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Sample records for strait islander people

  1. A National Strategy for the Education of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, 1996-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    In preparing this report, the recommendations of the (Australian) National Review of Education for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples were cross-referenced to the 21 goals of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Policy (NATSIEP) and aggregated into 8 priorities. These are: 1) to arrange for the participation of…

  2. Consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Early Childhood Education: The Impact of Colonial Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.

    2015-01-01

    In Australian early years education, consultation and partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are central to embedding Indigenous perspectives. Building sustained and reciprocal partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people supports access to local knowledges and perspectives to inform curriculum planning,…

  3. Developing Future Health Professionals' Capacities for Working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Antonia; Britton, Katherine Frances; Hoffman, Julie; Kickett, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This article details reflections of an interdisciplinary team of educators working with groups of health sciences students in preparing them for working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The first-year common core unit discussed here is one attempt to equip future health practitioners with skills and knowledges to work adequately…

  4. Historical and cultural roots of tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Brady, Maggie

    2002-04-01

    Tobacco smoking has been identified as a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality rates of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. After years of inattention, smoking cessation projects designed for Indigenous Australians are beginning to emerge. Dealing successfully with smoking cessation would be enhanced by an understanding of the long-standing historical, social and cultural antecedents to present-day usage of tobacco. This paper provides a brief account of the historical precursors to present-day patterns of tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Historical records and mission documents, together with ethnographic accounts, suggest that Indigenous tobacco use today demonstrates strong continuity with past patterns and styles of use. These sources also reveal that Europeans deliberately exploited Aboriginal addiction to nicotine. PMID:12054329

  5. Genomics in research and health care with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    McWhirter, Rebekah; Nicol, Dianne; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is increasingly becoming an integral component of health research and clinical care. The perceived difficulties associated with genetic research involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people mean that they have largely been excluded as research participants. This limits the applicability of research findings for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. Emergent use of genomic technologies and personalised medicine therefore risk contributing to an increase in existing health disparities unless urgent action is taken. To allow the potential benefits of genomics to be more equitably distributed, and minimise potential harms, we recommend five actions: (1) ensure diversity of participants by implementing appropriate protocols at the study design stage; (2) target diseases that disproportionately affect disadvantaged groups; (3) prioritise capacity building to promote Indigenous leadership across research professions; (4) develop resources for consenting patients or participants from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds; and (5) integrate awareness of issues relating to Indigenous people into the governance structures, formal reviews, data collection protocols and analytical pipelines of health services and research projects. PMID:26507135

  6. Which way? Educating for nursing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    PubMed

    Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2006-10-01

    Cross-Cultural Awareness Training has been seen as a way to improve nurses' knowledge and understanding of Indigenous peoples in Australia (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) and to therefore improve service delivery and therapeutic care to them. Nurses may have undertaken this type of training in their workplace or as part of nurse education in an undergraduate degree program. In asking Which Way in regards to this type of training and education, this paper includes the views of a selection of Aboriginal women and highlights the need to extend beyond Cross-Cultural Awareness Training to Anti-Racism Training. Furthermore, that Anti-Racism Training and addressing white race privilege is required in order to address the inequities within the health system, the marginalisation and disempowerment of Indigenous peoples. PMID:17083322

  7. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  8. Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Cindy E.; McPherson, Karen; Tikoft, Erik; Usher, Kim; Hosseini, Fariborz; Ferns, Janine; Jersmann, Hubertus; Antic, Ral; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia. Results: Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21–44) compared with 575/100,000/y). Conclusion: The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1255. Citation: Woods CE, McPherson K, Tikoft E, Usher K, Hosseini F, Ferns J, Jersmann H, Antic R, Maguire GP. Sleep disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and residents of regional and remote Australia. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1263–1271. PMID:26094934

