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Sample records for straight line method

  1. 26 CFR 1.167(b)-1 - Straight line method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the account. An example of the computation of a classified or composite rate follows: Cost or... Straight line method. (a) In general. Under the straight line method the cost or other basis of the... examples: Example 1. Under the straight line method items may be depreciated separately: Year and item...

  2. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  3. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE....9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In general. The... certain railroads which changed from the retirement to the straight-line method of computing the...

  4. [Local straight line screening method for the detection of Chinese proprietary medicines containing undeclared prescription drugs].

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Cao, Yan; Le, Jian; Chen, Gui-Liang; Chai, Yi-Feng; Lu, Feng

    2009-02-01

    The present paper constructs a new approach named local straight-line screening (LSLS) to detect Chinese proprietary medicines (CPM) containing undeclared prescription drugs (UPD). Different from traditional methods used in analysis of multi-component spectrum, LSLS is proposed according to the characteristics of original infrared spectra of the UPD and suspected CPM, without any pattern recognition or concentration model establishment. Spectrum-subtraction leads to the variance in local straight line, which serves as a key in discrimination of whether suspected CPD is adulterated or not. Sibutramine hydrochloride, fenfluramine hydrochloride, sildenafil citrate and lovastatin were used as reference substances of UPD to analyze 16 suspected CPM samples. The results show that LSLS can obtain an accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis of suspected CPM. It is possible for the method to be potentially used in the preliminary screening of CPM containing possible UPD. PMID:19445196

  5. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In... computing the allowance of deductions for the depreciation of those roadway assets which are defined in...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In... computing the allowance of deductions for the depreciation of those roadway assets which are defined in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In... computing the allowance of deductions for the depreciation of those roadway assets which are defined in...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9001-1 - Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of computing depreciation. 1.9001-1 Section 1.9001-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Valuations § 1.9001-1 Change from retirement to straight-line method of computing depreciation. (a) In... computing the allowance of deductions for the depreciation of those roadway assets which are defined in...

  9. A Method of Producing High-Quality Linear Field Gradient for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Straight Current Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Ikeya, Motoji

    1991-09-01

    A new method for generating a highly linear field gradient in a large space is described. The coil system consists of N equispaced parallel current lines placed on a cylinder perpendicular to the static magnetic field. The wires generate a gradient of any accuracy depending on N and in any direction in a plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis by controlling the current of each wire independently. The accuracy of the gradient using 16 infinite-length wires is less than 0.3% in the 60% region in diameter of the cylinder. An ESR-CT image of a DPPH test sample was obtained using this system of 16 wires.

  10. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

  11. A new primary cleft lip repair technique tailored for Asian patients that combines three surgical concepts: Comparison with rotation--advancement and straight-line methods.

    PubMed

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Various techniques have been described for unilateral cleft lip repair. These may be broadly classified into three types of procedure/concept: the straight-line method (SL; Rose-Thompson effect); rotation-advancement (RA; upper-lip Z-plasty); and the triangular flap method (TA; lower-lip Z-plasty). Based on these procedures, cleft lip repair has evolved in recent decades. The cleft lip repair method in our institution has also undergone several changes. However, we have found that further modifications are needed for Asian patients who have wider philtral dimples and columns than Caucasians, while following the principles of the original techniques mentioned above. Here, we have incorporated the advantages of each procedure and propose a refined hybrid operating technique, seeking a more appropriate procedure for Asian patients. To evaluate our new technique, a comparison study was performed to evaluate RA, SL, and our technique. We have used our new technique to treat 137 consecutive cleft lip cases of all types and degrees of severity, with or without a cleft palate, since 2009. In the time since we adopted the hybrid technique, we have observed improved esthetics of the repaired lip. Our technique demonstrated higher glance impression average scores than RA/SL. PMID:26653337

  12. Straight-line climbing flight aerodynamics of a fruit bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, K.; Nagendra, K.; Cotter, J.; Frauenthal, M.; Tafti, D. K.

    2014-02-01

    From flight data obtained on a fruit bat, Cynopterus brachyotis, a kinematic model for straight-line flapping motion is extracted and analyzed in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) framework to gain insight into the complexity of bat flight. The intricate functional mechanics and architecture of the bat wings set it apart from other vertebrate flight. The extracted kinematic model is simulated for a range of Reynolds numbers, to observe the effect these phenomena have on the unsteady transient mechanisms of the flow produced by the flapping wings. The Strouhal number calculated from the data is high indicating that the oscillatory motion dominates the flow physics. From the obtained data, the bat exhibits fine control of its mechanics by actively varying wing camber, wing area, torsional rotation of the wing, forward and backward translational sweep of the wing, and wing conformation to dictate the fluid dynamics. As is common in flapping flight, the primary force generation is through the attached unsteady vortices on the wing surface. The bat through varying the wing camber and the wing area modulates this force output. The power requirement for the kinematics is analyzed and correlated with the aerodynamic performance.

  13. Online machine vision method for measuring the diameter and straightness of seamless steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; You, Qiang; Qiu, Yu; Ye, Shenghua

    2001-11-01

    We present a novel method to measure the diameter and straightness of seamless steel pipes. A pair of line-structured lasers, which locate on different sides of the pipe but are in a common plane, cast on the pipe to create two elliptical arcs. Two CCD cameras capture these two arcs. Major and minor axis radii and spatial 3D coordinates of every corresponding elliptical cross-section center can be calculated through ellipse fitting. A pair of line-structured laser sensors, each of which includes a line-structured laser and a CCD camera, are placed at every sampling cross section of the pipe, and thus the pipe's cross-section diameter and furthermore the straightness of the pipe can be solved. We provide an on-line machine vision method for measuring a seamless steel pipe's diameter and straightness, including the design of the system, the deduction of the mathematical model, and the research of the experimental results.

  14. Parallel Hough Transform-based straight line detection and its FPGA implementation in embedded vision.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Song, Li; Shen, Sumin; He, Kang; Yu, Songyu; Ling, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Hough Transform has been widely used for straight line detection in low-definition and still images, but it suffers from execution time and resource requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) provide a competitive alternative for hardware acceleration to reap tremendous computing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel parallel Hough Transform (PHT) and FPGA architecture-associated framework for real-time straight line detection in high-definition videos. A resource-optimized Canny edge detection method with enhanced non-maximum suppression conditions is presented to suppress most possible false edges and obtain more accurate candidate edge pixels for subsequent accelerated computation. Then, a novel PHT algorithm exploiting spatial angle-level parallelism is proposed to upgrade computational accuracy by improving the minimum computational step. Moreover, the FPGA based multi-level pipelined PHT architecture optimized by spatial parallelism ensures real-time computation for 1,024 × 768 resolution videos without any off-chip memory consumption. This framework is evaluated on ALTERA DE2-115 FPGA evaluation platform at a maximum frequency of 200 MHz, and it can calculate straight line parameters in 15.59 ms on the average for one frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results have validated the system performance regarding data throughput, memory bandwidth, resource, speed and robustness. PMID:23867746

  15. Parallel Hough Transform-Based Straight Line Detection and Its FPGA Implementation in Embedded Vision

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Song, Li; Shen, Sumin; He, Kang; Yu, Songyu; Ling, Nam

    2013-01-01

    Hough Transform has been widely used for straight line detection in low-definition and still images, but it suffers from execution time and resource requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) provide a competitive alternative for hardware acceleration to reap tremendous computing performance. In this paper, we propose a novel parallel Hough Transform (PHT) and FPGA architecture-associated framework for real-time straight line detection in high-definition videos. A resource-optimized Canny edge detection method with enhanced non-maximum suppression conditions is presented to suppress most possible false edges and obtain more accurate candidate edge pixels for subsequent accelerated computation. Then, a novel PHT algorithm exploiting spatial angle-level parallelism is proposed to upgrade computational accuracy by improving the minimum computational step. Moreover, the FPGA based multi-level pipelined PHT architecture optimized by spatial parallelism ensures real-time computation for 1,024 × 768 resolution videos without any off-chip memory consumption. This framework is evaluated on ALTERA DE2-115 FPGA evaluation platform at a maximum frequency of 200 MHz, and it can calculate straight line parameters in 15.59 ms on the average for one frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation results have validated the system performance regarding data throughput, memory bandwidth, resource, speed and robustness. PMID:23867746

  16. 2D seismic data processing for straight lines in the loess plateaus in Fuxian of Shanbei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Minjie; Chen, Yequan; Zhang, Hai; Pang, Shangming; Deng, Guozhen

    2005-01-01

    The crooked seismic lines along valleys were irregular previously in Fuxian of Shanbei, showing an irregular branch in plane, and hard to complete close grids. Therefore, it’s difficult to conduct reservoir inversion of 2D seismic data. In 2001, Zhongyuan Oilfield Company carried out the study on field acquisition methods and seismic processing technology in Fuxian. Straight lines were passing through plateaus and formed seismic grids by using flexible geometry with variable linear bins. Data processing involved model-inversion based refraction static correction, surface consistent amplitude compensation, deconvolution, and pre-stack noise attenuation. As the result, seismic data with a high fidelity was provided for the subsequent reservoir predictions, small-amplitude structure interpretation and integrative geologic study. Because all lines were jointed to form grids, comprehensive interpretation of reservoir inversion could be finally implemented by using the pseudo logging method to control lines without wells.

  17. Comparison of tree and straight-line clocking for long systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Dikaiakos, M.D.; Steiglitz, K.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the critical problem in building long systolic arrays that lies in efficient and reliable synchronization. The authors address this problem in the context of synchronous systems by introducing probabilistic models for two alternative clock distribution schemes: tree and straight-line clocking. They present analytic bounds for the probability of failure and the mean time to failure, and examine the trade-offs between reliability and throughput in both schemes. Their basic conclusion is that as the one-dimensional systolic array gets very long, tree clocking becomes more advantageous over straight-line clocking.

  18. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. 1.9001 Section 1.9001 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §...

  19. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. 1.9001 Section 1.9001 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §...

  20. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. 1.9001 Section 1.9001 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9001...

  1. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. 1.9001 Section 1.9001 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9001 - Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statutory provisions; Retirement-Straight Line Adjustment Act of 1958. 1.9001 Section 1.9001 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations §...

  3. Pre-School Students' Informal Acquisitions Regarding the Concepts of Point and Straight Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbay, Keziban; Develi, Mehmet Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the informal cognitive structures regarding "point" and "straight line"--two basic and undefined terms of geometry--in children registered in preschool--the previous step before in-class formal education process. The study was conducted with the participation of 50 children enrolled in nursery,…

  4. A limit of validity of the straight line hypothesis in shaped charge jet formation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, J.P.; Kelly, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    A particular problem in the field of shaped charge jet formation modeling concerns the collision of two fluid streams of different widths and speeds. It is commonly assumed that the flow is incompressible, and that the velocity of the fluid in any of the streams is constant across and normal to its cross section. Then the well-known classically indeterminate mathematical problem arises. In the shaped charge context the indeterminacy of the problem has been addressed by making three assumptions about the flow. Several models have assumed that conservation of kinetic energy holds, and have applied Bernoulli{close_quote}s Law to equate the speeds of the jet and slug in a frame moving with the collision point. One natural choice for the third and final assumption is that the jet and slug lie in a straight line when viewed in this frame, the so-called straight line hypothesis. In this article the inclination of this line relative to the bisector of the two colliding streams is expressed as a function of the parameters of the incoming streams. It is shown that the angle between the jet and the incoming stream supplying momentum at the greater rate increases with the size of the angle between the incoming streams until it reaches a maximum value. It then decreases to zero. It is known that the straight line hypothesis is a good approximation for low values of the angle between the incoming streams, but becomes increasingly inaccurate as this angle increases. The above maximum appears to correspond to the limit of validity of the straight line hypothesis. Recommendations for the utilization of the existing formation models to achieve best accuracy are made, based on this limit.

  5. Simulations of Unsteady Aquatic Locomotion: From Unsteadiness in Straight-Line Swimming to Fast-Starts.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman

    2015-10-01

    Unsteady aquatic locomotion is not an exception, but rather how animals often swim. It includes fast-starts (C-start or S-start), escape maneuvers, turns, acceleration/deceleration, and even during steady locomotion the swimming speed fluctuates, i.e., there is unsteadiness. Here, a review of the recent work on unsteady aquatic locomotion with emphasis on numerical simulations is presented. The review is started by an overview of different theoretical and numerical methods that have been used for unsteady swimming, and then the insights provided by these methods on (1) unsteadiness in straight-line swimming and (2) unsteady fast-starts and turns are discussed. The swimming speed's unsteady fluctuations during straight-line swimming are typically less than 3% of the average swimming speed, but recent simulations show that body shape affects fluctuations more than does body kinematics, i.e., changing the shape of the body generates larger fluctuations than does changing its kinematics. For fast-starts, recent simulations show that the best motion to maximize the distance traveled from rest are similar to the experimentally observed C-start maneuvers. Furthermore, another set of simulations, which are validated against measurements of flow in experiments with live fish, investigate the role of fins during the C-start. The simulations showed that most of the force is generated by the body of the fish (not by fins) during the first stage of the C-start when the fish bends itself into the C-shape. However, in the second stage, when it rapidly bends out of the C-shape, more than 70% of the instantaneous hydrodynamic force is produced by the tail. The effect of dorsal and anal fins was less than 5% of the instantaneous force in both stages, except for a short period of time (2 ms) just before the second stage. Therefore, the active control and the erection of the anal/dorsal fins might be related to retaining the stability of the sunfish against roll and pitch during the C

  6. Using graphing calculator technology to support learning for straight line topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Zarkasi, Noorul Izzati

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a teaching and learning using graphing calculator technology module for a Straight Line topic, determine the pedagogical usability of the module and identify students' views on the benefits and barriers in using the module. The study is carried out in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of the module and phase 2 is a survey research using questionnaires. A sample of 30 form four students in a secondary school in the district of Sabak Bernam and 30 mathematics teachers from three different schools in district of Sabak Bernam, Hulu selangor and Kuala Selangor participated in this study. The instruments used in this study are students' views on the use of graphing calculator in mathematics teaching and learning process for a Straight Line topic and pedagogical usability questionnaires. The data are analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, percentage, and frequency. The results showed that the students have positive opinions about using graphing calculator in teaching and learning the Straight Line topic. The study also showed that the module developed has a high pedagogical usability. Based on the finding of this study, it is recommended that mathematics teachers will be able to make the best use of this graphing calculator technology in teaching and learning process to create a conducive learning environment.

  7. A Nationwide Comparison of Driving Distance Versus Straight-Line Distance to Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Boscoe, Francis P.; Henry, Kevin A.; Zdeb, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Many geographic studies use distance as a simple measure of accessibility, risk, or disparity. Straight-line (Euclidean) distance is most often used because of the ease of its calculation. Actual travel distance over a road network is a superior alternative, although historically an expensive and labor-intensive undertaking. This is no longer true, as travel distance and travel time can be calculated directly from commercial Web sites, without the need to own or purchase specialized geographic information system software or street files. Taking advantage of this feature, we compare straight-line and travel distance and travel time to community hospitals from a representative sample of more than 66,000 locations in the fifty states of the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The measures are very highly correlated (r2 > 0.9), but important local exceptions can be found near shorelines and other physical barriers. We conclude that for nonemergency travel to hospitals, the added precision offered by the substitution of travel distance, travel time, or both for straight-line distance is largely inconsequential. PMID:24273346

  8. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  9. Electrodynamic two-body problem for prescribed initial data on a straight line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, D.-A.; Hinrichs, G.

    2016-05-01

    Electrodynamic interaction between point charges can be described by a system of ODEs involving advanced and retarded delays - the so-called Fokker-Schwarzschild-Tetrode (FST) equations. In special situations, approximate equations can be derived which are purely retarded. Upon omission of the terms describing radiation friction, these are called Synge equations. In both cases, few mathematical results are available on existence and uniqueness of solutions. We investigate the situation of two like point-charges in 3 + 1 space-time dimensions restricted to motion on a straight line. We give a priori estimates on the asymptotic motion and, using a Leray-Schauder argument, prove: 1) Existence of solutions to the FST equations on the future or past half-line given finite trajectory segments; 2) Global existence of the Synge equations for Cauchy data; 3) Global existence of a FST toy model. Furthermore, we give a sufficient criterion that uniquely distinguishes solutions by means of finite trajectory segments.

  10. On the cost of approximating and recognizing a noise perturbed straight line or a quadratic curve segment in the plane. [central processing units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.; Yalabik, N.

    1975-01-01

    Approximation of noisy data in the plane by straight lines or elliptic or single-branch hyperbolic curve segments arises in pattern recognition, data compaction, and other problems. The efficient search for and approximation of data by such curves were examined. Recursive least-squares linear curve-fitting was used, and ellipses and hyperbolas are parameterized as quadratic functions in x and y. The error minimized by the algorithm is interpreted, and central processing unit (CPU) times for estimating parameters for fitting straight lines and quadratic curves were determined and compared. CPU time for data search was also determined for the case of straight line fitting. Quadratic curve fitting is shown to require about six times as much CPU time as does straight line fitting, and curves relating CPU time and fitting error were determined for straight line fitting. Results are derived on early sequential determination of whether or not the underlying curve is a straight line.

  11. On the computational cost of approximating and recognizing noise-perturbed straight lines and quadratic arcs in the plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.; Yalabik, N.

    1976-01-01

    Recognition of underlying straight lines and quadratic arcs in line drawings, and approximation of very noisy data by such line/curve segments, is addressed as a subproblem of the more general problem of optimum recognition of complicated line/curve drawings. Some specific algorithms are presented with extensions and interpretations for more complicated applications, and a data generation model is developed for the problem. Data are generated as a perturbation of a single underlying straight line or an elliptic or hyperbolic arc. Recursive estimation techniques, minimization of central processing unit time, decision making with controlled error probabilities, and modeling and recognition of pictures consisting of noisy curves are dealt with. Applications envisaged include: picture data compression, contour line representation in maps, intelligent data searches, and ballistic missile decoy tracking.

  12. The new moon illusion and the role of perspective in the perception of straight and parallel lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Naumenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In the new moon illusion, the sun does not appear to be in a direction perpendicular to the boundary between the lit and dark sides of the moon, and aircraft jet trails appear to follow curved paths across the sky. In both cases, lines that are physically straight and parallel to the horizon appear to be curved. These observations prompted us to investigate the neglected question of how we are able to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines. To do this, we asked observers to judge the 2-D alignment of three artificial "stars" projected onto the dome of the Saint Petersburg Planetarium that varied in both their elevation and their separation in horizontal azimuth. The results showed that observers make substantial, systematic errors, biasing their judgments away from the veridical great-circle locations and toward equal-elevation settings. These findings further demonstrate that whenever information about the distance of extended lines or isolated points is insufficient, observers tend to assume equidistance, and as a consequence, their straightness judgments are biased toward the angular separation of straight and parallel lines. PMID:25239097

  13. Straight Line Foraging in Yellow-Eyed Penguins: New Insights into Cascading Fisheries Effects and Orientation Capabilities of Marine Predators

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M.; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S.; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries’ impacts. PMID:24367656

  14. Straight line foraging in yellow-eyed penguins: new insights into cascading fisheries effects and orientation capabilities of marine predators.

