discussed the path that regarded weapon system as fuzzy system, and researched the storage reliability of weapon system based on fuzzy theory, provided a method of storage reliability research for the new, complicated weapon equipment system. As an example, built up the fuzzy fault tree of one type missile control instrument based on function analysis, and used the method of fuzzy system storage reliability simulation to analyze storage reliability index of control instrument.

Shi, Yonggang; Wu, Xuguang; Chen, Haijian; Xu, Tingxue

25

Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

2008-04-18

26

Quality assurance and reliability sub-committee W88-0/Mk5 weapon assessment NSA lab test results (u)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to gather appropriate level of relevant stockpile surveillance data to assess trends in the NEP quality, reliability, performance, and safety over the life of the system. The objectives are to gather relevant stockpile data to assess NEP quality and trends and to develop metrics to assess the suitability of the surveillance sampling regime to meet assessment process requirements.

Whitney, Earl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-11-29

27

Science and technology in the stockpile stewardship program, S & TR reprints  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on these topics: Computer Simulations in Support of National Security; Enhanced Surveillance of Aging Weapons; A New Precision Cutting Tool: The Femtosecond Laser; Superlasers as a Tool of Stockpile Stewardship; Nova Laser Experiments and Stockpile Stewardship; Transforming Explosive Art into Science; Better Flash Radiography Using the FXR; Preserving Nuclear Weapons Information; Site 300Õs New Contained Firing Facility; The Linear Electric Motor: Instability at 1,000 gÕs; A Powerful New Tool to Detect Clandestine Nuclear Tests; High Explosives in Stockpile Surveillance Indicate Constancy; Addressing a Cold War Legacy with a New Way to Produce TATB; JumpinÕ Jupiter! Metallic Hydrogen; Keeping the Nuclear Stockpile Safe, Secure, and Reliable; The Multibeam FabryÐPerot Velocimeter: Efficient Measurements of High Velocities; Theory and Modeling in Material Science; The Diamond Anvil Cell; Gamma-Ray Imaging Spectrometry; X-Ray Lasers and High-Density Plasma

Storm, E

1998-04-08

28

Human reliability and safety in the handling of nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of accidental or inadvertent nuclear war has been couched largely in terms of superpower confrontations during a crisis. Whether the focus is on the major powers, or on developing nations with ballistic missiles and probable nuclear weapons capability, stability in those who handle weapons and effective safeguards on use are essential preventive measures.The United States and the USSR

Herbert L. Abramso

1991-01-01

29

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities for Control and Abolition  

PubMed Central

Nuclear weapons pose a particularly destructive threat. Prevention of the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons is urgently important to public health. “Horizontal” proliferation refers to nation-states or nonstate entities that do not have, but are acquiring, nuclear weapons or developing the capability and materials for producing them. “Vertical” proliferation refers to nation-states that do possess nuclear weapons and are increasing their stockpiles of these weapons, improving the technical sophistication or reliability of their weapons, or developing new weapons. Because nation-states or other entities that wish to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons need methods for delivering those weapons, proliferation of delivery mechanisms must also be prevented. Controlling proliferation—and ultimately abolishing nuclear weapons—involves national governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental and professional organizations, and society at large. PMID:17666690

Sidel, Victor W.; Levy, Barry S.

2007-01-01

30

15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 745 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction No... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS Pt...Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction...

2010-01-01

31

Reliability guarantees, demonstration, and control for weapon systems proposals  

E-print Network

it has been necessary to delete the co-ordinates on one figure and to normaliss the absoissa on another. The numerioal examples serve only to illustrate methodology and do not represent any existing or propose4 guided missiles. LIST Qy ZIGUk... aircraft' to establish demonstra- tion requirements& snd to present a method for controlling reliability during the design and production phases. RELIABILI1T AEEEE ZPE~'LCTIVilEEE"'SS Reliability is the probabil1ty that any missile, after passing all...

Lanier, Ross Edwin

1959-01-01

32

A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons.  

PubMed

Many male animals wield ornaments or weapons of exaggerated proportions. We propose that increased cellular sensitivity to signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway may be responsible for the extreme growth of these structures. We document how rhinoceros beetle horns, a sexually selected weapon, are more sensitive to nutrition and more responsive to perturbation of the insulin/IGF pathway than other body structures. We then illustrate how enhanced sensitivity to insulin/IGF signaling in a growing ornament or weapon would cause heightened condition sensitivity and increased variability in expression among individuals--critical properties of reliable signals of male quality. The possibility that reliable signaling arises as a by-product of the growth mechanism may explain why trait exaggeration has evolved so many different times in the context of sexual selection. PMID:22837386

Emlen, Douglas J; Warren, Ian A; Johns, Annika; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura Corley

2012-08-17

33

Nuclear stockpile stewardship and Bayesian image analysis (DARHT and the BIE)  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of nuclear testing, the reliability of our nation's nuclear weapon stockpile has been performed using sub-critical hydrodynamic testing. These tests involve some pretty 'extreme' radiography. We will be discussing the challenges and solutions to these problems provided by DARHT (the world's premiere hydrodynamic testing facility) and the BIE or Bayesian Inference Engine (a powerful radiography analysis software tool). We will discuss the application of Bayesian image analysis techniques to this important and difficult problem.

Carroll, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

34

Materials and Sensor R&D to Transform the Nuclear Stockpile: Livermore?s Transformational Materials Initiative  

SciTech Connect

As the nation's nuclear weapons age and the demands placed on them change, significant challenges face the nuclear stockpile. Risks include material supply issues, ever-increasing lifecycle costs, and loss of technical expertise across the weapons complex. For example, non-nuclear materials are becoming increasingly difficult to replace because manufacturing methods and formulations have evolved in such a way as to render formerly available materials unprofitable, unsafe, or otherwise obsolete. Subtle formulation changes in available materials that occur without the knowledge of the weapons community for proprietary reasons have frequently affected the long-term performance of materials in the nuclear weapon environment. Significant improvements in performance, lifetime, or production cost can be realized with modern synthesis, modeling, and manufacturing methods. For example, there are currently supply and aging issues associated with the insensitive high explosive formulations LX-17 and PBX 9502 that are based on triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) and Kel-F, neither of which are commercially available today. Assuring the reliability of the stockpile through surveillance and regularly scheduled Life Extension Programs is an increasingly expensive endeavor. Transforming our current stockpile surveillance--a system based on destructive testing of increasingly valuable assets--to a system based on embedded sensors has a number of potential advantages that include long-term cost savings, reduced risk associated with asset transportation, state-of-health assessments in the field, and active management of the stockpile.

Maxwell, R; Fried, L; Campbell, G; Saab, A; Kotovsky, J; Carter, C; Chang, J

2009-10-11

35

Draft Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on Stockpile Stewardship and Management for a Modern Pit Facility  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible for the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, including production readiness required to maintain that stockpile. Since 1989, DOE has been without the capability to produce stockpile certified plutonium pits, which are an essential component of nuclear weapons. NNSA, the Department of Defense (DOD), and Congress have highlighted the lack of long-term pit production capability as a national security issue requiring timely resolution. While a small interim capacity is currently being established at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), classified analyses indicate projected capacity requirements (number of pits to be produced over a period of time), and agility (ability to rapidly change from production of one pit type to another, ability to simultaneously produce multiple pit types, or the flexibility to produce pits of a new design in a timely manner) necessary for long-term support of the stockpile will require a long-term pit production capability. In particular, identification of a systemic problem associated with an existing pit type, class of pits, or aging phenomenon cannot be adequately responded to today, nor could it be with the small capability being established at LANL (see Section S.2 for a more detailed discussion regarding the purpose and need for a Modern Pit Facility [MPF]).

N /A

2003-06-06

36

Quality control of meteorological data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program.  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Meteorological Support Project ensures the accuracy and reliability of data acquired by meteorological monitoring stations located at seven U.S. Army chemical weapons depots where storage and weapons destruction (demilitarization) activities are ongoing. The data are delivered in real time to U.S. Army plume dispersion models, which are used to plan for and respond to a potential accidental release of a chemical weapons agent. The project provides maintenance, calibration, and audit services for the instrumentation; collection, automated screening, visual inspection, and analysis of the data; and problem reporting and tracking to carefully control the data quality. The resulting high-quality meteorological data enhance emergency response modeling and public safety.

Liljegren, J.C.; Tschopp, S.; Rogers, K.; Wasmer, F.; Liljegren, L.; Myirski, M.; Decision and Information Sciences; U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

2009-08-01

37

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

38

Pharmaceuticals and the strategic national stockpile program.  

PubMed

This article discusses current stockpile practices after exploring a history of the use of biologic agents as weapons, the preventive measures that the federal government has used in the past, and the establishment of a Strategic National Stockpile Program in 2003. The article also describes the additional medical supplies from the managed inventory and the federal medical stations. The issues (financial burden, personnel, and materiel selection) for local asset development are also discussed. Critical is the cost to local communities of the development and maintenance of a therapeutic agent stockpile and the need for personnel to staff clinics and medical stations. Finally, the important role of the dental profession for dispensing medication and providing mass immunization in the event of a disaster is described. PMID:17888762

Stewart, Amy; Cordell, Geoffrey A

2007-10-01

39

A Sandia nuclear weapon knowledge management program plan for FY 1998--2003. Volume 1: Synopsis  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains a synopsis and briefing charts for a five-year plan which describes a Knowledge Management Program needed to meet Sandia`s responsibility for maintaining safety, security, reliability, and operational effectiveness of the nuclear weapon stockpile. Although the knowledge and expertise required to maintain and upgrade the stockpile continues to be critical to the country`s defense, Sandia`s historical process for developing and advancing future knowledge and expertise needs to be addressed. This plan recommends implementing an aggressive Knowledge Management Program to assure retention and furtherance of Sandia`s expertise, beginning in fiscal year 1998, as an integrated approach to solving the expertise dilemma.

NONE

1998-02-01

40

Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study  

SciTech Connect

Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

Not Available

1991-01-01

41

A random onset model for degradation of high-reliability systems  

SciTech Connect

Both the U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) maintain weapons stockpiles: items like bullets, missiles and bombs that have already been produced and are being stored until needed. Ideally, these stockpiles maintain high reliability over time. To assess reliability, a surveillance program is implemented, where units are periodically removed from the stockpile and tested. The most definitive tests typically destroy the weapons so a given unit is tested only once. Surveillance managers need to decide how many units should be tested, how often they should be tested, what tests should be done, and how the resulting data are used to estimate the stockpile's current and future reliability. These issues are particularly critical from a planning perspective: given what has already been observed and our understanding of the mechanisms of stockpile aging, what is an appropriate and cost-effective surveillance program? Surveillance programs are costly, broad, and deep, especially in the DOE, where the US nuclear weapons surveillance program must 'ensure, through various tests, that the reliability of nuclear weapons is maintained' in the absence of full-system testing (General Accounting Office, 1996). The DOE program consists primarily of three types of tests: nonnuclear flight tests, that involve the actual dropping or launching of a weapon from which the nuclear components have been removed; and nonnuclear and nuclear systems laboratory tests, which detect defects due to aging, manufacturing, and design of the nonnuclear and nuclear portions of the weapons. Fully integrated analysis of the suite of nuclear weapons surveillance data is an ongoing area of research (Wilson et al., 2007). This paper introduces a simple model that captures high-level features of stockpile reliability over time and can be used to answer broad policy questions about surveillance programs. Our intention is to provide a framework that generates tractable answers that integrate expert knowledge and high-level summaries of surveillance data to allow decision-making about appropriate trade-offs between the cost of data and the precision of stockpile reliability estimates.

Vanderwiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Alyson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reese, Christopher S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-07-22

42

Stockpile Stewardship: Los Alamos  

ScienceCinema

"Heritage of Science" is a short video that highlights the Stockpile Stewardship program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stockpile Stewardship was conceived in the early 1990s as a national science-based program that could assure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without the need for full-scale underground nuclear testing. This video was produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory for screening at the Lab's Bradbury Science Museum in Los Alamos, NM and is narrated by science correspondent Miles O'Brien.

McMillan, Charlie; Morgan, Nathanial; Goorley, Tom; Merrill, Frank; Funk, Dave; Korzekwa, Deniece; Laintz, Ken

2014-08-12

43

Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program  

SciTech Connect

In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

1999-04-01

44

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

45

Nuclear Weapons Enterprise Transformation - A Sustainable Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear weapons play an essential role in United States (U.S.) National Security Policy and a succession of official reviews has concluded that nuclear weapons will continue to have a role for the foreseeable future. Under the evolving U.S. government policy, it is clear that role will be quite different from what it was during the Cold War. The nuclear-weapons stockpile

OBrien

2005-01-01

46

An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

47

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States' largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county's emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-01-01

48

Evacuation modeling near a chemical stockpile site  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic evacuation modeling was used as an aid in emergency response planning by Tooele County, Utah, location of the United States` largest stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The use of traffic modeling was affected both by the characteristics of the hazard and the unique topography of the area. To address these constraints Argonne National Laboratory, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Tooele County created a set of evacuation modeling scenarios to be stored in the county`s emergency management information system. For use in planning, the scenarios enable the county to map out effective traffic management strategies. For us in exercises or emergency response the scenarios enable the county to quickly access data to make and implement evacuation decisions.

Newsom, D.E.; Madore, M.A.; Jaske, R.T.

1992-06-01

49

Temperature profiles of coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

Excess of produced coals should be kept in the stockyards of the collieries. The longer the duration time for these coals, the greater possibility for spontaneous combustion to take place. Spontaneously burnt coals result in economical and environmental problems. Therefore, taking the necessary precautions before an outburst of the spontaneous combustion phenomenon is too important in terms of its severe results. In this study, a stockpile having industrial dimensions was formed in coal stockyard. The effective parameters on the stockpiles of coal such as temperature and humidity of the weather, time, and atmospheric pressure values were measured. The interior temperature variations of these stockpiles caused by the atmospheric conditions were also measured. The interior temperature distribution maps of the stockpile together with maximum and minimum temperature values were expressed visually and numerically by the assistance of obtained data.

Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.; Gundogdu, I.B. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2008-07-01

50

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) in Arkansas. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the PBA and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site- specific study. This dependent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at PBA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources, and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

1990-10-01

51

Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan  

SciTech Connect

This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

1991-07-01

52

A Sandia weapon review bulletin : defense programs, Autumn 1992.  

SciTech Connect

Topics in this issue: (1) Focal Point and STEP. Sandia National Laboratories has always focused its advanced weapon development not only on future weapon needs, but also on the engineering and manufacturing sciences needed to meet them. Both areas are changing dramatically. As the nation dismantles many of its warheads, it becomes essential that those that remain are increasingly reliable, secure, capable, and safe. And as development resources diminish, it becomes vital that they are applied to the most critical technologies in a disciplined manner. The mission of the Focal Point program and the Stockpile Transition Enabling Program (STEP) is to develop processes for meeting these challenges. Focal Point offers a decision-making process for allocating Sandia's resources to meets its defense programs strategic goals. (2) Defense Programs news in brief. (3) Dismantling the nuclear stockpile. (4) W88/MK5: Arming, Fuzing, and Firing system meets all requirements and goals. (5) The Common Radar Fuze. (6) Insertable-explosive arming of firing sets. (7) Preparing for fewer underground tests.

Not Available

1992-09-01

53

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01

54

Nuclear Weapon  

MedlinePLUS

http://emergency.cdc.gov/radiation What is a nuclear weapon? A nuclear weapon is a device that uses ... radioactive and can contaminate anything it lands on. NUCLEAR WEAPON What are the main dangers of a nuclear ...

55

SILENT RETREAT The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stage may be set for what could be a historic turning point in America's reliance on nuclear weapons to meet its fundamental national security interests. Proponents of a refurbished nuclear stockpile and infrastructure are convinced that nuclear weapons will remain central to U.S. security interests, yet they admit that there is no national consensus on the need for and

Dennis M. Gormley

56

Defending Against a Stockpiling Terrorist  

Microsoft Academic Search

A government defends against a terrorist who attacks repeatedly and stockpiles its resources over time. The government defends an asset and attacks the terrorist's resources. The terrorist defends its resources and attacks the government. We find four possible equilibrium solutions: (1) the government attacks only, deterring the terrorist; (2) both players defend and attack; (3) the government defends but does

Kjell Hausken; Jun Zhuang

2011-01-01

57

15 CFR 744.4 - Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. 744...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY: END-USER AND END-USE...Restrictions on certain chemical and biological weapons end-uses. (a...stockpiling, or use of chemical or biological weapons in or by any...

2011-01-01

58

Using Direct Sub-Level Entity Access to Improve Nuclear Stockpile Simulation Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Direct sub-level entity access is a seldom-used technique in discrete-event simulation modeling that addresses the accessibility of sub-level entity information. The technique has significant advantages over more common, alternative modeling methods--especially where hierarchical entity structures are modeled. As such, direct sub-level entity access is often preferable in modeling nuclear stockpile, life-extension issues, an area to which it has not been previously applied. Current nuclear stockpile, life-extension models were demonstrated to benefit greatly from the advantages of direct sub-level entity access. In specific cases, the application of the technique resulted in models that were up to 10 times faster than functionally equivalent models where alternative techniques were applied. Furthermore, specific implementations of direct sub-level entity access were observed to be more flexible, efficient, functional, and scalable than corresponding implementations using common modeling techniques. Common modeling techniques (''unbatch/batch'' and ''attribute-copying'') proved inefficient and cumbersome in handling many nuclear stockpile modeling complexities, including multiple weapon sites, true defect analysis, and large numbers of weapon and subsystem types. While significant effort was required to enable direct sub-level entity access in the nuclear stockpile simulation models, the enhancements were worth the effort--resulting in more efficient, more capable, and more informative models that effectively addressed the complexities of the nuclear stockpile.

Robert Y. Parker

1999-08-01

59

Weapon container catalog. Volumes 1 & 2  

SciTech Connect

The Weapon Container Catalog describes H-gear (shipping and storage containers, bomb hand trucks and the ancillary equipment required for loading) used for weapon programs and for special use containers. When completed, the catalog will contain five volumes. Volume 1 for enduring stockpile programs (B53, B61, B83, W62, W76, W78, W80, W84, W87, and W88) and Volume 2, Special Use Containers, are being released. The catalog is intended as a source of information for weapon program engineers and also provides historical information. The catalog also will be published on the SNL Internal Web and will undergo periodic updates.

Brown, L.A.; Higuera, M.C.

1998-02-01

60

Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program  

SciTech Connect

The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

1994-09-01

61

Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June

Mattus

2003-01-01

62

A Hierarchial Bayes Approach to System Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty of 1996 banned any future nuclear explosions or testing of nuclear weapons and created the CTBTO in Vienna to implement the treaty. The U.S. response to this was the cessation of all above and below ground nuclear testing. As such, all stockpile reliability assessments are now based on periodic testing of subsystems being stored in a wide variety of environments. This data provides a wealth of information and feeds a growing web of deterministic, physics-based computer models for assessment of stockpile reliability. Unfortunately until 1996 it was difficult to relate the deterministic materials aging test data to component reliability. Since that time we have made great strides in mathematical techniques and computer tools that permit explicit relationships between materials degradation, e.g. corrosion, thermo-mechanical fatigue, and reliability. The resulting suite of tools is known as CRAX and the mathematical library supporting these tools is Cassandra. However, these techniques ignore the historical data that is also available on similar systems in the nuclear stockpile, the DoD weapons complex and even in commercial applications. Traditional statistical techniques commonly used in classical re liability assessment do not permit data from these sources to be easily included in the overall assessment of system reliability. An older, alternative approach based on Bayesian probability theory permits the inclusion of data from all applicable sources. Data from a variety of sources is brought together in a logical fashion through the repeated application of inductive mathematics. This research brings together existing mathematical methods, modifies and expands those techniques as required, permitting data from a wide variety of sources to be combined in a logical fashion to increase the confidence in the reliability assessment of the nuclear weapons stockpile. The application of this research is limited to those systems composed of discrete components, e.g. those that can be characterized as operating or not operating. However, there is nothing unique about the underlying principles and the extension to continuous subsystem/systems is straightforward. The framework is also laid for the consideration of systems with multiple correlated failure modes. While an important consideration, time and resources limited the specific demonstration of these methods.

ROBINSON,DAVID G.

2001-11-01

63

Stockpile tritium production from fusion  

SciTech Connect

A fusion breeder holds the promise of a new capability - ''dialable'' reserve capacity at little additional cost - that offers stockpile planners a new way to deal with today's uncertainties in forecasting long range needs. Though still in the research stage, fusion can be developed in time to meet future military requirements. Much of the necessary technology will be developed by the ongoing magnetic fusion energy program. However, a specific program to develop the nuclear technology required for materials production is needed if fusion is to become a viable option for a new production complex around the turn of the century.

Lokke, W.A.; Fowler, T.K.

1986-03-21

64

30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2011-07-01

65

30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2011-07-01

66

30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2014-07-01

67

30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2013-07-01

68

30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2014-07-01

69

30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2013-07-01

70

30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2012-07-01

71

30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

2012-07-01

72

System reliability assessment with an approximate reasoning model  

SciTech Connect

The projected service life of weapons in the US nuclear stockpile will exceed the original design life of their critical components. Interim metrics are needed to describe weapon states for use in simulation models of the nuclear weapons complex. The authors present an approach to this problem based upon the theory of approximate reasoning (AR) that allows meaningful assessments to be made in an environment where reliability models are incomplete. AR models are designed to emulate the inference process used by subject matter experts. The emulation is based upon a formal logic structure that relates evidence about components. This evidence is translated using natural language expressions into linguistic variables that describe membership in fuzzy sets. The authors introduce a metric that measures the acceptability of a weapon to nuclear deterrence planners. Implication rule bases are used to draw a series of forward chaining inferences about the acceptability of components, subsystems and individual weapons. They describe each component in the AR model in some detail and illustrate its behavior with a small example. The integration of the acceptability metric into a prototype model to simulate the weapons complex is also described.

Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Helm, T.M.; Boerigter, S.T.

1998-12-31

73

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 3 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Pine Bluff Arsenal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the ''Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Pine Bluff

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

74

Technology resource document for the assembled chemical weapons assessment environmental impact statement. Vol. 5 : assembled systems for weapons destruction at Blue Grass Army Depot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume of the Technical Resource Document (TRD) for the ''Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Design, Construction and Operation of One or More Pilot Test Facilities for Assembled Chemical Weapons Destruction Technologies at One or More Sites'' (PMACWA 2001g) pertains to the destruction of assembled chemical weapons (ACW) stored in the U.S. Army's unitary chemical stockpile at Blue Grass

T. Kimmell; S. Folga; G. Frey; J. Molberg; P. Kier; B. Templin; M. Goldberg

2001-01-01

75

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a

P. L. Jr. Hewett; J. E. Mitrani; M. J. G. Absil-Mills; P. Tallarovic; J. Molsen; J. Vercellone; M. A. Madore

1998-01-01

76

Laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target

Kosta Tsipis

1981-01-01

77

[Biological weapons].  

PubMed

Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage. PMID:20717866

Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

2010-08-01

78

Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available on Senator Arlen Specter's Website, this massive document is the fruit of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. In short, it's an assessment of the state of weapons proliferation in places the United States sees as potential national security threats, from insecure Russian stockpiles of nuclear weapons to Saddam Hussein's reputed supplies of Anthrax. While not all readers will agree with either the rather alarmist tone of the document's scenarios or its admittedly less alarmist recommendations, it is a good source for information concerning the intelligence community's assessment of the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) around the globe. The report offers a table of contents sidebar for easy access to portions of the document.

United States. Congress. Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

79

Potential Radon222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of

2003-01-01

80

Reliability and Lifetime Prediction for Ceramic Components  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic materials are used extensively in non-nuclear components in the weapons stockpile including neutron tubes, stronglinks, weaklinks, batteries, and current/voltage stacks. Ceramics also perform critical functions in electronics, passively as insulators and actively as resistors and capacitors, Glass and ceramic seals also provide hermetic electrical feedthrus in connectors for many weapons components.

Vedula, V.R.; Glass, S.J.; Monroe, S.L.; Neilsen, M.K.; Newton, C.

1999-01-11

81

Acoustic weapons ? a prospective assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic weapons are under research and development in a few countries. Advertised as one type of non?lethal weapon, they are said to immediately incapacitate opponents while avoiding permanent physical damage. Reliable information on specifications or effects is scarce, however. The present article sets out to provide basic information in several areas: effects of large?amplitude sound on humans, potential high?power sources,

Jürgen Altmann

2001-01-01

82

Reliability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In essence, reliability is the consistency of test results. To understand the meaning of reliability and how it relates to validity, imagine going to an airport to take flight #007 from Pittsburgh to San Diego. If, every time the airplane makes the flight

Edwin P. Christmann

2008-11-01

83

Supervision of self-heating in peat stockpiles by aerial thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of peat supplies approximately 4 % of the total energy consumption on Finland. Peat is produced in bogs, where the produced fuel is stored in stockpiles. Because of self-heating caused by microbe activities and chemical reactions there is an annual loss of about 5% of the energy content of stored peat. The supervision based on visual control combined with manual temperature measurements carried out on the peat bog is expensive, and furthermore a very unreliable method. Because the warm patterns in the peat stockpiles are not necessarily found. The damages can partly be avoided when self-heating is observed in time and the necessary actions are carried out. The Research Institute of Northern Finland, University of Oulu, started an experimentation of airborne thermal scanning supervision of peat stockpiles on initiative of A. Jalander Oy, a subsidiary of Kemira Oy, in 1987. The field studies have been made as a co-operate project of the Research Institute of Northern Finland and Building Laboratory, Technical Research Center of Finland (Oulu, Finland). During the experiment 2800 thermograms were taken of peat stockpiles, the inner temperature of 200 of the stockpiles being controlled on the bogs. On the basis of the studies it has been possible to define the criteria for thermal scanning of peat stockpiles. Depending on the weather conditions, even a difference of 2 degrees in the surface temperature of the stockpile can indicate a warmed pattern. In autumn 1990 a regular airborne supervision based on thermal scanning was started on the peat bogs of two producers, the peat bogs containing altogether approximately 1 million m3 of peat, the area supervised being about 3500 hectares. The flights were made three times an autumn with intervals of 4 weeks. The flights have been made on a four-seated airplane, the frame of which was equipped with a hole for the infrared scanner. The results were documented on videotape, and video printer shots of the suspected warmed stockpiles were sent to the producers. The supervision has proved to be quite reliable. The self-heating of the stockpiles has been observed at an early stage long before the ignition. The costs of airborne supervision have been covered with the amounts of the saved energy.

Tervo, Matti; Kauppinen, Timo T.

1991-03-01

84

Sinclair Stockpiles CFCs for Future Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Dayton (Ohio) community college's 21 buildings were cooled by a network of 5 chillers, all of which used soon-to-be-banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A reclamation program provides the college with reusable refrigerant and eliminates chiller replacement costs. Refrigerant from three of the old units is stockpiled for use in the two other…

George, Stephen C.

1996-01-01

85

Hurricane/Disaster Checklist Stockpile Water!!  

E-print Network

with water, including heavy contractor garbage bags o Purchase bottled water for drinking o Fill the (clean1 Hurricane/Disaster Checklist · Stockpile Water!! o Fill up as many containers as possible) bath tubs and sinks with fresh water · Get $cash, enough for food and flights out of Oahu, etc. · Gas

Wang, Yuqing

86

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC

W. H. Hermes; T. D. Hylton; C. H. Mattus; S. N. Storch; P. S. Singley; Terry. J. W; M. Pecullan; F. K. Reilly

2003-01-01

87

30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314...Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile...