  9. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  10. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  11. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  12. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  13. Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have higher rates of disability than non-Indigenous children and are considered doubly disadvantaged, yet there is very little data reflecting prevalence and service access to inform design and delivery of services. Failing to address physical, social, and psychological factors can have life-long consequences and perpetuate longstanding health disparities. Methods A narrative literature review was undertaken to identify peer reviewed literature describing factors impacting on the prevention, recognition, and access to support and management of disability in Indigenous Australian children. Results Twenty-seven peer-reviewed journal articles met inclusion criteria. The majority of articles focused on the hearing loss and learning disabilities consequent of otitis media. Few articles reported data on urban or metropolitan Indigenous populations or described interventions. Individual/community-, provider-, and systems level factors were identified as impacting on recognition and management of disability in young Indigenous children. Conclusions Given the burden of childhood disability, the limited literature retrieved is concerning as this is a barometer of activity and investment. Solutions addressing childhood disability will require collaboration between health, social and educational disciplines as well as an increased investment in prevention, identification and promotion of access. PMID:23327694

  14. Culture Matters. Community Report. Reporting on a Research Project To Explore Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Vocational Education and Training for Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Matthew; Egg, Mez

    The factors leading to positive outcomes in vocational education and training (VET) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were examined through person-to-person and telephone interviews with indigenous Australian students and VET providers. The interviews focused on the following: the range of VET provision and the extent of its…

  15. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  16. Building better systems of care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: findings from the Kanyini health systems assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australian federal and jurisdictional governments are implementing ambitious policy initiatives intended to improve health care access and outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. In this qualitative study we explored Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) staff views on factors needed to improve chronic care systems and assessed their relevance to the new policy environment. Methods Two theories informed the study: (1) ‘candidacy’, which explores “the ways in which people’s eligibility for care is jointly negotiated between individuals and health services”; and (2) kanyini or ‘holding’, a Central Australian philosophy which describes the principle and obligations of nurturing and protecting others. A structured health systems assessment, locally adapted from Chronic Care Model domains, was administered via group interviews with 37 health staff in six AMSs and one government Indigenous-led health service. Data were thematically analysed. Results Staff emphasised AMS health care was different to private general practices. Consistent with kanyini, community governance and leadership, community representation among staff, and commitment to community development were important organisational features to retain and nurture both staff and patients. This was undermined, however, by constant fear of government funding for AMSs being withheld. Staff resourcing, information systems and high-level leadership were perceived to be key drivers of health care quality. On-site specialist services, managed by AMS staff, were considered an enabling strategy to increase specialist access. Candidacy theory suggests the above factors influence whether a service is ‘tractable’ and ‘navigable’ to its users. Staff also described entrenched patient discrimination in hospitals and the need to expend considerable effort to reinstate care. This suggests that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are still constructed as ‘non-ideal users

  17. Development of mental health first aid guidelines for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experiencing problems with substance use: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Problems with substance use are common in some Aboriginal communities. Although problems with substance use are associated with significant mortality and morbidity, many people who experience them do not seek help. Training in mental health first aid has been shown to be effective in increasing knowledge of symptoms and behaviours associated with seeking help. The current study aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing problem drinking or problem drug use (e.g. abuse or dependence). Methods Twenty-eight Aboriginal health experts participated in two independent Delphi studies (n = 22 problem drinking study, n = 21 problem drug use; 15 participated in both). Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥ 90% of panellists as either 'Essential' or 'Important'. At the end of the two Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 735 statements presented over two studies, 429 were endorsed (223 problem drinking, 206 problem drug use). Statements were grouped into sections based on common themes (n = 7 problem drinking, n = 8 problem drug use), then written into guideline documents. Participants evaluated the Delphi method employed, and the guidelines developed, as useful and appropriate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Conclusions Aboriginal health experts were able to reach consensus about culturally appropriate first aid for problems with substance use. Many first aid actions endorsed in the current studies were not endorsed in previous international Delphi studies, conducted on problem drinking and problem drug use

  18. Deadly Choices™ community health events: a health promotion initiative for urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    PubMed