    PubMed

    Mattern, Thomas; Ellenberg, Ursula; Houston, David M; Lamare, Miles; Davis, Lloyd S; van Heezik, Yolanda; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging marine predators rarely search for prey along straight lines because dynamic ocean processes usually require complex search strategies. If linear movement patterns occur they are usually associated with travelling events or migratory behaviour. However, recent fine scale tracking of flying seabirds has revealed straight-line movements while birds followed fishing vessels. Unlike flying seabirds, penguins are not known to target and follow fishing vessels. Yet yellow-eyed penguins from New Zealand often exhibit directed movement patterns while searching for prey at the seafloor, a behaviour that seems to contradict common movement ecology theories. While deploying GPS dive loggers on yellow-eyed penguins from the Otago Peninsula we found that the birds frequently followed straight lines for several kilometres with little horizontal deviation. In several cases individuals swam up and down the same line, while some of the lines were followed by more than one individual. Using a remote operated vehicle (ROV) we found a highly visible furrow on the seafloor most likely caused by an otter board of a demersal fish trawl, which ran in a straight line exactly matching the trajectory of a recent line identified from penguin tracks. We noted high abundances of benthic scavengers associated with fisheries-related bottom disturbance. While our data demonstrate the acute way-finding capabilities of benthic foraging yellow-eyed penguins, they also highlight how hidden cascading effects of coastal fisheries may alter behaviour and potentially even population dynamics of marine predators, an often overlooked fact in the examination of fisheries' impacts. PMID:24367656

  15. Refining a triangulation of a planar straight-line graph to eliminate large angles

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.

    1993-05-13

    Triangulations without large angles have a number of applications in numerical analysis and computer graphics. In particular, the convergence of a finite element calculation depends on the largest angle of the triangulation. Also, the running time of a finite element calculation is dependent on the triangulation size, so having a triangulation with few Steiner points is also important. Bern, Dobkin and Eppstein pose as an open problem the existence of an algorithm to triangulate a planar straight-line graph (PSLG) without large angles using a polynomial number of Steiner points. We solve this problem by showing that any PSLG with {upsilon} vertices can be triangulated with no angle larger than 7{pi}/8 by adding O({upsilon}{sup 2}log {upsilon}) Steiner points in O({upsilon}{sup 2} log{sup 2} {upsilon}) time. We first triangulate the PSLG with an arbitrary constrained triangulation and then refine that triangulation by adding additional vertices and edges. Some PSLGs require {Omega}({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points in any triangulation achieving any largest angle bound less than {pi}. Hence the number of Steiner points added by our algorithm is within a log {upsilon} factor of worst case optimal. We note that our refinement algorithm works on arbitrary triangulations: Given any triangulation, we show how to refine it so that no angle is larger than 7{pi}/8. Our construction adds O(nm+nplog m) vertices and runs in time O(nm+nplog m) log(m+ p)), where n is the number of edges, m is one plus the number of obtuse angles, and p is one plus the number of holes and interior vertices in the original triangulation. A previously considered problem is refining a constrained triangulation of a simple polygon, where p = 1. For this problem we add O({upsilon}{sup 2}) Steiner points, which is within a constant factor of worst case optimal.

  16. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestâl, A.; Källne, J.; Anglart, H.

    2012-06-01

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with "semi-poor" plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Qr = Pfis/Pfus>>1. The upper bound on Qr is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Qr≈150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of keff=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement Te≈10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q≈0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on

  17. Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  18. The interferometric method for measuring the generatrix straightness of high precision cone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yanhui; Li, Huailu; Diao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Heng

    2015-10-01

    Cone parts are widely used in advanced manufacturing and precision mechanics, providing air proof, torque transmission and so on. The straightness of generatrix is one of the important parameters, and the required accuracy can be up to submicrometers. In order to realize the rapid and high precision generatrix measurement of smooth surface cone, a laser interferometric method is proposed based on the structure of typical Fizeau interferometer. The high precision optical flat is used for reference standard, and the surface of cone is the measured object. Two cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths realize unidirectional expansion of parallel beam, solving the problem of CCD camera fringe resolution. The interference fringes are curved because of the cone angle, and the peak is the basis for accurate determination of the generatrix. Two fringe processing techniques are described in detail, which are single-frame and phase-shifting methods. Single-frame method includes two steps, i.e. the calculation of integral part and decimal part. The advantage of this method is the simple measurement structure. Phase-shifting method needs piezoelectric transducer (PZT) to generate several steps for phase calculation, with the advantage of high accuracy. The experimental results show that the straightness measurement accuracy can be better than 0.2 μm.

  19. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  20. Symplectic tracking through straight three dimensional fields by a method of generating functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, M.; Bahrdt, J.; Wüstefeld, G.

    2016-01-01

    For simulating single-particle trajectories, the derivation of final coordinates from known initial coordinates through arbitrary electromagnetic fields is of key interest in accelerator physics. We address this task in the case of straight stationary magnetic fields, using generating functions via a perturbative ansatz for the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Such an approach is always symplectic, independent of the expansion order. We set up the Hamiltonian by static fields, represented by Fourier series, and outline this approach for the correct and complete set of 3D-multipole fields. Different types of multipoles can be treated with the same formalism, combining them with a specific table of Fourier coefficients characterizing their fields. The resulting particle-tracking routine maps the multipole in a single step. Results are compared with analytical estimations and high-resolution integration methods.

  1. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 4: Transition path reconstruction along a straight line path containing a glideslope change waypoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The necessary algorithms to reconstruct the glideslope change waypoint along a straight line in the event the aircraft encounters a valid MLS update and transition in the terminal approach area are presented. Results of a simulation of the Langley B737 aircraft utilizing these algorithms are presented. The method is shown to reconstruct the necessary flight path during MLS transition resulting in zero cross track error, zero track angle error, and zero altitude error, thus requiring minimal aircraft response.

  2. Secondary Electron Yield Measurements and Groove Chambers Tests in the PEP-II Beam Line Straights Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Pivi, M.T.F.; King, F.; Kirby, R.E.; Markiewicz, T; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Seeman, J.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

    2008-07-03

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of the positron Damping Ring (DR) of future Linear Colliders such as ILC and CLIC [1, 2]. In the Positron Low Energy Ring (LER) of the PEP-II accelerator, we have installed vacuum chambers with rectangular grooves in a straight magnetic-free section to test this promising possible electron cloud mitigation technique. We have also installed a special chamber to monitor the secondary electron yield of TiN and TiZrV (NEG) coating, Copper, Stainless Steel and Aluminum under the effect of electron and photon conditioning in situ in the beam line. In this paper, we describe the ongoing R&D effort to mitigate the electron cloud effect for the ILC damping ring, the latest results on in situ secondary electron yield conditioning and recent update on the groove tests in PEP-II.

  3. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  4. Comparison of PI-SWERL with dust emission measurements from a straight-line field wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Mark; Etyemezian, Vic; MacPherson, Torin; Nickling, William; Gillies, John; Nikolich, George; McDonald, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The Portable In situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) was developed to measure dust emissions from soil surfaces. This small, portable unit can test the emissivity of soils in areas that are difficult to access with a field wind tunnel, and can complete a larger number of tests in less time. The PI-SWERL consists of a cylindrical enclosure containing an annular flat blade that rotates at different speeds, which generates shear stress upon the surface. The shear stress generated by PI-SWERL results in the entrainment of particles including dust. PI-SWERL was developed to provide an index of dust emission potential comparable to the field wind tunnel. The PI-SWERL dust emission results were compared against those obtained from a ˜12 m long, 1 m wide, 0.75 m high straight line suction-type portable field wind tunnel by conducting collocated tests at 32 distinct field settings and soil conditions in the Mojave Desert of southern California. Clay- to sand-rich soils that displayed a range of crusting, gravel cover, and disturbance were tested. The correspondence between dust emissions (mg m-2 s-1) for the two instruments is nearly 1:1 on most surfaces. Deviation between the two instruments was noted for densely packed gravel surfaces. For rough surfaces a correction can be applied to the PI-SWERL that results in comparable dust emission data to the wind tunnel. PI-SWERL can be used to complement research efforts in aeolian geomorphology aimed to quantify spatial and temporal patterns of dust emissions as well as air quality research related to dust emissions.

  5. Straight Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainburn, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing gay students remains an emotional, politically charged issue. But Kevin Jennings, the 42-year-old executive director of the Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), is not out to provoke shouting matches. Instead, he is quietly turning students into activists capable of changing schools on their own. Along with advocating…

  6. An attempt of using straight-line information for building damage detection based only on post-earthquake optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Laigen; Shan, Jie; Ye, Yuanxin

    2014-03-01

    It is important to grasp damage information in stricken areas after an earthquake in order to perform quick rescue and recovery activities. Recent research into remote sensing techniques has shown significant ability to generate quality damage information. The methods based on only post-earthquake data are widely researched especially because there are no pre-earthquake reference data in many cities of the world. This paper addresses a method for detection of damaged buildings using only post-event satellite imagery so that scientists and researchers can take advantage of the ability of helicopters and airplanes to fly over the damage faster. Statistical information of line segments extracted from post-event satellite imagery, such as mean length (ML) and weighted tilt angel standard deviation (WTASD), are used for discriminating the damaged and undamaged buildings.

  7. The Efficacy of FlexMaster’s IntroFile, PreRaCe and Gates Glidden Drills in Straight-Line Access: A CBCT Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Farhad Mollashahi, Narges; Sohrabi, Mahdi; Farhad Mollashahi, Leila; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: An overlooked but important part of successful root canal treatment is a straight-line access (SLA). The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of IntroFile and PreRaCe rotary instruments with Gates Glidden (GG) drills in gaining SLA by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of forty five extracted mandibular first molars were selected and mounted in dental like arches. Subsequently, they were randomly classified into three groups (n=15). After preparation of a standard access cavity, orifices of the mesiobuccal canal was reached and a #10 file was inserted to explore the canals until the file tip was visible at the apex. Then, preoperative CBCT images were taken. SLA was gained in three groups; group 1, FlexMaster’s IntroFile (FM); group 2, PreRaCe (RC) and group 3, GG. Again, the first binding file at the working length (WL) was placed in the canal and postoperative CBCT images in similar positions were taken. The pre/post operative morphology of the canal was evaluated for changes. Data was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni analysis. Results: The average amount of reduction in coronal canal curvature in FM, RC and GG groups was 2.43±1.79, 3.17±2.05 and 8.7±3.45, respectively. This descending trend was statistically significant. The difference between pre/post SLA changes in FM and RC groups was significant compared to GG group, while there were no significant differences between RC and FM. Conclusion: GG drills produced extraordinary results in reducing coronal curvature of the canal and achieving SLA. They are also more effective than nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments in canals with coronal curvature. PMID:25031594

  8. Monte carlo method for the uncertainty evaluation of spatial straightness error based on new generation geometrical product specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiulan; Xu, Youxiong; Li, Hongsheng; Wang, Fenglin; Sheng, Danghong

    2012-09-01

    Straightness error is an important parameter in measuring high-precision shafts. New generation geometrical product specification(GPS) requires the measurement uncertainty characterizing the reliability of the results should be given together when the measurement result is given. Nowadays most researches on straightness focus on error calculation and only several research projects evaluate the measurement uncertainty based on "The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement(GUM)". In order to compute spatial straightness error(SSE) accurately and rapidly and overcome the limitations of GUM, a quasi particle swarm optimization(QPSO) is proposed to solve the minimum zone SSE and Monte Carlo Method(MCM) is developed to estimate the measurement uncertainty. The mathematical model of minimum zone SSE is formulated. In QPSO quasi-random sequences are applied to the generation of the initial position and velocity of particles and their velocities are modified by the constriction factor approach. The flow of measurement uncertainty evaluation based on MCM is proposed, where the heart is repeatedly sampling from the probability density function(PDF) for every input quantity and evaluating the model in each case. The minimum zone SSE of a shaft measured on a Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM) is calculated by QPSO and the measurement uncertainty is evaluated by MCM on the basis of analyzing the uncertainty contributors. The results show that the uncertainty directly influences the product judgment result. Therefore it is scientific and reasonable to consider the influence of the uncertainty in judging whether the parts are accepted or rejected, especially for those located in the uncertainty zone. The proposed method is especially suitable when the PDF of the measurand cannot adequately be approximated by a Gaussian distribution or a scaled and shifted t-distribution and the measurement model is non-linear.

  9. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Dewart, Jean Marie; Deola, Regina

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  10. PROBABILISTIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR TORNADOES, STRAIGHT-LINE WIND, AND EXTREME PRECIPITATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Werth, D.; , A.; Shine, G.

    2013-12-04

    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  11. Apparatus and method for routing a transmission line through a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Reynolds, Jay

    2006-07-04

    A method for routing a transmission line through a tool joint having a primary and secondary shoulder, a central bore, and a longitudinal axis, includes drilling a straight channel, at a positive, nominal angle with respect to the longitudinal axis, through the tool joint from the secondary shoulder to a point proximate the inside wall of the centtral bore. The method further includes milling back, from within the central bore, a second channel to merge with the straight channel, thereby forming a continuous channel from the secondary shoulder to the central bore. In selected embodiments, drilling is accomplished by gun-drilling the straight channel. In other embodiments, the method includes tilting the tool joint before drilling to produce the positive, nominal angle. In selected embodiments, the positive, nominal angle is less than or equal to 15 degrees.

  12. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subjective straight-ahead direction is a very basic perceptual reference for spatial orientation and locomotion. The perceived straight-ahead along the horizontal and vertical meridian is largely determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs which are altered in microgravity. The Straight Ahead in Microgravity (SAM) experiment will be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how this spatial processing changes as a function of spaceflight. METHODS Data will be collected before the flight, at one-month intervals during long-duration stay (180 days) on board ISS, and after return to Earth. Control studies will also be performed during parabolic flights. Three different protocols will be used in each test session: (1) Fixation: The subject will be asked to look at actual targets (normal vision) and then to imagine these same targets (occluded vision) in the straight-ahead direction. Targets will be located at near distance (arm s length, 0.5m), medium distance (1 m), and far distance (beyond 2 m). This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted forward and backward by an operator. (2) Saccades: The subject will be asked to make horizontal and vertical saccades, first relative to the spacecraft interior reference system, and then relative to the subject s head reference system. This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted in roll or in pitch by an operator. (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR): The subject will be asked to stare at actual visual targets (normal vision) at various distances (near, medium, far) in the straight-ahead direction. Vision will then be occluded, and the subject will be asked to continue staring at the same imagined targets while he/she is passively translated forward-backward, up-down, or side-to-side. The subject's body motion will

  13. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  14. Utility straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, B.; Peggs, S.; Peterson, J.

    1985-10-01

    Utility straight sections are insertions in the SSC lattice to provide relatively free space to facilitate various beam manipulations. These uses include beam-abort, injection (and conceivably ejection), space for the rf system, and collimation. A typical utility straight section is 1500 meters in overall length (ranging from 500 to 1200 meters). It has zero dispersion and high values of the beta functions. The betatron phase shift across the insertion is about 90{degrees} in each plane.

  15. Speckle reduction methods for laser line gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1997-12-01

    Speckle caused by the use of laser sources is a well known phenomena. For some applications, the presence of the speckle is used as part of the method, but in others it is purely a source of noise. In the case of line based laser gages, speckle is typically of considerable concern. Certainly, using white light sources or LEDs with short coherence is one way around this problem, but such methods also loose some of the valuable properties of laser line projection such as very narrow lines, the ability to create multiple lines by diffraction, and high signal to background through the use of bandpass filters to view only the laser wavelength. There have been a number of valuable tools introduced that help reduce the problem of speckle from laser sources, without giving up all the advantages of the laser itself. This paper reviews the pros and cons of a number of these methods, and suggests a specific set of tools that are specific to laser line projection.

  16. Transmission line icing measurement on photogrammetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen

    2015-12-01

    Icing thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to make decision for icing accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line icing measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize icing parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional icing measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed icing detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the icing thickness parameters.

  17. A Novel Method of Line Detection using Image Integration Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Daniel; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    We developed a novel line detection algorithm based on image integration method. Hough Transformation uses spatial image gradient method to detect lines on an image. This is problematic because if the image has a region of high noise intensity, the gradient would point towards the noisy region . Denoising the noisy image requires an application of sophisticated noise reduction algorithm which increases computation complexity. Our algorithm can remedy this problem by averaging the pixels around the image region of interest. We were able to detect collagen fiber lines on an image produced by confocal microscope.

  18. Combinatorial optimization methods for disassembly line balancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Seamus M.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-12-01

    Disassembly takes place in remanufacturing, recycling, and disposal with a line being the best choice for automation. The disassembly line balancing problem seeks a sequence which: minimizes workstations, ensures similar idle times, and is feasible. Finding the optimal balance is computationally intensive due to factorial growth. Combinatorial optimization methods hold promise for providing solutions to the disassembly line balancing problem, which is proven to belong to the class of NP-complete problems. Ant colony optimization, genetic algorithm, and H-K metaheuristics are presented and compared along with a greedy/hill-climbing heuristic hybrid. A numerical study is performed to illustrate the implementation and compare performance. Conclusions drawn include the consistent generation of optimal or near-optimal solutions, the ability to preserve precedence, the speed of the techniques, and their practicality due to ease of implementation.

  19. A study of prediction methods for the high angle-of-attack aerodynamics of straight wings and fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, O. J.; Mendenhall, M. R.; Perkins, S. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Work is described dealing with two areas which are dominated by the nonlinear effects of vortex flows. The first area concerns the stall/spin characteristics of a general aviation wing with a modified leading edge. The second area concerns the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of high performance military aircraft. For each area, the governing phenomena are described as identified with the aid of existing experimental data. Existing analytical methods are reviewed, and the most promising method for each area used to perform some preliminary calculations. Based on these results, the strengths and weaknesses of the methods are defined, and research programs recommended to improve the methods as a result of better understanding of the flow mechanisms involved.

  20. Setting the Record Straight. The Truth About Fad Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheat Foods Council, Parker, CO.

    The Setting the Record Straight information packet presents facts to set the record straight about nutrition and debunk fad diets. The kit features materials designed to communicate the importance of balanced eating. Materials include: a time line of fad diets; four reproducible fad diet book review handouts that show the misleading claims rampant…

  1. Method of lines solution of Richards` equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, C.T.; Miller, C.T.; Tocci, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the method of lines solution of Richard`s equation, which models flow through porous media, as an example of a situation in which the method can give incorrect results because of premature termination of the nonlinear corrector iteration. This premature termination arises when the solution has a sharp moving front and the Jacobian is ill-conditioned. While this problem can be solved by tightening the tolerances provided to the ODE or DAE solver used for the temporal integration, it is more efficient to modify the termination criteria of the nonlinear solver and/or recompute the Jacobian more frequently. In this paper we continue previous work on this topic by analyzing the modifications in more detail and giving a strategy on how the modifications can be turned on and off in response to changes in the character of the solution.