2010-07-01

88

Towards Reliable Cross Sections for National Security Applications  

SciTech Connect

Stockpile stewardship requires the description of weapons performance without resorting to underground nuclear testing. In the earlier tests, selected isotopes were used as detectors, and recovered after irradiation. Aspects of nuclear device performance were inferred by comparing the measured isotopic ratios to those predicted from simulations. The reaction flows that produce the final isotopic distributions proceed through regions of the nuclear chart that include unstable nuclei. Presently, improved nuclear data input is required to reanalyze prior tests and to certify the stockpile's reliability and safety. Many important cross sections are unknown, as is shown in the example of the Yttrium reaction network (Figure 1). The relevant reactions include (n,2n), (n,n'), (n,gamma), (n,p) and other charged-particle emitting reactions. The cross sections have to be calculated or inferred from indirect measurements. In both cases, reliable optical models that are valid a few nucleons away from stability are needed. The UNEDF Nuclear Reaction activities address this need by combining nuclear-structure input from UNEDF structure calculations with modern reaction theory and large-scale computational capabilities to develop microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials that can be extrapolated to unstable nuclei. In addition, the reaction calculation tools and optical models developed in this context are proving valuable for planning and interpreting indirect (surrogate) measurements of the required cross sections.

Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S; Nobre, G A; Thompson, I J

2011-02-24

89

Plutonium: Aging mechanisms and weapon pit lifetime assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planning for future refurbishment and manufacturing needs of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex critically depends on credible estimates for component lifetimes. One of the most important of these components is the pit, that portion of the weapon that contains the fissile element plutonium. The U.S. government has proposed construction of a new Modern Pit Facility, and a key variable in planning both the size and schedule for this facility is the minimum estimated lifetime for stockpile pits. This article describes the current understanding of aging effects in plutonium, provides a lifetime estimate range, and outlines in some detail methodology that will improve this estimate over the next few years.

Martz, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Adam J.

2003-09-01

90

Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile  

SciTech Connect

For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

Mattus, CH

2003-12-30

91

Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-01

92

Compilation of demographic data for the chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program  

SciTech Connect

There are eight installations in the continental US where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions have been stored since the late 1950`s. In December, 1985, Congress directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to destroy these stockpiles of aging chemical warfare weapons. The destruction was to take place in such a manner as to provide: (1) maximum protection of the environment, the general public, and the personnel involved in the destruction, (2) adequate and safe facilities designed solely for the destruction of the stockpile, and (3) clean-up dismantling, and disposal of the facilities when the disposal program was complete. To help communities develop emergency response capabilities, the Army established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program or CSEPP based on principals established in the Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP). The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly oversee the CSEPP. An important part of the ERCP guidance was establishing cooperative interaction between local, state, and federal agencies and the development of emergency planning zones (EPZs) to support the emergency response concept. The purpose of this document is to describe how the population figures were derived for the population estimates for both the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program and the CSEPP analyses. Most of the data is derived from the US Census 1990 population figures. However, the Census only counts residential populations and does not attempt to document daytime populations within commercial or residential facilities. One conclusion from this review is that there is a need for better and more consistent population data in the Emergency Planning Guides.

Vogt, B.; Sorensen, J.; Coomer, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Shumpert, B.; Hardee, H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-01-01

93

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

SciTech Connect

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view -- not well understood but often overstated. Divergent views about this influence and how it might shape the future global nuclear weapons regime seem to us to be the most serious impediment to reaching a national consensus on US weapons policy, force structure and supporting infrastructure. We believe that a paradigm shift to capability-based deterrence and dissuasion is not only consistent with the realities of the world and how it has changed, but also a desirable way for nuclear weapon postures and infrastructures to evolve. The US and other nuclear states could not get to zero nor even reduce nuclear arms and the nuclear profile much further without learning to manage latent capability. This paper has defined three principles for designing NW infrastructure both at the 'next plateau' and 'near zero.' The US can be a leader in reducing weapons and infrastructure and in creating an international regime in which capability gradually substitutes for weapons in being and is transparent. The current 'strategy' of not having policy or a Congressionally-approved plan for transforming the weapons complex is not leadership. If we can conform the US infrastructure to the next plateau and architect it in such a way that it is aligned with further arms reductions, it will have these benefits: The extant stockpile can be reduced in size, while the smaller stockpile still deters attack on the US and Allies. The capabilities of the infrastructure will dissuade emergence of new challenges/threats; if they emerge, nevertheless, the US will be able to deal with them in time. We will begin to transform the way other major powers view their nuclear capability. Finally, and though of less cosmic importance, it will save money in the long run.

Immele, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

94

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical

C. L. Herzenberg; R. Haffenden; K. Lerner; S. A. Meleski; E. A. Tanzman; L. M. Lewis; R. C. Hemphill; J. D. Adams

1994-01-01

95

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Wang, Rongrui

1993-07-01

96

Tactical laser weapons and other directed-energy weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly introduces the current development status of three directed-energy weapons: laser weapons, radio frequency\\/microwave weapons, and charged-particle-beam weapons. Among them, the tactical laser weapon may be the first to find application.

Rongrui Wang

1993-01-01

97

Modeling of coal stockpiles using a finite elements method  

SciTech Connect

In the case of coal stockpiles finding suitable environmental conditions, spontaneous combustion phenomenon will be unavoidable. In this study, an industrial-sized stockpile having a shape of triangle prism was constituted in a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC), Turkey. The parameters of time, humidity and temperature of air, atmospheric pressure, velocity and direction of wind values that are effective on coal stockpile were measured in a continuous manner. These experimental works were transferred into a computer media in order to obtain similar outcomes by carrying out 2-dimensional analysis of the stockpile with Finite Elements Method (FEM). The performed experimental studies and obtained results were then compared.

Ozdeniz, A.H.; Sensogut, C. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey)

2008-07-01

98

Stockpiling Supplies for the Next Influenza Pandemic  

PubMed Central

Faced with increasing concerns about the likelihood of an influenza pandemic, healthcare systems have been challenged to determine what specific medical supplies that should be procured and stockpiled as a component of preparedness. Despite publication of numerous pandemic planning recommendations, little or no specific guidance about the types of items and quantities of supplies needed has been available. The primary purpose of this report is to detail the approach of 1 healthcare system in building a cache of supplies to be used for patient care during the next influenza pandemic. These concepts may help guide the actions of other healthcare systems. PMID:21970033

Magalian, Paul D.; Hollingsworth, Mary Kay; Baracco, Gio

2009-01-01

99

30 CFR 823.12 - Soil removal and stockpiling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil removal and stockpiling. 823.12 Section...STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.12 Soil removal and stockpiling. (a) Prime farmland soils shall be removed from the areas to be...

2010-07-01

100

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13

101

Worldwide governmental efforts to locate and destroy chemical weapons and weapons materials: minimizing risk in transport and destruction.  

PubMed

The article gives an overview on worldwide efforts to eliminate chemical weapons and facilities for their production in the context of the implementation of the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). It highlights the objectives of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the international agency set up in The Hague to implement the CWC, and provides an overview of the present status of implementation of the CWC requirements with respect to chemical weapons (CW) destruction under strict international verification. It addresses new requirements that result from an increased threat that terrorists might attempt to acquire or manufacture CW or related materials. The article provides an overview of risks associated with CW and their elimination, from storage or recovery to destruction. It differentiates between CW in stockpile and old/abandoned CW, and gives an overview on the factors and key processes that risk assessment, management, and communication need to address. This discussion is set in the overall context of the CWC that requires the completion of the destruction of all declared CW stockpiles by 2012 at the latest. PMID:17119230

Trapp, Ralf

2006-09-01

102

Thorium Nitrate Stockpile--From Here to Eternity  

SciTech Connect

The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The stockpile is made up of approximately 3.2 million kg (7 million lb) of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States. DNSC sought technical assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define and quantify the management options for the thorium nitrate stockpile. This paper describes methodologies and results comprising the work in Phase 1 and Phase 2. The results allow the DNSC to structure and schedule needed tasks to ensure continued safe long-term storage and/or phased disposal of the stockpile.

Hermes, W. H.; Hylton, T. D.; Mattus, C.H.; Storch, S. N.; Singley, P.S.; Terry. J. W.; Pecullan, M.; Reilly, F. K.

2003-02-26

103

Locations and Status of Stockpile SitesLocations and Status of Stockpile Sites Pueblo,COPueblo,CO  

E-print Network

obsolete and deteriorating with age. The U.S. national stockpile of lethal chemical warfare agents 32, Chemical and Biological Warfare Program· Section 1521, Destruction of existing stockpile of Section 1523, Annual report on chemical and biological warfare defense> National Center for Environmental

104

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

2014-05-09

105

Nuclear weapons modernizations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

Kristensen, Hans M.

2014-05-01

106

Blinding laser weapons.  

PubMed

At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed. PMID:8925488

Peters, A

1996-01-01

107

Blinding laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

At its October 1995 Review Conference, the Convention on Conventional Weapons* added a protocol banning the use and transfer of blinding laser weapons. The background to, and significance and limitations of this ban are discussed.

Ann Peters

1996-01-01

108

CRAX/Cassandra Reliability Analysis Software  

SciTech Connect

Over the past few years Sandia National Laboratories has been moving toward an increased dependence on model- or physics-based analyses as a means to assess the impact of long-term storage on the nuclear weapons stockpile. These deterministic models have also been used to evaluate replacements for aging systems, often involving commercial off-the-shelf components (COTS). In addition, the models have been used to assess the performance of replacement components manufactured via unique, small-lot production runs. In either case, the limited amount of available test data dictates that the only logical course of action to characterize the reliability of these components is to specifically consider the uncertainties in material properties, operating environment etc. within the physics-based (deterministic) model. This not only provides the ability to statistically characterize the expected performance of the component or system, but also provides direction regarding the benefits of additional testing on specific components within the system. An effort was therefore initiated to evaluate the capabilities of existing probabilistic methods and, if required, to develop new analysis methods to support the inclusion of uncertainty in the classical design tools used by analysts and design engineers at Sandia. The primary result of this effort is the CMX (Cassandra Exoskeleton) reliability analysis software.

Robinson, D.

1999-02-10

109

Nuclear Weapons as Shields  

Microsoft Academic Search

What security benefits do nuclear weapons provide to their possessors? After accounting for two potential selection effects, the empirical evidence from all international crises from 1945 to 2000 indicates that opponents of nuclear-weapon states demonstrate restraint in turning to violent aggression. Nuclear weapons, however, have little effect on overall crisis occurrence.The authors also explore the behavioral effects of nuclear-weapons programs

Kyle Beardsley; Victor Asal

2009-01-01

110

Dose reduction through robotics and automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant  

E-print Network

With the end of the Cold War and subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need (Quirck et al., 1993). To compensate for this excess, an estimated 20...

Thompson, David Andrew

1996-01-01

111

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2013-07-01

112

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2014-07-01

113

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2011-07-01

114

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2010-07-01

115

30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

2012-07-01

116

30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces....

2010-07-01

117

Science Based Stockpile Stewardship, Uncertainty Quantification, and Surrogate Reactions  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the thermonuclear yield of a device was often inferred through the use of radiochemical detectors. Conversion of the detector activations observed to thermonuclear yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Surrogate nuclear reactions at STARS/LIBERACE offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable nuclei and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One radiochemical detector that was loaded in devices was mono-isotopic yttrium ({sup 89}Y). Nuclear reactions produced {sup 87}Y and {sup 88}Y which could be quantified post-shot as a ratio of {sup 87}Y/{sup 88}Y. The yttrium cross-section set from 1988 is shown in Figure 1(a) and contains approximately 62 cross-sections interconnecting the yttrium nuclides. The 6 experimentally measured cross-sections are shown in Figure 1(b). Any measurement of cross-sections on {sup 87}Y or {sup 88}Y would improve the quality of the cross-section set. A recent re-evaluation of the yttrium cross-section set was performed with many more calculated reaction cross-sections included.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D P; Burke, J T; Bernstein, L A

2009-08-06

118

Identification of nuclear weapons  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for non-invasively indentifying different types of nuclear weapons is disclosed. A neutron generator is placed against the weapon to generate a stream of neutrons causing fissioning within the weapon. A first detects the generation of the neutrons and produces a signal indicative thereof. A second particle detector located on the opposite side of the weapon detects the fission particles and produces signals indicative thereof. The signals are converted into a detected pattern and a computer compares the detected pattern with known patterns of weapons and indicates which known weapon has a substantially similar pattern. Either a time distribution pattern or noise analysis pattern, or both, is used. Gamma-neutron discrimination and a third particle detector for fission particles adjacent the second particle detector are preferably used. The neutrons are generated by either a decay neutron source or a pulled neutron particle accelerator.

Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.

1987-04-10

119

Science based stockpile stewardship, uncertainty quantification, and fission fragment beams  

SciTech Connect

Stewardship of this nation's nuclear weapons is predicated on developing a fundamental scientific understanding of the physics and chemistry required to describe weapon performance without the need to resort to underground nuclear testing and to predict expected future performance as a result of intended or unintended modifications. In order to construct more reliable models, underground nuclear test data is being reanalyzed in novel ways. The extent to which underground experimental data can be matched with simulations is one measure of the credibility of our capability to predict weapon performance. To improve the interpretation of these experiments with quantified uncertainties, improved nuclear data is required. As an example, the fission yield of a device was often determined by measuring fission products. Conversion of the measured fission products to yield was accomplished through explosion code calculations (models) and a good set of nuclear reaction cross-sections. Because of the unique high-fluence environment of an exploding nuclear weapon, many reactions occurred on radioactive nuclides, for which only theoretically calculated cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity to measure cross-sections on unstable neutron-rich fission fragments and thus improve the quality of the nuclear reaction cross-section sets. One of the fission products measured was {sup 95}Zr, the accumulation of all mass 95 fission products of Y, Sr, Rb and Kr (see Fig. 1). Subsequent neutron-induced reactions on these short lived fission products were assumed to cancel out - in other words, the destruction of mass 95 nuclides was more or less equal to the production of mass 95 nuclides. If a {sup 95}Sr was destroyed by an (n,2n) reaction it was also produced by (n,2n) reactions on {sup 96}Sr, for example. However, since these nuclides all have fairly short half-lives (seconds to minutes or even less), no experimental nuclear reaction cross-sections exist, and only theoretically modeled cross-sections are available. Inverse kinematics reactions at CARIBU offer the opportunity, should the beam intensity be sufficient, to measure cross-sections on a few important nuclides in order to benchmark the theoretical calculations and significantly improve the nuclear data. The nuclides in Fig. 1 are prioritized by importance factor and displayed in stoplight colors, green the highest and red the lowest priority.

Stoyer, M A; McNabb, D; Burke, J; Bernstein, L A; Wu, C Y

2009-09-14

120

TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

2013-07-16

121

Towards a mutually reinforcing future : opportunities to integrate nuclear weapons stewardship and arms control objectives.  

SciTech Connect

2010 NPR and President Obama's 2009 Prague Speech highlighted two key objectives with an inherent underlying tension: (1) Moving towards a world free of nuclear weapons; and (2) Sustaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear arsenal. Objective 1 depends, inter alia, upon reductions in stockpiles at home and abroad and maintaining stability. Objective 2 depends upon needed investments in modernization and life extension. Objectives being pursued predominantly in parallel by largely separate communities.

Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

2010-07-01

122

Security with nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in East-West relations and the process of dramatic political change in Europe may result in unprecedented opportunities to reduce the global arsenal of nuclear weapons. Despite these welcome developments, the prospects for effectively controlling the spread of nuclear capability in the Third World have remained much less encouraging. The possibility of large reductions in nuclear weapons poses fundamental

Karp

1991-01-01

123

Enhanced-Radiation Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhanced-radiation warhead is a particularly dangerous weapon insofar as it might mislead anyone into believing that its deployment would make it possible for nuclear warfare to be safely limited and tightly controlled; in this sense its very deployment could lower the threshold separating conventional warfare from nuclear warfare. Enhanced-radiation weapons are no more (and perhaps they are less) ''humane''

Fred M. Kaplan

1978-01-01

124

Laser weapons. II - Strategic laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential strategic missions for laser weapons, particularly those involving space-based lasers, are discussed. The functions of space-based lasers and the history of their conceptual development are summarized, and the problems of implementing such systems, including the building of a suitable laser and power source, and resolving the problem of optics, are discussed. Ongoing development programs are described, and the contrasting

J. Hecht

1982-01-01

125

Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

2008-07-01

126

NEAR REAL TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS, ANOTHER ASTD SUCCESS STORY.  

SciTech Connect

As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil, contaminated to varying degrees with radioactive materials and heavy metals, remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project, co-funded by the BNL Environmental Management Directorate and the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. Project objectives were to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles, ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}, were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpiles'' after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2 inch screen removed gravel and almost all non-conforming items, which were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a subpile. Eight samples plus QA duplicates were collected from each subpile for chemical analysis, and a 1-Liter jar of material for gamma spectroscopy. A field lab equipped for chemical analysis and gamma spectroscopy was set up in a trailer close by the stockpile site. Chemical analysis included X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to screen for high (>260 ppm) total mercury concentrations, and modified Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests to verify that the soils were not RCRA hazardous. The modified (1/10th scale) TCLP tests minimized secondary (leachate) waste and maximized tumbler capacity and sample throughput. TCLP leachate analysis was accomplished using a Milestone Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA-80). Gamma spectroscopy provided verification of previously measured Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60 contamination levels. After analyses were completed and reviewed, the stockpiles were reconstructed for later disposal as discrete entities within a disposal site profile. The ASTD field laboratory completed more than 2,500 analyses of total Hg (XRF) and TCLP/DMA analyses over an 18-week period. Reliable statistical verification was accomplished for more than 98% of the stockpile sub-piles; for most sub-piles, TCLP analyses were completed within two days. This enhanced level of confidence in soil characterization was accomplished at a cost far below equivalent baseline techniques. One of the most significant aspects of the project success was schedule acceleration. The original schedule projected activities extending from early April until September 30. Due to efficiency and reliability of the vibratory screening operation and cooperative, dry summer weather, stockpile reconstruction was completed in the third week of August. Reduction of the planned sample collection rate, from three samples per 5 yd{sup 3} to two, resulted in further schedule acceleration. The resulting sample frequency, however, was still 22 times greater than the baseline frequency (one per 55 yd{sup 3}).

BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

2003-02-23

127

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program rapid accident assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a scheme for the rapid assessment of a release of toxic chemicals resulting from an accident in one of the most chemical weapon demilitarization plants or storage areas. The system uses such inputs as chemical and pressure sensors monitoring the plant and reports of accidents radioed to the Emergency Operations Center by work parties or monitoring personnel. A size of release can be estimated from previous calculations done in the risk analysis, from back calculation from an open-air chemical sensor measurement, or from an estimated percentage of the inventory of agent at the location of the release. Potential consequences of the estimated release are calculated from real-time meteorological data, surrounding population data, and properties of the agent. In addition to the estimated casualties, area coverage and no-death contours vs time would be calculated. Accidents are assigned to one of four categories: community emergencies, which are involve a threat to off-site personnel; on-post emergencies, which involve a threat only to on-site personnel; advisory, which involves a potential for threat to on-site personnel; and chemical occurrence, which can produce an abnormal operating condition for the plant but no immediate threat to on-site personnel. 9 refs., 20 tabs.

Chester, C.V.

1990-08-01

128

Stockpiled prairiegrass-brassica hybrid mixtures tolerate repeated defoliation in autumn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling herbage can help redistribute nutrient availability and supplement quantity to sustain or finish livestock, depending on production objectives. Typically, autumn stockpiled herbage is harvested, with little expectation for useable regrowth. Brassicas (Brassica spp.) and prairiegrass (B...

129

Leachate From Biosolid Stockpiles: Nutrients and Metal Mobility.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field stacking of biosolids prior to utilization is a standard agricultural practice. The Maine Department of Environmental Protection is concerned about how this stacking affects groundwater quality, in particular, nitrate-N leached from stockpiles. Maine regulations have had much stricter siting standards for field stacking since 2002. In 2002 we initiated an experiment to characterize the nitrogen chemistry of leachate. Mass loading of nitrogen leaving stockpiles was determined experimentally by placing biosolids on plastic-lined cells to collect liquid flowing through and over the pile. These piles contained approximately 60 cubic meters of biosolids. Biosolid stockpile geometry affects the amount of leachate generated. In a parallel experiment, the composition of leachate moving through till-derived soil has been gauged using pan lysimeters and shallow wells under field conditions. Initial results indicate that ammonia is the dominant nitrogen species released (2,200 to 4,800 mg/L). Nitrate concentrations were found to be less than 1 mg/L in the leachate. Dissolved organic carbon loading was also high (5,800 to 10,000 mg/L). Several heavy metals and phosphorous were detected in association with the leachate in the surrounding lysimeters and boreholes. Additional data from sites reclaimed using biosolids substantiate the transport of nitrogen and metals to groundwater, even without the concentrating effect of stockpiles. These data suggest that soils may not significantly attenuate metal transport under ambient conditions.

Peckenham, J. M.; Nadeau, J. A.; Amirbahman, A.; Brutsaert, W.; Wilson, J.

2004-05-01

130

Stockpiled Prairie Grass For Fall-Grazing Lambs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New varieties of prairiegrass (Bromus catharticus Vahl. = B. willdenowii Kunth.) exhibit improved persistence over 'Matua' under USA growing conditions, but animal performance data is lacking. Therefore, we evaluated performance of lambs grazing fall-stockpiled 'Dixon' prairiegrass on a West Virgin...

131

STOCKPILED FORAGE KOCHIA TO MAINTAIN BEEF COWS DURING WINTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extending grazing into the fall and winter, as opposed to feeding of harvested forages, can increase the sustainability of cattle ranching in the western U.S. This study was conducted to determine the economic value of grazing stockpiled forage kochia (Kochia prostrata [L.] Scrad.) and crested whea...

132

Virtual nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

Pilat, J.F.

1997-08-01

133

Planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

This planning guide was developed under the direction of the U.S. Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which jointly coordinate and direct the development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It was produced to assist state, local, and Army installation planners in formulating and coordinating plans for chemical events that may occur at the chemical agent stockpile storage locations in the continental United States. This document provides broad planning guidance for use by both on-post and off-post agencies and organizations in the development of a coordinated plan for responding to chemical events. It contains checklists to assist in assuring that all important aspects are included in the plans and procedures developed at each Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) location. The checklists are supplemented by planning guidelines in the appendices which provide more detailed guidance regarding some issues. The planning guidance contained in this document will help ensure that adequate coordination between on-post and off-post planners occurs during the planning process. This planning guide broadly describes an adequate emergency planning base that assures that critical planning decisions will be made consistently at every chemical agent stockpile location. This planning guide includes material drawn from other documents developed by the FEMA, the Army, and other federal agencies with emergency preparedness program responsibilities. Some of this material has been developed specifically to meet the unique requirements of the CSEPP. In addition to this guidance, other location-specific documents, technical studies, and support studies should be used as needed to assist in the planning at each of the chemical agent stockpile locations to address the specific hazards and conditions at each location.

Shumpert, B.L.; Watson, A.P.; Sorensen, J.H. [and others] and others

1995-02-01

134

An analysis of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program exercise results. Volume 1: The CSEPP Exercise Results Database  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is to enhance the response capabilities of the eight US Army installations that store chemical weapons agent and of the communities immediately surrounding each Army storage installation. Exercises are a major component of the program and are conducted annually at each of the eight installations. Following each exercise, a report summarizing the results of the exercise is produced. To gain a better perspective on the site-specific and program-wide results of these exercises, the Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness requested that Argonne National Laboratory develop a database containing the results of exercises held through June 1996. This document provides a summary of the process used to develop the CSEPP Exercise Results Database. The database provides CSEPP managers in the Department of the Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency a method for tracking and analyzing exercise results. The report discusses the collection and coding of exercise data and provides tables to guide coding of future exercise results. An electronic copy of the database (CD-ROM) accompanies the report. This report focuses only on methods used to collect exercise data and develop the database; Volume 2 discusses the analysis of the data collected.

Hewett, P.L. Jr.; Mitrani, J.E.; Absil-Mills, M.J.G.; Tallarovic, P.; Molsen, J.; Vercellone, J.; Madore, M.A.

1998-06-01

135

Making weapons, talking peace  

SciTech Connect

The memoirs of the author traces his life from his first-year graduate studies in physics at the University of Rochester in 1942 to his present position as Director of the University of California's Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation. The part of his life involved in making weapons extends from 1942 to 1961. During this period, he worked with E.O. Lawrence on the Manhattan Project and served as director of Livermore after it became the Atomic Energy Commission's second nuclear weapons laboratory. He also served on many government advisory boards and commissions dealing with nuclear and other weapons. In 1961, the combination of a heart attack and changes in administration in Washington led York too return to the University of California for the talking peace portion of his life. He has since become a public exponent of arms control and disarmament and the futility of seeking increased security through more and better nuclear weapons. York's explanation of his move from making weapons to talking peace leaves the reader with a puzzle.

York, H.F.

1987-01-01

136

[Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].  

PubMed

Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary. PMID:16296384

Nakamura, Katsumi

2005-10-01

137

Weapons and hope  

SciTech Connect

The British-born physicist presents a full-blown critique of US weapons policy. His careful evaluation of opposing views leads him to endorse a live-and-let-live concept of arms control, which would reject both assured destruction and first use of nuclear weapons in favor of abolishing them. Dyson's faith in the humane progress of military technology and his tolerance of dangerous conventional weapons will not please dovish readers, while his denunciation of military idolatry and his support of a nuclear freeze will disappoint some hawks. Along with moving personal memories of war and pacifism, the most original sections of the book are the author's insightful comments about the Soviet Union and the issue of verification.

Dyson, F.

1984-01-01

138

Plus c`est la meme chose: The future of nuclear weapons in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Since the end of the Cold War, the United States perhaps more than any other nuclear weapon state has deeply questioned the future role of nuclear weapons, both in a strategic sense and in Europe. It is probably the United States that has raised the most questions about the continuing need for and efficacy of nuclear weapons, and has expressed the greatest concerns about the negative consequences of continuing nuclear weapons deployment. In the US, this period of questioning has now come to a pause, if not a conclusion. In late 1994 the United States decided to continue to pursue reductions in numbers of nuclear weapons as well as other changes designed to reduce the dangers associated with the possession of nuclear weapons. But at the same time the US concluded that some number of nuclear forces would continue to be needed for national security for the foreseeable future. These necessary nuclear forces include a continuing but greatly reduced stockpile of nuclear bombs deployed in Europe under NATO`s New Strategic Concept. If further changes to the US position on nuclear weapons in Europe are to occur, it is likely to be after many years, and only in the context of dramatic additional improvements in the political and geo-political climate in and around Europe. The future role of nuclear weapons in Europe, as discussed in this report, depends in part on past and future decisions by the United States. but it must also be noted that other states that deploy nuclear weapons in Europe--Britain, France, and Russia, as well as the NATO alliance--have shown little inclination to discontinue their deployment of such weapons, whatever the United States might choose to do in the future.