    Malseed, Claire; Nelson, Alison; Ware, Robert; Lacey, Ian; Lander, Keiron

    2014-01-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the effectiveness of Deadly Choices™ community events for improving participants' short-term knowledge of chronic disease and risk factors, and increasing community engagement with local health services. Surveys were completed directly before and after participating in health education activities (pre and post surveys, respectively) assessing knowledge of chronic diseases and risk factors at three Deadly Choices community events and four National Aboriginal and Islander Day Observance Committee (NAIDOC) events in south-east Queensland where Deadly Choices health education activities took place. An audit trail was conducted at two Deadly Choices community events in Brisbane to identify the proportion of participants who undertook a health screen at the event who then followed up for a Medicare-funded health check (MBS item 715) or other appointment at an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clinic in the local area within 2 months. Results were compared with a sample of participants who attended one Deadly Choices community event but did not complete a health screen. There were 472 community members who completed a pre and post survey. All knowledge scores significantly improved between baseline and follow up. Although based on a small sample, the audit trail results suggest individuals who participated in a health screen at the community day were approximately twice as likely to go back to a clinic to receive a full health check or have an alternative appointment compared with attendees who did not participate in a screen. Community events that include opportunities for health education and health screening are an effective strategy to improve chronic disease health literacy skills and appear to have the potential to increase community engagement with local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services. PMID:25262748

  19. Primary Health Networks and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    PubMed

    Couzos, Sophia; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Page, Priscilla

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Government has established that the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a priority for the newly established 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs). Efforts to reduce the high hospitalisation rates of Aboriginal people will require PHNs to build formal participatory structures with Aboriginal health organisations to support best practice service models. There are precedents as to how PHNs can build formal partnerships with Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHSs), establish an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander steering committee to guide strategic plan development, and work towards optimising comprehensive primary care. All health services within PHN boundaries can be supported to systematically and strategically improve their responsiveness to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people by assessing systems of care, adopting best practice models, embedding quality assurance activity, and participating in performance reporting. PHNs can be guided to adopt an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific quality improvement framework, agree to local performance measures, review specialist and other outreach services to better integrate with primary health care, enhance the cultural competence of services, and measure and respond to progress in reducing potentially preventable hospitalisations. Through collaborations and capacity building, PHNs can transition certain health services towards greater Aboriginal community control. These proposals may assist policy makers to develop organisational performance reporting on PHN efforts to close the gap in Aboriginal health disparity. PMID:27031397

  20. Cultural identification in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Hill, P S; Murphy, G J

    1992-06-01

    The emergence of the disease AIDS in the early 1980s has resulted in a unique response. Medical, sociocultural, political, sexual, moral and racial issues have all been raised. This paper examines the way in which participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has resulted in the culturally appropriate and distinctive approaches evident in health education materials produced in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Specific cultural issues relevant to AIDS education are considered, including the use of visual and narrative communication for AIDS education; the significance of the specific concepts related to communication on sexual issues; perceptions of AIDS as alien and genocidal; the use of the Dreaming in AIDS educational resources; and implications for AIDS education. PMID:1391156

  1. Torres Strait Islanders and Australian Nationhood: Some Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. Reviews education on the Strait Islands from 1892 to 1985, focusing on issues related to educational standards, the inclusion of islanders within legislative provisions for Aborigines, immigration, and…

  2. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  3. Are the processes recommended by the NHMRC for improving Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people being implemented?: an assessment of CR Services across Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of premature death of Indigenous Australians, and despite evidence that cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and secondary prevention can reduce recurrent disease and deaths, CR uptake is suboptimal. The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines Strengthening Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, published in 2005, provide checklists for services to assist them to reduce the service gap for Indigenous people. This study describes health professionals' awareness, implementation, and perspectives of barriers to implementation of these guidelines based on semi-structured interviews conducted between November 2007 and June 2008 with health professionals involved in CR within mainstream health services in Western Australia (WA). Twenty-four health professionals from 17 services (10 rural, 7 metropolitan) listed in the WA Directory of CR services were interviewed. Results The majority of respondents reported that they were unfamiliar with the NHMRC guidelines and as a consequence implementation of the recommendations was minimal and inconsistently applied. Respondents reported that they provided few in-patient CR-related services to Indigenous patients, services upon discharge were erratic, and they had few Indigenous-specific resources for patients. Issues relating to workforce, cultural competence, and service linkages emerged as having most impact on design and delivery of CR services for Indigenous people in WA. Conclusions This study has demonstrated limited awareness and poor implementation in WA of the recommendations of the NHMRC Strengthening Cardiac Rehabilitation and Secondary Prevention for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: A Guide for Health Professionals. The disproportionate burden of CVD morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians mandates urgent attention to this problem and alternative approaches to CR