  2. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  3. Gravitational lensing by straight cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotvytskiy, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    We consider effects due to gravitational lensing by hypothetical cosmic strings. We briefly review facts concerning infinite straight strings, obtain the equation for a gravitational lens produced by an infinite string in the classical form, and analyze features of the gravitational lensing for a given object in detail. We consider a finite straight string. We present caustics and critical curves for strings with different lengths and also some images produced by the considered gravitational lens. We propose a method for constructing brightness curves numerically. As an example of the working capacity of this method, we construct a concrete brightness curve for certain gravitational lens parameters.

  4. A new method for identification of cement lines in undecalcified, plastic embedded sections of bone.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, A R; Sypitkowski, C; Parfitt, A M

    1986-03-01

    A gallocyanin method for demonstrating cement lines in thin, undecalcified sections of bone has been developed that is compatible with prestaining with osteochrome before plastic embedding. After sectioning at 5 microns on the Jung K heavy duty microtome, the sections are attached to a microslide using Haupt's adhesive mounting medium, placed on a slide warmer at 37 C until completely dry, and deplasticized in xylene at 45 C for 16-24 hr. Sections are stained with 0.15% gallocyanin-5% chrome alum solution for 30 min, followed by staining in buffered Villanueva blood stain for 1-1 1/2 hr, quickly dehydrated, differentiated in equal parts xylene and 100% ethanol, cleared, and mounted in Eukitt's medium. Reversal lines appear as thin, scalloped, blue or purple lines approximately 0.3 micron wide, and arrest lines as thick, homogeneous, straight or evenly curved, dark blue or purple lines approximately 2 microns wide. The method also demonstrates abnormal halo volumes around osteocytes, old and new bone matrix, osteoid seams, and the granular mineralization front at the osteoid-bone interface. It promises to be valuable in the study of age-related bone loss, osteoporosis, and metabolic bone disease. PMID:2424150

  5. Straight Talk about Prejudice. The Straight Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranz, Rachel

    The Straight Talk series is designed for teenagers today. It presents the most factual, up-to-date information available. "Straight Talk about Prejudice" provides readers with clear, factual information about prejudice and explores how unjust and destructive prejudice and discrimination really are. Prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination are…

  6. Standing "Straight" up to Homophobia: Straight Allies' Involvement in GSAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Alicia Anne

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study captures the experiences of four straight allies' and one gay youth involvement in gay--straight alliances (GSAs) at their Ontario, Canada, high schools. Participants' motivations for becoming GSA members and their roles as allies are examined. Queer theoretical perspectives, as espoused by Britzman (1995, 1998) and Linville…

  7. A Comparison of the Method of Least Squares and the Method of Averages. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two techniques for determining a straight line fit to data are compared. This article reviews two simple techniques for fitting a straight line to a set of data, namely the method of averages and the method of least squares. These methods are compared by showing the results of a simple analysis, together with a number of tests based on randomized…

  8. Straight Talk for Good Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthcare Communication Straight Talk For Good Health Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Straight talk with your healthcare provider is important. You and your medical team can then make better decisions for your good ...

  9. Analysis of microstrip dipoles and slots transversely coupled to a microstrip line using the FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.

    Printed dipole elements and their complement, linear slots, are elementary radiators that have found use in low-profile antenna arrays. Low-profile antenna arrays, in addition to their small size and low weight characteristics, offer the potential advantage of low-cost, high-volume production with easy integration with active integrated circuit components. The design of such arrays requires that the radiation and impedance characteristics of the radiating elements be known. The FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is a general, straight-forward implementation of Maxwell's equations and offers a relatively simple way of analyzing both printed dipole and slot elements. Investigated in this work is the application of the FDTD method to the analysis of printed dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite transmission line in a multilayered configuration. Such dipole and slot elements may be used in dipole and slot series-fed-type linear arrays, where element offsets and interelement line lengths are used to obtain the desired amplitude distribution and beam direction, respectively. The design of such arrays is achieved using transmission line theory with equivalent circuit models for the radiating elements. In an equivalent circuit model, the dipole represents a shunt impedance to the transmission line, where the impedance is a function of dipole offset, length, and width. Similarly, the slot represents a series impedance to the transmission line. The FDTD method is applied to single dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite microstrip line using a fixed rectangular grid with Mur's second order absorbing boundary conditions. Frequency-dependent circuit and scattering parameters are obtained by saving desired time-domain quantities and using the Fourier transform. A Gaussian pulse excitation is applied to the microstrip transmission line, where the resulting reflected signal due to the presence of the radiating element is used

  10. Analysis of microstrip dipoles and slots transversely coupled to a microstrip line using the FDTD method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulintseff, A. N.

    1993-01-01

    Printed dipole elements and their complement, linear slots, are elementary radiators that have found use in low-profile antenna arrays. Low-profile antenna arrays, in addition to their small size and low weight characteristics, offer the potential advantage of low-cost, high-volume production with easy integration with active integrated circuit components. The design of such arrays requires that the radiation and impedance characteristics of the radiating elements be known. The FDTD (Finite-Difference Time-Domain) method is a general, straight-forward implementation of Maxwell's equations and offers a relatively simple way of analyzing both printed dipole and slot elements. Investigated in this work is the application of the FDTD method to the analysis of printed dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite transmission line in a multilayered configuration. Such dipole and slot elements may be used in dipole and slot series-fed-type linear arrays, where element offsets and interelement line lengths are used to obtain the desired amplitude distribution and beam direction, respectively. The design of such arrays is achieved using transmission line theory with equivalent circuit models for the radiating elements. In an equivalent circuit model, the dipole represents a shunt impedance to the transmission line, where the impedance is a function of dipole offset, length, and width. Similarly, the slot represents a series impedance to the transmission line. The FDTD method is applied to single dipole and slot elements transversely coupled to an infinite microstrip line using a fixed rectangular grid with Mur's second order absorbing boundary conditions. Frequency-dependent circuit and scattering parameters are obtained by saving desired time-domain quantities and using the Fourier transform. A Gaussian pulse excitation is applied to the microstrip transmission line, where the resulting reflected signal due to the presence of the radiating element is used

  11. The straight-line information security architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.

    1995-08-01

    Comprehensive monitoring can provide a wealth of sensor data useful in enhancing the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. However, care must be taken to distribute this type of data on a need to know basis to the various types of users. The following paper describes an exploratory effort on behalf of Sandia National Labs to integrate commercially available systems to securely disseminate (on a need to know basis) both classified and unclassified sensor information to a variety of users on the interact.

  12. A new mathematical formulation of the line-by-line method in case of weak line overlapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishov, Alexander G.; Krymova, Natalie V.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical proof is presented for multiline representation on the equivalent width of a molecular band which consists in the general case of n overlapping spectral lines. The multiline representation includes a principal term and terms of minor significance. The principal term is the equivalent width of the molecular band consisting of the same n nonoverlapping spectral lines. The terms of minor significance take into consideration the overlapping of two, three and more spectral lines. They are small in case of the weak overlapping of spectral lines in the molecular band. The multiline representation can be easily generalized for optically inhomogeneous gas media and holds true for combinations of molecular bands. If the band lines overlap weakly the standard formulation of line-by-line method becomes too labor-consuming. In this case the multiline representation permits line-by-line calculations to be performed more effectively. Other useful properties of the multiline representation are pointed out.

  13. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Clement, G.

    2014-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead, and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This project specifically addresses the sensorimotor research gap "What are the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission?" Six ISS crewmembers will be requested to participate in three preflight sessions (between 120 and 60 days prior to launch) and then three postflight sessions on R+0/1 day, R+4 +/-2 days, and R+8 +/-2 days. The three specific aims include: (a) fixation of actual and imagined target locations at different distances; (b) directed eye and arm movements along different spatial reference frames; and (c) the vestibulo-ocular reflex during translation motion with fixation targets at different distances. These measures will be compared between upright and tilted conditions. Measures will then be compared with and without a vibrotactile sensory aid that indicates how far one has tilted relative to the straight-ahead direction. The flight study was been approved by the medical review boards and will be implemented in the upcoming Informed Crew Briefings to solicit flight subject participation. Preliminary data has been recorded on 6 subjects during parabolic flight to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. During some parabolas, a vibrotactile sensory aid provided

  14. Analysis of coupling efficiency on hemispherical fiber lens by method of lines.

    PubMed

    Lambak, Zainuddin; Abdul Rahman, Faidz; Mokhtar, Mohd Ridzuan; Tengku, Imran A

    2009-02-16

    The method of lines (MoL) has been developed to study coupling efficiency on hemispherical lens. In this paper, the physical shape of the lens is approximated by cascading a number of straight waveguide segments. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is applied as an absorber for the MoL to reduce numerical reflection in the simulation region. Analysis is done by calculating coupling efficiency at the plane of integration where the coupling efficiency is an overlap integral between laser diode field and fiber field. The result of coupling efficiency in this analysis is compared to the experiment and ABCD matrix. It is found that MoL gives good result accuracy. PMID:19219196

  15. Electromagnetic scattering by a straight thin wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamansky, Harry T.; Dominek, Allen K.; Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The traveling-wave energy, which multiply diffracts on a straight thin wire, is represented as a sum of terms, each with a distinct physical meaning, that can be individually examined in the time domain. Expressions for each scattering mechanism on a straight thin wire are cast in the form of four basic electromagnetic wave concepts: diffraction, attachment, launch, and reflection. Using the basic mechanisms from P. Ya. Ufimtsev (1962), each of the scattering mechanisms is included into the total scattered field for the straight thin wire. Scattering as a function of angle and frequency is then compared to the moment-method solution. These analytic expressions are then extended to a lossy wire with a simple approximate modification using the propagation velocity on the wire as derived from the Sommerfeld wave on a straight lossy wire. Both the perfectly conducting and lossy wire solutions are compared to moment-method results, and excellent agreement is found. As is common with asymptotic solutions, when the electrical length of wire is smaller than 0.2 lambda the results lose accuracy. The expressions modified to approximate the scattering for the lossy thin wire yield excellent agreement even for lossy wires where the wire radius is on the order of skin depth.

  16. Straight Talk For Good Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Straight Talk For Good Health Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... one of the most important aspects of getting good care. Make a List To Find Out More ...

  17. Apparatus and Method for Communication over Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor); Greer, Lawrence C., III (Inventor); Nappier, Jennifer M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for communicating over power lines. The apparatus includes a coupling modem that is situated between a power line and a device. The coupling modem is configured to demodulate a signal received from the power line into a sine signal and a cosine signal. The coupling modem is also configured to modulate a communicated bit stream received from the device into a transmitted signal in order to impose the transmitted signal onto the power line.

  18. Perception of straightness and parallelism with minimal distance information.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Naumenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    The ability of human observers to judge the straightness and parallelism of extended lines has been a neglected topic of study since von Helmholtz's initial observations 150 years ago. He showed that there were significant misperceptions of the straightness of extended lines seen in the peripheral visual field. The present study focused on the perception of extended lines (spanning 90° visual angle) that were directly fixated in the visual environment of a planetarium where there was only minimal information about the distance to the lines. Observers were asked to vary the curvature of 1 or more lines until they appeared to be straight and/or parallel, ignoring any perceived curvature in depth. When the horizon between the ground and the sky was visible, the results showed that observers' judgements of the straightness of a single line were significantly biased away from the veridical, great circle locations, and towards equal elevation settings. Similar biases can be seen in the jet trails of aircraft flying across the sky and in Rogers and Anstis's new moon illusion (Perception, 42(Abstract supplement) 18, 2013, 2016). The biasing effect of the horizon was much smaller when observers were asked to judge the straightness and parallelism of 2 or more extended lines. We interpret the results as showing that, in the absence of adequate distance information, observers tend to perceive the projected lines as lying on an approximately equidistant, hemispherical surface and that their judgements of straightness and parallelism are based on the perceived separation of the lines superimposed on that surface. PMID:27025213

  19. Acoustic loading in straight pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on linear one-dimensional acoustics, a geometrically perfect elastic waveguide would respond to an oscillatory internal pressure only in the presence of path deflectors (elbows and branches). In practice, a significant elasto-acoustic interaction results even in straight conduits as a result of manufacturing tolerances. A theoretical model of the linear acoustic loading in straight pipes is developed that considers the acoustic wave distortion due to perimeter, axial, and wall thickness nonuniformities.

  20. Thermal expansion method for lining tantalum alloy tubing with tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, G. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Mattson, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A differential-thermal expansion method was developed to line T-111 (tantalum - 8 percent tungsten - 2 percent hafnium) tubing with a tungsten diffusion barrier as part of a fuel element fabrication study for a space power nuclear reactor concept. This method uses a steel mandrel, which has a larger thermal expansion than T-111, to force the tungsten against the inside of the T-111 tube. Variables investigated include lining temperature, initial assembly gas size, and tube length. Linear integrity increased with increasing lining temperature and decreasing gap size. The method should have more general applicability where cylinders must be lined with a thin layer of a second material.

  1. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  2. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Optical device for straightness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vekteris, Vladas; Jurevicius, Mindaugas; Turla, Vytautas

    2015-11-01

    The present paper describes the research of the optical device for two-dimensional straightness measurement of technological machines. Mathematical study of an optical device, operating on the phase principle and measuring transversal displacements of machine parts in two directions ( X and Y) during their linear longitudinal motion in a machine (alongside the Z axis), is presented. How to estimate the range of travel along the Z axis is analytically shown. At this range, the measurer gives correct measurements of transverse displacement. The necessary distance from the objective focus to the image plane was defined mathematically. The sample results of measuring the displacement of the table of a technological machine by using the optical device are presented in the paper. This optical device for non-contact straightness measurement can be used for measurement straightness in turning, milling, drilling, grinding machines and other technological machines, also in geodesy and cartography, and for moving accuracy testing of mechatronic devices, robotics and others.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  5. Sensor, method and system of monitoring transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Syracuse, Steven J.; Clark, Roy; Halverson, Peter G.; Tesche, Frederick M.; Barlow, Charles V.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus, method, and system for measuring the magnetic field produced by phase conductors in multi-phase power lines. The magnetic field measurements are used to determine the current load on the conductors. The magnetic fields are sensed by coils placed sufficiently proximate the lines to measure the voltage induced in the coils by the field without touching the lines. The x and y components of the magnetic fields are used to calculate the conductor sag, and then the sag data, along with the field strength data, can be used to calculate the current load on the line and the phase of the current. The sag calculations of this invention are independent of line voltage and line current measurements. The system applies a computerized fitter routine to measured and sampled voltages on the coils to accurately determine the values of parameters associated with the overhead phase conductors.

  6. A Best-Fit Line Using the Method of Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Describes a method for calculating lines of best fit that is easy to understand and apply. Presents an example using the Arrhenius plot of a first-order reaction from which the energy of activation is calculated. (MM)

  7. Range profiles and images of a loaded straight wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hsueh-Jyh; Farhat, Nabil H.; Shen, Yuhsyen

    1989-01-01

    The range-profiles and images of a straight wire without and with lumped impedance loading are discussed and demonstrated. The scattering mechanisms of a straight wire are qualitatively analyzed using the method of moments. Plots of range profiles at different aspect angles show that surface traveling waves are important scattering mechanisms of a straight wire. The presence of traveling wave makes ringlike artifacts appear in the reconstructed images. It was found that lumped impedance loading can effectively distort the range profiles and microwave images of a wire scatterer. In addition, randomly varied reactive loading can generate random peaks in the range profiles.

  8. Radial line method for rear-view mirror distortion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Kusumawardhani, Apriani; Setijono, Heru; Hatta, Agus M.; Irwansyah, .

    2015-01-01

    An image of the object can be distorted due to a defect in a mirror. A rear-view mirror is an important component for the vehicle safety. One of standard parameters of the rear-view mirror is a distortion factor. This paper presents a radial line method for distortion detection of the rear-view mirror. The rear-view mirror was tested for the distortion detection by using a system consisting of a webcam sensor and an image-processing unit. In the image-processing unit, the captured image from the webcam were pre-processed by using smoothing and sharpening techniques and then a radial line method was used to define the distortion factor. It was demonstrated successfully that the radial line method could be used to define the distortion factor. This detection system is useful to be implemented such as in Indonesian's automotive component industry while the manual inspection still be used.

  9. Methods and apparatus for reducing corrosion in refractory linings

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Greenberg, Sherman; Diercks, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for reducing corrosion in a refractory lining of a liquid-containing vessel used in direct steelmaking processes. The vessel operates at between about 1600.degree. C. and about 1800.degree. C. and an oxygen partial pressure of about 10.sup.-12 atmospheres, creating slag which is rich in FeO. The refractory lining includes a significant level of chromium oxide (Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3), and has small interconnected pores which may be filled with a gas mixture having a higher total pressure and oxygen partial pressure than the total pressure and oxygen partial pressure associted with the liquid against the lining of the vessel. The gas mixture is forced through the pores of the lining so that the pores are continuously filled with the mixture. In this manner, the gas mixture creates a blanket which increases the oxygen partial pressure at the lining enough to maintain the chromium in the lining in a selected valence state in which the chromium has decreased solubility in the FeO slag, thereby reducing corrosion by the FeO and increasing the useful life of the refractory lining.

  10. PROGRESS WITH NSLS-II INJECTION STRAIGHT SECTION DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Shaftan, T.; Blednykh, A.; Casey, B.; Dalesio, B.; Faussete, R.; Ferreira, M.; Fliller, R.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Job, P.K.; Johnson, E.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Padrazo, D.; Parker, B.; Pinayev, I.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Spataro, C.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II injection straight section (SR) consists of pulsed and DC bumps, septa system, beam trajectory correction and diagnostics systems. In this paper we discuss overall injection straight layout, preliminary element designs, specifications for the pulsed and DC magnets and their power supplies, vacuum devices and chambers and diagnostics devices. Prior to selecting the current 'conventional' design of the injection straight section we analyzed an option of injection via pulsed multipole pioneered at PF-AR. We found that this promising approach was not suited to the NSLS-II storage ring optics, since it would require a impractically compact arrangement of the injection straight section components and a complex modification of the transport line optics due to the strong focusing of the injected beam passing off the pulsed multipole axis. In addition, the requirement for a small injection transient of the stored beam orbit severely constrains the vertical alignment tolerance of the pulsed multipole. The design of the NSLS-II injection straight section is now completed with exception of transition chamber details, which will be adjusted to accommodate the actual layouts of the pulsed magnets.

  11. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A., II; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  12. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  13. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling. PMID:24511326

  14. A PROGRAM TO ANALYZE AQUIFER TEST DATA AND CHECK FOR VALIDITY WITH THE JACOB METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Jacob straight-line method of aquifer analysis deals with the late-time data and small radius of the Theis type curve which plot as a straight line if the drawdown data are plotted on an arithmetic scale and the time data on a logarithmic (base 10) scale. Correct analysis wit...