Maaranen, S.A.

1996-07-01

139

Measurement techniques for the verification of excess weapons materials  

SciTech Connect

The end of the superpower arms race has resulted in an unprecedented reduction in stockpiles of deployed nuclear weapons. Numerous proposals have been put forward and actions have been taken to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, including unilateral initiatives such as those made by President Clinton in September 1993 to place fissile materials no longer needed for a deterrent under international inspection, and bilateral and multilateral measures currently being negotiated. For the technologist, there is a unique opportunity to develop the technical means to monitor nuclear materials that have been declared excess to nuclear weapons programs, to provide confidence that reductions are taking place and that the released materials are not being used again for nuclear explosive programs. However, because of the sensitive nature of these materials, a fundamental conflict exists between the desire to know that the bulk materials or weapon components in fact represent evidence of warhead reductions, and treaty commitments and national laws that require the protection of weapons design information. This conflict presents a unique challenge to technologists. The flow of excess weapons materials, from deployed warheads through storage, disassembly, component storage, conversion to bulk forms, and disposition, will be described in general terms. Measurement approaches based on the detection of passive or induced radiation will be discussed along with the requirement to protect sensitive information from release to unauthorized parties. Possible uses of measurement methods to assist in the verification of arms reductions will be described. The concept of measuring attributes of items rather than quantitative mass-based inventory verification will be discussed along with associated information-barrier concepts required to protect sensitive information.

Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Yates, M.A.

1998-12-01

140

US nuclear weapons policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the

1990-01-01

141

US weapons secrets revealed  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary details have only recently been revealed about the struggle over the control of early U.S. nuclear weapons and their initial deployments abroad. The information comes from a newly declassified top secret report, part of a larger study, The History of the Strategic Arms Competition, 1945-1972, commissioned by Defense Secretary James R. Schlisinger in summer 1974.

Norris, R.S.; Arkin, W.M.

1993-03-01

142

Names and Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the theoretical significance of using names as titles for situations, and applies this analysis to the United States' intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) programs. Argues that the names given to ICBMs preserve their utility as weapons by linking them to the myths of the nineteenth-century western frontier. (MM)

Kauffman, Charles

1989-01-01

143

Soviet nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

This book assesses both Western and Soviet literature on Soviet nuclear weapons policy. The author discusses the development of the various Western schools of interpretation and their effect on U.S. policy and provides an introduction to Soviet sources (Russian language as well as translated material). Analytical chapters are followed by comprehensive annotated listings of a broad range of civilian and military publications.

Green, W.C.

1987-01-01

144

Medicalized weapons & modern war.  

PubMed

"Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development? PMID:20166514

Gross, Michael L

2010-01-01

145

Effects of Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

Sartori, Leo

1983-01-01

146

Air weapon fatalities.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

1998-01-01

147

Manual for national implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

The Convention on the Prohibition on the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature, January 13, 1993, in Paris, France (CWC), is an unprecedented multilateral effort to eradicate an entire category of weapons of mass destruction and assure their continued absence through international verification. The CWC has been signed by over 150 nations, and is expected to enter into force in 1995. With its far-reaching system to verify compliance, the CWC presages a new foundation for international security based neither on fear nor on trust, but on the rule of law. A central feature of the CWC is that it requires each State Party to take implementing measures to make the Convention operative. The CWC goes beyond all prior arms control treaties in this regard. For this approach to succeed, and to inspire the eradication of other categories of mass destruction weaponry, coordination and planning are vital to harmonize CWC national implementation among States Parties. This Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention is designed to assist States Parties, duly taking into account the distinctive aspects of their legal systems, in maximizing CWC enforcement consistent with their national legal obligations.

Kellman, B. [DePaul Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Tanzman, E.A.; Gualtieri, D.S.; Grimes, S.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-01

148

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of enhanced safety features for strategic nuclear weapons at a representative location  

SciTech Connect

We carried out a demonstration analysis of the value of developing and implementing enhanced safety features for nuclear weapons in the US stockpile. We modified an approach that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed in response to a congressional directive that NRC assess the ``value-impact`` of regulatory actions for commercial nuclear power plants. Because improving weapon safety shares some basic objectives with NRC regulations, i.e., protecting public health and safety from the effects of accidents involving radioactive materials, we believe the NRC approach to be appropriate for evaluating weapons-safety cost-benefit issues. Impact analysis includes not only direct costs associated with retrofitting the weapon system, but also the expected costs (or economic risks) that are avoided by the action, i.e., the benefits.

Stephens, D.R.; Hall, C.H.; Holman, G.S.; Graham, K.F.; Harvey, T.F.; Serduke, F.J.D.

1993-10-01

149

Weapons of mass destruction, WMD  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic\\/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described.

H. Vogel

2007-01-01

150

Nuclear weapon detection categorization analysis  

SciTech Connect

This statement of work is for the Proof of Concept for nuclear weapon categories utility in Arms control. The focus of the project will be to collect, analyze and correlate Intrinsic Radiation (INRAD) calculation results for the purpose of defining measurable signatures that differentiate categories of nuclear weapons. The project will support START III negotiations by identifying categories of nuclear weapons. The categories could be used to clarify sub-limits on the total number of nuclear weapons.

NONE

1997-12-01

151

Army pushes new weapons effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army is conducting research for a directed energy weapons program which is to provide particle beam and high-energy laser weapons for ballistic missile defense in the late 1980s. A space-based neutral beam weapon and a ground-based charged particle device are being considered. The feasibility of a space-based laser weapon system is also explored. A ground-based technology demonstration program

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

152

Applying Agile MethodstoWeapon/Weapon-Related Software  

SciTech Connect

This white paper provides information and guidance to the Department of Energy (DOE) sites on Agile software development methods and the impact of their application on weapon/weapon-related software development. The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of Agile methods, examine the accepted interpretations/uses/practices of these methodologies, and discuss the applicability of Agile methods with respect to Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) Technical Business Practices (TBPs). It also provides recommendations on the application of Agile methods to the development of weapon/weapon-related software.

Adams, D; Armendariz, M; Blackledge, M; Campbell, F; Cloninger, M; Cox, L; Davis, J; Elliott, M; Granger, K; Hans, S; Kuhn, C; Lackner, M; Loo, P; Matthews, S; Morrell, K; Owens, C; Peercy, D; Pope, G; Quirk, R; Schilling, D; Stewart, A; Tran, A; Ward, R; Williamson, M

2007-05-02

153

Nuclear weapons and international law  

SciTech Connect

Using two different perspectives, this collection of essays addresses the central legal question of whether the manufacture, deployment, and potential use of nuclear weapons is lawful. In addition, individual chapters focus on a variety of topical issues, including nuclear weapon free zones, nuclear testing, international law and regulations, nuclear weapons and nonproliferation, anti-ballistic missile systems, and the Strategic Defense Initiative.

Pogany, I.

1987-01-01

154

Nuclear weapons are legal tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by

Almond; H. H. Jr

1985-01-01

155

Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today a third generation of nuclear weapons is technologically feasible. By altering the shape of the nuclear explosive and manipulating other design features, weapons could be built that generate and direct beams of radiation or streams of metallic pellets or droplets at such targets as missile-launch facilities on the ground, missiles in the air and satellites in space. These weapons

Theodore B. Taylor

1987-01-01

156

Early retirement for weaponeers?  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy`s Lawrence Livermore Laboratory`s once-vital nuclear weapons division is now in dire straits. The laboratory was established in 1952, during the titanic struggle over the hydrogen bomb, has grown steadily from $7 million to its peak of $1.1 billion in 1991. The future for key members of their most experienced weapons design team is uncertain. Over the past two years, Livermore`s operating budget has fallen by 12.5 percent or $127.6 million. Nearly 750 employees, 10 percent of the work force, accepted early retirement offers last year. Further budget cuts will force another 300 to 600 personnel out by the end of 1995. The future resides in the U.S. Congress.

Weisman, J.

1994-07-01

157

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2014-11-03

158

Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship  

ScienceCinema

As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

Dattelbaum, Dana

2015-01-05

159

Particle-beam weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of a particle-beam's destructive energy has been estimated to be 300,000,000 m\\/sec, leading to the suggestion that particle-beam weapons would be ideal as defensive systems against missiles. Three proposed applications are examined: (1) an ABM system based on a satellite orbiting the earth and intended to shoot down offensive missiles as they rise above the atmosphere, (2) a

John Parmentola; Kosta Tsipis

1979-01-01

160

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

161

Weapons and Aggression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Craig Anderson of Iowa State University, this case study addresses the question: "Does the mere presence of a weapon increase the accessibility of aggressive thoughts?" It concerns the following concepts: quantile and box plots, stem and leaf displays, one-sample t test, confidence interval, within-subjects ANOVA, and consequences of violation of normality assumption. This is a great example of a case study that illustrates many different concepts of statistics.

Anderson, Craig

162

Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of sewage sludge that are dried and then often stored in biosolid stockpiles in treatment plants. Because the biosolids are rich in decomposable organic matter they could be a significant source for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yet there are no direct measurements of GHG from stockpiles. We therefore measured the direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a monthly basis from three different age classes of biosolid stockpiles at the Western Treatment Plant (WTP), Melbourne, Australia, from December 2009 to November 2011 using manual static chambers. All biosolid stockpiles were a significant point source for CH4 and N2O emissions. The youngest biosolids (<1 year old) had the greatest CH4 and N2O emissions of 60.2 kg of CO2-e per Mg of biosolid per year. Stockpiles that were between 1 and 3 years old emitted less overall GHG (?29 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)) and the oldest stockpiles emitted the least GHG (?10 kg CO2-e Mg(-1) yr(-1)). Methane emissions were negligible in all stockpiles but the relative contribution of N2O and CO2 changed with stockpile age. The youngest stockpile emitted two thirds of the GHG emission as N2O, while the 1-3 year old stockpile emitted an equal amount of N2O and CO2 and in the oldest stockpile CO2 emissions dominated. We did not detect any seasonal variability of GHG emissions and did not observe a correlation between GHG flux and environmental variables such as biosolid temperature, moisture content or nitrate and ammonium concentration. We also modeled CH4 emissions based on a first order decay model and the model based estimated annual CH4 emissions were higher as compared to the direct field based estimated annual CH4 emissions. Our results indicate that labile organic material in stockpiles is decomposed over time and that nitrogen decomposition processes lead to significant N2O emissions. Carbon decomposition favors CO2 over CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. PMID:24835360

Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

2014-10-01

163

Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J. [Odgen Environmental and Energy Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

164

ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of thermonuclear-fusion energy  

E-print Network

This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of "points" highlighting the strategic-political and military-technical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and fo...

Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

2004-01-01

165

Strategies for the disposition of high explosives resulting from dismantlement of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

Many thousands of pounds of high quality main-charge explosives will result as surplus from the dismantlement of returns from the US nuclear weapons stockpile. The method most often employed for dealing with this surplus explosive is destruction by open burning. However, open burning as a means of treating excess explosives is losing favor because of environmental concerns associated with such an uncontrolled thermal destruction process. Thus, alternative processes for treatment of excess explosives from weapon dismantlement is discussed. These alternatives include: reformulation, crystalline component recovery, chemical conversion of the crystalline component to higher value products which may have civilian or military applications and, when necessary, treatment as waste in an environmentally benign fashion.

Pruneda, C.; Humphrey, J.

1993-03-01

166

Effects of a chemical weapons incineration plant on red-tailed tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1990 to 2000, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) incinerated part of the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons on Johnston Atoll, central Pacific Ocean, which also is a National Wildlife Refuge and home to approximately a half-million breeding seabirds. The effect on wildlife of incineration of these weapons is unknown. Using a multi-strata mark-recapture analysis, we investigated the effects of JACADS on reproductive success, survival, and movement probabilities of red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) nesting both downwind and upwind of the incineration site. We found no effect of chemical incineration on these tropicbird demographic parameters over the 8 years of our study. An additional 3 years of monitoring tropicbird demography will take place, post-incineration.

Schreiber, E.A.; Doherty, P.F.; Schenk, G.A.

2001-01-01

167

Weapons and Minority Youth Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Weapons violence is a major public health problem that especially impacts minority youth. Interventions designed to reduce weapon use by youth are categorized as educational/behavioral change, legal, and technological/environmental. Few educational programs currently exist, but those that do largely concern firearm safety courses, public…

Northrop, Daphne; Hamrick, Kim

168

Nuclear weapons and the law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is summarized, with a discussion of some of its earlier Advisory Opinions. The Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear arms is considered in the light of the principles of international humanitarian law and a review of nuclear weapons effects. The present government's position on nuclear weapons as outlined in the

Ronald King Murray

1999-01-01

169

Air Force emphasizes laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of particle beam antisatellite weapons and laser weapons development by the USAF is reviewed. An experimental program was started pertaining to the collective-effect acceleration of positive ions by intense relativistic electron beams. Several types of electron accelerators being used in the experiments are briefly characterized. Another experiment concerns two-stream plasma instability. The kill potential of the particle beam

C. A. Robinson Jr.

1978-01-01

170

Science versus fiction: laser weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In science-fiction stories, ray guns are among the most used weapons. Since high power lasers are now commercially available, it would be interesting to know whether they may be used as weapons. In order to understand this point, the physical principles of laser-material interaction and of laser beam propagation are discussed. The basic equations are given. Then, orders of magnitude

M. Wautelet

1984-01-01

171

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons

A. L. Latter; E. A. Martinelli

1993-01-01

172

Some facts about “weapon focus”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapon focus” refers to the concentration of acrime witness's attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. We examined this phenomenon by presenting subject-witnesses with a series of slides depicting an event in a fast-food restaurant. Half of the subjects saw a customer point a gun at the cashier; the other

Elizabeth F. Loftus; Geoffrey R. Loftus; Jane Messot

1987-01-01

173

Biological and Chemical Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the latest in MEDLINEplus' special collections, the Biological and Chemical Weapons page addresses health issues at the forefront of many people's minds these days. As with other MEDLINEplus special collections, this page offers links to news stories, sites providing general information and overviews, information about specific conditions, and relevant organizations. While the sites are not annotated, the page provides a useful introduction to these health issues. The links here are all authoritative and range from the National Center for Infectious Diseases' (NCID) faq on anthrax to Johns Hopkins University's Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies to National Library of Medicine's TOXNET Databases. MEDLINEplus is offered by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and was last mentioned in the April 14, 2000 Scout Report.

174

Proliferation concerns in the Russian closed nuclear weapons complex cities : a study of regional migration behavior.  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the legacy of the USSR weapons complex with an estimated 50 nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons cities containing facilities responsible for research, production, maintenance, and destruction of the weapons stockpile. The Russian Federation acquired ten such previously secret, closed nuclear weapons complex cities. Unfortunately, a lack of government funding to support these facilities resulted in non-payment of salaries to employees and even plant closures, which led to an international fear of weapons material and knowledge proliferation. This dissertation analyzes migration in 33 regions of the Russian Federation, six of which contain the ten closed nuclear weapons complex cities. This study finds that the presence of a closed nuclear city does not significantly influence migration. However, the factors that do influence migration are statistically different in regions containing closed nuclear cities compared to regions without closed nuclear cities. Further, these results show that the net rate of migration has changed across the years since the break up of the Soviet Union, and that the push and pull factors for migration have changed across time. Specifically, personal and residential factors had a significant impact on migration immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union, but economic infrastructure and societal factors became significant in later years. Two significant policy conclusions are derived from this research. First, higher levels of income are found to increase outmigration from regions, implying that programs designed to prevent migration by increasing incomes for closed city residents may be counter-productive. Second, this study finds that programs designed to increase capital and build infrastructure in the new Russian Federation will be more effective for employing scientists and engineers from the weapons complex, and consequently reduce the potential for emigration of potential proliferants.

Flores, Kristen Lee

2004-07-01

175

Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by Chemical Weapons Convention inspections  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the United States system of constitutional law. This discussion is about the Fourth and Fifth Amendment issues raised by the CWC and about how federal implementing legislation can allow verification inspections to take place in the United States under the Chemical Weapons Convention while remaining in compliance with the Constitution. By implementing legislation, the author means a federal statute that would be enacted separately from Senate approval of the Convention itself. Although implementing legislation is a relatively unusual accompaniment to a treaty, it will be necessary to the CWC, and the Administration has submitted a bill that was under consideration in the last Congress and presumably will be reintroduced early next year. The Fourth and Fifth Amendment problems posed by the CWC arise from the verification inspection scheme embodied in the treaty. The CWC depends heavily on on-site inspections to verify compliance with its key requirements. These include destroying all chemicals weapons stockpiles and bringing potential chemical weapons precursors under international control. The Convention contains four distinct kinds of inspections: systematic inspections of chemical weapons storage and destruction facilities, routine inspections of various declared facilities, challenge inspections, and a variant on challenge inspections in cases of alleged use of chemical weapons. All inspections are supposed to be only as intrusive as necessary to carry out the Convention. These inspections will be carried out by inspectors employed by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), located in The Hague, which is responsible for enforcing the Convention. Generally, the inspected State Party is permitted to assign observers to accompany the inspectors.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Economics and Law Section

1994-10-21

176

Optimal vaccine stockpile design for an eradicated disease: application to polio.  

PubMed

Eradication of a disease promises significant health and financial benefits. Preserving those benefits, hopefully in perpetuity, requires preparing for the possibility that the causal agent could re-emerge (unintentionally or intentionally). In the case of a vaccine-preventable disease, creation and planning for the use of a vaccine stockpile becomes a primary concern. Doing so requires consideration of the dynamics at different levels, including the stockpile supply chain and transmission of the causal agent. This paper develops a mathematical framework for determining the optimal management of a vaccine stockpile over time. We apply the framework to the polio vaccine stockpile for the post-eradication era and present examples of solutions to one possible framing of the optimization problem. We use the framework to discuss issues relevant to the development and use of the polio vaccine stockpile, including capacity constraints, production and filling delays, risks associated with the stockpile, dynamics and uncertainty of vaccine needs, issues of funding, location, and serotype dependent behavior, and the implications of likely changes over time that might occur. This framework serves as a helpful context for discussions and analyses related to the process of designing and maintaining a stockpile for an eradicated disease. PMID:20430122

Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer; Pallansch, Mark A; Alexander, James P; Thompson, Kimberly M

2010-06-11

177

Nuclear weapon system risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a process for evaluating hazardous operations by considering what can go wrong, the likelihood of these undesired events, and the resultant consequences. Techniques used in PRA originated in the 1960s. Although there were early exploratory applications to nuclear weapons and other technologies, the first major application of these techniques was in the Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400, {sup 1} in which the risks of nuclear power accidents were thoroughly investigated for the first time. Recently, these techniques have begun to be adapted to nuclear weapon system applications. This report discusses this application to nuclear weapon systems.

Carlson, D.D.

1993-11-01

178

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

179

Nuclear weapons and nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

1984-01-01

180

Leaching of nutrients and trace elements from stockpiled turkey litter into soil.  

PubMed

In addition to nutrients, poultry are fed trace elements (e.g., As) for therapeutic purposes. Although a large proportion of the nutrients are assimilated by the birds, nearly all of the As is excreted. Hence, turkey litter constituents can leach into the soil and contaminate shallow ground water when it is stockpiled uncovered on bare soil. This study quantified the leaching of turkey litter constituents from uncovered stockpiles into the underlying soil. Four stockpiles were placed on Orangeburg loamy sand in summer 2004 for 162 d; 14 d after their removal, four stockpiles were created over the same footprints and left over winter for 162 d. Soil samples at depths of 7.6 to 30.5 cm and 30.5 to 61 cm adjacent to and beneath the stockpiles were compared for pH, electrical conductivity, total C, dissolved organic C, N species, P, water-extractable (WE)-P, As, WE-As, Cu, Mn, and Zn. All WE constituents affected the 7.6- to 30.5-cm layer, and some leached deeper; for example, NH(4)(+)-N concentrations were 184 and 62 times higher in the shallow and deep layers, respectively. During winter stockpiling, WE-As concentrations beneath the stockpiles tripled and doubled in the 7.6- to 30.5-cm and 30.5- to 61-cm layers, respectively, with WE-As being primarily as As(V). Heavy dissolved organic C and WE-P leaching likely increased solubilization of soil As, although WE-As concentrations were low due to the Al-rich soil and low-As litter. When used as drinking water, shallow ground water should be monitored on farms with a history of litter stockpiling on bare soil; high litter As; and high soil As, Fe, and Mn concentrations. PMID:19329693

Shah, Sanjay B; Hutchison, Kimberly J; Hesterberg, Dean L; Grabow, Garry L; Huffman, Rodney L; Hardy, David H; Parsons, James T

2009-01-01

181

Youths Carrying a Weapon or Using a Weapon in a Fight: What Makes the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to characterize weapon-carrying adolescents and to assess whether weapon carriers differ from weapon users. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 7548 adolescents aged 16-20 years in Switzerland. Youths carrying a weapon were compared with those who do not. Subsequently, weapon carriers were…

Thurnherr, Judit; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2009-01-01

182

National Ignition Facility Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement to the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) was prepared pursuant to a Joint Stipulation and Order approved and entered as an order of the court on October 27, 1997, in partial settlement of the lawsuit Civ. No. 97-936 (SS) (D.D.C.), ''Natural Resources Defense Council [NRDC] et al. v. Richardson et al.'' The Joint Stipulation and Order is reproduced at the end of this document as Attachment 1. In the Joint Stipulation and Order, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to prepare an SEIS to the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SSM PEIS) (DOE/EIS-0236, DOE 1996a) to evaluate the reasonably foreseeable significant adverse environmental impacts of continuing to construct and of operating the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California, with respect to any potential or confirmed contamination in the area by hazardous, toxic, and/or radioactive materials. On September 25, 1998, DOE announced in the ''Federal Register'' the agency's intent to prepare this SEIS for the NIF portion (Volume III, Appendix I) of the SSM PEIS. DOE's need for preparation of this SEIS, consistent with the previously established need for NIF (DOE 1996a, Appendix I), is to determine how the results of characterization studies completed pursuant to the Joint Stipulation and Order should affect the manner in which DOE proceeds with the construction and operation of NIF. On August 5, 1999, DOE issued an amended Notice of Intent to prepare this SEIS, which incorporated changes in schedule resulting from new relevant information. The SSM PEIS addressed alternative plans for DOE's defense program activities related to nuclear weapons stockpile issues at several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. The environmental consequences of construction and operation of NIF were addressed in detail in SSM PEIS Volume III, Appendix I, entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project Specific Analysis'' (NIF PSA). The Record of Decision (ROD) for the SSM PEIS was published in the ''Federal Register'' on December 26, 1996 (61 FR 68014). In the ROD, DOE announced its decision to construct and operate NIF at LLNL. The NIF is an experimental facility that would use laser light to initiate a fusion reaction in very small quantities of hydrogen by a process known as inertial confinement fusion. The start of physical construction of NIF was authorized on March 7, 1997, and groundbreaking for the NIF occurred on May 29, 1997. Construction of the NIF is ongoing; the conventional facilities are over 94% complete and are expected to be completed in late 2001.

N /A

2001-02-23

183

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Millimeter-wave concealed weapon detection, based on the use of a fast scan short-range FMCW 94 GHz radar, was evaluated in a small business innovative research phase I under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) program. The feasibility of a fast circular scan technique invented by Chang Industry has been firmly established, with handgun images recorded. This fast scan technique is essential both for remote sensing and full-body fixed site scanner applications. Although only raw image data was obtained in Phase I, we propose to apply super-resolution image enhancements and target recognition software algorithms to provide more reliable detection. Endorsement from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, to provide operational input and testing and evaluation, and the hiring of a consultant to plan for future program financing (including venture capital investment) make the project very attractive for commercialization.

Chang, Yu-Wen; Juhola, Markku; Grainger, William; Wang, Beining; Manahan, Brian

1997-02-01

184

Military laser weapons: current controversies.  

PubMed

Military laser weapons systems are becoming indispensable in most modern armies. These lasers have undergone many stages of development, and have outpaced research on eye protection measures, which continue to have inherent limitations. Eye injuries caused by military lasers are increasingly reported, leading to speculation that these would become an important cause of blinding in modern conflicts. As part of the effort to ban inhumane weapons, international laws have been passed to restrict the proliferation of such blinding weapons. However, there are controversies concerning the interpretation, implementation and effectiveness of these laws. The ophthalmic community can play a greater role in highlighting ocular morbidity from military lasers, and in preventing their further proliferation. PMID:11471090

Seet, B; Wong, T Y

2001-09-01

185

What Are Nuclear Weapons For?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the decades of the Cold War the prospect of a nuclear holocaust was all too real. With the demise of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, that threat to civilization as we know it had receded. But today we face a grave new danger, the acquisition of nuclear weapons by hostile or unstable governments and terrorists. What can and should we be doing to meet this challenge and prevent the world's most dangerous weapons from falling into very dangerous hands? Are there any reasons for us to still retain thousands of nuclear warheads in our arsenals? What are they for? Can we rekindle the bold vision of a world free of nuclear weapons that President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev brought to their remarkable summit meeting at Reykjavik twenty years ago, and define practical steps toward achieving such a goal?

Drell, Sidney

2007-03-01

186

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector (CWD) has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 25 feet (8 meters). Applications include weapon detection in prison settings, by officers in the field for stand-off frisking of suspects, and as supplemental security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an adjustable, audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object has been detected. An aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. A presentation of the detector's capabilities and limitations will be presented along with probability of detection (PD) data obtained using the latest prototype version.

Wilde, Norbert; Niederhaus, Steve; Lam, Hon; Lum, Chris

2002-08-01

187

The control of chemical weapons: A strategic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis develops an analytical framework for optimal design of a ban on chemical weapons (CW). The thesis addresses two principal questions: first, could it be in the interest of individual states to adopt a CW ban, even if compliance by adversaries cannot be presupposed Second, how can designers of the treaty maximize incentives to accede and comply, but simultaneously minimize the threat to national sovereignty, including the risk of giving up a deterrent stockpile, and the risk that sensitive information would be revealed during inspections Three problems can plague any disarmament agreement. The first danger is that the agreement will be so minimalist that although all countries may adhere to it, it will have little effect on international behavior. The second danger is that the treaty will have such a weak enforcement mechanism that although nations may accede, they may not comply under conditions of international stress. The third danger is that the terms of the arrangement will be so onerous that few nations will agree to adopt it in the first place. This thesis develops a framework for thinking about how to strike the proper balance between these competing concerns. A salient characteristic of CW is the relative ease with which they can be produced in secret. The dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of inspection procedures of varying intrusiveness, and investigates the risks to sensitive government and industrial facilities. The thesis concludes with an analysis of the extent to which a ban on a single weapon could enhance the stability of the [open quotes]balance of terror.[close quotes] The author makes specific policy recommendations about how to set the optimal level of enforcement so that the ban is likely to succeed, and thus become more than a symbolic gesture.

Stern, J.E.