  4. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  5. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. Objective This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members’ experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Methods Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Results Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. Conclusions When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health

  6. Kapua Gutchen: Educator, Mentor and Innovator of Torres Strait Islander Music, Dance and Language at Erub (Darnley Island), Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costigan, Lyn; Neuenfeldt, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of local community members to Indigenous education can be an important component in curriculum programs. This article explores the contributions of one such dedicated and talented Torres Strait Islander community member: Meuram tribal elder Kapua Gutchen. He teaches at the Erub (Darnley Island) Campus of Tagai College in the…

  7. Torres strait islanders and Australian nationhood: Some educational perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Alan

    1992-01-01

    This article analyses the role of education in incorporating Australia's Melanesian minority, the Torres Strait Islanders, into the Australian nation. The analysis begins with the introduction of Queensland government schooling into Torres Strait in 1892, which fostered expectations of Queensland citizenship and employment opportunities available to other races in the economy of the Strait. From 1904 to the outbreak of world war II in the Pacific in 1942 these early directions were altered by educational policies which initially sought to train Islanders for a life in the Islands as a "race apart" from the rest of Australia. Subsequent syllabus reforms, paralleling but not equalling regular schooling offered in Queensland, did not meet Islanders' aspirations for "proper schooling" and the jobs they expected would flow from it. Following world war II, regulations confining Islanders to the Strait were relaxed and many migrated to the Queensland mainland in search of better jobs, better pay, and better education for their children. Those who remained in the Islands received an education which, by 1985, had been brought up to the mainland standard. Yet, neither group's educational aspirations were satisfied despite initiatives and financial incentives of the Commonwealth government aimed at keeping Islander children at school. The article concludes that the way ahead for Islanders in staking out their educational future in the Australian nation on a basis of equality with other Australians lies in educational developments in the Islands themselves, where Islanders are playing an active role in developing, managing, and guiding schooling in directions which recognise their identity and their citizenship aspirations.

  8. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. 334.1100... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1100 San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. 334.1100... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1100 San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare Island; restricted area. (a) The area. The...

  10. Making tuba in the Torres Strait Islands: the cultural diffusion and geographic mobility of an alcoholic drink.

    PubMed

    Brady, Maggie; McGrath, Vic

    2010-01-01

    There is relatively scant evidence of the Indigenous production and consumption of intoxicating drinks on the Australian mainland prior to the arrival of outsiders. Although Australian Aboriginal peoples had mastered fermentation in some regions, the Indigenous manufacture of much stronger drinks by distillation was unknown on the Australian mainland. However, following contact with Pacific Island and Southeast Asian peoples in the 19th century, Islanders in the Torres Strait adopted techniques for fermenting and distilling what became a quasi-indigenous alcoholic drink known as tuba. This paper discusses the historical process of the diffusion of this substance as a result of labour migration and internationalisation in the Strait, and provides present-day accounts of tuba production from Torres Strait Islanders. PMID:21280393

  11. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  14. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  15. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.169 Mare Island Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mare Island Strait and the...

  16. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide. PMID:26287075

  17. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  18. Improving the Participation and Engagement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dang, Thi Kim Anh; Vitartas, Peter; Ambrose, Kurt; Millar, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities have among their goals to increase the number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students at their institutions. In the Australian higher education context, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students are seriously under-represented, particularly in business education compared to other disciplines. An…

  19. Effective Teaching Practices for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Natalie J.; Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Osborne, Barry; Boon, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature pertaining to the teacher actions that influence Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander student learning outcomes. This review investigates two foci: the identification of teacher actions influencing learning outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander students and the methodological…

  20. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait, within 100 yards of the shore of that part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Yard to its northwesterly limit on the waters of San Pablo Bay, and the waters within 50 yards of...