  15. A moiré method of visualizing electromagnetic force lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, K. C.; Lee, T. H.; Chang, S.

    2008-08-01

    We propose a simple moiré method of visualizing electromagnetic force lines. The indicial equation is first derived for the tangent (or normal) curve to the electric field (or magnetic induction) around two parallel-line charges (or currents). The derived equation is then shown to have a one-to-one correspondence with that of the moiré fringe formed by two overlapped radial gratings. Since the tangent (or normal) curve to the electric field (or the magnetic induction) corresponds to the direction of the electric (or magnetic) force on a test charge (or current), the radial grating moirés can be used for the visualization of electric (or magnetic) force lines.

  16. Automatic camera calibration method based on dashed lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuhua; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-10-01

    We present a new method for full-automatic calibration of traffic cameras using the end points on dashed lines. Our approach uses the improved RANSAC method with the help of pixels transverse projection to detect the dashed lines and end points on them. Then combining analysis of the geometric relationship between the camera and road coordinate systems, we construct a road model to fit the end points. Finally using two-dimension calibration method we can convert pixels in image to meters along the ground truth lane. On a large number of experiments exhibiting a variety of conditions, our approach performs well, achieving less than 5% error in measuring test lengths in all cases.

  17. The method of lines in three dimensional fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, J.; Berke, L.

    1980-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the calculation of design parameters for fracture mechanics by the method of lines (MOL) is presented. Three dimensional elastic and elasto-plastic formulations are examined and results from previous and current research activities are reported. The application of MOL to the appropriate partial differential equations of equilibrium leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations. Solutions of these equations are obtained by the Peano-Baker and by the recurrance relations methods. The advantages and limitations of both solution methods from the computational standpoint are summarized.

  18. A method of plane geometry primitive presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Anbo; Luo, Haibo; Chang, Zheng; Hui, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Point feature and line feature are basic elements in object feature sets, and they play an important role in object matching and recognition. On one hand, point feature is sensitive to noise; on the other hand, there are usually a huge number of point features in an image, which makes it complex for matching. Line feature includes straight line segment and curve. One difficulty in straight line segment matching is the uncertainty of endpoint location, the other is straight line segment fracture problem or short straight line segments joined to form long straight line segment. While for the curve, in addition to the above problems, there is another difficulty in how to quantitatively describe the shape difference between curves. Due to the problems of point feature and line feature, the robustness and accuracy of target description will be affected; in this case, a method of plane geometry primitive presentation is proposed to describe the significant structure of an object. Firstly, two types of primitives are constructed, they are intersecting line primitive and blob primitive. Secondly, a line segment detector (LSD) is applied to detect line segment, and then intersecting line primitive is extracted. Finally, robustness and accuracy of the plane geometry primitive presentation method is studied. This method has a good ability to obtain structural information of the object, even if there is rotation or scale change of the object in the image. Experimental results verify the robustness and accuracy of this method.

  19. The method of lines in analyzing solids containing cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1990-01-01

    A semi-numerical method is reviewed for solving a set of coupled partial differential equations subject to mixed and possibly coupled boundary conditions. The line method of analysis is applied to the Navier-Cauchy equations of elastic and elastoplastic equilibrium to calculate the displacement distributions in various, simple geometry bodies containing cracks. The application of this method to the appropriate field equations leads to coupled sets of simultaneous ordinary differential equations whose solutions are obtained along sets of lines in a discretized region. When decoupling of the equations and their boundary conditions is not possible, the use of a successive approximation procedure permits the analytical solution of the resulting ordinary differential equations. The use of this method is illustrated by reviewing and presenting selected solutions of mixed boundary value problems in three dimensional fracture mechanics. These solutions are of great importance in fracture toughness testing, where accurate stress and displacement distributions are required for the calculation of certain fracture parameters. Computations obtained for typical flawed specimens include that for elastic as well as elastoplastic response. Problems in both Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems are included. Results are summarized for a finite geometry rectangular bar with a central through-the-thickness or rectangular surface crack under remote uniaxial tension. In addition, stress and displacement distributions are reviewed for finite circular bars with embedded penny-shaped cracks, and rods with external annular or ring cracks under opening mode tension. The results obtained show that the method of lines presents a systematic approach to the solution of some three-dimensional mechanics problems with arbitrary boundary conditions. The advantage of this method over other numerical solutions is that good results are obtained even from the use of a relatively coarse grid.

  20. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  1. Straight ray tomography: Synthetic and real data examples

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, G.; Liner, C.L.

    1994-12-31

    Crosswell tomography is a viable tool for determining detailed P-wave velocity structure in the vertical plane between two wells. Seismic data from a West Texas oil field are processed for this purpose. Several geologically significant models are created for testing the accuracy of the method. Synthetic traveltimes corresponding to these models are generated and then inverted for the best image. An iterative straight-ray imaging algorithm is employed for establishing the subsurface velocity distribution. A curved-ray solution provided a basis for comparison. The assumption of straight-ray propagation in a medium with low velocity contrasts and horizontally oriented target zones provided satisfactory results. However, in the presence of strong velocity anomalies or abrupt lateral velocity variations, the reconstructed image was distorted due to severe ray bending. When applied to field data with high velocity contrasts, straight-ray and curved-ray tomograms displayed similar subsurface features, although the latter had better resolution and image quality.

  2. Applying dynamic methods in off-line signature recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarza, Juan Jose; Hernaez, Inmaculada; Goirizelaia, Inaki; Espinosa, Koldo

    2004-08-01

    In this paper we present the work developed on off-line signature verification using Hidden Markov Models (HMM). HMM is a well-known technique used by other biometric features, for instance, in speaker recognition and dynamic or on-line signature verification. Our goal here is to extend Left-to-Right (LR)-HMM to the field of static or off-line signature processing using results provided by image connectivity analysis. The chain encoding of perimeter points for each blob obtained by this analysis is an ordered set of points in the space, clockwise around the perimeter of the blob. We discuss two different ways of generating the models depending on the way the blobs obtained from the connectivity analysis are ordered. In the first proposed method, blobs are ordered according to their perimeter length. In the second proposal, blobs are ordered in their natural reading order, i.e. from the top to the bottom and left to right. Finally, two LR-HMM models are trained using the parameters obtained by the mentioned techniques. Verification results of the two techniques are compared and some improvements are proposed.

  3. Hydraulic straight hole drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Townson, J. D.

    1985-01-15

    An improved drill collar for forming relatively straight holes in crooked hole type formations. One or more hydraulic drill collars are connected in series relationship within a drill string above a rotary bit at the point of tangency. Each drill collar includes at least one outwardly opening, longitudinally extending slot formed on the exterior thereof. The slot includes a back wall connected to confronting sidewalls and opposed end walls. One lower end of a slot commences in spaced relationship to the lower pin end of the collar. As the drill string is rotated, drilling fluid forms a cushion between the slot and the nearest sidewall of the borehole, thereby kicking or forcing the drill collar away from the borehole sidewall, which in turn forces the drill bit to penetrate in a downwardly direction back towards a vertical position. The borehole meanders a very small amount, as for example 3-4 degrees, rather than uncontrollably leaving the vertical and forming an excessively crooked hole. Various configurations and arrangements of slots are disclosed in the collar.

  4. Straight sinus thrombosis during neurosurgical operation

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Hiroto; Nitta, Naoki; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perioperative straight sinus thrombosis is extremely rare. Case Description: A 59-year-old female was admitted to our department because of incidentally found small anterior cerebral artery (A1) aneurysm with microbleeding. After clipping the cerebral aneurysm, she had delayed emergence from anesthesia, total aphasia, and right hemiparesis. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed hyperintensity in the bilateral caudate nuclei, putamina, and thalami, and computed tomography of the head showed a hyperdense straight sinus, suggesting straight sinus thrombosis. Her neurologic symptoms improved gradually, and she achieved a full clinical recovery, with radiological evidence of recanalization of the straight sinus at follow-up. Conclusion: The possibility of straight sinus thrombosis should be considered in postoperative patients with unexplained postoperative deficits when MRI demonstrates hyperintensity in the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami on FLAIR signal images. PMID:27213104

  5. Alternative method for monitoring an in-line CD SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Pedro P.; Dick, Susan A.; Allgair, John A.

    1997-07-01

    Semiconductor manufacturers must ensure that their in-line critical dimension scanning electron microscopes (CD-SEMs) are providing precise and reliable data on a daily basis. As with other process equipment, tool stability and production worthiness is determined by a daily qualification procedure that involves measuring a reference, etched wafer's linewidth and comparing those results to a set target mean. However, repeated exposure to a SEM creates an unacceptable increase in the measured feature's CD. This increase can be disruptive to tool qualification, requires the introduction of new reference wafers, and ultimately limits the tool's availability to production. A new method for daily qualification using a rotating daily job scheme has been developed and employed for monitoring multiple systems at Motorola MOS-13/APRDL. This new procedure allows for better statistical process control, increase the reference wafer's useful life, and provides an easier method of monitoring the tool throughout its lifetime.

  6. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress.

  7. On-line chiral analysis using the kinetic method.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Yan, Xin; Raab, Shannon A; Ayrton, Stephen T; Flick, Tawnya G; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-04-21

    Chiral analysis of constituents in solution-phase reaction mixtures can be performed by tandem mass spectrometry using the kinetic method to determine the enantiomeric excess (ee). Simply diluting an aliquot of a reaction mixture, adjusting the pH, and adding reagents necessary to form a chiral cluster ion allows chiral analysis. The product of a stereospecific N-selective alkylation reaction, 2-(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)-5-oxo-1,6-naphthyridin-6(5H)-yl)propanoic acid, was monitored for ee during the course of reaction, and it showed the expected inversion without ee erosion. Base-catalyzed racemization of the reaction product showed the expected decrease in ee as the reaction proceeded. The base-catalyzed racemization of ibuprofen was monitored on-line, providing near real-time data on ee. PMID:26979554

  8. Line profile reconstruction: validation and comparison of reconstruction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yi; Yost, Michael G.; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hashmonay, Ram A.; Larson, Timothy V.

    Currently, open path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers have been applied in some fenceline monitoring, but their use has been limited because path-integrated concentration measurements typically only provide an estimate of the average concentration. We present a series of experiments that further explore the use of path-integrated measurements to reconstruct various pollutant distributions along a linear path. Our experiments were conducted in a ventilation chamber using an OP-FTIR instrument to monitor a tracer-gas release over a fenceline configuration. These experiments validate a line profile method (1-D reconstruction). Additionally, we expand current reconstruction techniques by applying the Bootstrap to our measurements. We compared our reconstruction results to our point samplers using the concordance correlation factor (CCF). Of the four different release types, three were successfully reconstructed with CCFs greater than 0.9. The difficult reconstruction involved a narrow release where the pollutant was limited to one segment of the segmented beampath. In general, of the three reconstruction methods employed, the average of the bootstrapped reconstructions was found to have the highest CCFs when compared to the point samplers. Furthermore, the bootstrap method was the most flexible and allowed a determination of the uncertainty surrounding our reconstructions.

  9. Are we thinking straight about groundwater recession?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbert, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    By exploring what governs the form of groundwater head recession in idealised and real aquifers, it will be shown that the analysis of groundwater recessions is a powerful but underused way of gaining insight into the hydrologic functioning of an aquifer from local to regional scales. It is commonly assumed that groundwater head recession in aquifers will take exponential form. However, here it is demonstrated that ideal regional aquifers should, given enough time between recharge events, actually develop through three distinct phases of recession: (1) in early times the groundwater recession should take an almost straight line form with a rate approximately equal to the long term recharge rate divided by the specific yield. The length of this phase can be estimated from a new analytical expression, which depends on the aquifer diffusivity, length scale and the position of the monitoring point, (2) a transitional phase then leads to, (3) an exponential phase after some critical time which is described by an existing analytical expression which is independent of the position of the monitoring point. Further analysis reveals that major aquifers in a state of periodic quasi-steady state are expected to have rates of net groundwater drainage which deviate little from the average rate of groundwater recharge. To back up these theoretical considerations, a range of real groundwater hydrographs will be presented which demonstrate the characteristic behaviour and interactions of groundwater flow systems interacting at local to regional scales. Where groundwater declines are observed in nature to have a quasi-exponential form, this may be diagnostic of particular types of aquifer properties and/or boundary effects such as: storage changes due to pumping, proximity to drainage boundaries, variations in transmissivity with hydraulic head, and variations in specific yield with depth. Furthermore, 'non-equilibrium' flow at a range of spatial and temporal scales helps explain

  10. Axial and Centrifugal Compressor Mean Line Flow Analysis Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate key aerodynamic parameters of single and multistage axial and centrifugal compressors. This mean-line compressor code COMDES provides the capability of sizing single and multistage compressors quickly during the conceptual design process. Based on the compressible fluid flow equations and the Euler equation, the code can estimate rotor inlet and exit blade angles when run in the design mode. The design point rotor efficiency and stator losses are inputs to the code, and are modeled at off design. When run in the off-design analysis mode, it can be used to generate performance maps based on simple models for losses due to rotor incidence and inlet guide vane reset angle. The code can provide an improved understanding of basic aerodynamic parameters such as diffusion factor, loading levels and incidence, when matching multistage compressor blade rows at design and at part-speed operation. Rotor loading levels and relative velocity ratio are correlated to the onset of compressor surge. NASA Stage 37 and the three-stage NASA 74-A axial compressors were analyzed and the results compared to test data. The code has been used to generate the performance map for the NASA 76-B three-stage axial compressor featuring variable geometry. The compressor stages were aerodynamically matched at off-design speeds by adjusting the variable inlet guide vane and variable stator geometry angles to control the rotor diffusion factor and incidence angles.

  11. Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René

    2009-05-01

    Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.

  12. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, David W.; Gemmell, Peter S.; Brickell, Ernest F.

    1998-01-01

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z.sub.u,i, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z.sub.u,i and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bankindicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin.

  13. Off-line compatible electronic cash method and system

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, D.W.; Gemmell, P.S.; Brickell, E.F.

    1998-11-03

    An off-line electronic cash system having an electronic coin, a bank B, a payee S, and a user U with an account at the bank B as well as a user password z{sub u,i}, has a method for performing an electronic cash transfer. An electronic coin is withdrawn from the bank B by the user U and an electronic record of the electronic coin is stored by the bank B. The coin is paid to the payee S by the user U. The payee S deposits the coin with the bank B. A determination is made that the coin is spent and the record of the coin is deleted by the bank B. A further deposit of the same coin after the record is deleted is determined. Additionally, a determination is made which user U originally withdrew the coin after deleting the record. To perform these operations a key pair is generated by the user, including public and secret signature keys. The public signature key along with a user password z{sub u,i} and a withdrawal amount are sent to the bank B by the user U. In response, the bank B sends a coin to the user U signed by the secret key of the bank indicating the value of the coin and the public key of the user U. The payee S transmits a challenge counter to the user U prior to receiving the coin. 16 figs.

  14. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, Martha R.

    1989-01-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo[a]pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors.

  15. Continuous human cell lines and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1985-07-01

    Substantially genetically stable continuous human cell lines derived from normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and processes for making and using the same. In a preferred embodiment, the cell lines are derived by treating normal human mammary epithelial tissue with a chemical carcinogen such as benzo(a)pyrene. The novel cell lines serve as useful substrates for elucidating the potential effects of a number of toxins, carcinogens and mutagens as well as of the addition of exogenous genetic material. The autogenic parent cells from which the cell lines are derived serve as convenient control samples for testing. The cell lines are not neoplastically transformed, although they have acquired several properties which distinguish them from their normal progenitors. 2 tabs.

  16. A Comparison of Best Fit Lines for Data with Outliers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2005-01-01

    Three techniques for determining a straight line fit to data are compared. The methods are applied to a range of datasets containing one or more outliers, and to a specific example from the field of chemistry. For the method which is the most resistant to the presence of outliers, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, as well as two Matlab routines, are…

  17. An experimental analysis of human straight walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental analysis of human straight walking has been presented. Experiments on human walking were carried out by using Cassino tracking system which is a passive cable-based measuring system. This system is adopted because it is capable of both pose and wrench measurements with fairly simple monitoring of operation. By using experimental results, trajectories of a human limb extremity and its posture have been analyzed; forces that are exerted against cables by the limb of a person under test have been measured by force sensors as well. Furthermore, by using experimental tests, modeling and characterization of the human straight walking gait have been proposed.

  18. Straight Privilege: Unpacking the (Still) Invisible Knapsack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Kaia

    2010-01-01

    Several unearned benefits attending straight privilege are listed, prefaced by two main arguments. First, it is argued that the rampant heterosexism in the U.S. is largely attributable to many Americans' framing of heterosexism as a matter of religious freedom rather than as a form of bigotry. It is further argued that educators' elimination of…

  19. KENTUCKY STRAIGHT PIPES REPORT, DECEMBER 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poor sanitary conditions and water pollution problems EPA observed in the Kentucky counties of Harlan, Martin, Bath, and Montgomery were of the highest concern. The widespread scale of both the straight pipe issues as well as package plant wastewater problems present an envir...

  20. Vacuum chamber for an undulator straight section

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Genens, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype aluminum extruded vacuum chamber for an undulator straight section of the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 52.-m long vacuum system is designed so that the undulator gap variation does not interfere with it. The chamber is gripped in a stiff close toleranced mounting structure to insure dimensional tolerance of the chamber height.

  1. Forces and torques between nonintersecting straight currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Cross, Felicity; Silva, J. K.

    2016-07-01

    We analyse two very long current-carrying straight wires that point in arbitrary directions without touching. We find general expressions for the forces and torques for arbitrary points on one wire due to the other. This allows us to make calculations for the overall forces and torques and statements about the stability of parallel and anti-parallel current arrangements.

  2. Benoit Mandelbrot: nor does lightning travel in a straight line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frame, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Benoit and I had one discussion about mortality (well, two, but the first, soon after we met, was humorous), though we never discussed religion. So why do I start my chapter with a Genesis quote? I want to try to sketch a picture of the brilliant, complex, and in an important way, very playful person who, for reasons I'll never understand, included me in his world, and who was for twenty years -- a long time, but not nearly long enough -- a dear friend. But about the Genesis quote I'll say this: the reference is to Rölvaag's novel Giants in the Earth, about pioneers in the Dakotas. I believe Benoit is better described as "pioneer" than as "explorer." Yes, he explored many new ideas, clearly saw vistas of whole worlds unnoticed by others. But he did not simply mark the territory and move on. In each new area he stayed a while, looked carefully all over the place. He built things, surveyed the land for hordes of others, including the contributors to this volume. So pioneer it is...