1992-01-01

188

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create the threats of armed attack in outer space or from outer space. Moreover, they promote maintaining of stability in the international relations. For this reason the reconnaissance and data acquisition satellites used for the verification of observance by States of the arms limitation agreements are under international protection as national technical means of the control. Similar protection is enjoyed by the early warning satellites. With the help of space communication facilities the more reliable operative connection of the statesmen is organized in the strained situations. By this way the probability of making of the incorrect retaliatory decisions in critical political situations is reduced. At the same time it's necessary to take into consideration that the activities of such satellite systems are tightly connected with ground armed forces of the states. the earth, what from the point of view of international law may be qualified as establishing a partial demilitarization regime in outer space. After the prohibition of anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) and anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons it will be possible to speak about establishing of an international legal regime of complete demilitarization in outer space eliminating any kinds of weapon from outer space. in a peaceful time. weaponization.The main task of this paper is to analyze and to discuss the present binding regime of the outer space deweaponization and particular measures on consolidation and strengthening of this regime. agreements of the Russian Federation and the USA into multilateral Treaties. Such "immunity" would cover all operating space objects, irrespective of their military or civil designation. This approach is quite justified taking into consideration that military sattelites enhanced international peace and security and had broad advantages, such as treaty compliance and monitoring, the global positioning system, counter-terrorism and sanctions enforcement. Many examples of the last years demonstrate the tendency of engagement of military satellites into commercial space services. transparency on the pre-launch stage of space activity, including satellite inspection before ignition. Objects Flight Path Tracking. implemantation of a non-use of force and threat of force - a fundamental principle of modern international law. This implies the application of the menshened principle of international law by means of a treaty to the outer space activities with reference to the actions made in outer space, or directed from outer space against targets on the Earth as well as directed from the Earth against objects moving in outer space. to the possibility of conclusion in future of a multilateral arrangement on the prohibition of the space-based ABM. Accordingly, it is discussed the problem of an efficient international control over the prohibition of placement of the above mentioned weapons into outer space. to the challenges of the new millennium. 8

Zhukov, Gennady P.

2002-01-01

189

Human instability and nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human instability is an obvious concern in the handling of nuclear weapons. Assuming that no rational leader of the US or the Soviet Union would embark on a nuclear adventure by design, nuclear war between the superpowers, if it comes, is far more likely to be based on miscalculation, misunderstanding, or misperception. Some believe that computers are the weak link

Abrams

2009-01-01

190

No Recall of Weapon Discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for police officers to discharge their weapons in the line of duty yet have no memory of having done so. Case histories of such events are presented. Research on perceptual and memory distortions during critical incidents is reviewed, along with the research on involuntary discharges. Both areas of research offer explanations why it is possible for officers

Alexis Artwohl

2003-01-01

191

Weapons engineering tritium facility overview  

SciTech Connect

Materials provide an overview of the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) as introductory material for January 2011 visit to SRS. Purpose of the visit is to discuss Safety Basis, Conduct of Engineering, and Conduct of Operations. WETF general description and general GTS program capabilities are presented in an unclassified format.

Najera, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-20

192

Nuclear weapons effects mitigation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fight and win on the AirLand battlefield, the US must be able to employ nuclear weapons decisively, and continue to fight effectively after enemy employment. Survival of personnel and equipment and recovery from injury or damage are essential to continued operations in the nuclear environment. Accordingly, the specific vulnerabilities of personnel and equipment must be understood and

Uyesugi

1982-01-01

193

Program of technical assistance to the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons, informal report  

SciTech Connect

Currently, U.S. organizations provide technical support to the U.S. Delegation for its work as part of the Preparatory Commission (PrepCom) of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague. The current efforts of the PrepCom are focussed on preparations for the Entry-Into-Force (EIF) of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons (often referred to as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} (CWC)). EIF of the CWC is expected in 1995, and shortly thereafter the PrepCom will cease to exist, with the OPCW taking over responsibilities under the CWC. A U.S. program of technical assistance to the OPCW for its verification responsibilities may be created as part of U.S. policy objectives after EIF of the CWC. In the summary below, comments by participants are presented in Square Brackets Some of the same points arose several times during the discussions; they are grouped together under the most pertinent heading.

Not Available

1995-01-01

194

Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

PubMed

Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster. PMID:24901104

Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

2014-01-01

195

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide

Maaranen

1996-01-01

196

DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS (DEWs): A BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

, Spring 1988, p. 35-40. ______. "Protection and Countermeasures Against Laser Weapons." Military Monitor, November 18, 1994, v. 9, n. 23. Altmann, Jurgen. "Space Laser Weapons: Problems of Strategic-Held Laser Weapons Are Waiting in the Wings." Armed Forces Journal International, May 1992, v. 129, n. 10, p

197

Recovery from a chemical weapons accident or incident: A concept paper on planning  

SciTech Connect

Emergency planning for an unintended release of chemical agent from the nation`s chemical weapons stockpile should include preparation for. the period following implementation of immediate emergency response. That period -- the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage -- is the subject of this report. The report provides an overview of the role of recovery, reentry, and restoration planning in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), describes the transition from immediate emergency response to restoration, and analyzes the legal framework that would govern restoration activities. Social, economic, and administrative issues, as well as technical ones, need to be considered in the planning effort. Because of possible jurisdictional conflicts, appropriate federal, state, and local agencies need to be included in a coordinated planning process. Advance consideration should be given to the pertinent federal and state statutes and regulations. On the federal level, the principal statutes and regulations to be considered are those associated with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; and the National Environmental Policy Act. This report recommends that extensive preaccident planning be undertaken for the recovery, reentry, and restoration stage and outlines several key issues that should be considered in that planning. The need for interagency cooperation and coordination at all levels of the planning process is emphasized.

Herzenberg, C.L.; Haffenden, R.; Lerner, K.; Meleski, S.A.; Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Lewis, L.M. [US Dept. of Agriculture (United States); Hemphill, R.C. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (United States); Adams, J.D. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

1994-04-01

198

Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

199

Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries` military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities.

Jardine, L.J.

1997-01-01

200

Proposed Laser-Based HED physics experiments for Stockpile Stewardship  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the scientific areas in High Energy Density (HED) physics that underpin the enduring LANL mission in Stockpile Stewardship (SS) has identified important research needs that are not being met. That analysis has included the work done as part of defining the mission need for the High Intensity Laser Laboratory (HILL) LANL proposal to NNSA, LDRD DR proposal evaluations, and consideration of the Predictive Capability Framework and LANL NNSA milestones. From that evaluation, we have identified several specific and scientifically-exciting experimental concepts to address those needs. These experiments are particularly responsive to physics issues in Campaigns 1 and 10. These experiments are best done initially at the LANL Trident facility, often relying on the unique capabilities available there, although there are typically meritorious extensions envisioned at future facilities such as HILL, or the NIF once the ARC short-pulse laser is available at sufficient laser intensity. As the focus of the LANL HEDP effort broadens from ICF ignition of the point design at the conclusion of the National Ignition Campaign, into a more SS-centric effort, it is useful to consider these experiments, which address well-defined issues, with specific scientific hypothesis to test or models to validate or disprove, via unit-physics experiments. These experiments are in turn representative of a possible broad experimental portfolio to elucidate the physics of interest to these campaigns. These experiments, described below, include: (1) First direct measurement of the evolution of particulates in isochorically heated dense plasma; (2) Temperature relaxation measurements in a strongly-coupled plasma; (3) Viscosity measurements in a dense plasma; and (4) Ionic structure factors in a dense plasma. All these experiments address scientific topics of importance to our sponsors, involve excellent science at the boundaries of traditional fields, utilize unique capabilities at LANL, and contribute to the Campaign milestone in 2018. Given their interdisciplinary nature, it is not surprising that these research needs are not being addressed by the other excellent high-energy density physics (HEDP) facilities coming on line, facilities aimed squarely at more established fields and missions. Although energy rich, these facilities deliver radiation (e.g., particle beams for isochoric heating) over a timescale that is too slow in these unit physics experiments to eliminate hydrodynamic evolution of the target plasma during the time it is being created. A theme shared by all of these experiments is the need to quickly create a quasi-homogeneous 'initial state' whose properties and evolution we wish to study. Otherwise, we cannot create unit experiments to isolate the physics of interest and validate the models in our codes, something that cannot be done with the integrated experiments often done in HED. Moreover, these experiments in some cases involve combinations of solid and plasmas, or matter in the warm-dense matter state, where neither the theoretical approximations of solid state or of fully-ionized weakly-coupled plasmas can be used. In all cases, the capability of 'isochoric heating' ('flash' heating at constant density) is important. In some cases, the ability to selectively heat to different degrees different species within a target, whether mixed or adjacent to each other, is critical for the experiment. This capability requires the delivery of very high power densities, which require the conversion of the laser into very short and intense pulses of secondary radiation (electrons, ions, neutrons, x-rays). Otherwise, there is no possibility of a clean experiment to constrain the models, in the cases there are any, or inform the creation of one. Another typical requirement of these experiments is the ability to probe these exotic extreme conditions of matter with flexible and diverse sources of secondary radiation. Without a high-intensity high-power laser with some unique attributes available on Trident today (e.g., ultra-high laser-puls

Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albright, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fernandez, Juan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-04

201

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons\\/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a

Marjorie Lundquist

2008-01-01

202

Nuclear weapons and regional conflict  

SciTech Connect

An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

Latter, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Martinelli, E.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

203

Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

204

Effects of Forage Management on the Nutritive Value of Stockpiled Bermudagrass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Common' and 'Tifton 44' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] located near Fayetteville and Batesville, AR, respectively, were chosen to evaluate the effects of stockpiling initiation date (August or September), and N fertilization rate (0, 37, 74, or 111 kg N ha-1) on the nutritive value of f...

205

What Really Matters in Locating Shared Humanitarian Stockpiles: Evidence from the WASH Cluster  

E-print Network

as the water piping system will be deteriorated; if local water supply is still operational, water purification (e.g. bladder tanks, pipes, tanks, pumps and water purification items). The other are sanitation (e@Oxfam.org.uk Abstract. Through a case study of locating shared stockpiles at the United Nations Water Sanitation

Boyer, Edmond

206

Speed versus reliability trade-offs in supplier selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many industries, order fulfilment speed is the most important competitive weapon for manufacturers. As such, supplier reliability and speed are crucial factors for success. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs among reliability, speed and price when selecting suppliers. We compare the costs of four types of suppliers categorised by their lead time and reliability characteristics: (1) slow and

Jianli Hu; Charles L. Munson

2007-01-01

207

A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

1996-07-01

208

Laser weapons come down to earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Star Wars debate seldom mentions the fact that low-powered lasers are already widely used as adjuncts to conventional weaponry and tactical laser weapons will soon be ready for military arsenals. The superpowers will both have mass-produced directed-energy weapons available soon. Other directed-energy weapons, such as particle beams, atmospheric compression waves, microwaves, and radio-frequency waves are in various stages of

1985-01-01

209

New Weapons and the Arms Race  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the United States and the U.S.S.R., it would be useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, adn can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons application. Let me begin with the latter class.

Tsipis, Kosta

1983-10-01

210

OPEN FORUM ON THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION Challenges to the Chemical Weapons Ban  

E-print Network

at Bradford University PANEL DISCUSSION THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS BAN AND THE USE OF INCAPACITANTS IN WARFARE and the Chemical Weapons Convention Barbara Hatch Rosenberg, Federation of American Scientists Incapacitants

Sussex, University of

211

Handheld ultrasonic concealed weapon detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a concealed weapon detector has been built and tested. Designed to detect both metallic and non-metallic weapons, the sensor utilizes focused ultrasound (40 kHz frequency) to remotely detect concealed objects from beyond arm's length out to a range of about 12 feet (4 meters). The detector can be used in prison settings, by officers in the field to allow for stand-off frisking of suspects, and to supplement security at courthouse entrances and other monitored portals. The detector emits an audible alarm (with provision for an earphone jack) as well as a visible light-bar indicator when an object is detected. A high intensity aiming light, with momentary switch, allows the user to accurately determine the location of the concealed object. Current efforts are aimed at increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false-alarm rate, and extending the range of detectability out to 20 feet. Plans for accomplishing these tasks will be presented together with data showing the effective range and probability of detection for the present system.

Wild, Norbert C.; Doft, Frank; Breuner, Dennis; Felber, Franklin S.

2001-02-01

212

Origins of the Tactical Nuclear Weapons Modernization Program: 1969-1979  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 12, 1979, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization decided to deploy new long-range theater nuclear forces, Pershing II and Ground-Launched Cruise Missiles. This marked the first major change in NATO's nuclear stockpile since the adoption of the flexible response strategy in 1967. The decision was controversial inasmuch as the Allies disagreed on the fundamental role of nuclear weapons in this strategy and, thereby, the types and number of weapons required for an effective deterrent posture. Europeans generally preferred long-range weapons capable of striking the Soviet Union and small conventional forces while Americans preferred shorter-range nuclear weapons and a stalwart conventional defense. Thus, the December decision is often described as purely politically motivated, in which the Americans reluctantly acquiesced to a European initiative for long-range weapons, prominently expressed by West German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt in 1977. Recently declassified US government documents reveal, however, that long-range missiles were part of a long-term comprehensive nuclear modernization program conceived in the Pentagon under Defense Secretary James Schlesinger during the period of 1973 through 1975, and presented to skeptical European elites who favored arms control negotiations over costly new deployments. This program was motivated as much by changes in the American national security culture as by an increase in the Soviet military threat to Europe. It was grounded on a clear military rationale: "that a feasible and affordable conventional defense is only possible if NATO has modern nuclear forces" that can effectively hold at risk Warsaw Pact ground and air forces throughout the depth of their employment from the inner-German border to the western military districts of the Soviet Union. When the new US administration in 1977 disagreed with the modernization plan and its rationale, opting instead for more conventional forces, the Allies in a reversal of roles lobbied the US President to deploy the long-range weapons being developed by the Defense Department. In the course of deliberations, political preferences suppressed military considerations of deterrence and only a small portion of the original modernization program was implemented.

Yaffe, Michael David

213

The US nuclear weapon infrastructure and a stable global nuclear weapon regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

US nuclear weapons capabilities -- extant force structure and nuclear weapons infrastructure as well as declared policy -- influence other nations' nuclear weapons postures, at least to some extent. This influence can be desirable or undesirable, and is, of course, a mixture of both. How strong the influence is, and its nature, are complicated, controversial, and -- in our view

John D Immele; Richard L Wagner

2009-01-01

214

Physical security technologies for weapons complex reconfiguration facilities  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was a member of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfiguration. The physical security systems in the new and upgraded facilities being considered for the WCR had to meet DOE orders and other requirements set forth in the WCR Programmatic Design Criteria (PDC), incorporate the latest physical security technologies using proven state-of-the-art systems and meet fundamental security principles. The outcome was to avoid costly retrofits and provide effective and comprehensive protection against current and projected threats with minimal impact on operations, costs and schedule. Physical security requirements for WCR facilities include: (1) reducing S&S life-cycle costs, (2) where feasible automating S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, (3) increasing the amount of delay to outsider adversary attack, (4) compartmentalizing the facility to minimize the number of personnel requiring access to critical areas and (5) having reliable and maintainable systems. To be most effective against threats physical security must be integrated with facility operations, safety and other S&S activities, such as material control and accountability, nuclear measurements and computer and information security. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical security technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

Jaeger, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Surety/Dismantlement Dept.

1994-07-01

215

Physical protection technologies for the reconfigured weapons complex  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was a memtier of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Safeguards and Security (S&S) team providing assistance to the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Weapons Complex Reconfigaration. New and improved S&S concepts, approaches and technologies were needed to support both new and upgraded facilities. Physical protection technologies used in these facilities were to use proven state-of-the-art systems in such areas as image processing, alarm communications and display, entry control, contraband detection, intrusion detection and video assessment, access delay, automation and robotics, and various insider protection systems. Factors considered in the selection of these technologies were protection against the design basis threat, reducing S&S life-cycle costs, automation of S&S functions to minimize operational costs, access to critical assets and exposure of people to hazardous environments, increasing the amount of delay to an outsider adversary and having reliable and maintainable systems. This paper will discuss the S&S issues, requirements, technology opportunities and needs. Physical protection technologies and systems considered in the design effort of the Weapons Complex Reconfiguration facilities will be reviewed.

Jaeger, C.D.

1994-08-01

216

Certainty in Stockpile Computing: Recommending a Verification and Validation Program for Scientific Software  

SciTech Connect

As computing assumes a more central role in managing the nuclear stockpile, the consequences of an erroneous computer simulation could be severe. Computational failures are common in other endeavors and have caused project failures, significant economic loss, and loss of life. This report examines the causes of software failure and proposes steps to mitigate them. A formal verification and validation program for scientific software is recommended and described.

Lee, J.R.

1998-11-01

217

Evaluation of environmental effect of coal stockpile in Muara Telang, Banyuasin, Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stockpile commonly serves as a temporary dump before the coal is transported through the waterways. This study investigated the effects of coal stockpiles on the surrounding environment: air, water, and soil. The location of the study is in the estuary of Telang, South-Sumatra, Indonesia, which is located at the edge of the river of Telang and close to the residential community. The monitoring of the environmental impact from the stockpile is intended to conduct an environmental assessment owing the existence and operations of coal accumulation. Enviromental impact analysis was conducted based on the value of the effluent, air pollution (dust), soil and water by determining the parameters of the coal wastewater pH, total suspended solid, ferrous dan ferrous metals contents. The results indicate that the total suspended particulate, total suspended solids, noise level, ferrous metal and manganese metal were 10-14 ?g/Nm3 249-355 mg/L, 41.3 to 50.3 dBA, 6.074 to7.579 mg/L, and 1.987 to 2.678 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile the pH of water and soil were 3 to 4 and 2.83 to 4.02 respectively. It is concluded that the pH value are beyond the threshold standard.

Rusdianasari; Arita, Susila; Ibrahim, Eddy; Ngudiantoro

2013-04-01

218

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

Bing, G.F.

1991-08-20

219

Nuclear Weapons, Psychology, and International Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fear of nuclear energy, nuclear weapons, and nuclear was is widespread among the peoples of the world. However, to what extent do the fears (both rational and irrational) of policy-making elites and political masses produce actual effects upon the behavior of governments (who, after all, control the use of nuclear weapons)? (Author/RK)

Dougherty, James E.

1976-01-01

220

Effects of nuclear weapons. Third edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the last edition of ''The Effects of Nuclear Weapons'' in 1962 much new information has become available concerning nuclear weapon effects. This has come in part from the series of atmospheric tests, including several at very high altitudes, conducted in the Pacific Ocean area in 1962. In addition, laboratory studies, theoretical calculations, and computer simulations have provided a better

S. Glasstone; P. J. Dolan

1977-01-01

221

The Extended Deterrent Value of Nuclear Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three questions are addressed in this study: (1) Does a nuclear retaliatory capability contribute to extended deterrence against a nonnuclear power? (2) If so, is the deterrent value of nuclear weapons contingent upon the prior credible threat of conventional armed engagement by the defender? (3) Or, is the deterrent impact of nuclear weapons so potent that the conventional balance of

Paul K. Huth

1990-01-01

222

Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

1991-01-01

223

Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort\\/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but

R. H. Worsham

1985-01-01

224

US Nuclear Weapon Safety and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To appreciate the public's fascination with nuclear weapon safety, one must look no further than the cinema. In Kubrick's classic Dr. Strangelove or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, a deranged US o- cer succeeds in launching a nuclear attack on the Soviet Union without authorization. Countless other films place stolen nuclear weapons in the hands

Grant Elliott

225

Nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, and law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fried (Denver J Int. Law and Policy, V. 14, p 97 (1985)) asserted that international law establishes the illegality of nuclear weapons as illegal per se; i.e., that nuclear weapons are not permissible regardless of use. The author responds to Fried's essay by making the following argument. First, an analysis of international law and specifically, the law of war, shows

Almond; H. H. Jr

2009-01-01

226

Weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat

Ryan

1997-01-01

227

Iran, Terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews Iran's past and current use of terrorism and assesses why U.S. attempts to halt Iran's efforts have met with little success. With this assessment in mind, it argues that Iran is not likely transfer chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons to terrorist groups for several reasons. First, providing terrorists with such unconventional weapons offers Iran few tactical advantages

Daniel Byman

2008-01-01

228

Iraq's secret nuclear weapons program  

SciTech Connect

UN inspectors discovered an electromagnetic isotope separation factory that put Iraq just 18-30 months away from having enough material for a bomb. They also found European centrifuge technology and plans for an implosion device. The inspections of Iraq mandated by the United Nations as a cease-fire condition at the end of the Gulf War in February 1991 have revealed a clandestine nuclear materials production and weapons design program of unexpected size and sophistication. The total value of that program, in terms of equipment and personnel deployed between 1981 and 1991, may be on the order of $5-10 billion. The program employed an estimated 7000 scientist and 20,000 workers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Davis, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Kay, D.A. (Uranium Institute, London (United Kingdom))

1992-07-01

229

Weapons-usable material disposition  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War, significant quantities and forms of nuclear materials are now in excess of national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. Underscoring the concern about risk of theft or diversion of these materials contributing to proliferation or their reuse to reconstitute a large arsenal and resume the nuclear arms race, the President has directed an interagency working group to initiate a comprehensive review of long-term options for plutonium disposition (and by implication other weapons-usable material such as highly enriched uranium). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the agency with responsibility for production and management of these materials, has the technical expertise and resources needed for this review, and is a member of the interagency working group. This report discusses the topic of plutonium disposition.

Canter, H.R.

1994-12-31

230

[Modern pneumatic weapons and injuries they cause].  

PubMed

The data on the history of development and further improvement of pneumatic weapons are presented with special reference to specific features of different types and varieties of these weapons, cartridges for them, and the sphere of their application. Investigations into peculiarities of damages caused by high-capacity pneumatic weapons to the objects of forensic medical expertise affected from different distances are reviewed. Results of forensic medical expertise and clinical studies on the structure of body injuries inflicted by gunshots from pneumatic weapons to the human body are discussed. The author emphasizes the necessity of developing up-to-date terminology and classification of gunshot injuries caused by shooting from pneumatic weapons. PMID:23802298

Kozachenko, I N

2013-01-01

231

Neutron Capture Reactions for Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science  

SciTech Connect

The capture process is a nuclear reaction in which a target atom captures an incident projectile, e.g. a neutron. The excited-state compound nucleus de-excites by emitting photons. This process creates an atom that has one more neutron than the target atom, so it is a different isotope of the same element. With low energy (slow) neutron projectiles, capture is the dominant reaction, other than elastic scattering. However, with very heavy nuclei, fission competes with capture as a method of de-excitation of the compound nucleus. With higher energy (faster) incident neutrons, additional reactions are also possible, such as emission of protons or emission of multiple neutrons. The probability of a particular reaction occurring (such as capture) is referred to as the cross section for that reaction. Cross sections are very dependent on the incoming neutron's energy. Capture reactions can be studied either using monoenergetic neutron sources or 'white' neutron sources. A 'white' neutron source has a wide range of neutron energies in one neutron beam. The advantage to the white neutron source is that it allows the study of cross sections as they depend on neutron energies. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides an intense white neutron source. Neutrons there are created by a high-energy proton beam from a linear accelerator striking a heavy metal (tungsten) target. The neutrons range in energy from subthermal up to very fast - over 100 MeV in energy. Low-energy neutron reaction cross sections fluctuate dramatically from one target to another, and they are very difficult to predict by theoretical modeling. The cross sections for particular capture reactions are important for defense sciences, advanced reactor concepts, transmutation of radioactive wastes and nuclear astrophysics. We now have a strong collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, North Carolina State University and Charles University in Prague. In this paper, we report neutron capture studies that are of particular interest to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In addition to determining neutron capture cross sections, we are also interested in the nuclear properties of the excited state compound nuclei created in the capture reactions. One model that describes the behavior of the nucleus is the statistical model. Our statistical studies included measuring the photon strength function, resonance parameters, level density and gamma-ray ({gamma}-ray) cascade multiplicity. The DANCE array allows the separation of cascades by the number of transitions (multiplicity) in the cascade, and this makes it possible to study detailed properties of the statistical cascade such as the relationship between multiplicity and energy distributions. The work reported here includes reaction on molybdenum targets, europium targets, gadolinium targets and the first americium-242m target. Our goal is to improve the accuracy and provide new measurements for stable and radioactive targets. We are especially interested in energy-dependent neutron capture cross sections. In all of our experiments, the photons emitted in the capture reactions are gamma rays, and they are detected by the barium fluoride crystal array named the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) shown in Fig. 1. The detector array is made of 160 crystals arranged in a sphere around the target. There are four different crystal shapes, each of which covers an equal solid angle. This array was specifically designed to measure neutron capture cross sections with targets that were milligram sized or smaller, including radioactive targets. The barium fluoride crystals are scintillation (light generating) detectors with very fast response time, and are therefore suitable for high count rate experiments. Actual neutron capture events must be reliably distinguished from background {gamma}-rays, which are always present in neutron induced reactions. To reduce the background of scattered neutrons, a lithium hyd

Parker, W; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J; Wilk, P; Wu, C; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Haight, R; Jandel, M; O'Donnell, J; Reifarth, R; Rundberg, R; Ullmann, J; Vieira, D; Wouters, J; Sheets, S; Mitchell, G; Becvar, F; Krticka, M

2007-08-04

232

Toward a nuclear weapons free world?  

SciTech Connect

Doubts about the wisdom of relying on nuclear weapons are as old as nuclear weapons themselves. But despite this questioning, nuclear weapons came to be seen as the indispensable element of American (indeed Western) security during the Cold War. By the 1970s and 1980s, however, discontent was growing about the intense US-Soviet nuclear arms competition, as it failed to provide any enduring improvement in security; rather, it was seen as creating ever greater risks and dangers. Arms control negotiations and limitations, adopted as a means to regulate the technical competition, may also have relieved some of the political pressures and dangers. But the balance of terror, and the fears of it, continued. The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) under President Reagan was a very different approach to escaping from the precarious protection of nuclear weapons, in that it sought a way to continue to defend the US and the West, but without the catastrophic risks of mutual deterrence. As such, SDI connoted unhappiness with the precarious nuclear balance and, for many, with nuclear weapons in general. The disappearance of the Warsaw Pact, the disintegration of the Soviet Union, and the sudden end of the Cold War seemed to offer a unique opportunity to fashion a new, more peaceful world order that might allow for fading away of nuclear weapons. Scholars have foreseen two different paths to a nuclear free world. The first is a fundamental improvement in the relationships between states such that nuclear weapons are no longer needed. The second path is through technological development, e.g., missile defenses which could provide effective protection against nuclear attacks. The paper discusses nuclear weapon policy in the US, views of other nuclear states, the future of nuclear weapons, and issues in a less-nuclear world.

Maaranen, S.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-09-01

233

Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.  

SciTech Connect

To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

2007-08-01

234

[New challenges in the biological weapons convention].  

PubMed

Microbes and their toxins are biological weapons that can cause disease in humans, animals or plants, and which can be used with hostile intent in warfare and terrorism. Biological agents can be used as weapons of mass destruction and therefore, immense human and social and major economical damage can be caused. Rapid development of life sciences and technologies during the recent decades has posed new challenges to the Biological Weapons Convention. The Convention states that the States Parties to the BWC strive to ensure that the Convention remains relevant and effective, despite changes in science, technology or politics. PMID:22428382

Sissonen, Susanna; Raijas, Tiina; Haikala, Olli; Hietala, Heikki; Virri, Markku; Nikkari, Simo

2012-01-01

235

Weapons workers: Ruin or revival?  