  1. The Kuroshio bifurcation associated with islands at the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ruili; Wang, Guihua; Chen, Changlin

    2016-06-01

    Based upon a suite of satellite and hydrology data along with numerical model simulations, the Kuroshio is found to be separated into two branches. The two branches are located on the western and eastern sides of the Batanes Islands. The western branch, which is the main branch of the Kuroshio, is estimated to carry roughly 68% of the transport, while the eastern branch, which has not been reported before, carries the remainder. Both branches bring warmer water northward, producing two separate warm tongues east of the Luzon Strait. The western warm tongue has an obvious seasonal variation due to the seasonal variation of the Kuroshio in the northern Luzon Strait, while the eastern warm tongue is associated with Pacific mesoscale eddies. As an anticyclonic (a cyclonic) eddy approaches the Batanes Islands from the east, the eastern branch of the Kuroshio is strongly intensified (weakened), and a more (less) pronounced warm tongue is induced. Consequently, interannual variability of Pacific mesoscale eddies affects the strength of the eastern branch.

  2. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-01-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  3. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  4. Effective communication tools to engage Torres Strait Islanders in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Barnett, B.; Williams, A. J.; Grayson, J.; Busilacchi, S.; Duckworth, A.; Evans-Illidge, E.; Begg, G. A.; Murchie, C. D.

    2008-09-01

    Often, research activities in Torres Strait have not delivered full benefit to Torres Strait Islanders due to a lack of consultation, ineffectual communication of research information and lack of empathy for the needs of Islander communities. As for other stakeholder groups, integration of Islanders into the research process through practical involvement in research may overcome these problems. Three case studies from research projects conducted in Torres Strait are discussed to highlight a variety of communication and engagement activities carried out by non-Indigenous researchers. How these communication and extension activities facilitate collaboration between Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous researchers provides insight in the importance of these activities to the relative success of research projects. The benefits for Islanders in collaborating with researchers may be: improved understanding of the research and how it contributes to natural resource management; a sense of control in future management decisions; a greater likelihood of successful self-regulatory management systems; enhanced skills; and increased employment opportunities. The potential benefits for researchers are enhanced support for research projects resulting in increased access to data and logistic support that may ultimately impact the successful completion of projects. Such an approach will require researchers to take time to develop relationships with Torres Strait Islanders, effectively involve Islanders in research on an equitable basis and be flexible. This will ultimately require funding organisations to recognise the importance of such activities in research proposals and provide support through sufficient funding to enable these activities to be carried out.

  5. 77 FR 39418 - Safety Zone: Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and Information The... the City of Vallejo, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Island Strait near Vallejo, CA in support of the Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City...

  6. Bering Strait

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Bering Strait     View Larger Image ... east, and Chukotskiy Poluostrov of Siberia to the west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 ... Diomede Islands, which are visible in the middle of the Bering Strait. The Artic Circle, at 66.5 degrees north latitude, runs through ...

  7. A Profile of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Higher Education Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith; Wilson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together recent statistics relating to the participation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in higher education. A number of key statistical realities relating to their enrolment into, retention during, and completion of, their university courses are depicted. Foremost among these realities is that despite…

  8. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  9. Bureaucratic Impediments to Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Empowerment, Self-Determination & Self-Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; And Others

    This paper examines the context of current social policy and analyzes the bureaucratic impediments to achieving greater coordination of programs and services for Australia's Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how a "national commitment" involving bureaucratic rationality and imperatives continues to…

  10. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  11. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  13. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  16. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  17. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  19. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION..., Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W 6045.54N*...

  20. Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

  1. Overseas-trained doctors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services: many unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Arkles, Rachelle S; Hill, Peter S; Pulver, Lisa R Jackson

    2007-05-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services are heavily dependent on overseas-trained doctors (OTDs). These OTDs are increasingly from countries with variable English language and educational equivalency compared with locally trained doctors. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health services create particular demands for all doctors, such as negotiating "cultural domains" and acknowledging the contribution of Aboriginal health workers. Little is known about the roles and experience of OTDs in health service provision in Indigenous communities. Barriers to effective research into the experience of OTDs include privacy legislation and a lack of standardised data. Researching the narratives of OTDs in Indigenous health services offers an opportunity to explore the diversity and complexity of the cultural interfaces in health service provision. PMID:17516902