  3. No Straight Line: Wrinkling Binaries in Literacy and Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammack, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This article challenges some accepted binaries in literacy and technology research in order to explore the complex, multifaceted nature of literacy practices using a hypertextual multimedia study environment (MSE). Binary distinctions like literacy/illiteracy or online/offline are "wrinkled" or complicated by introducing findings from an…

  4. Efficient algorithm for generating spectra using line-by-lne methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnad, V; iglesias, C A

    2010-11-01

    A method is presented for efficient generation of spectra using line-by-line approaches. The only approximation is replacing the line shape function with an interpolation procedure, which makes the method independent of the line profile functional form. The resulting computational savings for large number of lines is proportional to the number of frequency points in the spectral range. Therefore, for large-scale problems the method can provide speedups of two orders of magnitude or more. A method was presented to generate line-by-line spectra efficiently. The first step was to replace the explicit calculation of the profile by the Newton divided-differences interpolating polynomial. The second step is to accumulate the lines effectively reducing their number to the number of frequency points. The final step is recognizing the resulting expression as a convolution and amenable to FFT methods. The reduction in computational effort for a configuration-to-configuration transition array with large number of lines is proportional to the number of frequency points. The method involves no approximations except for replacing the explicit profile evaluation by interpolation. Specifically, the line accumulation and convolution are exact given the interpolation procedure. Furthermore, the interpolation makes the method independent of the line profile functional form contrary to other schemes using FFT methods to generate line-by-line spectra but relying on the analytic form of the profile Fourier transform. Finally, the method relies on a uniform frequency mesh. For non-uniform frequency meshes, however, the method can be applied by using a suitable temporary uniform mesh and the results interpolated onto the final mesh with little additional cost.

  5. A robust line extraction and matching algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussien, B.; Sridhar, B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting straight lines from intensity mages and describes a line matching algorithm for solving the line correspondence problem. The line extraction process begins by detecting edges in the intensity image. Next, line support regions are formed where image points (pixels) have similar gradient orientation. A line fitting algorithm is then used to fit a line to the points in the line support region based on a least means square fitting algorithm. Finally, line segments are linked together to form the final lines by using an adaptive line linking method; this results in much stronger lines and a smaller set of lines to be considered. Once the lines are detected in a sequence of images, a line matching algorithm is used to match lines in one image to the lines in the other image. The images are either from a motion or stereo sequence. The matched lines may then be used with the sensor position and orientation data to estimate range to objects corresponding to the lines. We present results based on applying the line extraction and line matching algorithms to a synthetic image and an outdoor scene captured by a camera on a helicopter.

  6. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  7. A method for determining the median line of measured cylindrical and conical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janecki, Dariusz; Zwierzchowski, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    The paper presents a novel method for the determination of the median line of the cylindrical and conical surfaces. This method can be incorporated into virtually any cylindricity measurement strategy, including the bird-cage strategy and the helical line strategy. In the study, a median line was determined by minimizing the functional made up of two components. The form of the first component results from the classic definition of the median line provided in the corresponding standard. The other, termed the bending energy, is responsible for ensuring appropriate smoothness of the median line. In order to solve this variational problem, the median line was approximated by means of linear combination of cubic B-spline functions. A simulation and experiments were conducted to establish the suitability of the algorithm developed for the determination of the median line using the helical-line and the cross-section measurement strategy.

  8. Improved method for minimizing vibrational motion transmitted by pumping lines.

    PubMed

    Kirk, W P; Twerdochlib, M

    1978-06-01

    A description is given for a technique that is very effective in reducing vibrations transmitted along large-diameter ( greater, similar8 cm) vacuum and gas pumping lines. This technique uses a supported double-gimbal metal bellows design. When compared with other techniques such as the crossed T metal bellows design, a factor of 7 improvement was measured. An analysis is included which compares the various techniques, and shows that, in principle, improvement factors as high as 80 or more can be realized with the double-gimbal design. PMID:18699187

  9. Using a straightness reference in obtaining more accurate surface profiles from a Long Trace Profiler

    SciTech Connect

    Irick, S.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Lunt, D.L.J.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1991-07-15

    The Long Trace Profiler has found significant applications in measuring the surfaces of synchrotron optics. However, requirements of small slope errors at all spatial wavelengths of the synchrotron optics mandate more accurate slope measurements. A straightness reference for the Long Trace Profiler greatly increases the accuracy of the instrument. Methods of using the straightness reference by interpreting the sequential interference patterns are discussed and results of measurements are presented.

  10. Off-line signature recognition based on dynamic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarza, Juan J.; Hernaez, Inmaculada; Goirizelaia, Inaki; Espinosa, Koldo; Escolar, Jon

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we present the work developed on off-line signature verification as a continuation of a previous work using Left-to-Right Hidden Markov Models (LR-HMM) in order to extend those models to the field of static or off-line signature processing using results provided by image connectivity analysis. The chain encoding of perimeter points for each blob obtained by this analysis is an ordered set of points in the space, clockwise around the perimeter of the blob. Two models are generated depending on the way the blobs obtained from the connectivity analysis are ordered. In the first one, blobs are ordered according to their perimeter length. In the second proposal, blobs are ordered in their natural reading order, i.e. from the top to the bottom and left to right. Finally, two LR-HMM models are trained using the (x,y) coordinates of the chain codes obtained by the two mentioned techniques and a set of geometrical local features obtained from them such as polar coordinates referred to the center of ink, local radii, segment lengths and local tangent angle. Verification results of the two techniques are compared over a biometrical database containing skilled forgeries.

  11. Straight talk. New approaches in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Jack; Loudermilk, Kerry; Skogsbergh, Jim; Clark, Reatha; Friz, Robert; Lopez, Fawn

    2005-11-01

    Not-for-profit health systems are under the public microscope. Sen. Charles Grassley, (D-Iowa) chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, has been critical of the charity care and billing practices of not-for-profit health systems, and vows to introduce legislation to correct abuses throughout the tax-exempt sector. The House has studied the issue as well. Not-for-profit health systems also have been accused in hundreds of lawsuits of overcharging uninsured patients and aggressively pursuing debt collection. In this installment of Straight Talk, we explore the issues surrounding tax-exempt status and how health systems should publicize their charitable work. Modern Healthcare and PricewaterhouseCoopers present Straight Talk. The session on charity care and tax-exempt status was held on October 4, 2005 at Modern Healthcare's Chicago headquarters. Fawn Lopez, publisher of Modern Healthcare, was the moderator. PMID:16299988

  12. Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 12, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Jason, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Committee Passes Education Reform Legislation: On Party-Line Votes, Committee Passes Accountability and Teacher…

  13. The Hardest Straight-in Pool Shot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Rick

    2010-01-01

    When playing pool or billiards, a player often has the opportunity to make a "straight-in" shot, that is, one in which the cue ball, the object ball, and the target (e.g., a pocket) are collinear. With the distance from the cue ball to the target assumed fixed, the relative difficulty is here explored of shots taken at varying positions of the…

  14. NSLS-II INJECTION STRAIGHT DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev, I.; Blednykh, A.; Ferreira, M.; Fliller, R.; Kosciuk, B.; Shaftan, T.V.; Wang, G.

    2011-03-28

    The ultra-bright light source being developed by the NSLS-II project will utilize top-up injection and fine tuning of the injection process is mandatory. In this paper we present the diagnostics installed in the injection straight. Its use for commissioning and tuning of the injection cycle is also described. The NSLS-II storage ring will utilize a 9.3 meter long injection straight section shown in Fig. 1. Injection will be preformed with two septa (one pulsed, one DC) and four kickers. The stored beam will be shifted towards the pulsed septum up to IS mm and the nominal distance between centers of the injected and the bumped beam is 9.5mm. The NSLS-II beam position monitors will have turn-by-turn and first-turn capabilities and will be used for the commissioning and tuning the injection process. However, there are three additional BPMs and two beam intercepting OTR screens (flags) installed in the injection straight.

  15. Straight, white teeth as a social prerogative.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Abeer; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    A distinguishing feature of North American society is preoccupation with self-image, as seen in the ritualistic nature of bodily practices aimed at constantly improving the body. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the prevailing fixation with straight, white teeth. While there is an ever-expanding literature on the sociology of body, very little has been written on teeth in this context. Using literature from anthropology, biology, dentistry, sociology and social psychology, this study attempts to answer: (1) Why have straight, white teeth become a beauty ideal in North American society? (2) What is the basis for this ideal? (3) How is this ideal propagated? It demonstrates that dental aesthetic tendencies are biologically, culturally and socially patterned. Concepts from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault are used to illustrate how straight, white teeth contribute towards reinforcing class differences and how society exercises a disciplinary power on individuals through this ideal. It is concluded that modified teeth are linked to self and identity that are rooted in social structure. Moreover, teeth demonstrate the ways in which class differences are embodied and projected as symbols of social advantage or disadvantage. Implications on professional, public health, sociological and political levels are considered. PMID:25923766

  16. Line integral formulation of energy and QUadratic invariants preserving (EQUIP) methods for Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnano, Luigi; Caccia, Gianluca Frasca; Iavernaro, Felice

    2016-06-01

    The family of EQUIP (Energy and QUadratic Invariants Preserving) methods for Hamiltonian systems is here recasted in the framework of Line Integral Methods, in order to provide a more efficient discrete problem.

  17. On-Line Nondestructive Methods for Examining Fuel Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pardini, Allan F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Good, Morris S.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Hockey, Ronald L.; Saurwein, John J.; Gray, Joseph N.

    2007-09-15

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuels, being considered for use in various advanced nuclear power reactors, consist of sub-millimeter diameter uranium oxide spheres uniformly coated to prevent the release of fission products into the reactor. About 15 billion of these spheres are needed to fuel a single reactor. Current quality control (QC) methods are manual, can destroy test specimens, and are not economically feasible. Replacing these methods with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, automated for higher speed, will make fuel production and reactor operation economically feasible, considering the requirement for extremely large fuel particle throughput rates. This paper reports a project to develop and demonstrate nondestructive examination methods to detect and reject defective particles, and in particular progress made in the final year of a Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project . The work explored adapting, developing, and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to cost-effectively assure the quality of large percentages of the fuel particles.

  18. Straight until proven gay: A systematic bias toward straight categorizations in sexual orientation judgments.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2016-06-01

    Perceivers achieve above chance accuracy judging others' sexual orientations, but they also exhibit a notable response bias by categorizing most targets as straight rather than gay. Although a straight categorization bias is evident in many published reports, it has never been the focus of systematic inquiry. The current studies therefore document this bias and test the mechanisms that produce it. Studies 1-3 revealed the straight categorization bias cannot be explained entirely by perceivers' attempts to match categorizations to the number of gay targets in a stimulus set. Although perceivers were somewhat sensitive to base rate information, their tendency to categorize targets as straight persisted when they believed each target had a 50% chance of being gay (Study 1), received explicit information about the base rate of gay targets in a stimulus set (Study 2), and encountered stimulus sets with varying base rates of gay targets (Study 3). The remaining studies tested an alternate mechanism for the bias based upon perceivers' use of gender heuristics when judging sexual orientation. Specifically, Study 4 revealed the range of gendered cues compelling gay judgments is smaller than the range of gendered cues compelling straight judgments despite participants' acknowledgment of equal base rates for gay and straight targets. Study 5 highlighted perceptual experience as a cause of this imbalance: Exposing perceivers to hyper-gendered faces (e.g., masculine men) expanded the range of gendered cues compelling gay categorizations. Study 6 linked this observation to our initial studies by demonstrating that visual exposure to hyper-gendered faces reduced the magnitude of the straight categorization bias. Collectively, these studies provide systematic evidence of a response bias in sexual orientation categorization and offer new insights into the mechanisms that produce it. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281352

  19. A new method for the identification of non-Gaussian line profiles in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Franx, Marijn

    1993-01-01

    A new parameterization for the line profiles of elliptical galaxies, the Gauss-Hermite series, is proposed. This approach expands the line profile as a sum of orthogonal functions which minimizes the correlations between the errors in the parameters of the fit. This method also make use of the fact that Gaussians provide good low-order fits to observed line profiles. The method yields measurements of the line strength, mean radial velocity, and the velocity dispersion as well as two extra parameters, h3 and h4, that measure asymmetric and symmetric deviations of the line profiles from a Gaussian, respectively. The new method was used to derive profiles for three elliptical galaxies which all have asymmetric line profiles on the major axis with symmetric deviations from a Gaussian. Results confirm that elliptical galaxies have complex structures due to their complex formation history.

  20. 14 CFR 417.215 - Straight-up time analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight-up time analysis. 417.215 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.215 Straight-up time analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish the straight-up time for a launch for use as a...

  1. Straight and White: Talking with My Mouth Full

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, W. Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    By using straight and white teeth as a metaphor for a straight and White identity, the author reflects on how this identity is performed, maintained, and often problematic. Using literature about identity performance, three different voices speak to and from straight and White identity. Using irony by blending arrogance and ignorance in the voice…

  2. 14 CFR 417.215 - Straight-up time analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Straight-up time analysis. 417.215 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.215 Straight-up time analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish the straight-up time for a launch for use as a...

  3. 14 CFR 417.215 - Straight-up time analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Straight-up time analysis. 417.215 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.215 Straight-up time analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish the straight-up time for a launch for use as a...

  4. 14 CFR 417.215 - Straight-up time analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Straight-up time analysis. 417.215 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.215 Straight-up time analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish the straight-up time for a launch for use as a...

  5. Feature Line Based Building Detection and Reconstruction from Oblique Airborne Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Jiang, W.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a feature line based method for building detection and reconstruction from oblique airborne imagery is presented. With the development of Multi-View Stereo technology, increasing photogrammetric softwares are provided to generate textured meshes from oblique airborne imagery. However, errors in image matching and mesh segmentation lead to the low geometrical accuracy of building models, especially at building boundaries. To simplify massive meshes and construct accurate 3D building models, we integrate multi-view images and meshes by using feature lines, in which contour lines are used for building detection and straight skeleton for building reconstruction. Firstly, through the contour clustering method, buildings can be quickly and robustly detected from meshes. Then, a feature preserving mesh segmentation method is applied to accurately extract 3D straight skeleton from meshes. Finally, straight feature lines derived from multi-view images are used to rectify inaccurate parts of 3D straight skeleton of buildings. Therefore, low quality model can be refined by the accuracy improvement of mesh feature lines and rectification with feature lines of multi-view images. The test dataset in Zürich is provided by ISPRS/EuroSDR initiative Benchmark on High Density Image Matching for DSM Computation. The experiments reveal that the proposed method can obtain convincing and high quality 3D building models from oblique airborne imagery.

  6. Heat exchanger and method of making. [rocket lining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, A.; Kazaroff, J. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A heat exchange of increased effectiveness is disclosed. A porous metal matrix is disposed in a metal chamber or between walls through which a heat-transfer fluid is directed. The porous metal matrix has internal bonds and is bonded to the chamber in order to remove all thermal contact resistance within the composite structure. Utilization of the invention in a rocket chamber is disclosed as a specific use. Also disclosed is a method of constructing the heat exchanger.

  7. New chicane magnet design for insertion device straights at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Steve; Schlueter, Ross; Anderson, David; Gath, William; Jung, Jin-Young; Robin, David; Steier, Christoph; Stevens, Troy

    2001-12-10

    A chicane magnet incorporating counter-rotating permanent magnet pairs together with trim coils has been designed for use in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) straights in conjunction with two insertion devices. In particular, this design is being developed for use in the existing beam line (BL) 4 elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) straight and in the BL11 EPU straight, currently under design and construction. The purpose of the chicane is to provide a fixed angular separation between two successive EPU photon fans, and to correct steering perturbations resulting from EPU polarization state changes. Polarization changes occur on the time scale of one second; associated steering corrections must be accomplished in less than a second. Hysteresis associated with conventional iron core electromagnets prevents fast steering correction to the required precision. This consideration motivated the iron-free design presented here.

  8. A spectral KRMI conjugate gradient method under the strong-Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadijah, Wan; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a modification of spectral conjugate gradient (CG) method is proposed which combines the advantages of the spectral CG method and the RMIL method namely as spectral Khadijah-Rivaie-Mustafa-Ibrahim (SKRMI) to solve unconstrained optimization problems. Based on inexact line searches, the objective function generates a sufficient descent direction and the global convergence property for the proposed method has been proved. Moreover, the method reduces to the standard RMIL method if exact line search is applied. Numerical results are also presented to examine the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Probability Density Function for Waves Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, H

    2004-11-08

    The probability density function for wave propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density function for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density function, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent function. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density function, of wave propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic wave propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic waves travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these waves cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the waves decrease as the distance

  10. Systems, methods and apparatus for developing and maintaining evolving systems with software product lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Pena, Joaquin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which an evolutionary system is managed and viewed as a software product line. In some embodiments, the core architecture is a relatively unchanging part of the system, and each version of the system is viewed as a product from the product line. Each software product is generated from the core architecture with some agent-based additions. The result may be a multi-agent system software product line.

  11. The time line method for assessing galloping exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, A.S.

    1982-08-01

    The design of double circuit transmission structures is often determined by the need to allow sufficient electrical clearance between phases under galloping span conditions. In the past such designs have been arrived at according to certain ''galloping ellipse'' criteria in which the ellipse geometry is based on mid-span sag. The new method, disclosed herein, starts with the statistical history of the weather in the particular region, as to wind, wind direction, temperature, and ice leading to an exposure rate (Hrs./Yr.) for the normal component of wind speed. These data are combined with estimates of galloping motion including amplitude dependence on wind speed, gusting, and frequency mis-match between galloping and horizontal (swinging) movement at mid-span. A comparison is included between untreated and treated spans, the latter having galloping control devices with only 50% amplitude reduction capability. A range of span lengths between 750 ft. (227M) and 1,500 ft. (454M) is considered. The new method, for the first time, provides a means to assess the benefits of alternative designs in quantitative terms.

  12. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  13. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  14. Circuit and Method for Communication Over DC Power Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2007-01-01

    A circuit and method for transmitting and receiving on-off-keyed (OOK) signals with fractional signal-to-noise ratios uses available high-temperature silicon- on-insulator (SOI) components to move computational, sensing, and actuation abilities closer to high-temperature or high-ionizing radiation environments such as vehicle engine compartments, deep-hole drilling environments, industrial control and monitoring of processes like smelting, and operations near nuclear reactors and in space. This device allows for the networking of multiple, like nodes to each other and to a central processor. It can do this with nothing more than the already in-situ power wiring of the system. The device s microprocessor allows it to make intelligent decisions within the vehicle operational loop and to effect control outputs to its associated actuators. The figure illustrates how each node converts digital serial data to OOK 18-kHz in transmit mode and vice-versa in receive mode; though operations at lower frequencies or up to a megahertz are within reason using this method and these parts. This innovation s technique modulates a DC power bus with millivolt-level signals through a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) and resistor by OOK. It receives and demodulates this signal from the DC power bus through capacitive coupling at high temperature and in high ionizing radiation environments. The demodulation of the OOK signal is accomplished by using an asynchronous quadrature detection technique realized by a quasi-discrete Fourier transform through use of the quadrature components (0 and 90 phases) of the carrier frequency as generated by the microcontroller and as a function of the selected crystal frequency driving its oscillator. The detected signal is rectified using an absolute-value circuit containing no diodes (diodes being non-operational at high temperatures), and only operational amplifiers. The absolute values of the two phases of the received signal

  15. Partial Redistribution in Multilevel Atoms. I. Method and Application to the Solar Hydrogen Line Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubeny, I.; Lites, B. W.