SciTech Connect

The formidable task of restructuring the former Soviet Union`s economic system depends largely on it success in converting a defense industry that once employed 11 million Soviet workers to peaceful pursuits, says Artiom Ustinov, a researcher in the U.S. and Canada Institute in Moscow. {open_quotes}Governments could convert defense facilities into those that develop and manufacture products that people desperately need and want,{close_quotes} says Ustinov. Unfortunately, such a transformation cannot happen quickly because the former Soviet Union lacks a high-tech sector into which former weapons workers can migrate. An even more serious problem stems from a traditional isolation from world markets. Civilian manufacturing in the former Soviet Union, which was never forced to meet international standards for quality and performance, has been marked by inferior products. {open_quotes}With financial support, a well-defined program, incentives, and retraining, the military research labs could find themselves in a better position to release their huge potential for creative rather than destructive purposes,{close_quotes} Ustinov concludes.

Ustinov, A. [U.S. and Canada Studies Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

236

Electroshock weapons can be lethal!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

Lundquist, Marjorie

2008-03-01

237

Ultra Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of NASA's ultra reliability areas. The contents include: 1) Objectives; 2) Approach; 3) Ultra Reliability Areas; 4) Plan Overview; 5) Work Flows; and 6) Customers.

Napala, Phil; Barnes, Charles; Shapiro, Andrew A.

2004-01-01

238

Micromachining technology for advanced weapon systems  

SciTech Connect

An overview of planned uses for polysilicon surface-micromachining technology in advanced weapon systems is presented. Specifically, this technology may allow consideration of fundamentally new architectures for realization of surety component functions.

Sniegowski, J.J.

1996-12-31

239

Weapons dismantlement issues in independent Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The American Association for the Advancement of Science sponsored a seminar during September 1993, in Kiev, Ukraine, entitled ``Toward a Nuclear Free Future -- Barriers and Problems.`` It brought together Ukrainians, Belarusians, and Americans to discuss the legal, political, safeguards and security, economic, and technical dimensions of nuclear weapons dismantlement and destruction. US representatives initiated discussions on legal and treaty requirements and constraints, safeguards and security issues surrounding dismantlement, storage and disposition of nuclear materials, warhead transportation, and economic considerations. Ukrainians gave presentations on arguments for and against the Ukraine keeping nuclear weapons, Ukrainian Parliament non-approval of START I, alternative strategies for dismantling silos and launchers, and economic and security implications of nuclear weapons removal from the Ukraine. Participants from Belarus discussed proliferation and control regime issues, This paper will highlight and detail the issues, concerns, and possible impacts of the Ukraine`s dismantlement of its nuclear weapons.

Zack, N.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kirk, E.J. [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-07-01

240

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed Central

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-01-01

241

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

242

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition  

E-print Network

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 Congressional Budget Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign Funding Profile by Subprogram FY 2010 Actual Appropriation FY 2011 Request FY 2012 Request Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

243

Nuclear Weapons Effects (Self-Teaching Materials).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Civil Defense Preparedness Agency, this autoinstructional text deals with nuclear weapons effects. The destructive effects of an atomic blast are first introduced, and then long-term radioactive consequences are stressed. (CP)

Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

244

University Management of Weapons Labs? No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reasons why universities should not manage weapons laboratories, such as the Los Alamos and Livermore national laboratories, operated by the University of California. (A viewpoint favoring such university management is presented in SE 538 518.) (JN)

Archer, Dane

1986-01-01

245

Nuclear weapon radiation effects on a Space Based Interceptor weapon platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the dose to the various electronic components and sensitive areas (fuel tanks) of a representative Space Based Interceptor (SBI) weapon platform due to an exo-atmospheric nuclear weapon detonation. In particular, the damage resulting from incident neutrons, gamma-rays, and x-rays generated by the weapon detonation was assessed for the critical electronic components and

J. O. Johnson; M. S. Smith; R. T. Santoro

1990-01-01

246

Directed-energy weapons: a juridical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superpower development of directed-energy laser or particle-beam weapons has strategic and legal implications. The rapid development of these weapons and the classified nature of the research make it difficult to evaluate these implications on a factual basis. International laws dealing with treaties and strategic-arms control and with armed conflict are applied to this issue to determine the permissibility of directed-energy

Fessler

1979-01-01

247

Chemical and Biological Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chemical warfare began in prehistoric times with the use of such weapons as poisoned arrows. However, World War I was the beginning of modern-day chemical warfare. The birth of biological warfare evolved during World War II. As a result, mankind has been plagued with chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. This chapter provides a historical account of chemical and biological warfare, and its detrimental impact on society.

Irwin Slesnick

2004-01-01

248

Citizen-State Interaction and Technical Controversy: The U.S. Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program  

E-print Network

AND TECHNICAL CONTROVERSY: THE U.S. ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM* ROBERT FuTRELL UmVersiry ofKtmsas MARS/SocialThought & Research,1997, Vol.20,No. 1-2 Thispaperexplores thedevelopment andtransformation ofa local coUective campaign oppoJing the U.S. A... levels, across localities and among agencies and levels of the state1(farrow 1994, p.18). Opportunity may expand as access to political participation increases, reform legislation is approved, political alignments shift, influential allies are coopted...

Futrell, Robert

1997-04-01

249

Overall View of Chemical and Biochemical Weapons  

PubMed Central

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-01-01

250

Overall view of chemical and biochemical weapons.  

PubMed

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist. PMID:24902078

Pitschmann, Vladimír

2014-06-01

251

High-energy laser weapons: technology overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser (HEL) weapons are ready for some of today"s most challenging military applications. For example, the Airborne Laser (ABL) program is designed to defend against Theater Ballistic Missiles in a tactical war scenario. Similarly, the Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) program is currently testing a laser to defend against rockets and other tactical weapons. The Space Based Laser (SBL), Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL) and Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) programs promise even greater applications for laser weapons. This technology overview addresses both strategic and tactical roles for HEL weapons on the modern battlefield and examines current technology limited performance of weapon systems components, including various laser device types, beam control systems, atmospheric propagation, and target lethality issues. The characteristics, history, basic hardware, and fundamental performance of chemical lasers, solid state lasers and free electron lasers are summarized and compared. The elements of beam control, including the primary aperture, fast steering mirror, deformable mirrors, wavefront sensors, beacons and illuminators will be discussed with an emphasis on typical and required performance parameters. The effects of diffraction, atmospheric absorption, scattering, turbulence and thermal blooming phenomenon on irradiance at the target are described. Finally, lethality criteria and measures of weapon effectiveness are addressed. The primary purpose of the presentation is to define terminology, establish key performance parameters, and summarize technology capabilities.

Perram, Glen P.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Goda, Matthew

2004-09-01

252

Large bilateral reductions in superpower nuclear weapons. Doctoral thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alternative states with arms control agreements with significant verification provisions are examined. The first, minimum deterrence, reduces each superpowers nuclear weapons to a few hundred each and prohibits strategic defense. The second, zero-nuclear-weapons deterrence, abolishes deployed nuclear weapons; but, the superpowers maintain the capability to assemble and deploy a few hundred nuclear weapons on short notice. Strategic defense is

1985-01-01

253

Terrorists and Laser Weapons Use: An Emergent Threat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trends leading to the emergent threat of terrorist laser weapons use are that a military weaponry transition from conventional to Directed Energy Weapons is taking place; that laser weapons offer clear tactical and operational advantages over conventional weapons; that laser prices are dropping while laser performance is increasing; that criminals, criminal-soldiers, and foreign militaries have all utilized laser devices

Robert J. Bunker

2008-01-01

254

Draft Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement  

SciTech Connect

This ''Site-wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Supplemental Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement'' (LLNL SW/SPEIS) describes the purpose and need for agency action for the continued operation of LLNL and analyzes the environmental impacts of these operations. The primary purpose of continuing operation of LLNL is to provide support for the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship missions. LLNL, located about 40 miles east of San Francisco, California, is also needed to support other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs and Federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Defense, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the newly established U.S. Department of Homeland Security. This LLNL SW/SPEIS analyzes the environmental impacts of reasonable alternatives for ongoing and foreseeable future operations, facilities, and activities at LLNL. The reasonable alternatives include the No Action Alternative, Proposed Action, and the Reduced Operation Alternative. The major decision to be made by DOE/NNSA is to select one of the alternatives for the continued operation of the LLNL. As part of the Proposed Action, DOE/NNSA is considering: using additional materials including plutonium on the National Ignition Facility (NIF); increasing the administrative limit for plutonium in the Superblock, which includes the Plutonium Facility, the Tritium Facility, and the Hardened Engineering Test Building; conducting the Integrated Technology Project, using laser isotope separation to provide material for Stockpile Stewardship experiments, in the Plutonium Facility; increasing the material-at-risk limit for the Plutonium Facility; and increasing the Tritium Facility material-at-risk. A discussion of these issues is presented in Section S.5.2, Proposed Action. The ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (NEPA) establishes environmental policy, sets goals, and provides means for implementing the policy. NEPA contains provisions to ensure that Federal agencies adhere to the letter and spirit of the Act. The key provision requires preparation of an environmental impact statement on ''major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment'' (40 ''Code of Federal Regulations'' [CFR] {section}1502.3). NEPA ensures that environmental information is available to public officials and citizens before decisions are made and actions are taken (40 CFR {section}1500.1[b]). DOE has a policy to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements documents for certain large, multiple-facility sites such as LLNL (10 CFR {section}1021.330). In August 1992, DOE released the ''Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operations of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore'' (LLNL EIS/EIR). A Record of Decision (ROD) (58 ''Federal Register'' [FR] 6268) was issued in January 1993. With the passage of more than 10 years since the publication of the 1992 LLNL EIS/EIR (DOE/EIS-0157) and because of proposed modifications to existing projects and new programs, NNSA determined that it was appropriate to prepare a new LLNL SW/SPEIS.

N /A

2004-02-27

255

US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

1997-08-01

256

Implications of macroeconomic disruption costs and public-private interactions for strategic oil stockpiling  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a unified treatment of public-private interactions in oil stockpiling with oil import tariffs which takes into account both the balance-of-payments cost and macroeconomic dislocations from oil supply disruptions. The analysis is based on a stochastic, dynamic, nonlinear simulation model that computes ''intertemporally credible'' Nash equilibria for the public-private stockpile game under a variety of input assumptions. Two key policy implications of the study are: (1) with no tariff policy, the United States should be prepared to rapidly draw down the SPR even in a fairly moderate crisis, despite the resulting ''crowding out'' of private stocks; (2) however, there are significant social gains from imposing a tariff of around $10/bbl under nondisrupted market conditions (with the tariff to be scaled back or eliminated in a crisis), together with a more conservative strategy for drawing down the SPR. In addition to shedding light on these policy issues, the paper illustrates a methodology which may be useful for analyzing a number of other dynamic games. 28 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

Murphy, F.H.; Toman, M.A.; Weiss, H.J.

1985-01-01

257

A database system for characterization of munitions items in conventional ammunition demilitarization stockpiles  

SciTech Connect

The MIDAS (Munition Items Disposition Action System) database system is an electronic data management system capable of storage and retrieval of information on the detailed structures and material compositions of munitions items designated for demilitarization. The types of such munitions range from bulk propellants and small arms to projectiles and cluster bombs. The database system is also capable of processing data on the quantities of inert, PEP (propellant, explosives and pyrotechnics) and packaging materials associated with munitions, components, or parts, and the quantities of chemical compounds associated with parts made of PEP materials. Development of the MIDAS database system has been undertaken by the US Army to support disposition of unwanted ammunition stockpiles. The inventory of such stockpiles currently includes several thousand items, which total tens of thousands of tons, and is still growing. Providing systematic procedures for disposing of all unwanted conventional munitions is the mission of the MIDAS Demilitarization Program. To carry out this mission, all munitions listed in the Single Manager for Conventional Ammunition inventory must be characterized, and alternatives for resource recovery and recycling and/or disposal of munitions in the demilitarization inventory must be identified.

Chun, K.C.; Chiu, S.Y.; Ditmars, J.D.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nortunen, L.; Sabb, R. [Army Defense Ammunition Center and School, Savanna, IL (United States)

1994-05-01

258

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation`s activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and, neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication (C) bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,{gamma}/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-03-01

259

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

260

The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin

2006-05-01

261

Study of Windows Effects for Shock Wave Temperature Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements of shocked plutonium are needed for improved understanding of its equation of state (EOS) and will enable better understanding and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapon stockpile.

W. D. Turley, G. Stevens, L. Veeser, D. Holtkamp, A. Seifter

2011-05-25

262

Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

263

Implementing the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, as the CWC ratification process was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the CWC with national law could cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States as to how the CWC would be carried out. As a result, the author's colleagues and the author prepared the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Committee of CWC Legal Experts, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Central Europe, reviewed the Manual. In February 1998, they finished the second edition of the Manual in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Manual tries to increase understanding of the Convention by identifying its obligations and suggesting methods of meeting them. Education about CWC obligations and available alternatives to comply with these requirements can facilitate national response that are consistent among States Parties. Thus, the Manual offers options that can strengthen international realization of the Convention's goals if States Parties act compatibly in implementing them. Equally important, it is intended to build confidence that the legal issues raised by the Convention are finite and addressable. They are now nearing competition of an internet version of this document so that interested persons can access it electronically and can view the full text of all of the national implementing legislation it cites. The internet address, or URL, for the internet version of the Manual is http: //www.cwc.ard.gov. This paper draws from the Manual. It comparatively addresses approximately thirty implementing issues, showing how various States Parties have enacted measures that are responsive to CWC obligations. It is intended to highlight the issues that States Parties must address and to identify trends among States Parties that might be useful to States that have not yet made crucial decisions as to how to resolve key matters. At various points in the text, country names are listed in parenthesis to identify pieces of national legislation that demonstrate the point in the text. It should not be inferred that nations not listed have not addressed the point or have taken a different position. In some cases, a nation's position is explained in somewhat more depth to give specific detail to an assertion in the text. Attached to this paper is a chart which illustrates how States Parties in the Central European region as well as the United States respond to the issues raised. Obviously, in preparing such a chart, many subtle provisions in national legislation must be simplified. The point of the chart is to portray, on a few pages, the major trends of legislation.

Kellman, B.; Tanzman, E. A.

1999-12-07

264

Countershock: mobilizing resistance to electroshock weapons.  

PubMed

Electroshock, stun and restraint technologies are often used for torture and as tools of repression. There is much information available exposing the problems with such technologies, but little about how to be effective in challenging their use. The concept of political ju-jitsu--the process by which an attack on a non-violent resister can backfire on the attackers--is introduced and adapted to examine challenges to electroshock weapons. In order to make these weapons backfire, it is important to emphasize the value of potential targets, to expose secret dealings, to reveal the harm caused by the weapons and to communicate clearly to a wide audience. A longer-term goal is policy change to deny access by torturing states to such repressive tools. Countershock strategies and methodologies are introduced here as potential tools to create ever-expanding torture-technology-free zones. PMID:12964705

Martin, Brian; Wright, Steve

2003-01-01

265

Effects of supplementation on intake, digestion, and performance of beef cattle consuming fertilized, stockpiled bermudagrass forage.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing supplement protein concentration on performance and forage intake of beef cows and forage utilization of steers consuming stockpiled bermudagrass forage. Bermudagrass pastures were fertilized with 56 kg of N/ha in late August. Grazing was initiated during early November and continued through the end of January each year. Treatments for the cow performance trials were: no supplement or daily equivalents of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g of supplemental protein per kilogram of BW. Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, fed at the equivalent of 0.91 kg/d, and prorated for 4 d/wk feeding. Varying the concentration of soybean hulls and soybean meal in the supplements created incremental increases in protein. During yr 1, supplemented cows lost less weight and condition compared to unsupplemented animals (P < 0.05). During yr 2, supplemented cows gained more weight (P = 0.06) and lost less condition (P < 0.05) compared to unsupplemented cows. Increasing supplement protein concentration had no affect on cumulative cow weight change or cumulative body condition score change. Forage intake tended to increase (P = 0.13, yr 1 and P = 0.07, yr 2) in supplemented cows. Supplement protein concentration did not alter forage intake. In a digestion trial, four crossbred steers were used in a Latin square design to determine the effects of supplement protein concentration on intake and digestibility of hay harvested from stockpiled bermudagrass pasture. Treatments were no supplement; or 0.23, 0.46, and 0.69 g of supplemental protein per kilogram of BW. Forage intake increased (P < 0.05) 16% and OM intake increased (P < 0.01) 30% in supplemented compared to unsupplemented steers. Diet OM digestibility increased (P = 0.08) 14.5% and total digestible OM intake increased (P < 0.05) 49% in supplemented compared to unsupplemented steers. Supplement protein concentration did not alter forage intake, total digestible OM intake, or apparent digestibility of OM or NDF. During the initial 30 d after first killing frost, beef cows did not respond to supplementation. However, later in the winter, supplementation improved utilization of stockpiled bermudagrass forage. PMID:11890415

Wheeler, J S; Lalman, D L; Horn, G W; Redmon, L A; Lents, C A

2002-03-01

266

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY The President's Proposal  

E-print Network

; and · Strengthens the nation's security by reducing the global threat from weapons of mass destruction-proliferation efforts to reduce the threats from weapons of mass destruction, and provides the U.S. Navy with safe the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile, manages nuclear non

267

History of US nuclear weapon safety assessment: The early years  

SciTech Connect

From the beginnings of the U.S. nuclear weapons program, military and civilian dual- agency judgment has been fundamental to achieving nuclear weapon and weapon system safety. This interaction was initiated by the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which created the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The principle of using dual-agency judgment has been perpetuated in the design and assessment of the weapon and weapon system acceptance process since that time. This fundamental approach is still used today in all phases of the weapon life. In this paper, an overview of the history and philosophy of the approach is described.

Spray, S.D.

1996-06-01

268

A suggested approach to applying IAEA safeguards to plutonium in weapons components  

SciTech Connect

It is the announced policy of the United States to make fissile material removed from its nuclear weapons stockpile subject to the US-IAEA voluntary safeguards agreement. Much of this material is plutonium in the form of pits. The application of traditional IAEA safeguards would reveal Restricted Data to unauthorized persons which is prohibited by US law and international treaties. Prior to the availability of a facility for the conversion of the plutonium in the pits to a non-sensitive form this obvious long-term solution to the problem is foreclosed. An alternative near-term approach to applying IAEA safeguards while preserving the necessary degree of confidentiality is required. This paper identifies such an approach. It presents in detail the form of the US declaration; the safeguards objectives which are met; inspection techniques which are utilized and the conclusion which the IAEA could reach concerning the contents of each item and the aggregate of all items. The approach would reveal the number of containers and the aggregate mass of plutonium in a set of n containers presented to the IAEA for verification while protecting data of the isotopic composition and plutonium mass of individual components. The suggested approach provides for traceability from the time the containers are sealed until the conversion of the plutonium to a non-sensitive form.

Lu, M.S.; Allentuck, J.

1998-08-01

269

The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

2001-01-01

270

EFFECT OF SOURCE AND RATE OF NITROGEN AND SULFUR FERTILIZER ON YIELD, QUALITY, AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF STOCKPILED TALL FESCUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field research was conducted for 2 yr to determine the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) source and rate effects on stockpiled tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forage yield, quality, and mineral content at different harvest dates. High lysine fertilizer (HLF), which contains approximate...

271

Soil microbial characteristics and seed bank dynamics of stock-piled top soils in ther western Rio Grande Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased energy extraction has impacted rangelands throughout the western U.S. Ecological restoration can be enhanced with proper management of affected top soils. Little information exists on effects of stockpiling on soil microbial community composition and functionality and seed bank dynamics. T...

272

15 CFR 710.6 - Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations and the Export Administration...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Relationship between the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

273

15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations...SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

2010-01-01

274

Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.  

PubMed

Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US. PMID:23689882

Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

2013-01-01

275

Reliability training  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

Lalli, Vincent R. (editor); Malec, Henry A. (editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

1992-01-01

276

Nuclear Bunker Busters, Mini-Nukes, and the US Nuclear Stockpile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bush administration is contemplating a new crop of nuclear weapons that could reduce the threat to civilian populations. However, they're still unlikely to work without producing massive radioactive fallout, and their development might require a return to underground nuclear testing.

Robert W. Nelson

2003-01-01

277

Nuclear Bunker Busters, Mini-Nukes, and the US Nuclear Stockpile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bush administration is contemplating a new crop of nuclear weapons that could reduce the threat to civilian populations. However, they're still unlikely to work without producing massive radioactive fallout, and their development might require a return to underground nuclear testing.

Nelson, Robert W.

2003-11-01

278

Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

Reardon, Betty; And Others

1983-01-01

279

Prevention of the Outer Space Weaponization  

Microsoft Academic Search

9 states. The satellites of various functions (early warning, communication, data acquisition, reconnaissance and navigation) were actively used and continue to be used with the purposes of raising efficiency of ground armed forces, especially in fight against international terrorism. At the same time such satellites are not a weapon in the sense of that word since they do not create

Gennady P. Zhukov

2002-01-01

280

Socioeconomic impacts of US nuclear weapons facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1940s and 1950s, massive facilities were built in the United States to design, construct and test nuclear weapons. What has been the impact of these facilities on the employment, income and population of the surrounding areas? Doubt exists about whether the national security mission was good for the regions where the facilities were built. Using four counties adjacent

Michael Greenberg; Andrew Isserman; Donald Krueckeberg; Karen Lowrie; Henry Mayer; Darien Simon; David Sorenson

1998-01-01

281

Cognitive Consistency in Beliefs about Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper details a study supporting the hypothesis that people's opinions about nuclear arms control are influenced by their logically relevant beliefs about nuclear weapons, nuclear war, and the Soviet Union. The hypothesis should not be construed to imply that these beliefs are the only influences or the most powerful influences on arms control…

Nelson, Linden

282

Nuclear Weapons as Obstacles to International Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that nuclear weapons serve no useful purpose in military calculations; moreover, their continued retention invites the dangers of further proliferation and of accidental use. They are thus defined here as obstacles to, rather than as facilitators of, international security. Seven reasons are presented to support this contention, including an assessment of the moral implications and the strategic

Marianne Hanson

2002-01-01

283

Computer simulation of nuclear weapons effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer simulation programs have allowed us to model and understand the results of nuclear explosives tests underground and in the atmosphere. Most current research on modeling weapons effects has concentrated in two areas; better numerical hydrodynamic techniques and better models of inelastic material behavior. New methods such as continuous rezone algorithms and free Lagrange algorithms make it possible to simulate

L. G. Margolin; D. E. Burton; W. P. Crowley; B. C. Trent

1988-01-01

284

Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Crisis Escalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the possession of nuclear weapons on patterns of international conflict is the subject of an extensive but generally impressionistic body of work. Assumptions in this area determine one's confidence in superpower deterrence and fuel the debate over the proper expenditure of military allocations. This study presents an analysis of escalation patterns in interstate disputes among nations with

Daniel S. Geller

1990-01-01

285

Dangerous knowledge: Can nuclear weapons be abolished?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end of the Cold War spurred significant and encouraging steps towards the abolition and eradication of nuclear weapons. After the breakthrough discussions between Gorbachev and Reagan at Reykjavik in 1986, the substantial cut-backs in Russian and American nuclear warheads agreed to under the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) negotiations, successive initiatives at the United Nations (UN) and the review

Jasjit Singh; Manpreet Sethi; Garry Jacobs

2007-01-01

286

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to

C. Bellecci; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; S. Martellucci; M. Richetta; P. Ventura; A. Antonucci; F. Pasquino; V. Ricci; A. Sassolini

2008-01-01

287

The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers.

Garwin, Richard L., E-mail: RLG2@us.ibm.com [IBM Fellow Emeritus, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

2014-05-09

288

The Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is composed of four papers prepared to illuminate the problem areas which might arise if the policies of the 1925 Geneva Protocol and other measures to limit chemical and biological weapons are ratified by the United States Senate. The papers included are: Legal Aspects of the Geneva Protocol of 1925; The Use of Herbicides in War: A…

Alexander, Archibald S.; And Others

289

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition  

E-print Network

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2011 Congressional Budget Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign Funding Profile by Subprogram Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign Ignition 100,535 106,734 109,506 NIF Diagnostics, Cryogenics

290

The history of nuclear weapon safety devices  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

1998-06-01

291

Managing nuclear weapons in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

Miller, G.

1993-03-16

292

University Management of Weapons Labs? Yes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promulgates the view that university management of weapons laboratories provides the best scientific results, and more independent advice than could be possible under government or industrial management. Focuses on Los Alamos and Livermore national laboratories, operated by the University of California. (An opposing viewpoint is presented in SE…

Kahn, James S.

1986-01-01

293

Find and neutralize clandestine nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The objective of finding nuclear material at entry portals is to provide a secure perimeter as large as a weapon damage radius so that operations could be conducted within it relatively unencumbered. The objective of wide area search for nuclear material to provide a safe zone of similar dimensions in an area in which it is not possible to maintain a secure perimeter, to provide assurance for civilians living at an area at risk, or to provide rapid, wide area search of regions that could conceal nuclear threats to forces in the field. This rapid, wide-area, and confident detection of nuclear materials is the essential first step in developing the ability to negate terrorist nuclear assemblies or weapons. The ability to detect and negate nuclear materials are necessary to prevent the forced, massive evacuation of urban populations or the disruption of military operations in response to terrorist threats. This paper describes the limitations to current sensors used for nuclear weapon detection and discusses a novel approach to nuclear weapon detection using a combination of directional information (imaging) and gamma ray energy (color) to produce a gamma ray color camera.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-09-01

294

Maritime Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current multilateral and bilateral efforts to interdict the maritime transport of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), their delivery systems and related ‘precursors’ used in their construction. The US-led Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) has focused international attention on the proliferation of WMD, including proliferation by maritime transport. While the PSI's Statement of Interdiction Principles focuses on existing bases

Douglas Guilfoyle

2007-01-01

295

Radiation as a weapon of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events in the United States and abroad have heightened the awareness of the vulnerability of society to terrorist attacks. With the exception of the atomic bombs used during World War II at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, no attempt using radiation as a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) has been successful. The increasing applications of radiation in industry, laboratories, and

Joseph Y. Allen; Leah M. Matthews

2002-01-01

296

Terrorism, weapons of mass destruction and deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction emerge as a grim but inevitable topic whenever terrorism is discussed. Yet, the United States has thus far been spared a massive nuclear, chemical or biological attack. The older model of politically motivated, violent, but essentially rational terrorists who used some restraint in propagating their message is now defunct. This paper examines how biological and chemical

David Champion; Ronald Mattis

2003-01-01

297

Weapons of Mass Destruction & Public International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) into the hands of rogue dictators and terrorists has brought a sea change in strategic international relations, and is accelerating the necessity of public international law to protect humanity. Traditional balances of power have little force left to deter WMD. Major powers must seriously revamp and proactively exploit public international law, and,

Michael Donlan

2005-01-01

298

Impulse noise trauma during army weapon firing.  

PubMed

A 100 infanty personnel firing modern weapons such as the Anti Tank Guided Missile, 106mm Recoiless Gun (RCL), 84mm Rocket Launcher (RL) and 81mm Mortar were studied for the effect of impulse noise on the ear and the evolution of the Temporary Threshold Shift (TTS), Recovery Time (RT) and Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) was traced. PMID:23119288

Munjal, K R; Singh, V P

1997-04-01

299

Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

300

Person Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

Lumsden, James

1977-01-01

301

Electricity Reliability  

E-print Network

Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

302

Pathogens as weapons : the international security implications of biological warfare  

E-print Network

This dissertation assesses the international security implications of biological weapons and the strategic consequences of their proliferation. It examines the impact of biological weapons on four key areas of concern for ...