  2. The Prospects for Using Little Diomede Island as a Base for Monitoring Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Kelly, V.; Codispoti, L. A.; Sheffield, G.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    Diomede, Alaska is arguably the most isolated community in the United States, located on a small island in the center of Bering Strait, one mile from the international dateline, where nutrient-rich waters from the Bering Sea enter the Arctic Ocean. Postal service is once weekly via helicopter, weather permitting and the 140 Native Inupiat residents (2000 census) are highly dependent upon a subsistence lifestyle utilizing local seabirds, marine mammals, and shellfish. Since the summer of 2000, we have worked with the local community to improve analytical capabilities to analyze waters flowing through the Bering Strait. Other goals of the Bering Strait Environmental Observatory include evaluating the biological health and contaminant burdens of marine mammals used for subsistence by island residents. We have also been annually using the Canadian Coast Guard Service Sir Wilfrid Laurier to assess the biological productivity of benthic organisms that are important as food sources in the Bering Strait region for apex predators such as bearded seal, walrus, diving ducks and gray whale. Future infrastructure that is needed includes a subsea water intake system that would be less vulnerable to wave and ice damage than the interim systems we have employed to date. Using a jet well pump in August, 2001, we pumped water onshore through a thermosalinograph, automated nutrient monitoring devices, a fluorometer, and we also collected discrete samples for silica and oxyen-18/oxygen-16 ratios in a small laboratory constructed under the village school. Results indicate that there is a strong relationship between the surface wind regime and the fertility of waters flowing through the center of Bering Strait. Following sustained northerly wind events, and an approximate 72 hour lag period, waters passing Little Diomede Island were predominantly of Alaska Coastal Water origin, with low nutrients and salinity, and comparatively high temperatures. Southerly winds were by contrast

  3. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  4. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Leah; Doyle, Joyce; Morgan, Bec; Atkinson-Briggs, Sharon; Firebrace, Bradley; Marika, Mayatili; Reilly, Rachel; Cargo, Margaret; Riley, Therese; Rowley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous knowledge. PMID

  5. Establishing a Community-Controlled Multi-Institutional Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Leilani; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    The Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC) lead and govern the Centre for Clinical Research Excellence (CCRE), which has a focus on circulatory and associated conditions in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The CCRE is a partnership between QAIHC and Monash University, the Queensland University of…

  6. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

  7. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and

  8. Transformation of tsunami waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. They propagate across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific tsunami waves. It has long been noted that the historical tsunami appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic tsunami was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical tsunami in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. Tsunami sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the tsunami, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands tsunamis in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.

  9. Mobile Devices for Tertiary Study--Philosophy Meets Pragmatics for Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines PhD research which suggests mobile learning fits the cultural philosophies and roles of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women who are preservice teachers in the very remote Australian communities where the research was conducted. The problem which the research addresses is the low completion rates for two community-based…

  10. The Fallacy of the Bolted Horse: Changing Our Thinking about Mature-Age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Lander, Jo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to critically review and analyse the public representations of mature-age university students in developed and some developing nations and how they compare to the public representations of mature-age Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students in Australia ("students" also refers to graduates…

  11. Screening for rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc Gerard Wootton; Wark, Emma Kathleen; Maguire, Graeme Paul

    2013-07-01

    Rheumatic heart disease is preventable but causes significant morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander populations. Screening echocardiography has the potential to detect early rheumatic heart disease thereby enabling timely commencement of treatment (secondary prophylaxis) to halt disease progression. However, a number of issues prevent echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease satisfying the Australian criteria for acceptable screening programs. Primarily, it is unclear what criteria should be used to define a positive screening result as questions remain regarding the significance, natural history and potential treatment of early and subclinical rheumatic heart disease. Furthermore, at present the delivery of secondary prophylaxis in Australia remains suboptimal such that the potential benefits of screening would be limited. Finally, the impact of echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease on local health services and the psychosocial health of patients and families are yet to be ascertained. PMID:23638751