    1995-12-01

    We present a robust method for solution of multilevel non-LTE line transfer problems including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD). This method allows the self-consistent solution for redistribution of scattered line photons simultaneously in multiple transitions of a model atom, including the effects of resonant Raman scattering ("cross-redistribution") among lines sharing common upper levels. The method is incorporated into the framework of the widely used non-LTE complete redistribution code MULTI. We have applied this method to the problem of transfer in hydrogen lines in a plane-parallel solar model atmosphere, including cross-redistribution between the Hα and Lβ, using general redistribution functions for the Lα and Lβ lines which are not restricted by the impact approximation. The convergence properties of this method are demonstrated to be comparable to that of the equivalent complete redistribution problem. In this solar model, PRD in the Lα line produces the dominant influence on the level populations. It changes considerably the populations of the excited states of hydrogen, as well as the proton number density, in the middle and upper chromosphere, owing to modification of the Lα wing radiation. The population of the hydrogen ground state undergoes only modest changes, however. The influence of cross-redistribution and PRD in Lβ has a much smaller influence on the level populations but a considerable influence on the wing intensity of the Lβ line.

  16. A new type of descent conjugate gradient method with exact line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajar, Nurul; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd.; Jusoh, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, conjugate gradient (CG) methods are impressive for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems. In this paper, a new CG method is proposed and analyzed. This new CG method satisfies descent condition and its global convergence is established using exact line search. Numerical results show that this new CG method substantially outperforms the previous CG methods. This new CG method is considered robust, efficient and provided faster and stable convergence.

  17. A Method for Checking Genomic Integrity in Cultured Cell Lines from SNP Genotyping Data

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Shane A.; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genomic screening for chromosomal abnormalities is an important part of quality control when establishing and maintaining stem cell lines. We present a new method for sensitive detection of copy number alterations, aneuploidy, and contamination in cell lines using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. In contrast to other methods designed for identifying copy number variations in a single sample or in a sample composed of a mixture of normal and tumor cells, this new method is tailored for determining differences between cell lines and the starting material from which they were derived, which allows us to distinguish between normal and novel copy number variation. We implemented the method in the freely available BCFtools package and present results based on induced pluripotent stem cell lines obtained in the HipSci project. PMID:27176002

  18. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel's gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles. PMID:27347947

  19. A Novel Line Space Voting Method for Vanishing-Point Detection of General Road Images

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zongsheng; Fu, Weiping; Xue, Ru; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Vanishing-point detection is an important component for the visual navigation system of an autonomous mobile robot. In this paper, we present a novel line space voting method for fast vanishing-point detection. First, the line segments are detected from the road image by the line segment detector (LSD) method according to the pixel’s gradient and texture orientation computed by the Sobel operator. Then, the vanishing-point of the road is voted on by considering the points of the lines and their neighborhood spaces with weighting methods. Our algorithm is simple, fast, and easy to implement with high accuracy. It has been experimentally tested with over hundreds of structured and unstructured road images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is effective and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation for autonomous mobile robots and unmanned ground vehicles. PMID:27347947

  20. Viscoelastic focusing and separation of bioparticles in straight microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoqing; Liu, Chao

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelasticity-induced particle migration has recently received increasing attention due to its ability to obtain high-quality focusing over a wide range of flow rates. However, its application is limited to low throughput regime since the particles can defocus as flow rate increases. Using an engineered carrier medium with constant and low viscosity and strong elasticity, the sample flow rates are improved to be one order of magnitude higher than those in existing studies. Utilizing differential focusing of particles of different sizes, here we present sheathless particle/cell separation in simple straight microchannels that possess excellent parallelizability for further throughput enhancement. The present method can be implemented over a wide range of particle/cell sizes and flow rates. We successfully separate small particles from larger particles, MCF-7 cells from red blood cells (RBCs), and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria from RBCs in different straight microchannels. We recommend further study on engineering rheological properties of carrier media for improving the separation performance of viscoelasticity-based microfluidic devices. We thank MOST2011CB707604 and NSFC11272321 for financial support. Done...processed 3188 records...13:39:19

  1. Transport of airborne particles in straight and curved microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Allison; Chu, Winnie C.; Stoeber, Boris

    2012-08-01

    The measurement of airborne particles is important for environmental and exposure monitoring. Microfluidic technologies present potential advantages for aerosol monitoring but have been applied very little to the handling of airborne particles. In this paper, we examine the flow focusing and cross-streamline diffusion of aerosols in straight microchannels, and the size-based lateral displacement of aerosols caused by centrifugal forces in a curved channel. We present calculations, simulations, and experimental results verifying the models: measurements of the focusing and diffusion of 0.2 μm and 0.75 μm particles in straight channels and of the size-dependent lateral displacement of particles between 0.2 μm and 2 μm in curved channels are demonstrated and shown to match well with the simulations. We observe lateral dispersion of the particles: particles closer to the top and bottom wall of the channel experience less lateral displacement than particles near the center due to the flow velocity distribution across the channel cross section. These results confirm that the microchannel techniques presented are a viable method for the size-based manipulation of airborne particles.

  2. Comparison of different methods for measuring water holding capacity and juiciness of pork versus on-line screening methods.

    PubMed

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-04-01

    The extent to which water holding capacity (WHC) techniques: filter paper press method, drip loss and filter paper method, are related to the sensory juiciness appreciation of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict WHC and juiciness scores. One-hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were involved in this study. Only WHC results, determined by the filter paper press method, were significantly correlated with juiciness scores (r=-0.24). The results of the filter paper method, either by weighing or visual judging, could not be predicted by the on-line methods. The results of the filter paper press method (F.p.p.-RZ) and drip loss were slightly better correlated with DDLT (respectively, r=0.56 and 0.45) than with PQM1 (r=0.51 and 0.36), FOP1 (r=0.48 and 0.34) and pH1 (r=0.41 and 0.34), although the standard error of estimate of the linear regressions was similar for the four on-line methods. Unfortunately, the on-line techniques incorrectly predicted several WHCs. Juiciness was slightly or not related to the on-line methods. The DDLT technique, which is analogous to the CGM (Capteur Gras/Maigre), an officially accepted carcass grading apparatus in France and Belgium, is as good or better than the classical on-line instruments: pH, FOP and PQM, in predicting WHC. PMID:22062025

  3. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  4. Efficient DNA fingerprinting method for the identification of cross-culture contamination of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Y; Nishizaki, C; Drexler, H G

    1999-09-01

    In order to identify cross-culture contamination of cell lines, we applied DNA fingerprinting using variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci and short tandem repeat (STR) loci amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) instead of a radioisotope labeled multilocus probe. Eleven cell lines were used for the Apo B and D1S80 loci detection, and twelve cell lines were examined in the Y-chromosome analysis. The data obtained from the sister cell lines NALM-6 and B85, two MOLM-1 cultures from two cryopreserved tubes, and four subclones of BALM-9 and its sister cell line BALM-10, displayed clear and distinct bands of each PCR product for both Apo B and D1S80. Detection of a Y-chromosome DNA sequence is another very informative marker for the identification of cell lines, if the Y-chromosome is present. We examined eight cell lines for the expression of four STR loci; the data thus generated were compared with the results previously reported from other laboratories. The resulting electrophoretic banding patterns showed that our "home-made" STR detection system is a useful and efficient tool for the authentication of cell lines. PCR detection of VNTR and STR loci represents a simple, rapid and powerful DNA fingerprinting technique to authenticate human cell lines and to detect cross-culture contamination. This PCR technique may be used in lieu of the more time-consuming, labor-intensive and radioactive Southern blot multilocus method. PMID:10695022

  5. [A new automated method to identify emission line star from massive spectra].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing-Chang; Zhang, Cai-Ming; Wei, Peng; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-06-01

    Stellar spectra are characterized by obvious absorption lines or absorption bands, while those with emission lines are usually special stars such as cataclysmic variable stars (CVs), HerbigAe/Be etc. The further study of this kind of spectra is meaningful. The present paper proposed a new method to identify emission line stars (ELS) spectra automatically. After the continuum normalization is done for the original spectral flux, line detection is made by comparing the normalized flux with the mean and standard deviation of the flux in its neighbor region The results of the experiment on massive spectra from SDSS DR8 indicate that the method can identify ELS spectra completely and accurately. Since no complex transformation and computation are involved in this method, the identifying process is fast and it is ideal for the ELS detection in large sky survey projects like LAMOST and SDSS. PMID:22870668

  6. Line-ratio based ring artifact correction method using transfer function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Daejoong; Hwang, Dosik; Kim, Younguk

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used for medical purposes. However there are many artifacts at CT images and that makes distorted image. Ring artifact is caused by non-uniform sensitivity of detectors and makes ring shape artifact. Line-ratio method was proposed to solve the problem however there are some problem at specific case. Therefore we propose advanced method to correct ring artifact using transfer function. As a result, ring artifacts can be removed at more global cases. Simulation data shows the proposed method outperforms the conventional line-ratio method.

  7. The choice of optimum cross section for overhead line by economic intervals' method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, Svetlana; Petrichenko, Lubov

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an approach to choosing the optimum cross section for overhead line in conditions of incomplete and uncertain information is considered. The two methods of such choice are presented: method of economic current density and economic intervals' method. The correction of the economic intervals method is offered under market conditions of costs. As example 20 kV and 110 kV overhead lines with aluminum, copper and ferroaluminum wires are selected. Universal nomograms with different standard cross section are calculated and constructed. The graphics using Mathcad software are offered.

  8. Extension of the weak-line approximation and application to correlated-k methods

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.J.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-03-15

    Global climate models require accurate and rapid computation of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. Correlated-k methods are often used. One of the approximations used in correlated-k models is the weakline approximation. We introduce an approximation T/sub g/ which reduces to the weak-line limit when optical depths are small, and captures the deviation from the weak-line limit as the extinction deviates from the weak-line limit. This approximation is constructed to match the first two moments of the gamma distribution to the k-distribution of the transmission. We compare the errors of the weak-line approximation with T/sub g/ in the context of a water vapor spectrum. The extension T/sub g/ is more accurate and converges more rapidly than the weak-line approximation.

  9. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  10. Apparatus for drilling straight portion of a deviated hole

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.C.; Scurlock, S.L.; Zublin, E.A.

    1982-08-10

    A guide is disclosed for drilling a straight section of a bore hole deflected from the vertical. The apparatus comprises either a normally straight or a curved-straight tubular member which has a plurality of generally circumferential cuts disposed along the length of the guide. The cuts allow the guide to be bent sufficiently to enter and traverse a short radius curve and then return to its normal configuration for guiding the drilling of the straight portion of the deflected bore hole. A clutch mechanism disposed in the drill guide permits engagement of the guide by the drill string for orientation of the guide.

  11. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR THE DETECTION OF LEAKS IN PIPE LINES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.; Cameron, J.F.

    1961-11-28

    A method is described for detecting leaks in pipe lines carrying fluid. The steps include the following: injecting a radioactive solution into a fluid flowing in the line; flushing the line clear of the radioactive solution; introducing a detector-recorder unit, comprising a radioactivity radiation detector and a recorder which records the detector signal over a time period at a substantially constant speed, into the line in association with a go-devil capable of propelling the detector-recorder unit through the line in the direction of the fluid flow at a substantia1ly constant velocity; placing a series of sources of radioactivity at predetermined distances along the downstream part of the line to make a characteristic signal on the recorder record at intervals corresponding to the location of said sources; recovering the detector-recorder unit at a downstream point along the line; transcribing the recorder record of any radioactivity detected during the travel of the detector- recorder unit in terms of distance along the line. (AEC)

  12. Obtaining the real profile of self-absorbed copper spectral line by regularization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vučeljić, M.; Brajović, S.; Šćepanović, M.; Mijović, S.

    2016-03-01

    Spectroscopic methods, as non-invasive, offer many possibilities to diagnose plasmas in the laboratory and in the space. Spectral line shapes carry information about plasma characteristics and deriving these parameters of line shapes with sufficient accuracy is the primary task in this work. The intrinsic problem in these methods is, the derivation of plasma characteristics from the measured spectrum: a characteristic of plasma plays a role of "cause", and the observed data-"effect". Therefore, to obtain the characteristic from the experimental data is an inverse and ill posed problem from the point of mathematical physics. The spectroscopic studies of the low voltage DC arc, used for excitation of free-burning cuprum-vapor plasmas at atmospheric pressure, were conducted. The true profile of Cu I 324.754 nm, self-absorbed spectral line, was obtained by deconvolution from experimental results by Tikhonov regularization method. Accuracy, reproducibility and limitation of the method were analyzed. Satisfactory results are obtained.

  13. Combustion-engine Temperatures by the Sodium Line-reversal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, Maurice J

    1936-01-01

    The sodium line-reversal method has been used in some preliminary measurements of flame temperature. Improvements in the method involving a photographic recorder and a means of correcting for the dirtiness of the windows are described. The temperatures so obtained are compared with those calculated from pressure diagrams.

  14. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system—to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)—is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems.Methods: An alignment model consisting of multiple alignment parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot.Results: In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were provided by

  15. A line-source method for aligning on-board and other pinhole SPECT systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Susu; Bowsher, James; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In order to achieve functional and molecular imaging as patients are in position for radiation therapy, a robotic multipinhole SPECT system is being developed. Alignment of the SPECT system—to the linear accelerator (LINAC) coordinate frame and to the coordinate frames of other on-board imaging systems such as cone-beam CT (CBCT)—is essential for target localization and image reconstruction. An alignment method that utilizes line sources and one pinhole projection is proposed and investigated to achieve this goal. Potentially, this method could also be applied to the calibration of the other pinhole SPECT systems. Methods: An alignment model consisting of multiple alignment parameters was developed which maps line sources in three-dimensional (3D) space to their two-dimensional (2D) projections on the SPECT detector. In a computer-simulation study, 3D coordinates of line-sources were defined in a reference room coordinate frame, such as the LINAC coordinate frame. Corresponding 2D line-source projections were generated by computer simulation that included SPECT blurring and noise effects. The Radon transform was utilized to detect angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the line-source projections. Alignment parameters were then estimated by a nonlinear least squares method, based on the α and ρ values and the alignment model. Alignment performance was evaluated as a function of number of line sources, Radon transform accuracy, finite line-source width, intrinsic camera resolution, Poisson noise, and acquisition geometry. Experimental evaluations were performed using a physical line-source phantom and a pinhole-collimated gamma camera attached to a robot. Results: In computer-simulation studies, when there was no error in determining angles (α) and offsets (ρ) of the measured projections, six alignment parameters (three translational and three rotational) were estimated perfectly using three line sources. When angles (α) and offsets (ρ) were provided by

  16. Calculation of the ac to dc resistance ratio of conductive nonmagnetic straight conductors by applying FEM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riba, Jordi-Roger

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes the skin and proximity effects in different conductive nonmagnetic straight conductor configurations subjected to applied alternating currents and voltages. These effects have important consequences, including a rise of the ac resistance, which in turn increases power loss, thus limiting the rating for the conductor. Alternating current (ac) resistance is important in power conductors and bus bars for line frequency applications, as well as in smaller conductors for high frequency applications. Despite the importance of this topic, it is not usually analyzed in detail in undergraduate and even in graduate studies. To address this, this paper compares the results provided by available exact formulas for simple geometries with those obtained by means of two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental results. The paper also shows that FEM results are very accurate and more general than those provided by the formulas, since FEM models can be applied in a wide range of electrical frequencies and configurations.

  17. Exponentially Fitted Variants of Euler's Method for ODEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanwar, V.; Tomar, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of Euler's method for the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations is presented in this article. The methods are iterative in nature and admit their geometric derivation from an exponentially fitted osculating straight line. They are single-step methods and do not require evaluation of any derivatives. The accuracy and…

  18. Real-Time Line Detection Method for Camera Images of the Rescue Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numada, Munetoshi; Shimizu, Masaru; Funahashi, Takuma; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

    Scene analysis based on the images captured from rescue robot is used to be composed of the basic three image processing stages: edge detection, line detection, and object recognition. The key technology to do this is Hough transform for line detection. The FIHT3 method, a companion method of a Fast Incremental Hough Transform (FIHT), is very appropriate to such line detection, because it is the fastest in processing and is with highly accurate in performance. However, the processing time allowed by line detection is 10 ms or less to analyze the scene in real time. Because the FIHT3 method has achieved speed-up by the shift operation, the number of partitions in θ axis of Hough voting space can take only a certain limited value. Therefore, the FIHT3 method should be more improved so that it could be applicable to any number of partitions in θ axis. Because FIHT3 is not applicable to the odd number of angle partitions due to the basic property of the simultaneous recurrence formula. Then, in this research, we propose the improved FIHT method that can process even if the number of angle partitions is odd. Furthermore, in the experiments of rescue robot it was known experimentally that the improved FIHT method provides the complete accuracy and the fastest computation among conventional any other methods.