Koblentz, Gregory D

2004-01-01

303

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2012-10-01

304

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2014-10-01

305

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2011-10-01

306

43 CFR 423.30 - Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. 423.30 Section 423.30 Public...Weapons, firearms, explosives, and fireworks. (a) You may possess firearms...must not use or possess explosives, or fireworks or pyrotechnics of any type,...

2013-10-01

307

Model-Based Reliability Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Modeling, in conjunction with testing, is a rich source of insight. Model parameters are easily controlled and monitoring can be done unobtrusively. The ability to inject faults without otherwise affecting performance is particularly critical. Many iterations can be done quickly with a model while varying parameters and conditions based on a small number of validation tests. The objective of Model-Based Reliability Analysis (MBRA) is to identify ways to capitalize on the insights gained from modeling to make both qualitative and quantitative statements about product reliability. MBRA will be developed and exercised in the realm of weapon system development and maintenance, where the challenges of severe environmental requirements, limited production quantities, and use of one-shot devices can make testing prohibitively expensive. However, the general principles will also be applicable to other product types.

Rene L. Bierbaum; Thomas d. Brown; Thomas J. Kerschen

2001-01-22

308

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A&N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A&N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

309

Assessment of the need for dual indoor/outdoor warning systems and enhanced tone alert technologies in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The need for a dual indoor/outdoor warning system as recommended by the program guidance and Alert and Notification (A N) standard for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program is analyzed in this report. Under the current program standards, the outdoor warning system consists of omnidirectional sirens and the new indoor system would be an enhanced tone alert (TA) radio system. This analysis identifies various tone-alert technologies, distribution options, and alternative siren configurations. It also assesses the costs and benefits of the options and analyzes what appears to best meet program needs. Given the current evidence, it is recommended that a 10-dB siren system and the special or enhanced TA radio be distributed to each residence and special institution in the immediate response zone as preferred the A N standard. This approach minimizes the cost of maintenance and cost of the TA radio system while providing a high degree of reliability for indoor alerting. Furthermore, it reaches the population (residential and institutional) in the greatest need of indoor alerting.

Sorensen, J.H.

1992-05-01

310

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons...or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

2014-10-01

311

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons...or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

2013-10-01

312

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons...or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

2011-10-01

313

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons...or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

2010-10-01

314

43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons...or any other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

2012-10-01

315

Preliminary design specifications for the compact weapon effects display system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides preliminary design and specification information to fabricate a compact Weapons Effects Display System. The system is capable of calculating and displaying the effects of thermal flux, radiation, and blast pressure from a nuclear weapon. EG&G was asked to evaluate analog computer logic of an existing Weapons Effects Display System (WEDS), make the necessary changes and develop preliminary

1966-01-01

316

Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons

Andre Gsponer

2005-01-01

317

Nuclear weapons in Europe: Why zero is better  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the fundamental changes in the political context and NATO's perception of nuclear weapons, what role remains for US nuclear weapons in preserving security in Europe Are US nuclear deployments on the continent still necessary Is there a requirement for extended deterrence and, if so, does its credibility depend on the continued basing of US nuclear weapons in Europe And

Daalder

2009-01-01

318

Plan for a laser weapon verification research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is great interest in the question of how, or even whether, a treaty limiting the development and deployment of laser weapons could be verified. The concept of cooperative laser weapon verification is that each party would place monitoring stations near the other party's declared or suspect laser weapon facilities. The monitoring stations would measure the primary laser observables''

Karr

1990-01-01

319

Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

Jenkins, Bonnie

1997-01-01

320

Weapons of Mass Destruction Transfers in AsiaAn Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weapons of mass destruction are spreading in the Asian region. Five countries in the region have nuclear weapons while some more are in the process of acquiring such capabilities. Several of them either have or are in the process of acquiring capabilities in ballistic missiles, chemical and biological weapons or technologies. Vertical or horizontal transfers to some extent have helped

Srikanth Kondapalli

2008-01-01

321

Improving weapons of mass destruction intelligence Arnold Kanter  

E-print Network

1 Improving weapons of mass destruction intelligence Arnold Kanter The Scowcroft Group 900;2 Combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) is one of the most important foreign policy constituent parts. Weapons of mass destruction are different. Each WMD agent poses different risks and very

Deutch, John

322

Operation Desert Shield: Medical aspects of weapons of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors concern over possible use of weapons of mass destruction against U.S. forces in the Middle East has increased because Iraq has violated the Geneva Protocol of 1925 and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, attempted to acquire nuclear capability and delivery systems, and is reported to be developing biological weapons. The Army Medical Department has had no experience, since

Knudson

1991-01-01

323

Just war and nuclear weapons : just war theory and its application to the Korean nuclear weapons issue in Korean Christianity   

E-print Network

This thesis is primarily an application of the Christian tradition of Just War to the problems arising from the basing of US nuclear weapons in South Korea and the development of nuclear weapons by the regime in the ...

Son, Changwan

2009-01-01

324

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-01-01

325

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2012-01-01

326

75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-11-08

327

3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2010-01-01

328

76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2011-11-10

329

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2013-01-01

330

77 FR 66513 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2012-11-05

331

3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Presidential Documents...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

2014-01-01

332

East Europe report, political, sociological and military affairs, number 2097, nuclear weapons and protection against nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Title of this report is Nuclear Weapons and Protection Against Nuclear Weapons. Book by Lt. Col Docent Manfred Hoffmann, Dr. Mil. Sci.; textbook with 85 tables and 175 illustrations; Military Publishing House of the German Democratic Republic. This textbook takes up the most important combat properties and destructive effects of nuclear weapons and from that we derive and explain

Hoffman

1983-01-01

333

76 FR 6087 - Draft Weapons Safety Assessment on the Use of Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Enhanced Weapons; Notice of Availability and Request for Comment AGENCY...Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment...weapons as part of a protective strategy for defending NRC-regulated...weapons as part of a protective strategy for defending...

2011-02-03

334

Ending the scourge of chemical weapons  

SciTech Connect

After more than 20 years of arduous negotiations, representatives from 131 countries gathered in Paris in January to sign a treaty banning the development, production, and transfer to other countries of chemical-warfare agents and their means of delivery. The treaty - called the Chemical Weapons Convention, or CWC - complements the more limited Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans the use of toxic chemicals in warfare. When the CWC enters into force in about two years, it will prohibit the manufacture for military purposes of lethal chemicals such as sulfur mustard, which causes painful skin blistering and lung damage, and nerve agents, which cause rapid death by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses. The goal is to eliminate from the earth this particularly inhumane form of warfare. The paper discusses facets of the treaty, especially the verification challenge with its inspection on demand features. Short accompanying pieces discuss classifying chemicals and the destruction of chemical weapons under the CWC.

Brin, J.

1993-04-01

335

Defense programs: A Sandia weapon review bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s mission to explore technology that enhances US nuclear weapons capabilities has been the primary impetus for the development of a class of inertial measurement units not available commercially. The newest member of the family is the Ring Laser Gyro Assembly. The product of a five-year joint effort by Sandia and Honeywell`s Space and Strategic Systems Operation, the RLGA is a small, one-nautical-mile-per-hour-class inertial measurement unit that consumes only 16 watts - attributes that are important to a guidance and control capability for new or existing weapons. These same attributes led the Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman Air Force Base to select the RLGA for their newest test instrumentation pod. The RLGA sensor assembly is composed of three Honeywell ring laser gyroscopes and three Sundstrand Data Control accelerometers that are selected from three types according to the user`s acceleration range and accuracy needs.

Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

1993-11-01

336

Weapons of mass destruction. Research report  

SciTech Connect

The policy of mutual destruction limited the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the Cold War but has much less significance in today`s global environment not only because of multiple regional instability and motivation to acquire, but also increased availability of resources and technologies to build WMD. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a preeminent security threat in the 1990`s. The US has policies and strategies to stem WMD proliferation and to counter the effects of their use. This paper will identify ways to deter threats of WMD against the United States through counterproliferation strategies of counterforce, active defense, and passive defense. Discussion includes aspects which challenge US interests and place greater burden on policymakers. These include politics, economics, technology and the global mindset.

Ryan, M.W.

1997-04-01

337

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department  

E-print Network

Weapons Are Prohibited On Campus University of California, Irvine Police Department What is a weapon? A weapon is basically anything somebody could use to hurt or harm somebody else. Weapons could that could be used to hurt somebody else What kind of weapon can't I bring to school? Most weapons

Rose, Michael R.

338

The IAEA: Neutralizing Iraq's nuclear weapons potential  

SciTech Connect

With support from UNSCOM and staff members from several countries, the IAEA has succeeded in identifying and destroying most of Iraq's nuclear weapons potential. IAEA activities in Iraq have also established a sound basis for long-term monitoring of Iraq. This will involve several procedures and techniques, including the periodic monitoring of Iraq's main bodies of water and unannounced visits of resident inspectors to plants, factories, and research centers.

Zifferero, M.

1993-04-01

339

(±)Catechin: Chemical Weapon, Antioxidant, or Stress Regulator?  

Microsoft Academic Search

(±)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects\\u000a have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (±)-catechin has been implicated\\u000a as a ‘chemical weapon’ that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected

Vladimir Chobot; Christoph Huber; Guenter Trettenhahn; Franz Hadacek

2009-01-01

340

Cloud modeling for laser weapon propagation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clouds can have a major impact on performance and mission opportunity of ground and airborne laser weapons. Database summaries and modeling techniques are presented for the physical and optical characteristics, frequency of occurrence, and probability of cloud-free line-of-sight (PCFLOS) of mid-level and high-altitude clouds. Emphasis is on subvisual and thin cirrus due to its predominance at mid- latitude. The statistical

David A. Nahrstedt

2000-01-01

341

America's Secret Educational Weapon: Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. has a powerful weapon in its educational arsenal: its community colleges. Yet these institutions, according to the author, are so often overlooked in discussions of the future of U.S. society and the U.S. work force that they might as well be deemed "top secret." More than 1,200 community colleges enroll some 47% of all undergraduates.…

Magrath, C. Peter

2008-01-01

342

Changing Soviet views of nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to summarize current Soviet views about nuclear weapons, and to assess the implications of these views for US policies and programs. I will focus particularly on implications of interest to the nuclear laboratories. The task is complicated by the fact that Soviet views about nuclear weapons are not straightforward. There are certain benefits from glasnost in that there now is more open debate about a range of issues in the Soviet Union, including defense issues. Thus, we now have a great deal of published material to draw upon in assessing Soviet views, and experts in the West can talk much more freely to Soviet experts. However, this information explosion makes it more difficult to discriminate signal from noise, particularly as there continues to be both propaganda and deception in Soviet statements about defense issues. Clearly, some Soviet statements about nuclear weapons are designed to influence attitudes and actions in the West. I shall cite some examples in this paper.

Sloss, L. (Sloss (Leon) Associates, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-10-01

343

The Chemical Weapons Convention -- Legal issues  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) offers a unique challenge to the US system of constitutional law. Its promise of eliminating what is the most purely genocidal type of weapon from the world`s arsenals as well as of destroying the facilities for producing these weapons, brings with it a set of novel legal issues. The reservations about the CWC expressed by US business people are rooted in concern about safeguarding confidential business information and protecting the constitutional right to privacy. The chief worry is that international verification inspectors will misuse their power to enter commercial property and that trade secrets or other private information will be compromised as a result. It has been charged that the Convention is probably unconstitutional. The author categorically disagrees with that view and is aware of no scholarly writing that supports it. The purpose of this presentation is to show that CWC verification activities can be implemented in the US consistently with the traditional constitutional regard for commercial and individual privacy. First, he very briefly reviews the types of verification inspections that the CWC permits, as well as some of its specific privacy protections. Second, he explains how the Fourth Amendment right to privacy works in the context of CWC verification inspections. Finally, he reviews how verification inspections can be integrated into these constitutional requirements in the SU through a federal implementing statute.

NONE

1997-08-01

344

Medical implications of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

During the 1960s through 1980s the United States and several other nations developed, and even considered deploying, enhanced-radiation warheads (ERWs). The main effect of ERWs (sometimes called "neutron bombs"), as compared to other types of nuclear weapons, is to enhance radiation casualties while reducing blast and thermal damage to the infrastructure. Five nations were reported to have developed and tested ERWs during this period, but since the termination of the "Cold War" there have been no threats of development, deployment, or use of such weapons. However, if the technology of a quarter of a century ago has been developed, maintained, or even advanced since then, it is conceivable that the grim possibility of future ERW use exists. The type of destruction, initial triage of casualties, distribution of patterns of injury, and medical management of ERWs will be shown to significantly differ from that of fission weapons. Emergency response planners and medical personnel, civilian or military, must be aware of these differences to reduce the horrible consequences of ERW usage and appropriately treat casualties. PMID:21265303

Reeves, Glen I

2010-12-01

345

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-free cleaning procedures. The short term leg of the philosophy was the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. The long-term leg of that philosophy was the initiation of a several tier testing program that will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with accelerated lubricant life tests that compare lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC solvents with lubricant life on surfaces cleaned with ODC-free solvents. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years before a number of important tribological questions can be answered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life lubricated mechanism based on a number of parameters, including 4 comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODC's based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; LeBoeuf, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

346

The GSFC Combined Approach of ODC Stockpiling and Tribological Testing to Mitigate the Risks of ODC Elimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the elimination of production of several Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODCs) which have been widely used in successful space flight mechanism cleaning and lubricating procedures, GSFC developed and implemented an overall philosophy of mitigating the risks to flight hardware during the transition phase to ODC-Free cleaning procedures. One leg of that philosophy is the initiation of a several tier testing program which will deliver increasing amounts of information over the next few years, starting with original surface analysis comparisons between ODC and various ODC-Free cleaning technologies. The other leg is the stockpiling of an appropriate amount of ODC solvents such that all short term GSFC missions will be able to stay with or revert to heritage cleaning and lubricating procedures in the face of life issues. While tribological testing, mechanism life testing and space-flight experience will ultimately bring us into the 21st century with environmentally friendly means of cleaning long-life precision mechanism components, many satellites will be launched over the next few years with a number of important tribological questions unanswered. In order to prepare for this challenge, the Materials Engineering Branch in cooperation with the Electromechanical Branch launched an intensive review of all ongoing missions. The failure risk was determined for each long-life mechanism based on a number of parameters, including a comparison of flight solvents used to clean the heritage/life test hardware. Also studied was the ability of the mechanism manufacturers to stockpile ODCs based on state laws and company policies. A stockpiling strategy was constructed based on this information and subsequently implemented. This paper provides an overview of the GSFC ODC elimination risk mitigation philosophy as well as a detailed examination of the development of the ODC stockpiling plan.

Predmore, Roamer; Woods, Claudia; Hovanec, Andrew

1997-01-01

347

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen\\/methane\\/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry

Vohra; Yogesh

2009-01-01

348

Measures to implement the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

This seminar is another excellent opportunity for those involved in preventing chemical weapons production and use to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. The author is grateful to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for inviting him to address this distinguished seminar. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors alone, and do not represent the position of the government of the US nor or of any other institution. In 1993, as the process of CWC ratification was beginning, concerns arose that the complexity of integrating the treaty with national law would cause each nation to implement the Convention without regard to what other nations were doing, thereby causing inconsistencies among States Parties in how the Convention would be carried out. As a result the Manual for National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention was prepared and presented it to each national delegation at the December 1993 meeting of the Preparatory Commission in The Hague. During its preparation, the Manual was reviewed by the Committee of Legal Experts on National Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention, a group of distinguished international jurists, law professors, legally-trained diplomats, government officials, and Parliamentarians from every region of the world, including Mica. In February 1998, the second edition of the Manual was published in order to update it in light of developments since the CWC entered into force on 29 April 1997. The second edition 1998 clarified the national implementation options to reflect post-entry-into-force thinking, added extensive references to national implementing measures that had been enacted by various States Parties, and included a prototype national implementing statute developed by the authors to provide a starting point for those whose national implementing measures were still under development. Last month, the Web Edition of the Manual was completed. It's internet address, or URL, is http://www.cwc.anl.gov/.

Tanzman, E.; Kellman, B.

1999-11-05

349

Advances in Data Combination, Analysis and Collection for System Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systems that statisticians are asked to assess, such as nuclear weapons, infrastructure networks, supercomputer codes and munitions, have become increasingly complex. It is often costly to con- duct full system tests. As such, we present a review of methodology that has been proposed for addressing system reliability with limited full system testing. The first approaches presented in this paper

Alyson G. Wilson; Todd L. Graves; Michael S. Hamada; C. Shane Reese

350

Use of an Eductor to Reliably Dilute a Plutonium Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is dissolving Pu239 scrap, which is a legacy from the production of nuclear weapons materials, and will later convert it into oxide form to stabilize it. An eductor has been used to both dilute and transfer a plutonium containing solution between tanks. Eductors have the advantages of simplicity and no moving parts. Reliable

Steimke

1999-01-01

351

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program  

SciTech Connect

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-11-01

352

Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.  

PubMed Central

The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

1992-01-01

353

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1.03. User guide: Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

354

Integrated Baseline System (IBS), Version 1. 03. [Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Baseline System (IBS), operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is a system of computerized tools for emergency planing and analysis. This document is the user guide for the IBS and explains how to operate the IBS system. The fundamental function of the IBS is to provide tools that civilian emergency management personnel can use in developing emergency plans and in supporting emergency management activities to cope with a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. Emergency management planners can evaluate concepts and ideas using the IBS system. The results of that experience can then be factored into refining requirements and plans. This document provides information for the general system user, and is the primary reference for the system features of the IBS. It is designed for persons who are familiar with general emergency management concepts, operations, and vocabulary. Although the IBS manual set covers basic and advanced operations, it is not a complete reference document set. Emergency situation modeling software in the IBS is supported by additional technical documents. Some of the other LBS software is commercial software for which more complete documentation is available. The IBS manuals reference such documentation where necessary. IBS is a dynamic system. Its capabilities are in a state of continuing expansion and enhancement.

Bailey, B.M.; Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.

1993-01-01

355

Redefining reliability  

SciTech Connect

Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company`s experiment in direct marketing of natural gas.

Paulson, S.L.

1995-11-01

356

SSD Reliability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SSD are complex electronic systems prone to wear-out and failure mechanisms mainly related to their basic component: the Flash memory. The reliability of a Flash memory depends on many technological and architectural aspects, from the physical concepts on which the store paradigm is achieved to the interaction among cells, from possible new physical mechanisms arising as the technology scales down to the countermeasures adopted within the memory controller to face erroneous behaviors.

Zambelli, C.; Olivo, P.

357

Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronics system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of reconnaissance/surveillance satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; neutrons, gamma rays, and X-rays from fission and fusion weapons; and directed neutral particle beams and lasers. Electronic equipment, including modem integrated circuits, may undergo permanent or transient changes of the electrical properties of the active components when exposed to these sources of radiation. This report summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding code system -- MASH v1.0 calculations designed to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized spaced based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emanating from a thermonuclear weapon detonation. The MASH calculations modeled several source/platform geometry configurations, obtaining results for multiple distances and weapon detonation positions relative to the platform. For certain source/platform orientations, the results indicate vulnerabilities to the C{sup 3} bay critical components box to radiation damage from a nuclear weapon detonation. Neutron protection factors ranged from 0.7 to 3.4 for the three platform configurations analyzed, and gamma-ray protection factors ranged from approximately 1.5 to 9.8. The results further indicate the source has a direct line-of-sight to the critical components box for certain source/platform orientations, regardless of the number of interceptors present. The merits of utilizing the MASH code system for estimating dose and shielding factors for spaced based assets has been demonstrated. The geometry configuration studied here is greatly simplified compared to those that will be encountered in an actual design.

Perez, C.L. [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Johnson, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-05-01

358

Cardiac fibrillation risk of Taser weapons.  

PubMed

The debate on potential health hazards associated with delivering electric discharges to incapacitated subjects, in particular on whether electric discharge weapons are lethal, less lethal or non-lethal, is still controversial. The cardiac fibrillation risks of Taser weapons X26 and X3 have been investigated by measuring the delivered high-tension pulses in dependence on load impedance. Excitation thresholds and sinus-to-Taser conversion factors have been determined by numerical modeling of endocardial, myocardial, and epicardial cells. Detailed quantitative assessment of cardiac electric exposure has been performed by numerical simulation at the normal-weighted anatomical model NORMAN. The impact of anatomical variation has been quantified at an overweight model (Visible Man), both with a spatial resolution of 2 × 2 × 2 mm voxels. Spacing and location of dart electrodes were systematically varied and the worst-case position determined. Based on volume-weighted cardiac exposure assessment, the fibrillation probability of the worst-case hit was determined to 30% (Taser X26) and 9% (Taser X3). The overall risk assessment of Taser application accounting for realistic spatial hit distributions was derived from training sessions of police officers under realistic scenarios and by accounting for the influence of body (over-)weight as well as gender. The analysis of the results showed that the overall fibrillation risk of Taser use is not negligible. It is higher at Taser X26 than at Taser X3 and amounts to about 1% for Europeans with an about 20% higher risk for Asians. Results demonstrate that enhancement as well as further reduction of fibrillation risk depends on responsible use or abuse of Taser weapons. PMID:24776896

Leitgeb, Norbert

2014-06-01

359

Performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy laser weapons are ready for some of today's most challenging military applications. Based on the analysis of the main tactical/technical index and combating process of high energy laser weapon, a performance calculation and simulation system of high energy laser weapon was established. Firstly, the index decomposition and workflow of high energy laser weapon was proposed. The entire system was composed of six parts, including classical target, platform of laser weapon, detect sensor, tracking and pointing control, laser atmosphere propagation and damage assessment module. Then, the index calculation modules were designed. Finally, anti-missile interception simulation was performed. The system can provide reference and basis for the analysis and evaluation of high energy laser weapon efficiency.

Wang, Pei; Liu, Min; Su, Yu; Zhang, Ke

2014-12-01

360

Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons  

PubMed Central

The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We constructed finite element models of the horns of different rhinoceros beetle species to test whether functional specializations for increased performance under species-specific fighting styles could have contributed to the diversification of weapon form. We find that horns are both stronger and stiffer in response to species-typical fighting loads and that they perform more poorly under atypical fighting loads, which suggests weapons are structurally adapted to meet the functional demands of fighting. Our research establishes a critical link between weapon form and function, revealing one way male–male competition can drive the diversification of animal weapons. PMID:25201949

McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Emlen, Douglas J.

2014-01-01

361

Recovery of weapon plutonium as feed material for reactor fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary considerations for recovering and converting weapon plutonium from various US weapon forms into feed material for fabrication of reactor fuel elements. An ongoing DOE study addresses the disposition of excess weapon plutonium through its use as fuel for nuclear power reactors and subsequent disposal as spent fuel. The spent fuel would have characteristics similar to those of commercial power spent fuel and could be similarly disposed of in a geologic repository.

Armantrout, G.A.; Bronson, M.A.; Choi, Jor-Shan [and others

1994-03-16

362

Prompt effects of nuclear weapons: a microcomputer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research allowed for development of a microcomputer model reporting the damage and casualty-producing prompt effects of nuclear weapons from one kiloton to ten megatons. The mode was largely regression-derived and used range-contour modeling to report the effects of normal nuclear weapons. Effects were predicted for the low to intermediate overpressure range (1 to 150 psi overpressure). The weapon effects

1987-01-01

363

Non-strategic sea-based nuclear weapons. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the complex political and military issues surrounding deployment of Non-Strategic Sea-Based Nuclear Weapons. These include weapons designed for Nuclear Anti-Air and Anti-Submarine warfare, Nuclear Gravity bombs, and Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise missiles. Specifically, this study examines the serious arguments made for and against these weapons on military and political grounds. Following the discussion of specific pros and cons,

V. Tol; J. Maarten

1990-01-01

364

Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.  

PubMed

The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and formulation development. This paper provides a review of recent work and collaborations supported by the RNCP. PMID:24648046

Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

2014-02-01

365

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. Plattsburgh ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR OF WEAPONS CLEANING CLASSROOM. view TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

366

Open architecture applied to next-generation weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has postulated a new weapons concept known as Flexible Weapons to define and develop technologies addressing a number of challenges. Initial studies on capability attributes of this concept have been conducted and AFRL plans to continue systems engineering studies to quantify metrics against which the value of capabilities can be assessed. An important aspect of Flexible Weapons is having a modular "plug-n-play" hardware and software solution, supported by an Open Architecture and Universal Armament Interface (UAI) common interfaces. The modular aspect of Flexible Weapons is a means to successfully achieving interoperability and composability at the weapon level. Interoperability allows for vendor competition, timely technology refresh, and avoids costs by ensuring standard interfaces widely supported in industry, rather than an interface unique to a particular vendor. Composability provides for the means to arrange an open end set of useful weapon systems configurations. The openness of Flexible Weapons is important because it broadens the set of computing technologies, software updates, and other technologies to be introduced into the weapon system, providing the warfighter with new capabilities at lower costs across the life cycle. One of the most critical steps in establishing a Modular, Open Systems Architecture (MOSA) for weapons is the validation of compliance with the standard.

Rose, Leo J.; Shaver, Jonathan; Young, Quinn; Christensen, Jacob

2014-06-01

367

Non-strategic sea-based nuclear weapons. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the complex political and military issues surrounding deployment of Non-Strategic Sea-Based Nuclear Weapons. These include weapons designed for Nuclear Anti-Air and Anti-Submarine warfare, Nuclear Gravity bombs, and Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise missiles. Specifically, this study examines the serious arguments made for and against these weapons on military and political grounds. Following the discussion of specific pros and cons, three alternative approaches to dealing with these weapons are examined as the Navy's current positions.

Tol, V.; Maarten, J.

1990-06-22

368

Diagnosis and Prognosis of Weapon Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Prognostics Framework is a set of software tools with an open architecture that affords a capability to integrate various prognostic software mechanisms and to provide information for operational and battlefield decision-making and logistical planning pertaining to weapon systems. The Prognostics NASA Tech Briefs, February 2005 17 Framework is also a system-level health -management software system that (1) receives data from performance- monitoring and built-in-test sensors and from other prognostic software and (2) processes the received data to derive a diagnosis and a prognosis for a weapon system. This software relates the diagnostic and prognostic information to the overall health of the system, to the ability of the system to perform specific missions, and to needed maintenance actions and maintenance resources. In the development of the Prognostics Framework, effort was focused primarily on extending previously developed model-based diagnostic-reasoning software to add prognostic reasoning capabilities, including capabilities to perform statistical analyses and to utilize information pertaining to deterioration of parts, failure modes, time sensitivity of measured values, mission criticality, historical data, and trends in measurement data. As thus extended, the software offers an overall health-monitoring capability.

Nolan, Mary; Catania, Rebecca; deMare, Gregory

2005-01-01

369

Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes  

SciTech Connect

Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2009-07-01

370

Progress in the development of gyroscopes for use in tactical weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past and current research efforts initiated in the Government and industry for the development of gyroscopes for tactical weapon system applications are discussed in this paper. Spinning mass gyroscopes were used in the early long-range missiles for precision guidance. During the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in advancing the performance capability of solid-state optical gyroscope for use in tactical weapon systems. A number of Army missile systems currently use ring laser gyroscopes as part of their navigation systems. A few years, ago, the Government awarded several contrasts to industry to develop small, reliable, low-cost fiber optic gyroscopes (FOG) that can operate in military environments. Recently, the Government awarded several contracts for the development of rugged, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes to support emerging Army missions, which are moving toward low-cost, small diameter precision guided weapons for use against light targets. The RLG, FOG, and the MEMS-based gyroscopes are traded-off in this paper with respect to cost, size and performance for applications in current and future Army missile systems. The status of ongoing MEMS projects at the US Army Aviation and Missile Command will also be discussed.

Ruffin, Paul B.

2000-06-01

371

Is (-)-Catechin a "Novel Weapon" of Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The “novel weapons” hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this new allelochemical (i.e. the novel weapon...

372

Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

2011-01-01

373

Prohibiting nuclear weapons: initiatives towards global nuclear disarmament  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world now stands at a precarious nuclear fork in the road with the following characteristics: the Nuclear Left Path is characterized by continued vertical and horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons with the danger being that any nation (or terrorist group) that wants such weapons, and can afford them, will eventually secure them; the Nuclear Right Path prohibits all nuclear

J. R. Shanebrook

1999-01-01

374

Tactical nuclear weapons responsibility: Ordnance versus field artillery. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has existed and still exists an operational dichotomy in the area of the provision of tactical nuclear weapons to United States Army forces versus those allied forces in a combined theater of operations. Specifically, within the NATO environment and to a very small degree within Combined Forces Korea, there exists a condition where tactical nuclear weapons are supplied to

1990-01-01

375

The Relationship between Social Capital and Weapon Possession on Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research focused on the problem of how college officials might be able to predict weapon possession on college campuses. We hypothesized that measures of social capital (i.e., trust and participation in society) may be useful in identifying individuals who are likely to possess weapons on campuses. Prior research has shown that those…

Messer, Rachel H.; Bradley, Kristopher I.; Calvi, Jessica L.; Kennison, Shelia M.

2012-01-01

376

UN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs  

E-print Network

for the council to make public a completed report by a UN panel on Iran's nuclear activities. The report was readyUN Security Council: Iran violating ban on nuclear weapons programs 7 September 2011 Denouncement weaponization of its nuclear program. The United States, Germany, France and Britain joined forces in exposing

377

Countering nuclear weapons of mass destruction: Are we doing enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countering nuclear fissile material leakage from the former Soviet Union should be the First National Security Priority of the United States. Once these nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials have dispersed to the possession of Third World rogue states, there is not much one can do to prevent their usage in a regional setting by US Military means. This study

1998-01-01

378

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This

LeHardy

1997-01-01

379

Dealing with weapons of mass destruction in the middle east  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Zone Free of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East by Jan Prawitz and James F. Leonard. New York and Geneva: United Nations 1996. Pp.134. £19. ISBN 9290451149The Devil's Brews II: Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Security, Robin Ranger and David Wiencek, Bailrigg Memorandum 17, Centre for Defence and International Security Studies, Lancaster University, 1997. Pp.74. £10.

Ioannis A. Stivachtis

1998-01-01

380

VARIABLE AFFECTING THE ACQUISITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS BY TERRORIST GROUPS  

E-print Network

groups that actively pursue nuclear capability to inflict mass destruction on innocent people that they believe they should use weapons of massive destruction to remove western occupants from the holy landVARIABLE AFFECTING THE ACQUISITION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS BY TERRORIST GROUPS: A SURVERY OF RECENT

Wang, Hai

381

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD

Gregory H. Canavan

1997-01-01

382

2002-2003 Engineering Accomplishments: Unconventional Nuclear Weapons Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, DTRA, is a federal agency charged with safeguarding the nation from weapons of mass destruction, in particular nuclear weapons such as crude devices, and radiological dispersal devices (RDD), also known as dirty bombs. Both of which could be delivered using unconventional means such as by transporting them by a car or boat. Two years ago

J E Hernandez; J Valentine

2004-01-01

383

Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas  

E-print Network

and engineers at LANL. The new automated testing technology is called Nondestructive Laser Gas Sampling (NDLGS- 1 - Weapons assessment efficiencies through use of nondestructive laser gas sampling June 8, 2012 New weapons assessment technology engineered: nondestructive laser welding process far less expensive

384

Nuclear weapons issues in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how the US can play a productive mediating role in South Asia by engaging India and Pakistan in an international forum to manage nuclear weapons, as Edward Teller advocated. India and Pakistan have developed their nuclear capabilities because they fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten fear their neighbors, not because they want to threaten the US. The appropriate response for the US, therefore, is diplomatic engagement and negotiations. In addition to the international approach, encouragement and facilitation of regional and bilateral interactions will also be important. Formal arms control agreements have been reached, but less formal confidence-building measures, and unilateral security pledges may well be combined to form a more secure strategic environment in South Asia than a nuclear armed confrontation across the porous South Asian border.

Joeck, N.

1993-07-02

385

The chemical weapons conventional legal issues  

SciTech Connect

Because the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) contains the best developed verification regime in multilaterial arms control history, some have raised concerns for the chemical industry that have legal implications. Chief among these are safeguarding confidential business information and protecting constitutional rights during inspections. This discussion will show how the CWC and proposed national implementing legislation work together to allay these concerns. Both concerns are legitimate. Confidential business information could be lost to a national government or the CWC governing body accidentially or purposely. The CWC regime of routine and challenge inspections are searches under the constitution and could, if abused, potentially conflict with recognized commercial privacy interests. Neither concern justifies opposition to the convention, but both need to be addressed in national implementing legislation. Proposed US legislation goes far in this direction, but can be improved.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1997-12-31

386

Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War.  

PubMed

Proposals for chemical weapons that arose during the American Civil War are described. Most incendiary and all biological agents are excluded. The described proposals appeared primarily in periodicals or letters to government officials on both sides. The weapons were usually meant to temporarily disable enemy combatants, but some might have been lethal, and Civil War caregivers were ill-prepared to deal with the weapons' effects. Evidently, none of the proposed weapons were used. In only one instance was use against civilians mentioned. Among the agents most commonly proposed were cayenne pepper or other plant-based irritants such as black pepper, snuff, mustard, and veratria. Other suggested agents included chloroform, chlorine, hydrogen cyanide, arsenic compounds, sulfur, and acids. Proponents usually suggested that the chemicals be included in explosive artillery projectiles. Less commonly proposed vehicles of delivery included fire engines, kites, and manned balloons. Some of the proposed weapons have modern counterparts. PMID:18543573

Hasegawa, Guy R

2008-05-01

387

Countering nuclear weapons of mass destruction: Are we doing enough?  

SciTech Connect

Countering nuclear fissile material leakage from the former Soviet Union should be the First National Security Priority of the United States. Once these nuclear weapons and weapons-usable nuclear materials have dispersed to the possession of Third World rogue states, there is not much one can do to prevent their usage in a regional setting by US Military means. This study discusses national policy and military options available to counter hostile countries nuclear weapons before and after use. There are no clear cut policies and easy military means for neutralizing nuclear weapons in the most likely scenarios. Therefore, The US National Command Authority should consider the framework of these policy and military options in countering nuclear weapons of mass destruction in the future.

Moore, L.A.

1998-04-15

388

Applications of internal translating mass technologies to smart weapons systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of guided projectile research has continually grown over the past several decades. Guided projectiles, typically encompassing bullets, mortars, and artillery shells, incorporate some sort of guidance and control mechanism to generate trajectory alterations. This serves to increase accuracy and decrease collateral damage. Control mechanisms for smart weapons must be able to withstand extreme acceleration loads at launch while remaining simple to reduce cost and enhance reliability. Controllable internal moving masses can be incorporated into the design of smart weapons as a mechanism to directly apply control force, to actively alter static stability in flight, and to protect sensitive components within sensor packages. This dissertation examined techniques for using internal translating masses (ITM's) for smart weapon flight control. It was first shown that oscillating a mass orthogonal to the projectile axis of symmetry generates reasonable control force in statically-stable rounds. Trade studies examined the impact of mass size, mass offset from the center of gravity, and reductions in static stability on control authority. A more detailed analysis followed in which a physical internal translating mass control mechanism was designed that minimizes force and power required using a vibrating beam as the internal moving mass. Results showed that this relatively simple mechanism provides adequate control authority while requiring low on-board power. Trade studies revealed the affect of varying beam lengths, stiffness, and damping properties. Then, the topic of static margin control through mass center modification was explored. This is accomplished by translating a mass in flight along the projectile axis of symmetry. Results showed that this system allows for greater control authority and reduced throw-off error at launch. Finally, a nonlinear sliding mode controller was designed for a projectile equipped with an internal moving mass as well as for a projectile equipped with both an ITM and canard control mechanisms. Monte Carlo simulations that incorporated realistic uncertainty demonstrated the robust nature of the control system. These dispersion simulations examined the effect of ITM size and incorporation of a variable stability mechanism. It is shown that use of an ITM as a direct control mechanism can reduce circular error probable by nearly half, while coupling ITM control with canard control can reduce required canard area by approximately half as well. Overall, it was determined that direct ITM control generates modest control authority for practical systems. Therefore, it can be used to reduce dispersion error but not eliminate it to levels commensurate with sensor noise. Likewise, the ITM variable stability mechanism provides a limited control authority enhancement to guided projectiles controlled by other means. Thus, while the mechanism may not be useful for guided munitions that exhibit ample control authority, it provides a useful supplement to projectiles requiring slight control authority improvement.

Rogers, Jonathan

389

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2011-01-01

390

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2014-07-01

391

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2013-07-01

392

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2012-07-01

393

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930 Navigation...Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area. The...United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the contiguous...

2011-07-01

394

33 CFR 334.930 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. 334.930 Section 334.930...Harbor, Calif.; Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach. (a) The restricted area...the United States Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California, and the...

2010-07-01

395

15 CFR 745.2 - End-Use Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. 745.2 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REQUIREMENTS § 745...Certificate reporting requirements under the Chemical Weapons Convention. Note:...

2010-01-01

396

Nuclear Weapons and the Laws of War: Does Customary International Law Prohibit the use of Nuclear Weapons in all Circumstances?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note argues that customary international law does not prohibit the use of nuclear weapons in self-defense. Part I describes the characteristics of nuclear weapons, including their destructive capabilities and health effects. Part I also discusses the development of the laws of war and the process by which a generally accepted principle or practice ascends to customary international law. Further,

Jill M. Sheldon

1996-01-01

397

ENABLING DEPARTMENT-SCALE SUPERCOMPUTING DAVID S. GREENBERGy, WILLIAM E. HARTz, AND  

E-print Network

. Since the United States is also reducing its manufacturing base for nuclear weapons components in maintaining the safety, reliability, performance, and availabilityof the nuclear stockpile. On September 24-based stock- pile stewardship, meaning virtual prototyping of weapons components, and computer simulation

398

Advancing Science for National Security  

E-print Network

and reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile, developing technologies to reduce threats from weapons of mass destruction, and solving challenging problems related to energy, the environment, health, and global security president. Charlie McMillan is an accomplished leader in the NNSA national security and weapons programs

399

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... . (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2011-07-01

400

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2014-07-01

401

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... . (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2013-07-01

402

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... . (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2010-07-01

403

33 CFR 334.1380 - Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Kaneohe Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii-Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone...Bay, Island of Oahu, Hawaii—Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range; danger zone... . (1) Weapons firing at the Ulupau Crater Weapons Training Range...

2012-07-01

404

78 FR 67289 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...to the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994...and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering...the worldwide threat of weapons of mass destruction proliferation...

2013-11-12

405

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-12-01

406

(+/-)-catechin: chemical weapon, antioxidant, or stress regulator?  

PubMed

(+/-)-Catechin is a flavan-3-ol that occurs in the organs of many plant species, especially fruits. Health-beneficial effects have been studied extensively, and notable toxic effects have not been found. In contrast, (+/-)-catechin has been implicated as a 'chemical weapon' that is exuded by the roots of Centaurea stoebe, an invasive knapweed of northern America. Recently, this hypothesis has been rejected based on (+/-)-catechin's low phytotoxicity, instability at pH levels higher than 5, and poor recovery from soil. In the current study, (+/-)-catechin did not inhibit the development of white and black mustard to an extent that was comparable to the highly phytotoxic juglone, a naphthoquinone that is allegedly responsible for the allelopathy of the walnut tree. At high stress levels, caused by sub-lethal methanol concentrations in the medium, and a 12 h photoperiod, (+/-)-catechin even attenuated growth retardation. A similar effect was observed when (+/-)-catechin was assayed for brine shrimp mortality. Higher concentrations reduced the mortality caused by toxic concentrations of methanol. Further, when (+/-)-catechin was tested in variants of the deoxyribose degradation assay, it was an efficient scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they were present in higher concentrations. This antioxidant effect was enhanced when iron was chelated directly by (+/-)-catechin. Conversely, if iron was chelated to EDTA, pro-oxidative effects were demonstrated at higher concentrations; in this case (+/-)-catechin reduced molecular oxygen and iron to reagents required by the Fenton reaction to produce hydroxyl radicals. A comparison of cyclic voltammograms of (+/-)-catechin with the phytotoxic naphthoquinone juglone indicated similar redox-cycling properties for both compounds although juglone required lower electrochemical potentials to enter redox reactions. In buffer solutions, (+/-)-catechin remained stable at pH 3.6 (vacuole) and decomposed at pH 7.4 (cytoplasm) after 24 h. The results support the recent rejection of the hypothesis that (+/-)-catechin may serve as a 'chemical weapon' for invasive plants. Instead, accumulation and exudation of (+/-)-catechin may help plants survive periods of stress. PMID:19701725

Chobot, Vladimir; Huber, Christoph; Trettenhahn, Guenter; Hadacek, Franz

2009-08-01

407

Article on Trident Laser Facility for NA-11 Stockpile Stewardship Quarterly  

SciTech Connect

The Trident Intermediate-Scale Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an extremely versatile Nd:glass laser system dedicated to high energy density laboratory physics and weapons physics research and fundamental laser-matter interactions. Trident is a three-beam, 200 J/beam at the second harmonic for glass (527 nm wavelength), facility with tremendous flexibility and high beam quality. Pulse durations varying over 6 orders of magnitude, from 0.5 picoseconds to 1.0 microsecs, can be directed to either of two different target chambers with changeable illumination geometries, including the ability to achieve near-diffraction limited focus. This provides a unique range of capability at one facility from sub-picosecond pulses (and high-intensity laser science) to nanosecond pulses (and LPI physics relevant to ICF) to microsecond pulses (and driving flyer plates for supported shock dynamic materials science.) When in short-pulse mode (less than picosecond pulse), a single beam can provide up to 200 TW of power with uniquely controllable and measured pre-pulse contrast of 10 orders of magnitude. A recent external capability review at Los Alamos concluded that 'Trident is generating excellent, cutting edge science and is a leading intermediate scale laser system worldwide.'

Barnes, Cris W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-13

408

An Optimal Dynamic Threat Evaluation and Weapon Scheduling Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time scheduling problems demand high level of flexibility and robustness under complex dynamic scenarios. Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA), together TEWA is one such complex dynamic system having optimal or near optimal utilization of scarce defensive resources of supreme priority. Several static solutions of TEWA have been proposed. This paper discusses an optimal dynamic multi-air threat evaluation and weapon allocation algorithm using a variant of Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA). WA uses a new dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution. Testing part of this paper shows feasibility of this approach for a range of scenarios.

Naeem, H.; Masood, A.

409

On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Weapons Center has several hard target penetration weapons development programs in progress. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests due to the hostile nature of the environment. The information is of vital importance in order to produce survivability design criteria for components expected to function in such severe environments. The development of a small, rugged, solid state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for hard target penetration weapon testing is described.

Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

1981-03-16

410

On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons  

SciTech Connect

The Naval Weapons Center is conducting several hard target penetration weapons development programs. One of the critical problem areas in these programs is the extreme difficulty, due to the hostile nature of the environment, of measuring acceleration-time data from penetration tests. The information is of vital importance in determining design criteria for survivability of components expected to function in such severe environments. This report describes the development of a small, rugged, solid-state on-board recorder to capture dynamic data for testing hard target penetration weapons.

Niven, W.A.; Jaroska, M.F.

1981-03-16

411

Macroencapsulation Equivalency Guidance for Classified Weapon Components and NNSSWAC Compliance  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has a surplus of classified legacy weapon components generated over the years with no direct path for disposal. The majority of the components have been held for uncertainty of future use or no identified method of sanitization or disposal. As more weapons are retired, there is an increasing need to reduce the amount of components currently in storage or on hold. A process is currently underway to disposition and dispose of the legacy/retired weapons components across the DOE complex.

Poling, J.

2012-05-15

412

Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects  

E-print Network

The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped charged jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.

Gsponer, A

2005-01-01

413

Introduction to Pits and Weapons Systems (U)  

SciTech Connect

A Nuclear Explosive Package includes the Primary, Secondary, Radiation Case and related components. This is the part of the weapon that produces nuclear yield and it converts mechanical energy into nuclear energy. The pit is composed of materials that allow mechanical energy to be converted to electromagnetic energy. Fabrication processes used are typical of any metal fabrication facility: casting, forming, machining and welding. Some of the materials used in pits include: Plutonium, Uranium, Stainless Steel, Beryllium, Titanium, and Aluminum. Gloveboxes are used for three reasons: (1) Protect workers and public from easily transported, finely divided plutonium oxides - (a) Plutonium is very reactive and produces very fine particulate oxides, (b) While not the 'Most dangerous material in the world' of Manhattan Project lore, plutonium is hazardous to health of workers if not properly controlled; (2) Protect plutonium from reactive materials - (a) Plutonium is extremely reactive at ambient conditions with several components found in air: oxygen, water, hydrogen, (b) As with most reactive metals, reactions with these materials may be violent and difficult to control, (c) As with most fabricated metal products, corrosion may significantly affect the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of the product; and (3) Provide shielding from radioactive decay products: {alpha}, {gamma}, and {eta} are commonly associated with plutonium decay, as well as highly radioactive materials such as {sup 241}Am and {sup 238}Pu.

Kautz, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-02

414

Foams for barriers and nonlethal weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our times demand better solutions to conflict resolution than simply shooting someone. Because of this, police and military interest in non-lethal concepts is high. Already in use are pepper sprays, bean-bag guns, flash-bang grenades, and rubber bullets. At Sandia we got a head start on non- lethal weapon concepts. Protection of nuclear materials required systems that went way beyond the traditional back vault. Dispensable deterrents were used to allow a graduated response to a threat. Sticky foams and stabilized aqueous foams were developed to provide access delay. Foams won out for security systems simply because you could get a large volume from a small container. For polymeric foams the expansion ratio is thirty to fifty to one. In aqueous foams expansion ratios of one thousand to ne are easily obtained. Recent development work on sticky foams has included a changeover to environmentally friendly solvents, foams with very low toxicity, and the development of non-flammable silicone resin based foams. High expansion aqueous foams are useful visual and aural obscurants. Our recent aqueous foam development has concentrated on using very low toxicity foaming agents combined with oleoresin capsicum irritant to provide a safe but highly irritating foam.

Rand, Peter B.

1997-01-01

415

Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

2013-10-01

416

Finally, Proof of Weapons of Mass Destruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (–)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (–) enantiomers, but only the (–) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (–)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research.

Ian T. Baldwin (Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology; Department of Molecular Ecology REV)

2003-10-07

417

Detection of weapons of mass destruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

Bjorkholm, Paul J.

2003-07-01

418

Finally, proof of weapons of mass destruction.  

PubMed

Allelopathy (one species' use of chemicals to harm other species) may be a key ingredient in successful invasions of alien plants into established communities. Bais et al. show that in response to elicitation by common soil fungi, spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) launches an ineffective defense against the fungi that results in extensive collateral damage to neighboring plants. Specifically, the flavonoid (-)-catechin, released from the roots of knapweed, produces a massive reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative burst, Ca2+ signaling, and rapid cell death in those unadapted native species whose habitats the plant regularly invades. The roots release both (+) and (-) enantiomers, but only the (-) enantiomer functions as a weapon of mass destruction; the (+) enantiomer inhibits the growth of numerous common soil-borne bacterial pathogens. Eliciting apoptotic response for a competitive advantage is an example of signal cross-talk between the genomes of interacting organisms and highlights how the internal signaling of one organism can be used by others to adjust their phenotypes in an adaptive manner. The study provides strong circumstantial evidence for an allelopathic interaction, but the genetic manipulation of (-)-catechin release would allow researchers to determine if these responses occur in nature. Precise genetic control over the release of secondary metabolites from plants would benefit ecological research. PMID:14534326

Baldwin, Ian T

2003-10-01

419

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2014-01-01

420

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2011-01-01

421

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2013-01-01

422

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2010-01-01

423

7 CFR 503.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON PLUM ISLAND ANIMAL DISEASE CENTER § 503.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on...

2012-01-01

424

32 CFR 552.116 - Privately owned weapons-security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RESERVATIONS Physical Security of Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives-Fort Lewis, Washington...security. Privately owned arms and ammunition will be secured in the manner required for military weapons and ammunition but separate from military...

2010-07-01

425

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2011-01-01

426

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2013-01-01

427

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2014-01-01

428

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in connection with the conduct of...

2010-01-01

429

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other...

2011-07-01

430

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other...

2010-07-01

431

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other...

2012-07-01

432

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other...

2014-07-01

433

31 CFR 91.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS GOVERNING CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while on the property shall carry firearms, other...

2013-07-01

434

Military applications of the laser weapons in the future battlefield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary operating environment requires a wide range of tools to respond to a myriad of regular and irregular threats. Accordingly, conventional weapons do not suffice in some cases. As technology improves exponentially, the dominance of conventional weapons is slowly fading away by the advances in laser technology. This study first outlines the characteristics of laser weapons, then provides the military applications of them in land, maritime, air and space domains and finally exhibits implications for battlefield functions. This study concludes that any country that is seeking primacy in military terms must allocate extra time and resources to obtain this emerging technology. Since it seems that there are not adequate studies about the military applications and operational concepts of the laser weapons, this study tries to increase awareness about their potential advantages.

Celik, Hasan; Adana, Saban; Yahsi, Erhan

2013-05-01

435

7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other...

2014-01-01

436

7 CFR 502.13 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON BELTSVILLE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH CENTER PROPERTY, BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND § 502.13 Weapons and explosives. No person while in or on BARC property shall carry firearms, other...

2013-01-01

437

15 CFR 265.39 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT ON THE GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY, GAITHERSBURG, MARYLAND, AND BOULDER AND FORT COLLINS, COLORADO Buildings and Grounds § 265.39 Weapons and explosives. Except in...

2012-01-01

438

An assessment of North Korea's nuclear weapons capabilities  

E-print Network

In February of 2013, North Korea conducted its third nuclear weapons test. Speculations are that this test was conducted to further develop a warhead small enough to fit on an intercontinental ballistic missile. This test ...

Sivels, Ciara (Ciara Brooke)

2013-01-01

439

Someone at School Has a Weapon. What Should I Do?  

MedlinePLUS

... What Should I Do? KidsHealth > Teens > School & Jobs > Bullying/Violence > Someone at School Has a Weapon. What ... name-calling, harassment, taunting, and other forms of bullying . People who are more likely to become violent ...

440

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any person discharge or set off any firework or explosive of any nature on the...

2011-07-01

441

7 CFR 500.12 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for authorized official purposes. (b) No person while in or on the USNA shall ignite fireworks or other pyrotechnical...

2012-01-01

442

36 CFR 520.15 - Weapons and explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...carry firearms, other dangerous or deadly weapons, or explosives, either openly or concealed, except for official purposes, nor shall any person discharge or set off any firework or explosive of any nature on the...

2012-07-01

443

A thousand suns : political motivations for nuclear weapons testing  

E-print Network

Nuclear weapon testing is the final step in the nuclear development process, an announcement of ability and strength. The consequences of a nuclear test are far from easy to bear, however: economic sanctions can be crippling ...

Raas, Whitney

2006-01-01

444

76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement...National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States Department of...enforcement, corrections, academia, military, test instrument manufacturers,...

2011-01-07

445

Paradigms of Development and Employment of Weapon Systems  

E-print Network

Weapons procurement decisions are extremely complex, with an unmanageable quantity of variables to take into account. The human brain, unable to process such a complex problem in a strictly rational way, seeks mechanisms ...

Gillespie, Daniel M.

2008-10-23

446

Model National Implementing Legislation for the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

It is an honor to address this distinguished audience. We are grateful to the Republique Gabonaise for hosting this important gathering and to the staff of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) for supporting it. This seminar is another excellent opportunity for all of us to learn from each other about how the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) can become a foundation of arms control in Africa and around the world. At this meeting we speak only for ourselves, neither for the government of the United States of America nor for any other institution. This paper discusses model national implementing legislation under the CWC. Every State Party likely must enact implementing legislation - not only the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons programme.

Tanzman, E.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kellman, B. [DePaul University, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31

447

Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

Law, K. K.

2013-12-01

448

Update Direct-Strike Lightning Environment for Stockpile-to-Target Sequence  

SciTech Connect

The University of Florida has surveyed all relevant publications reporting lightning characteristics and presents here an up-to-date version of the direct-strike lightning environment specifications for nuclear weapons published in 1989 by R. J. Fisher and M. A. Uman. Further, we present functional expressions for current vs. time, current derivative vs. time, second current derivative vs. time, charge transfer vs. time, and action integral (specific energy) vs. time for first return strokes, for subsequent return strokes, and for continuing currents; and we give sets of constants for these expressions so that they yield approximately the median and extreme negative lightning parameters presented in this report. Expressions for the median negative lightning waveforms are plotted. Finally, we provide information on direct-strike lightning damage to metals such as stainless steel, which could be used as components of storage containers for nuclear waste materials; and we describe UF's new experimental research program to add to the sparse data base on the properties of positive lightning. Our literature survey, referred to above, is included in four Appendices. The following four sections (II, III, IV, and V) of this final report deal with related aspects of the research: Section II. Recommended Direct-Strike Median and Extreme Parameters; Section III. Time-Domain Waveforms for First Strokes, Subsequent Strokes, and Continuing Currents; Section IV. Damage to Metal Surfaces by Lightning Currents; and Section V. Measurement of the Characteristics of Positive Lightning. Results of the literature search used to derive the material in Section II and Section IV are found in the Appendices: Appendix 1. Return Stroke Current, Appendix 2. Continuing Current, Appendix 3. Positive Lightning, and Appendix 4. Lightning Damage to Metal Surfaces.