  19. Improved method for calculating the respiratory line length in the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Izumi; Ogawa, Tokihiro

    2011-08-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) assesses an examinee's knowledge about a crime based on response differences between crime-relevant and crime-irrelevant items. One effective measure in the CIT is the respiration line length, which is the average of the moving distances of the respiration curve in a specified time interval after the item onset. However, the moving distance differs between parts of a respiratory cycle. As a result, the calculated respiration line length is biased by how the parts of the respiratory cycles are included in the time interval. To resolve this problem, we propose a weighted average method, which calculates the respiration line length per cycle and weights it with the proportion that the cycle occupies in the time interval. Simulation results indicated that the weighted average method removes the bias of respiration line lengths compared to the original method. The results of experimental CIT data demonstrated that the weighted average method significantly increased the discrimination performance as compared with the original method. The weighted average method is a promising method for assessing respiration changes in response to question items more accurately, which improves the respiration-based discrimination performance of the CIT. PMID:21689693

  20. On-line signature verification method by Laplacian spectral analysis and dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changting; Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2013-12-01

    As smartphones and touch screens are more and more popular, on-line signature verification technology can be used as one of personal identification means for mobile computing. In this paper, a novel Laplacian Spectral Analysis (LSA) based on-line signature verification method is presented and an integration framework of LSA and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based methods for practical application is proposed. In LSA based method, a Laplacian matrix is constructed by regarding the on-line signature as a graph. The signature's writing speed information is utilized in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix is analyzed and used for signature verification. The framework to integrate LSA and DTW methods is further proposed. DTW is integrated at two stages. First, it is used to provide stroke matching results for the LSA method to construct the corresponding graph better. Second, the on-line signature verification results by DTW are fused with that of the LSA method. Experimental results on public signature database and practical signature data on mobile phones proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  2. [A Method to Estimate Metal Abundance from Stellar Spectra Using Ca Line Index].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing-chang; Luo, A-li; Li, Xiang-ru; Wei, Peng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate stellar metallicity based on BP neural network and Ca line index. This method trains a BP ANN model from SDSS/SEGUE stellar spectra and parameters provided by SSPP. The values of Teff and the line index of Ca lines are the input of network while the [Fe/H] values are the oputput of the network. A set of samples are resampled from the set of all and then a network model is trained. The network can be used to predict the stellar metallicity from low-resolution spsectra. The experiment shows that the proposed method can accurately and effectively measure the [Fe/H] from the stellar spectra. PMID:26669184

  3. Vowel-related tongue movements in speech: straight or curved paths? (L).

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, Anders

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines tongue movements between the two vowels in sequences of vowel-labial consonant-vowel, addressing the question whether the movement is a straight line or a curved path. Native speakers of Japanese and Italian served as subjects. The linguistic material consisted of words where the bilabial consonant was either long or short. The inclusion of words with different consonant lengths was motivated by earlier findings that the tongue movement is often longer when the consonant is long, which may be due to a more curved movement path. Tongue movements were recorded using a three-transmitter magnetometer system. To assess the movement path, the movement magnitude was calculated in two ways, as a straight line, the Euclidean distance, and as the actual path, obtained by summing the individual Euclidean distances between successive samples from movement onset to offset. The ratio between the path and the Euclidean distance is 1 when the movement is a straight line and greater than 1 when the path is curved. Results show that in virtually all 21 cases examined the ratio was very close to 1 and in most cases 1.2 or less. There was no reliable influence of consonant length on the ratio. PMID:21428476

  4. Staple Line Reinforcement Methods in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Comparison of Burst Pressures and Leaks

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Orhan; Karip, Bora; Memisoglu, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a technically simple and popular bariatric operation with acceptable results. However, leaks can occur in long staple lines, for which various reinforcement methods are used. We compared nonreinforced stapling in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with 3 staple line reinforcement methods: suturing, absorbable buttressing material, and fibrin glue. Methods: From March 1 until September 30, 2014, 118 patients with body mass index >40 kg/m2 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and were enrolled in 4 groups, depending on the type of reinforcement used. The resected stomach specimens were treated with the same methods of reinforcement as used in the surgeries in the corresponding patients and then insufflated until a burst occurred. The burst pressures of the resected stomach specimens and adverse postoperative events were recorded. Results: Five postoperative leaks occurred in the reinforcement groups (fibrin glue, 2; absorbable buttresses, 2; sutures, 1); no leaks were evident in the no-reinforcement group. Suturing afforded the highest burst pressure and took the longest to perform of the methods. There was no correlation between the leaks and burst pressures. All of the leaks occurred in the proximal fundus in the resected stomach specimens and in the affected patients. Discussion: Although most surgeons use additional reinforcement on long staple lines in sleeve gastrectomy, there is no consensus about its necessity. We did not show any benefit of such reinforcement methods over proper stapling technique alone. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy without staple line reinforcement is safe and avoids additional costs for reinforcement materials. PMID:26175554

  5. A fuzzy clustering vessel segmentation method incorporating line-direction information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhimin; Xiong, Wei; Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.

    2012-02-01

    A data clustering based vessel segmentation method is proposed for automatic liver vasculature segmentation in CT images. It consists of a novel similarity measure which incorporates the spatial context, vesselness information and line-direction information in a unique way. By combining the line-direction information and spatial information into the data clustering process, the proposed method is able to take care of the fine details of the vessel tree and suppress the image noise and artifacts at the same time. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated on the real clinical contrast-enhanced CT images, and achieved excellent segmentation accuracy without any experimentally set parameters.

  6. An improved, robust, axial line singularity method for bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The failures encountered in attempts to increase the range of applicability of the axial line singularity method for representing incompressible, inviscid flow about an inclined and slender body-of-revolution are presently noted to be common to all efforts to solve Fredholm equations of the first kind. It is shown that a previously developed smoothing technique yields a robust method for numerical solution of the governing equations; this technique is easily retrofitted to existing codes, and allows the number of circularities to be increased until the most accurate line singularity solution is obtained.

  7. A method for modeling discontinuities in a microwave coaxial transmission line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.

    1992-01-01

    A method for modeling discontinuities in a coaxial transmission line is presented. The methodology involves the use of a nonlinear least-squares fit program to optimize the fit between theoretical data (from the model) and experimental data. When this method was applied to modeling discontinuities in a slightly damaged Galileo spacecraft S-band (2.295-GHz) antenna cable, excellent agreement between theory and experiment was obtained over a frequency range of 1.70-2.85 GHz. The same technique can be applied for diagnostics and locating unknown discontinuities in other types of microwave transmission lines, such as rectangular, circular, and beam waveguides.

  8. A numerical method of tracing a vortical axis along local topological axis line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Katsuyuki; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    A new numerical method is presented to trace or identify a vortical axis in flow, which is based on Galilean invariant flow topology. We focus on the local flow topology specified by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor, and extract the axis component from its flow trajectory. Eigen-vortical-axis line is defined from the eigenvector of the real eigenvalue of the velocity gradient tensor where the tensor has the conjugate complex eigenvalues. This numerical method integrates the eigen-vortical-axis line and traces a vortical axis in terms of the invariant flow topology, which enables to investigate the feature of the topology-based vortical axis.

  9. 14 CFR 417.215 - Straight-up time analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Straight-up time analysis. 417.215 Section 417.215 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.215 Straight-up...

  10. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  11. The Straight Edge Movement: It's Not What You Think.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ralston, Kibby

    2000-01-01

    A high school senior describes the straight edge movement, a misunderstood youth-oriented group whose members are against smoking, drinking, doing drugs, and engaging in promiscuous sex. Straight edgers are often mislabeled as troublemakers because of their style of dress and taste in hardcore and punk music, and because of the violent actions of…

  12. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  14. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  15. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists...

  17. Friends, Families, and the Importance of Straight Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woog, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Argues that gay issues should be recognized and discussed in schools, and cites the killing of Matthew Shepard as an example of hatred perpetuated through ignorance. Outlines the need for straight allies to stand up for gay students whenever they can, and suggests ways straight teachers can show their gay colleagues that they are sensitive to the…

  18. The development of straightness measuring equipment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Demint, P.D.; Abraham, M.

    1997-05-20

    This report details work performed between Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and UTE Straight-O-Matic (UTE) under the National Machine Tool Partnership program. This work included the design and construction of an automatic straightness measuring system capable of retrofitting to existing machines. 1 fig.

  19. Method for generation of spiral bevel gears with conjugate gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Coy, J. J.; Heine, C.; Tsung, Wei-Jiung

    1987-01-01

    A method for generation of spiral bevel gears is proposed that provides conjugate gear tooth surfaces. This method is based on a new principle for the performance of parallel motion of a straight line that slides along two mating ellipses with related dimensions and parameters of orientation. The parallel motion of the straight line, that is, the contact normal, is performed parallel to the line which passes through the foci of symmetry of the related ellipses. The manufacturing of gears can be performed with the existing Gleason's equipment.

  20. Elastic carbon nanotube straight yarns embedded with helical loops.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Luhui; Li, Zhen; Li, Peixu; Shi, Enzheng; Wu, Shiting; Cao, Anyuan

    2013-03-21

    Introducing stretchability and elasticity into carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns could extend their applications to areas such as stretchable and deformable fiber-based devices and strain sensors. Here, we convert a straight and inelastic yarn into a highly elastic structure by spinning a predefined number of helical loops along the yarn, resulting in a short helical segment with smooth structural transition to the straight portions. The loop-forming process is well controlled, and the obtained straight-helical-straight hybrid yarn is freestanding, stable, and based entirely on CNTs. The elastic and conductive yarns can be stretched to moderate tensile strains (up to 25%) repeatedly for 1000 cycles without producing residual deformation, with a simultaneous and linear change of electrical resistance depending on the strain. Our results indicate that conventional straight CNT yarns could be used as fiber-shaped strain sensors by simple structural modification. PMID:23400109

  1. Finger Vein Recognition Using Local Line Binary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Rosdi, Bakhtiar Affendi; Shing, Chai Wuh; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a personal verification method using finger vein is presented. Finger vein can be considered more secured compared to other hands based biometric traits such as fingerprint and palm print because the features are inside the human body. In the proposed method, a new texture descriptor called local line binary pattern (LLBP) is utilized as feature extraction technique. The neighbourhood shape in LLBP is a straight line, unlike in local binary pattern (LBP) which is a square shape. Experimental results show that the proposed method using LLBP has better performance than the previous methods using LBP and local derivative pattern (LDP). PMID:22247670

  2. An Empirical Evaluation of Juvenile Awareness Programs in the United States: Can Juveniles Be "Scared Straight"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Bell, Keith J.; Dodson, Kimberly D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile awareness programs like Scared Straight became popular crime prevention strategies during the 1970s. Juvenile offenders and at-risk youth who participate in these programs are taken to prisons where inmates use confrontational methods to recount stories about violence, sex, and abuse perpetrated by fellow inmates while living a life…

  3. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the "XL" USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF. PMID:27092503

  4. A Sea-Sky Line Detection Method for Unmanned Surface Vehicles Based on Gradient Saliency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Su, Yumin; Wan, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Special features in real marine environments such as cloud clutter, sea glint and weather conditions always result in various kinds of interference in optical images, which make it very difficult for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) to detect the sea-sky line (SSL) accurately. To solve this problem a saliency-based SSL detection method is proposed. Through the computation of gradient saliency the line features of SSL are enhanced effectively, while other interference factors are relatively suppressed, and line support regions are obtained by a region growing method on gradient orientation. The SSL identification is achieved according to region contrast, line segment length and orientation features, and optimal state estimation of SSL detection is implemented by introducing a cubature Kalman filter (CKF). In the end, the proposed method is tested on a benchmark dataset from the “XL” USV in a real marine environment, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is significantly superior to other state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy rate and real-time performance, and its accuracy and stability are effectively improved by the CKF. PMID:27092503

  5. A Passive Method for Detecting Vegetation Stress from Orbit: Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectra from Fraunhofer Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theisen, Arnold F.

    2000-01-01

    Solar-stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence measured with the Fraunhofer line depth method has correlated well with vegetation stress in previous studies. However, the instruments used in those studies were limited to a single solar absorption line (e.g. 656.3 nm), obviating the red/far-red ratio (R/FR) method. Optics and detector technology have reached the level whereby multiple, very narrow Fraunhofer lines are resolvable. Thirteen such lines span the visible spectrum in the red to far-red region where chlorophyll fluorescence occurs. Fluorescence intensities at the 13 Fraunhofer line wavelengths were used to model emission spectra. The source data were collected for summer and fall bean crops (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) subjected to various levels of nitrogen fertilization. The intensities were adjusted to account for Fraunhofer line depth and atmospheric transmittance. Multiple R/FR fluorescence ratios, calculated from the modeled fluorescence spectra, correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll concentration and well with applied nitrogen. The ratio yielding the best correlation with chlorophyll utilized red fluorescence at the 694.5 nm Fraunhofer line and farred fluorescence at the 755.6 nm Fraunhofer line. Twenty R/FR ratios, each evaluated for the maximum differential between low and high (optimal) nitrogen treatments, ranked higher in some cases and lower in others, possibly related to the time of year the crops were grown and the stage of growth of the crops. Ratios with 728.9 nm and 738.9 nm in the denominator consistently ranked in the lowest and next lowest quartile, respectively. Ratios of the 656.3 nm Fraunhofer line and the 755.6 nm line consistently ranked highest for the summer crop. Ratios with 755.6 nm in the denominator ranked in the upper quartile for 10 out of 12 measurement dates. Differences in ratio ranking indicate that physiological conditions may be estimated using selected ratios of Fraunhofer lines within the context of R/FR analysis. A

  6. Temperature measurement of wood flame based on the double line method of atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhenhua; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the testing requirement of the transient high temperature in explosion field and the bore of barrel weapon, the temperature measurement system of double line of atomic emission spectrum was designed, the method of flame spectrum testing system were used for experimental analysis. The experimental study of wood burning spectra was done with flame spectrum testing system. The measured spectra contained atomic emission spectra of the elements K, Na, and the excitation ease of two kinds atomic emission spectra was analyzed. The temperature was calculated with two spectral lines of K I 766.5nm and 769.9nm. The results show that, compared with Na, the excitation temperature of K atomic emission spectra is lower. By double line method, the temperature of wood burning is 1040K, and error is 3.7%.

  7. BEAM TRANSPORT LINES FOR THE BSNS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    This paper presents the design of two beam transport lines at the BSNS: one is the injection line from the Linac to the RCS and the other is the target line from the RCS to the target station. In the injection beam line, space charge effects, transverse halo collimation, momentum tail collimation and debunching are the main concerned topics. A new method of using triplet cells and stripping foils is used to collimate transverse halo. A long straight section is reserved for the future upgrading linac and debuncher. In the target beam line, large halo emittance, beam stability at the target due to kicker failures and beam jitters, shielding of back-scattering neutrons from the target are main concerned topics. Special bi-gap magnets will be used to reduce beam losses in the collimators in front of the target.

  8. Modernization of the Method of Line-Line Intersection Using Rtn Gnss Technology for Determining the Position of Corners of Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Carrying out measurements of buildings with RTN GNSS technology in difficult environmental conditions appears to be a major challenge for many surveyors. Achieving the required accuracy of the position of a building structure is often a difficult, and sometimes even an impossible task to perform. This paper presents an innovative solution to increase the reliability of determining the coordinates of building corners, by modernizing the results obtained from the indirect method of measurement of line-line intersection by the socalled half-angle method. Generally speaking, the half-angle method is to verify the angular values in determined points (corners of buildings) from the method of intersection of the base point lines. Optimization of this method involves reducing deformation of a building, which has been determined in real time, taking into account only the classical method of line-line intersection. In order to obtain optimized measurement results, the conversion of the obtained results to the convergent values relative to the most probable coordinates is performed. Based on a detailed comparative and statistical analyses, it can be concluded that the modernized method of line intersection, employed in the RTN GNSS mode with the half-angle method, greatly improves the reliability of determining corners of buildings (X and Y coordinates), as well as provides an exact reflection of the geometric shape of a structure.

  9. The unified transform method for the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half-line

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-01-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa–Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann–Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  10. An operator perturbation method for polarized line transfer. II. Resonance polarization with partial frequency redistribution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, Frederic; Faurobert-Scholl, Marianne

    1997-12-01

    The effects of partial frequency redistribution are implemented in the Polarized Accelerated Lambda Iteration (PALI) method of Faurobert-Scholl et al. (1997). The numerical scheme is an extension of the core-wing technique of Paletou & Auer (1995) originally developed for non-polarized line transfer problems. Using a new code, we validate theoretical results against those given by a Feautrier type code.

  11. The unified transform method for the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half-line.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Fan, Engui

    2013-11-01

    We implement the unified transform method to the initial-boundary value (IBV) problem of the Sasa-Satsuma equation on the half line. In addition to presenting the basic Riemann-Hilbert formalism, which linearizes this IBV problem, we also analyse the associated general Dirichlet to Neumann map using the so-called global relation. PMID:24204181

  12. Methods for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts with mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, W.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of the methods available for the calculation of axial wave numbers in lined ducts. Rectangular and circular ducts with both uniform and non-uniform flow are considered as are ducts with peripherally varying liners. A historical perspective is provided by a discussion of the classical methods for computing attenuation when no mean flow is present. When flow is present these techniques become either impractical or impossible. A number of direct eigenvalue determination schemes which have been used when flow is present are discussed. Methods described are extensions of the classical no-flow technique, perturbation methods based on the no-flow technique, direct integration methods for solution of the eigenvalue equation, an integration-iteration method based on the governing differential equation for acoustic transmission, Galerkin methods, finite difference methods, and finite element methods.

  13. Stress Intensity Factors of Semi-Circular Bend Specimens with Straight-Through and Chevron Notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayatollahi, M. R.; Mahdavi, E.; Alborzi, M. J.; Obara, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Semi-circular bend specimen is one of the useful test specimens for determining fracture toughness of rock and geo-materials. Generally, in rock test specimens, initial cracks are produced in two shapes: straight-edge cracks and chevron notches. In this study, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factors of semi-circular bend specimen (SCB) with straight-through and chevron notches are calculated. First, using finite element analysis, a suitable relation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack is presented based on the normalized crack length and half-distance between supports. For evaluating the validity and accuracy of this relation, the obtained results are then compared with numerical and experimental results reported in the literature. Subsequently, by performing some experiments and also finite element analysis of the SCB specimen with chevron notch, the minimum dimensionless stress intensity factor of this specimen is obtained. Using the new equation for the dimensionless stress intensity factor of SCB with straight-through crack and an analytical method, i.e., Bluhm's slice synthesis method, the minimum (critical) dimensionless stress intensity factor of chevron notched semi-circular bend specimens is calculated. Good agreement is observed between the results of two mentioned methods.

  14. A short line segment squirms along a zigzag line.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yang, Xie

    2013-01-01

    When a short straight line segment moves across a zigzag line and is viewed in one's peripheral vision, it appears to exhibit nonrigid squirming motion (the squirm effect). This phenomenon demonstrates that the form, orientation, and motion direction of a short line are influenced by those of a longer one when they are viewed in one's peripheral vision. PMID:23755359

  15. An Investigation of the Median-Median Method of Linear Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Elizabeth J.; Morrell, Christopher H.; Auer, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Least squares regression is the most common method of fitting a straight line to a set of bivariate data. Another less known method that is available on Texas Instruments graphing calculators is median-median regression. This method is proposed as a simple method that may be used with middle and high school students to motivate the idea of fitting…

  16. Endoscopic Shearography and Thermography Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of Lined Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Lansing, M. D.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this research effort was the development of methods for shearographic and thermographic inspection of coatings, bonds, or laminates inside rocket fuel or oxidizer tanks, fuel lines, and other closed structures. The endoscopic methods allow imaging and inspection inside cavities that are traditionally inaccessible with shearography or thermography cameras. The techniques are demonstrated and suggestions for practical application are made in this report. Drawings of the experimental setups, detailed procedures, and experimental data are included.

  17. Endoscopic Shearography and Thermography Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation of Lined Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Matthew D.; Bullock, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this research effort was the development of methods for shearography and thermography inspection of coatings, bonds, or laminates inside rocket fuel or oxidizer tanks, fuel lines, and other closed structures. The endoscopic methods allow imaging and inspection inside cavities which are traditionally inaccessible with shearography or thermography cameras. The techniques are demonstrated and suggestions for practical application are made in this report. Drawings of the experimental setups, detailed procedures, and experimental data are included.