Uman, M A; Rakov, V A; Elisme, J O; Jordan, D M; Biagi, C J; Hill, J D

2008-10-01

449

Is (?)Catechin a Novel Weapon of Spotted Knapweed ( Centaurea stoebe )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel weapons hypothesis states that some invasive weed species owe part of their success as invaders to allelopathy mediated\\u000a by allelochemicals that are new to the native species. Presumably, no resistance has evolved among the native species to this\\u000a new allelochemical (i.e., the novel weapon). In their native habitat, however, the plants that co-evolved with these invasive\\u000a species have

Stephen O. Duke; Amy C. Blair; Franck E. Dayan; Robert D. Johnson; Kumudini M. Meepagala; Daniel Cook; Joanna Bajsa

2009-01-01

450

Weapons-grade plutonium disposition in pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been conducted to demonstrate that weapons-grade plutonium can be readily disposed of by utilizing it as a fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The disposition can be achieved by first fabricating the weapons-grade plutonium into a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel form and then irradiating it in either advanced or existing PWRs to a depleted level similar to commercial spent

D. Biswas; R. W. Rathbun; S. Y. Lee; M. R. Buckner

1995-01-01

451

Database for chemical weapons detection: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quick increase of terrorism and asymmetric war is leading towards new needs involving defense and security. Nowadays we have to fight several kind of threats and use of chemical weapons against civil or military objectives is one of the most dangerous. For this reason it is necessary to find equipment, know-how and information that are useful in order to detect and identify dangerous molecules as quickly and far away as possible, so to minimize damage. Lidar/Dial are some of the most powerful optical technologies. Dial technology use two different wavelengths, in order to measure concentration profile of an investigated molecule. For this reason it is needed a "fingerprint" database which consists of an exhaustive collection of absorption coefficients data so to identify each molecule avoiding confusion with interfering ones. Nowadays there is not such a collection of data in scientific and technical literature. We used an FT-IR spectrometer and a CO2 laser source for absorption spectroscopy measurements using cells filled with the investigated molecules. The CO2 source is the transmitter of our DIAL facility. In this way we can make a proper "fingerprint" database necessary to identify dangerous molecules. The CO2 laser has been chosen because it is eye safe and, mainly, because it covers a spectral band where there is good absorption for this kind of molecules. In this paper IR spectra of mustard will be presented and compared to other substances which may interfere producing a false alarm. Methodology, experimental setup and first results are described.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.; Antonucci, A.; Pasquino, F.; Ricci, V.; Sassolini, A.

2008-10-01

452

Novel lightweight uncooled thermal weapon sight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INO in collaboration with DRDC Valcartier has been involved in the design and development of uncooled IR bolometric detector technology since the early 1990s for a broad range of military and commercial applications. From the beginning, the strategy has been to develop small-size bidimensional detector arrays and specialty linear arrays, both equipped with on-chip readout electronics. The detector arrays have been implemented in various instruments for both imaging and non-imaging applications. This paper describes two TWS1 and TWS2 prototypes of single band thermal weapon sights (TWS) making use of a novel catadioptric, i.e. refractive/reflective, optics and INO's miniature IR cameras. These cameras employ a 160x120 pixel uncooled bolometric FPA with a 52 ?m pitch and NETD at 50 mK, and modular electronics consisting of three boards stacked together to fit into a 3-inch cube volume. The ultra lightweight catadioptric objective is inherently athermalized in the -30°C to +40°C range. The TWS1 is also equipped with a miniature RF link allowing bi-directional video transmission. This TWS1 weighs only 900 g and has a total volume of about 75 in3. Its power consumption is 2 W. The experimental performance showed that human detection, recognition and identification could be achieved at 800 m, 200 m, and 120 m, respectively. Construction of an improved TWS2 model is in progress. The objective is the reduction of TWS2 model weight down to 700 g, its volume down to 50 in3, replacing the RF video link with a wireless digital link, and increasing resolution to 320x240 pixels.

Bergeron, Alain; Jerominek, Hubert; Lacoursiere, Jean; Desnoyers, Nichola; Alain, Christine; Laou, Philips

2004-08-01

453

Development of Designer Diamond Technology for High Pressure High Temperature Experiments in Support of Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect

The role of nitrogen in the fabrication of designer diamond was systematically investigated by adding controlled amount of nitrogen in hydrogen/methane/oxygen plasma. This has led to a successful recipe for reproducible fabrication of designer diamond anvils for high-pressure high-temperature research in support of stockpile stewardship program. In the three-year support period, several designer diamonds fabricated with this new growth chemistry were utilized in high-pressure experiments at UAB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The designer diamond anvils were utilized in high-pressure studies on heavy rare earth metals, high pressure melting studies on metals, and electrical resistance measurements on iron-based layered superconductors under high pressures. The growth chemistry developed under NNSA support can be adapted for commercial production of designer diamonds.

Vohra, Yogesh, K.

2009-10-28

454

Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East: What is the proper response. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of chemical weapons in the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Africa in recent regional and ethnic conflicts illustrates the proliferation of chemical weapons and use in the Third World. The use of these weapons has been indiscriminate and intentionally directed at noncombatants and combatants. This paper will focus on chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. This paper

DeShazer

1990-01-01

455

Environmental Effects of Weapons Technology, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes a general account of the environmental effects of modern weapons technology, a selection of news reports demonstrating the peacetime hazards of chemical and biological weapons, data on the physiological effects of the most common chemical weapons, a discussion of the hazards of biological weapons, a report of…

McClintock, Michael; And Others

456

Probabilistic Representation of the Threat and Consequences of Weapon Attacks on Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Homeland Security has determined that external weapon threats due to surface-air missiles, as well as some conventional weapons, pose a serious threat to commercial aircraft. Many factors that are highly random in nature (such as the type of missile or weapon used, the proximity and orientation of the warhead\\/weapon detonation with respect to the aircraft, the structural

John P. Caffrey; Sami F Masri

2005-01-01

457

Biological weapons--the poor man`s nuke. Research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological warfare is one leg of the triad of weapons of mass destruction (coupled with nuclear and chemical weapons). Biological weapons pose a significant threat to the United States military and public population across the spectrum of conflict. There is, however, little common knowledge of the insidious yet devastating potential of these weapons. This paper is written for the lay

B. R. Schneider; T. N. Mayer

1995-01-01

458

Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons  

E-print Network

, remote detection, social influ- ence #12;1 Introduction Biological weapons (BW) are weapons of mass destruction capable of causing massive damage [21]. These weapons have a long history [18, 38, 28Systematic Assessment of Nation-States' Motivations and Capabilities to Produce Biological Weapons

459

Analyses of battle casualties by weapon type aboard U.S. Navy warships.  

PubMed

The number of casualties was determined for 513 incidents involving U.S. Navy warships sunk or damaged during World War II. Ship type and weapon were significant factors in determining the numbers of wounded and killed. Multiple weapon attacks and kamikazes yielded more wounded in action than other weapon types. Multiple weapons and torpedos resulted in a higher incidence of killed in action than other weapons. Penetrating wounds and burns were the most prominent injury types. Kamikaze attacks yielded significantly more burns than incidents involving bombs, gunfire, torpedos, mines, and multiple weapons. Mine explosions were responsible for more strains, sprains, and dislocations than the other weapon types. PMID:1603403

Blood, C G

1992-03-01

460

Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction  

SciTech Connect

The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It's short half-life of 20-55 sec makes it distinct from neutron activation due to the interrogation that is typically much longer lived. This work spawned a collaboration with LBNL where experiments verified the abundance and other characteristics of this new signature [24]. Follow-on work funded by DoE/NA22 led to the development of a detailed system concept and evaluation of its impact on operating personnel and cargos [60] and characterization of one important interference that was identified [61]. The follow-on work led to two patent applications at LBNL and LLNL. The signature flux, while small, is 2-5 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. The actual benefit is highly dependent on the type and thickness of cargo, with modest benefit in the case of metallic cargos of iron, lead, or aluminum, but maximum benefit in the case of hydrogenous cargo. In addition, unwanted collateral effects of the interrogation, such as neutron activation of the cargo, were analyzed [60] and one significant interference due to oxygen activation was characterized. This interference can be eliminated by lowering the energy of interrogating neutrons [60] and no others have yet been identified. The neutron source technology required exists commercially. Follow-on work to produce a laboratory prototype and to engage a commercial partner for development of a prototype to be fielded at a port was initially funded by DOE/NA-22 is currently supported by DHS. That support is expected to continue through FY06.

Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

2004-02-18

461

Surplus weapons-grade plutonium: a resource for exploring and terraforming Mars  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the Cold War, greater than 100 metric tons (MT) of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) have become surplus to defense needs in the United States and the Former Soviet Union. This paper is a proposal for an option for WGPu disposition, i.e., use of the plutonium as a fuel for nuclear reactors for Mars exploration and eventual terraforming. WGPu was used in nuclear weapons because it has a much smaller critical mass than highly enriched uranium, allowing lighter weapons with consequent longer ranges. Similarly, WGPu reactors would also require smaller amounts of fuel to attain a critical mass, making the reactor much lighter overall and resulting in large savings in launch costs. The greater than 100 MT of WGPu would generate about 1000 billion kilowatt hours of heat energy, much of which could be converted into electricity. The waste heat would also be useful to a Martian outpost or colony. A potential way of getting the WGPu reactors into space is a large gas gun like that being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to orbit materials by achieving high velocity at the surface, greatly reducing launch costs and enhancing reliability. Reactor components would be launched on conventional rockets or space shuttles, the reactor fuel rods would be injected into orbit using the gas gun, and the reactor would be assembled in space. Implementation of this proposal would allow disposition of a serious, expensive problem on earth by removing the WGPu from the planet and simultaneously provide a very large energy resource for Mars exploration and terraforming.

Muscatello, A.C.; Houts, M.G.

1996-12-31

462

Industry weapons grow in bifouling battle  

SciTech Connect

Macrofouling holds the industry's full attention - again. Thank the zebra mussel for that. Never have the United States' fresh water bodies been more threatened, nor have power plants faced greater challenges from waterborne creatures. Earlier, Asian clams prompted a flurry of preventive activity. Before that, saltwater barnacles and marine blue mussels led the pack of waterborne nuisances. Each still threatens power plant reliability. This paper reports that now joined by the zebra mussel to form a macroinvertebrate gang of four, the group is sending plant operating and maintenance costs sky high.

Rittenhouse, R.C.

1991-10-01

463

MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes  

SciTech Connect

The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

2000-01-01

464

Delivery point reliability measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability is one of the most important criteria which must be taken into consideration during the planning, designing and operating phases of any industrial, commercial or utility power system. Two distinct reliability assessment methodologies are frequently used to evaluate the reliability performance of power systems: 1) historical reliability assessment, i.e. the collection and analysis of system outage data; and 2)

A. A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

1996-01-01

465

Transmission reliability performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission reliability performance assessment is undergoing a basic change due to the changes in the electric transmission industry. While fundamental concepts of transmission reliability performance assessment have not changed key trends in the industry signal the need for industry stakeholders to assess transmission reliability data collection capabilities and performance metrics to ensure continued grid reliability and economic benefits of an

E. A. Kram

2006-01-01

466

Delivery point reliability measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliability is one of the most important criteria which must be taken into consideration during the planning, designing and operating phases of any industrial, commercial or electric utility power system. Two distinct reliability assessment methodologies are frequently used to evaluate the reliability performance of power systems. They are: (1) historical reliability assessment, i.e., the collection and analysis of system outage

Ali A. Chowdhury; D. O. Koval

1995-01-01

467

Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities  

SciTech Connect

A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

2013-07-01

468

New approach for detecting and classifying concealed weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possession of a weapon in the courtroom of our American justice system is a Federal offense. A weapon in the courtroom is a particularly serious problem for judges, plaintiffs, defendants, and bystanders because of the emotional nature and environment of the courtroom. Potential violators include organized criminals and gangsters, individuals with personal vendettas, and otherwise sane and reasonable people who, because of the emotion of the moment, lose sight of right and wrong in our justice system. Most Federal courthouses incorporate some sort of metal detection apparatus used to screen and prevent individuals from carrying personal weapons into courtrooms. These devices are considered conventional in the sense that they employ an active electromagnetic induction technique that is sensitive to the presence of metal. This technique provides no information concerning the massiveness and location of the offending metal object and is prone to false alarms. This work introduces an alternative method for weapons discrimination that is based on passive magnetics technology in concert with simple comparative algorithms such that massiveness and location of suspected weapons may be determined. Since this system provides information not available from conventional metal detectors, false alarms will be greatly reduced, allowing remote monitoring of all entrances into a courtroom from a single vantage point, thereby saving considerable resources used on personnel costs.

Roybal, Lyle G.; Rice, Philip M.; Manhardt, Joseph M.

1997-02-01

469

Biophysics and medical effects of enhanced radiation weapons.  

PubMed

Enhanced radiation weapons (ERW) are fission-fusion devices where the massive numbers of neutrons generated during the fusion process are intentionally allowed to escape rather than be confined to increase yield (and fallout products). As a result, the energy partition of the weapon output shifts from blast and thermal energies toward prompt radiation. The neutron/gamma output ratio is also increased. Neutrons emitted from ERW are of higher energy than the Eave of neutrons from fission weapons. These factors affect the patterns of injury distribution; delay wound healing in combined injuries; reduce the therapeutic efficacy of medical countermeasures; and increase the dose to radiation-only casualties, thus potentiating the likelihood of encountering radiation-induced incapacitation. The risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is also increased. Radiation exposure to first responders from activation products is increased over that expected from a fission weapon of similar yield. However, the zone of dangerous fallout is significantly reduced in area. At least four nations have developed the potential to produce such weapons. Although the probability of detonation of an ERW in the near future is very small, it is nonzero, and clinicians and medical planners should be aware of the medical effects of ERW. PMID:22951473

Reeves, Glen I

2012-08-01

470

Chemical and biological weapons in the 'new wars'.  

PubMed

The strategic use of disease and poison in warfare has been subject to a longstanding and cross-cultural taboo that condemns the hostile exploitation of poisons and disease as the act of a pariah. In short, biological and chemical weapons are simply not fair game. The normative opprobrium is, however, not fixed, but context dependent and, as a social phenomenon, remains subject to erosion by social (or more specifically, antisocial) actors. The cross cultural understanding that fighting with poisons and disease is reprehensible, that they are taboo, is codified through a web of interconnected measures, principal amongst these are the 1925 Geneva Protocol; the Biological Weapons Convention; and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Whilst these treaties have weathered the storm of international events reasonably well, their continued health is premised on their being 'tended to' in the face of contextual changes, particularly facing changes in science and technology, as well as the changed nature and character of conflict. This article looks at the potential for normative erosion of the norm against chemical and biological weapons in the face of these contextual changes and the creeping legitimization of chemical and biological weapons. PMID:24132385

Ilchmann, Kai; Revill, James

2014-09-01

471

Mobile and stationary laser weapon demonstrators of Rheinmetall Waffe Munition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For some years Rheinmetall Waffe Munition has successfully developed, realised and tested a variety of versatile high energy laser (HEL) weapon systems for air- and ground-defence scenarios like C-RAM, UXO clearing. By employing beam superimposition technology and a modular laser weapon concept, the total optical power has been successively increased. Stationary weapon platforms and now military mobile vehicles were equipped with high energy laser effectors. Our contribution summarises the most recent development stages of Rheinmetalls high energy laser weapon program. We present three different vehicle based HEL demonstrators: the 5 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Track V integrated in an M113 tank, the 20 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX integrated in a multirole armoured vehicle GTK Boxer 8x8 and the 50 kW class Mobile HEL Effector Container L integrated in a reinforced container carried by an 8x8 truck. As a highlight, a stationary 30 kW Laser Weapon Demonstrator shows the capability to defeat saturated attacks of RAM targets and unmanned aerial vehicles. 2013 all HEL demonstrators were tested in a firing campaign at the Rheinmetall testing centre in Switzerland. Major results of these tests are presented.

Ludewigt, K.; Riesbeck, Th.; Baumgärtel, Th.; Schmitz, J.; Graf, A.; Jung, M.

2014-10-01

472

Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).  

SciTech Connect

Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or contaminants that can cause movable structures to adhere. These analysis methods also indicated significant variability in the coverage of lubricating molecules from one coating process to another, even for identical processing conditions. The variability was due to residual molecules left in the deposition chamber after incomplete cleaning. The coating process was modified to result in improved uniformity and total coverage. Still, a direct correlation was found between the resulting static friction behavior of MEMS interfaces, and the absolute monolayer coverage. While experimental results indicated that many devices would fail to start after aging, the modeling approach used here predicted that all the devices should start. Adhesion modeling based upon values of adhesion energy from cantilever beams is therefore inadequate. Material deposition that bridged gaps was observed in some devices, and potentially inhibits start-up more than the adhesion model indicates. Advances were made in our ability to model MEMS devices, but additional combined experimental-modeling studies will be needed to advance the work to a point of providing predictive capability. The methodology developed here should prove useful in future assessments of device aging, however. Namely, it consisted of measuring interface properties, determining how they change with time, developing a model of device behavior incorporating interface behavior, and then using the age-aware interface behavior model to predict device function.

Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

2006-06-01

473

Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as KR-20 coefficients and…

Mislevy, Robert J.

2004-01-01

474

Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

Not Available

1992-12-31

475

DOE weapons laboratories' contributions to the nation's defense technology base  

SciTech Connect

The question of how the Department of Energy (DOE) weapons laboratories can contribute to a stronger defense technology base is addressed in testimony before the Subcommittee on Defense Industry and Technology of the Senate Armed Services Committee. The importance of the defense technology base is described, the DOE technology base is also described, and some technology base management and institutional issues are discussed. Suggestions are given for promoting a more stable, long-term relationship between the DOE weapons laboratories and the Department of Defense. 12 refs., 2 figs.

Hecker, S.S.

1988-04-01

476

Construction, parameters, and research results of thermal weapon sight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the thermal sight for small arms weapons, which can be classified as 3rd gen thermal camera. The sight operates in LWIR (long wave infrared) spectra band and utilizes uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) with stabilized temperature (by means of Peltier module). The assumed technical and tactical characteristics of the presented sight were confirmed during laboratory test (including climate and vibration tests). The sight was also tested during field trials conducted at Military Institute of Armament Technology, where it was mounted on seven different weapon types with calibers from 5.56 to 12.7 mm.

Sosnowski, Tomasz; Madura, Henryk; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Kastek, Mariusz; Chmielewski, Krzysztof

2011-08-01

477

The future of nonnuclear strategic weapons. Final summary report  

SciTech Connect

In this brief study, Pan Heuristics (PAN) has (1) evaluated the future importance of nonnuclear strategic weapons (NNSW), (2) considered their impact on forces and operations, and (3) investigated the technical requirements to support NNSW. In drawing conclusions, PAN has emphasized aspects that might be important to Los Alamos National Laboratory over the long run. It presents them here in a format similar to that used in a briefing at the laboratory. This paper reflects independent PAN research as well as conclusions drawn from discussions with other offices and individuals involved in nonnuclear strategic weapons development.

Brody, R.; Digby, J. [Pan Heuristics, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

1989-01-31

478

Deterring weapons of mass destruction terrorism. Master`s thesis  

SciTech Connect

This thesis examines terrorist acts involving the use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against unsuspecting civilians by the Aum Shinrikyo and Rajneesh cults. The proliferation of WMD (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) has created a concern that terrorists might use WMD. Despite obvious signs, these groups were not identified as terrorists until after they committed terrorist attacks. This thesis identifies common characteristics of terrorists that have used WMD in the past and generates indicators of non-state actors that might commit WMD terrorism in the future.

LeHardy, F.A.

1997-12-01

479

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

480

Power electronics reliability analysis.  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

2009-12-01

481

Development of Designer Diamond Anvils for High Pressure-High-Temperature Experiments in Support of the Stockpile Stewardship Program  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) is to develop the next generation of designer diamond anvils that can perform simultaneous joule heating and temperature profile measurements in a diamond anvil cell. A series of tungsten-rhenium thermocouples will be fabricated onto to the anvil and encapsulated by a chemical vapor deposited diamond layer to allow for a complete temperature profile measurement across the anvil. The tip of the diamond anvil will be engineered to reduce the thermal conductivity so that the tungsten-heating coils can be deposited on top of this layer. Several different approaches will be investigated to engineer the tip of the diamond anvil for reduction in thermal conductivity (a) isotopic mixture of 12C and 13C in the diamond layer, (b) doping of diamond with impurities (nitrogen and/or boron), and (c) growing diamond in a higher concentration of methane in hydrogen plasma. Under this academic alliance with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), PI and his graduate students will use the lithographic and diamond polishing facility at LLNL. This proposed next generation of designer diamond anvils will allow multi-tasking capability with the ability to measure electrical, magnetic, structural and thermal data on actinide materials with unparallel sensitivity in support of the stockpile stewardship program.

Yogesh K. Vohra

2005-05-12

482

Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass  

SciTech Connect

A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process.

Barrena, R. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Canovas, C. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, A. [Escola Universitaria Politecnica del Medi Ambient, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Rbla Pompeu Fabra 1, 08100-Mollet del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: asanchez@eupma.uab.es

2006-07-01

483

Public perspectives of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of public perceptions of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war environment. Participants included 1,301 members of the general public, 1,155 randomly selected members of the Union of Concerned Scientists, and 1,226 employees randomly selected from the technical staffs of four DOE national laboratories. A majority of respondents from all three samples perceived the post-cold war security environment to pose increased likelihood of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and nuclear terrorism. Public perceptions of nuclear weapons threats, risks, utilities, and benefits were found to systematically affect nuclear weapons policy preferences in predictable ways. Highly significant relationships were also found between public trust and nuclear weapons policy preferences. As public trust and official government information about nuclear weapons increased, perceptions of nuclear weapons management risks decreased and perceptions of nuclear weapons utilities and benefits increased. A majority of respondents favored decreasing funding for: (1) developing and testing new nuclear weapons; (2) maintaining existing nuclear weapons, and (3) maintaining the ability to develop and improve nuclear weapons. Substantial support was found among all three groups for increasing funding for: (1) enhancing nuclear weapons safety; (2) training nuclear weapons personnel; (3) preventing nuclear proliferation; and (4) preventing nuclear terrorism. Most respondents considered nuclear weapons to be a persistent feature of the post-cold war security environment.

Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Herron, K.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Institute for Public Policy; Barke, R.P. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Public Policy

1994-04-01

484

Reliability and structural integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

Davidson, J. R.

1976-01-01

485

Reliability as Argument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reliability consists of both important social and scientific values and methods for evidencing those values, though in practice methods are often conflated with the values. With the two distinctly understood, a reliability argument can be made that articulates the particular reliability values most relevant to the particular measurement situation…

Parkes, Jay

2007-01-01

486

Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

1971-01-01

487

The Weapon Systems Management Concept and Electronic Data Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the lack of significant progress in the application of electronic computers for expanding the scope of systems of information flow. The weapon systems management concept, and more particularly its civilian counterpart the product mission concept, is presented as a possible frame of reference for top management and systems analysts to use in long-range planning. The

Jim Rosenzweig

1960-01-01

488

Nuclear-weapons dismantlement: Identifying a hidden warhead  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A means of verifying that nuclear warheads to be dismantled are genuine items has been proposed that potentially reveals no information to an inspector about the design of the weapons. Two experts explain the ins and outs of the method and its implications for arms-control policy. See Article p.497

Finney, John; Acton, James M.

2014-06-01

489

Psychology and Nuclear Weapon Issues: Topics, Concepts, and Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document outlines 15 topics, each with concepts and selected references, to illustrate the relevance of psychology for understanding and coping with the threat of nuclear war. Awareness of the literature is intended to encourage psychologists to become more active in applying psychological concepts to nuclear weapons issues. The articles and…

Nelson, Linden, Comp.

490

The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2, "Peace…

Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

491

The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System: Interface Design Project  

E-print Network

Tomahawk cruise missile. The goals of this project were to: Design, develop and test interface conceptsThe Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System: Interface Design Project Student Team: Julie, and Alan Thomas Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren, VA E-mail HarmanWL@nswc.navy.mil KEYWORDS: Cruise

Virginia, University of

492

Information discovery from complementary literatures: Categorizing viruses as potential weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using novel informatics techniques to process the output of Medline searches, we have generated a list of viruses that may have the potential for development as weapons. Our findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that might then lead to appropriate defense and public health measures. This article stresses methods that are more

Don R. Swanson; Neil R. Smalheiser; Abraham Bookstein

2001-01-01

493

WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

494

Proceedings of the Tungsten Workshop for Hard Target Weapons Program  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this meeting was to review and exchange information and provide technical input for improving technologies relevant to the Hard Target Weapons Program. This workshop was attended by representatives from 17 organizations, including 4 Department of Defense (DoD) agencies, 8 industrial companies, and 5 laboratories within DOE. Hard targets are defined as reinforced underground structures that house enemy forces, weapon systems, and support equipment. DOE-ORO and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) have been involved in advanced materials research and development (R&D) for several DOE and DoD programs. These programs are conducted in close collaboration with Eglin AFB, Department of the Army`s Picatinny Arsenal, and other DoD agencies. As part of this ongoing collaboration, Eglin AFB and Oak Ridge National Laboratory planned and conducted this workshop to support the Hard Target Weapons Program. The objectives of this workshop were to (1) review and identify the technology base that exists (primarily due to anti-armor applications) and assess the applicability of this technology to the Hard Target Weapons Program requirements; (2) determine future directions to establish the W materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies suitable for use in fixed, hard target penetrators; and (3) identify and prioritize the potential areas for technical collaboration among the participants.

Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Hayden, H.W.; Davis, R.M.

1995-06-01

495

Plant-pathogenic bacteria as biological weapons - real threats?  

PubMed

At present, much attention is being given to the potential of plant pathogens, including plant-pathogenic bacteria, as biological weapons/bioterror weapons. These two terms are sometimes used interchangeably and there is need for care in their application. It has been claimed that clandestine introduction of certain plant-pathogenic bacteria could cause such crop losses as to impact so significantly on a national economy and thus constitute a threat to national security. As a separate outcome, it is suggested that they could cause serious public alarm, perhaps constituting a source of terror. Legislation is now in place to regulate selected plant-pathogenic bacteria as potential weapons. However, we consider it highly doubtful that any plant-pathogenic bacterium has the requisite capabilities to justify such a classification. Even if they were so capable, the differentiation of pathogens into a special category with regulations that are even more restrictive than those currently applied in quarantine legislation of most jurisdictions offers no obvious benefit. Moreover, we believe that such regulations are disadvantageous insofar as they limit research on precisely those pathogens most in need of study. Whereas some human and animal pathogens may have potential as biological or bioterror weapons, we conclude that it is unlikely that any plant-pathogenic bacterium realistically falls into this category. PMID:18943451

Young, J M; Allen, C; Coutinho, T; Denny, T; Elphinstone, J; Fegan, M; Gillings, M; Gottwald, T R; Graham, J H; Iacobellis, N S; Janse, J D; Jacques, M-A; Lopez, M M; Morris, C E; Parkinson, N; Prior, P; Pruvost, O; Neto, J Rodrigues; Scortichini, M; Takikawa, Y; Upper, C D

2008-10-01

496

Physiological Effects of a Conducted Electrical Weapon on Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: Sudden death after a conducted electrical weapon exposure has not been well studied. We examine the effects of a single Taser exposure on markers of physiologic stress in healthy humans. Methods: This is a prospective trial investigating the effects of a single Taser exposure. As part of their police training, 32 healthy law enforcement officers received a 5-second

Gary M. Vilke; Christian M. Sloane; Katie D. Bouton; Fred W. Kolkhorst; Saul D. Levine; Tom S. Neuman; Edward M. Castillo; Theodore C. Chan

2007-01-01

497

Less-lethal munitions as extended-range impact weapons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the proliferation of 'suicide by cop' incidents, the concept of less lethal (LL) impact munitions has definitely caught on. There is much to be said for sterile laboratory testing and wound ballistic studies, but having 'real world' operational data is invaluable. Two years ago, a data base was set up to collect this information. The data base continues to grow with incidents from a cross the country and others pursued internationally. Indications are that LL munitions deliver a simila