  18. Method for improving line flux and redshift measurements with narrowband filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabl, J.; Freudling, W.; Møller, P.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Nilsson, K. K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tasca, L. A. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High redshift star-forming galaxies are discovered routinely because of a flux excess in narrowband filters caused by an emission line. In most cases, the width of such filters is broader than typical line widths, and the throughput of the filters varies substantially within the bandpass. This leads to substantial uncertainties in redshifts and fluxes that are derived from the observations with one specific narrowband filter. Aims: The uncertainty in measured line parameters can be sharply reduced by using repeated observations of the same target field with filters that have overlapping passbands but differ slightly in central wavelength or wavelength dependence of the effective filter curve. Such data are routinely collected with some large field imaging cameras that use multiple detectors and a separate filter for each of the detectors. An example is the European Southern Observatory's VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM). Methods: We developed a method of determining more accurate redshift and line flux estimates from the ratio of apparent fluxes measured from observations in different narrowband filters and several matching broadband filters. A parameterized model of the line and continuum flux is used to predict the flux ratios as a function of redshift based on the known filter curves. These model predictions are then used to determine the most likely redshift and line flux. Results: We tested the obtainable quality of parameter estimation for the example of Hα in the VIRCAM NB118 filters both on simulated and actual observations where the latter were based on the UltraVISTA DR2 data set. We combined the narrowband data with deep broadband data in Y, J, and H. We find that with this method, the errors in the measured lines fluxes can be reduced up to almost an order of magnitude. Conclusions: We conclude that existing narrowband data can be used to derive accurate line fluxes if the observations include images taken with sufficiently different filter

  19. Gliding flight: drag and torque of a hawk and a falcon with straight and turned heads, and a lower value for the parasite drag coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tucker, V A

    2000-12-01

    Raptors - falcons, hawks and eagles in this study - such as peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) that attack distant prey from high-speed dives face a paradox. Anatomical and behavioral measurements show that raptors of many species must turn their heads approximately 40 degrees to one side to see the prey straight ahead with maximum visual acuity, yet turning the head would presumably slow their diving speed by increasing aerodynamic drag. This paper investigates the aerodynamic drag part of this paradox by measuring the drag and torque on wingless model bodies of a peregrine falcon and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with straight and turned heads in a wind tunnel at a speed of 11.7 m s(-)(1). With a turned head, drag increased more than 50 %, and torque developed that tended to yaw the model towards the direction in which the head pointed. Mathematical models for the drag required to prevent yawing showed that the total drag could plausibly more than double with head-turning. Thus, the presumption about increased drag in the paradox is correct. The relationships between drag, head angle and torque developed here are prerequisites to the explanation of how a raptor could avoid the paradox by holding its head straight and flying along a spiral path that keeps its line of sight for maximum acuity pointed sideways at the prey. Although the spiral path to the prey is longer than the straight path, the raptor's higher speed can theoretically compensate for the difference in distances; and wild peregrines do indeed approach prey by flying along curved paths that resemble spirals. In addition to providing data that explain the paradox, this paper reports the lowest drag coefficients yet measured for raptor bodies (0.11 for the peregrine and 0.12 for the red-tailed hawk) when the body models with straight heads were set to pitch and yaw angles for minimum drag. These values are markedly lower than value of the parasite drag coefficient (C(D,par)) of 0.18 previously

  20. New correction method for dynamic error in on-line gamma ray thickness detection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Manchun; Yi, Hongchang; Lin, Qian

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to correct dynamic error (DE) in on-line gamma ray thickness measurement, which significantly improves measurement precision over traditional method, in most cases, by one order of magnitude. Theoretical analysis of DE is presented and the correction method is proposed. In order to further prove our theory, Monte Carlo simulation is taken and the performance improvement is given. The method has been successfully applied to our thickness measurement system and brought dramatic improvement to its dynamic precision. PMID:19682915

  1. A modification of classical conjugate gradient method using strong Wolfe line search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoid, Syazni; Rivaie, Mohd.; Mamat, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Recently many researches try to develop and improve the Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods because of its convergence properties and low computation costing. In this paper, another CG coefficient (βk) will be proposed which is categorized as modification in such a way to improve the performance of the classical CG methods. This paper is focused on generating βk with several desirable properties: (1) generate descent search direction at each iterations; and (2) converge globally by using strong Wolfe line search. Numerical comparisons of three CG methods show the robustness and the efficiency of the new method in solving all given problems.

  2. "Not Going Away": Approaches Used by Students, Faculty, and Staff Members to Create Gay-Straight Alliances at Three Religiously Affiliated Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntarfer, Heather Killelea

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the processes of forming gay-straight alliances at three religiously affiliated institutions of higher education. Using the lens of Social Movement Theory (SMT), this paper presents the methods and approaches used when advocates of gay-straight alliances at these institutions encountered resistance from…

  3. Attitudes toward straight, gay male, and transsexual parenting.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25287065

  4. Application of a finite volume based method of lines to turbulent forced convection in circular tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, A.; Tebeest, K.; Lacoa, U.; Morales, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    A semianalytic analysis of in-tube turbulent forced convection is performed whose special computational feature is the combination of the method of lines, the finite volume technique, and a radial coordinate transformation. First, a numerical solution of the momentum equation was obtained by a simple Runge-Kutta integration scheme. Second, the energy equation was reformulated into a system of ordinary differential equations of first order. Each equation in the system controls the temperature along a line in a mesh consisting of concentric lines. Reliable analytic solutions for the temperature distribution of fluids in the region of thermal development can be determined for combinations of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Predicted results for the distributions of mean bulk temperature and local Nusselt numbers for air, water, and oils compare satisfactorily with the available experimental data.

  5. 4D Emittance Measurements Using Multiple Wire and Waist Scan Methods in the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Rimbault, C.; Bambade, P.; Brossard, J.; Alabau, M.; Kuroda, S.; Scarfe, A.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    Emittance measurements performed in the diagnostic section of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) extraction line since 1998 led to vertical emittances three times larger than the expected ones, with a strong dependence on intensity. An experimental program is pursued to investigate potential sources of emittance growth and find possible remedies. This requires efficient and reliable emittance measurement techniques. In the past, several phase-space reconstruction methods developed at SLAC and KEK have been used to estimate the vertical emittance, based on multiple location beam size measurements and dedicated quadrupole scans. These methods have been shown to be very sensitive to measurement errors and other fluctuations in the beam conditions. In this context new emittance measurements have been performed revisiting these methods and newly developed ones with a systematic approach to compare and characterise their performance in the ATF extraction line.

  6. Multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness based on redundant second generation wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng; Li Ning

    2010-10-15

    We introduce a multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness (LER) based on redundant second generation wavelet transform. This method involves decomposing LER characteristics into independent bands with different spatial frequency components at different scales, and analyzing the reconstructed signals to work out the roughness exponent, the spatial frequency distribution characteristics, as well as the rms value. The effect of noise can be predicted using detailed signals in the minimum space of scale. This method was applied to numerical profiles for validation. Results show that according to the line edge profiles with similar amplitudes, the roughness exponent R can effectively reflect the degree of irregularity of LER and intuitively provide information on LER spatial frequency distribution.

  7. Building Bridges One Line at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Cathy Murray

    2012-01-01

    In this article, first-grade students were taught the different kinds of lines that were part of the construction of various bridges--the curved lines of the arches of stone bridges, straight lines connecting the cables of a suspension bridge, vertical lines, horizontal lines, and so on. They gained practice in drawing structures and in fine brush…

  8. A multiplex PCR method of detecting recombinant DNAs from five lines of genetically modified maize.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, T; Kuribara, H; Akiyama, H; Miura, H; Goda, Y; Kusakabe, Y; Isshiki, K; Toyoda, M; Hino, A

    2001-02-01

    Seven lines of genetically modified (GM) maize have been authorized in Japan as foods and feeds imported from the USA. We improved a multiplex PCR method described in the previous report in order to distinguish the five lines of GM maize. Genomic DNA was extracted from GM maize with a silica spin column kit, which could reduce experimental time and improve safety in the laboratory and potentially in the environment. We sequenced recombinant DNA (r-DNA) introduced into GM maize, and re-designed new primer pairs to increase the specificity of PCR to distinguish five lines of GM maize by multiplex PCR. A primer pair for the maize intrinsic zein gene (Ze1) was also designed to confirm the presence of amplifiable maize DNA. The lengths of PCR products using these six primer pairs were different. The Ze1 and the r-DNAs from the five lines of GM maize were qualitatively detected in one tube. The specific PCR bands were distinguishable from each other on the basis of the expected length. The r-DNA could be detected from maize samples containing 0.5% of each of the five lines of GM maize. The sensitivity would be acceptable to secure the verification of non-GMO materials and to monitor the reliability of the labeling system. PMID:11383153

  9. Improving method of line (area) buffer creating model used in MapInfo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, R. C.; Chen, Y.; Liu, G. H.; Guo, L. X.; Zheng, Y. D.; Chen, H. R.

    2007-06-01

    Both the "Earth" coordinates system and "Non Earth" coordinates system are the coordinates systems mostly used in the GIS software nowadays. In the former coordinates system, the earth is treated as a sphere and in the latter one; all the spatial analysis models are based on the Euclidian Plane. The different coordinates system has the different usage: the "Earth" coordinates system is applied to the spatial analysis of large-scale areas and the "Non Earth" coordinates system is applied to local areas. The error will be made if the usage of the systems is exchanged. Through the analysis of typical MapInfo point and line (area) buffer creating examples, the inaccuracy of MapInfo line (area) buffer creating model based on map projection plane has been found. Analyzing and validating its reason, the improving ideas and methods are given out: constituting line (area) buffer creating model by MapInfo point buffer creating model and convex hull creating model; constituting line (area) buffer creating model based on the earth ellipsoid. This paper not only provides an idiographic method for MapInfo users to improve the accuracy and reliability of spatial analysis, but also reminds users not to abuse the buffer analysis tools. On the other hand, this will put forward a good reference for the new version of MapInfo system and other GIS developers.

  10. Monte Carlo method for calculating oxygen abundances and their uncertainties from strong-line flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Oh, S. M.; Fierroz, D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Kewley, L.; Graur, O.

    2016-07-01

    We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity calibrators, based on the original IDL code of Kewley and Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley and Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed calibrators. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios (referred to as indicators) in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo sampling, better characterizes the statistical oxygen abundance confidence region including the effect due to the propagation of observational uncertainties. These uncertainties are likely to dominate the error budget in the case of distant galaxies, hosts of cosmic explosions. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 15 metallicity calibrators simultaneously, as well as for E(B- V) , and estimates their median values and their 68% confidence regions. We provide the option of outputting the full Monte Carlo distributions, and their Kernel Density estimates. We test our code on emission line measurements from a sample of nearby supernova host galaxies (z < 0.15) and compare our metallicity results with those from previous methods. We show that our metallicity estimates are consistent with previous methods but yield smaller statistical uncertainties. It should be noted that systematic uncertainties are not taken into account. We also offer visualization tools to assess the spread of the oxygen abundance in the different calibrators, as well as the shape of the estimated oxygen abundance distribution in each calibrator, and develop robust metrics for determining the appropriate Monte Carlo sample size. The code

  11. An improved multimodal method for sound propagation in nonuniform lined ducts.

    PubMed

    Bi, WenPing; Pagneux, Vincent; Lafarge, Denis; Aurégan, Yves

    2007-07-01

    An efficient method is proposed for modeling time harmonic acoustic propagation in a nonuniform lined duct without flow. The lining impedance is axially segmented uniform, but varies circumferentially. The sound pressure is expanded in term of rigid duct modes and an additional function that carries the information about the impedance boundary. The rigid duct modes and the additional function are known a priori so that calculations of the true liner modes, which are difficult, are avoided. By matching the pressure and axial velocity at the interface between different uniform segments, scattering matrices are obtained for each individual segment; these are then combined to construct a global scattering matrix for multiple segments. The present method is an improvement of the multimodal propagation method, developed in a previous paper [Bi et al., J. Sound Vib. 289, 1091-1111 (2006)]. The radial rate of convergence is improved from O(n(-2)), where n is the radial mode indices, to O(n(-4)). It is numerically shown that using the present method, acoustic propagation in the nonuniform lined intake of an aeroengine can be calculated by a personal computer for dimensionless frequency K up to 80, approaching the third blade passing frequency of turbofan noise. PMID:17614488

  12. 20. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking straight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of eastern segment of Roundhouse looking straight on locomotive smoke flue - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. Want New Knowledge to Stick? Head Straight to a Workout

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159418.html Want New Knowledge to Stick? Head Straight to a Workout ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercising after you learn new things might help you remember them, a small ...

  14. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade, straight on view. To the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade, straight on view. To the north is the Ferree Building and to the south is the PMI Parking Garage. - Edward Abner Building, 413-415 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF WEST SIDE STAIR, STRAIGHT DOWN VIEW, FROM OVER THIRD FLOOR RAILING. NOTE SECOND FLOOR LANDING AND STEAM RADIATOR ON FIRST FLOOR. (THE LANDINGS ARE ATTACHED TO THE EXTERIOR WALLS) - Talladega College, Swayne Hall, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  16. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 21 CFR 82.5 - General specifications for straight colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... precipitation as sulfides), not more than trace. (2) In the case of a straight color listed in subpart C or D.... (iii) Heavy metals (except Pb and As) (by precipitation as sulfides), not more than 0.003 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 82.5 - General specifications for straight colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... precipitation as sulfides), not more than trace. (2) In the case of a straight color listed in subpart C or D.... (iii) Heavy metals (except Pb and As) (by precipitation as sulfides), not more than 0.003 percent....

  19. 21 CFR 82.5 - General specifications for straight colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... precipitation as sulfides), not more than trace. (2) In the case of a straight color listed in subpart C or D.... (iii) Heavy metals (except Pb and As) (by precipitation as sulfides), not more than 0.003 percent....

  20. 21 CFR 82.5 - General specifications for straight colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... precipitation as sulfides), not more than trace. (2) In the case of a straight color listed in subpart C or D.... (iii) Heavy metals (except Pb and As) (by precipitation as sulfides), not more than 0.003 percent....

  1. 21 CFR 82.5 - General specifications for straight colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... precipitation as sulfides), not more than trace. (2) In the case of a straight color listed in subpart C or D.... (iii) Heavy metals (except Pb and As) (by precipitation as sulfides), not more than 0.003 percent....

  2. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  3. An effective method for on-line corrections of two-axes laser mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, P.; Pivo, K.

    A numerical technique for correcting the automatic laser tracking of low-altitude satellites for the effects of atmospheric drag on the satellite motion is proposed. The approximation method is based on geocentric rather than topocentric parameters and is simple enough to be implemented on a desk-top computer for on-line correction of both along-track and cross-track deviations by entering the error in the initial time. The results of numerical simulations for B-1300 and GEOS A are presented in a table, and the suitability of the method for on-line computer control of the two-axis azimuthal mount used at Ondrejov Observatory is indicated.

  4. Oculogravic illusion in response to straight-ahead acceleration of a CF-104 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Jennings, G. L.; Johnson, W. H.; Money, K. E.; Malcolm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental subjects wore goggles that restricted monocular vision to a luminous line fixed relative to the head, and they were exposed on one occasion to a straight-ahead acceleration of an aircraft and on another occasion to a tilting chair. The magnitude of change of direction of the resultant acceleration was the same on both occasions, but the perceived movement of the luminous line from the two stimuli was very different. In response to the aircraft stimulus, the oculogravic illusion was experienced and the luminous line was perceived as tilting relative to the subject, in response to the tilting chair stimulus, the line was perceived as remaining fixed relative to the subject. It was concluded that the oculogravic illusion, as experienced in the aircraft (and previously in centrifuges), is a true illusion and not merely a fact of physics.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Steel with Multi-Line Internal Standard Calibration Method Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; An, Ning; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-04-01

    A multi-line internal standard calibration method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of carbon steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A procedure based on the method was adopted to select the best calibration curves and the corresponding emission lines pairs automatically. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments with carbon steel samples were performed, and C, Cr, and Mn were analyzed via the proposed method. Calibration curves of these elements were constructed via a traditional single line internal standard calibration method and a multi-line internal standard calibration method. The calibration curves obtained were evaluated with the determination coefficient, the root mean square error of cross-validation, and the average relative error of cross-validation. All of the parameters were improved significantly with the proposed method. The results show that accurate and stable calibration curves can be obtained efficiently via the multi-line internal standard calibration method. PMID:26872822

  6. Abundance estimation of long-diving animals using line transect methods.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hiroshi; Minamikawa, Shingo; Skaug, Hans J; Kishiro, Toshiya

    2012-06-01

    Line transect sampling is one of the most widely used methods for estimating the size of wild animal populations. An assumption in standard line transect sampling is that all the animals on the trackline are detected without fail. This assumption tends to be violated for marine mammals with surfacing/diving behaviors. The detection probability on the trackline is estimated using duplicate sightings from double-platform line transect methods. The double-platform methods, however, are insufficient to estimate the abundance of long-diving animals because these animals can be completely missed while the observers pass. We developed a more flexible hazard probability model that incorporates information on surfacing/diving patterns obtained from telemetry data. The model is based on a stochastic point process and is statistically tractable. A simulation study showed that the new model provides near-unbiased abundance estimates, whereas the traditional hazard rate and hazard probability models produce considerably biased estimates. As an illustration, we applied the model to data on the Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii) in the western North Pacific. PMID:21992225

  7. Non-Viral Transfection Methods Optimized for Gene Delivery to a Lung Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Jaberipour, Mansooreh; Hosseini, Ahmad; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Mehr-80 is a newly established adherent human large cell lung cancer cell line that has not been transfected until now. This study aims to define the optimal transfection conditions and effects of some critical elements for enhancing gene delivery to this cell line by utilizing different non-viral transfection Procedures. Methods In the current study, calcium phosphate (CaP), DEAE-dextran, superfect, electroporation and lipofection transfection methods were used to optimize delivery of a plasmid construct that expressed Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). Transgene expression was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flowcytometry. Toxicities of the methods were estimated by trypan blue staining. In order to evaluate the density of the transfected gene, we used a plasmid construct that expressed the Stromal cell-Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) gene and measured its expression by real-time PCR. Results Mean levels of GFP-expressing cells 48 hr after transfection were 8.4% (CaP), 8.2% (DEAE-dextran), 4.9% (superfect), 34.1% (electroporation), and 40.1% (lipofection). Lipofection had the highest intense SDF-1 expression of the analyzed methods. Conclusion This study has shown that the lipofection and electroporation methods were more efficient at gene delivery to Mehr-80 cells. The quantity of DNA per transfection, reagent concentration, and incubation time were identified as essential factors for successful transfection in all of the studied methods. PMID:23799175

  8. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  9. Line segment confidence region-based string matching method for map conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yong; Yang, Sungchul; Ga, Chillo; Yu, Kiyun; Shi, Wenzhong

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a method to detect corresponding point pairs between polygon object pairs with a string matching method based on a confidence region model of a line segment is proposed. The optimal point edit sequence to convert the contour of a target object into that of a reference object was found by the string matching method which minimizes its total error cost, and the corresponding point pairs were derived from the edit sequence. Because a significant amount of apparent positional discrepancies between corresponding objects are caused by spatial uncertainty and their confidence region models of line segments are therefore used in the above matching process, the proposed method obtained a high F-measure for finding matching pairs. We applied this method for built-up area polygon objects in a cadastral map and a topographical map. Regardless of their different mapping and representation rules and spatial uncertainties, the proposed method with a confidence level at 0.95 showed a matching result with an F-measure of 0.894.

  10. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203