  12. Implementing computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in primary care for clinical care and research: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks have promoted a preventive approach to primary care and provided data to support research at the Inala Indigenous Health Service, south-west Brisbane, Australia. Concerns about the limitations of paper-based health checks prompted us to change to a computerised system to realise potential benefits for clinical services and research capability. We describe the rationale, implementation and anticipated benefits of computerised Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks in one primary health care setting. Methods In May 2010, the Inala Indigenous Health Service commenced a project to computerise Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child, adult, diabetic, and antenatal health checks. The computerised health checks were launched in September 2010 and then evaluated for staff satisfaction, research consent rate and uptake. Ethical approval for health check data to be used for research purposes was granted in December 2010. Results Three months after the September 2010 launch date, all but two health checks (378 out of 380, 99.5%) had been completed using the computerised system. Staff gave the system a median mark of 8 out of 10 (range 5-9), where 10 represented the highest level of overall satisfaction. By September 2011, 1099 child and adult health checks, 138 annual diabetic checks and 52 of the newly introduced antenatal checks had been completed. These numbers of computerised health checks are greater than for the previous year (2010) of paper-based health checks with a risk difference of 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.05, 0.10). Additionally, two research projects based on computerised health check data were underway. Conclusions The Inala Indigenous Health Service has demonstrated that moving from paper-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health checks to a system using computerised health checks is feasible and can facilitate research. We expect computerised health

  13. Epistemological Considerations for Approaching Teaching in an On-Line Environment Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Teacher Education Program: Reconsidering TPACK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian Ellis; Knight, Cecily; Lenoy, Max

    2015-01-01

    This research inquiry explores teacher educator knowledge, understandings and beliefs informing their teaching in a web-based Australian teacher education program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. Through the use of a phenomenologically aligned interview process, the study investigates instructors' consideration of practice for…

  14. Best Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education. Proceedings of the Conference (Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, November 17-18, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages and Literacy Inst., Deakin.

    Papers from the conference on the education of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders include: "English Language and Numeracy Program for Aboriginal Students" (Alison Jarred); "The Aboriginal Identity Course: A Midstream Evaluation" (Simon Vaughan); "Making the Curriculum Your Own: The Senior Girls at Lajamanu School Read Glenyse Ward's…

  15. Imagery and Imaginary of Islander Identity: Older People and Migration in Irish Small-Island Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burholt, Vanessa; Scharf, Thomas; Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the imagery and imaginaries of islander identity and makes an original contribution to the fields of gerontology and nissology. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with 19 older residents of two small-island communities located off the island of Ireland, we address the central roles played by older people in…

  16. Kane Basin, Nares-Strait: Strike-slip induced sediment deformation along the coastline of Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2015-12-01

    The nature of the Nares-Strait (NS), a seaway between Greenland and Ellesmere Island, is important to understand the plate tectonic history of the Arctic region. As it is clear that rifting and seafloor spreading took place between Greenland and Baffin Island, it is unclear how the extension was compensated between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. Already Alfred Wegener suggested some kind of left lateral transform fault along the NS, a straight seaway separating the Greenland Plate from the North American Plate, nowadays proposed as the Wegener-Fault. Plate tectonic reconstruction models require a transform fault for the compensation of several hundred km of extension and seafloor spreading from Late Cretaceous to Eocene times. However, land geological data do not support this thesis and let assume that no lateral displacement occurred between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. With the formation of the recent Midatlantic Ridge System between Greenland and Europe since the early Eocene, the western branch became inactive and consequently the proposed transform fault, too. Northeast motion of Greenland replaced the left lateral transform and caused compression. The inactive transform fault was overprinted and as a consequence it was altered, probably displaced and is difficult to recognize. The Kane Basin is one of a series of basins that are aligned along the NS. It resembles probably a pull-apart basin following the approach that NS developed as transform fault. This paper presents insight into the Kane Basin by means of 2D seismic data, sonobuoy data, gravity and magnetic data acquired during surveys of BGR in 2001 and 2010. The eastern Kane Basin is characterized by a deeper rim and a more shallow central part. Most of it is floored by Proterozoic crust without any sediment on top of it. Only in the western part of the Kane Basin a sedimentary infill can be recorded which terminates with an erosional truncation on to the seafloor. Because of the mapped sediment and

  17. ‘Choice, culture and confidence’: key findings from the 2012 having a baby in Queensland Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the maternity care experiences of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women in Queensland, Australia and to identify areas for policy and practice improvements. Methods A culturally-tailored survey requesting both quantitative and qualitative information was completed by respondents either independently (online or in hard copy) or with the assistance of a trained peer-interviewer. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Eligible women were over 16 years of age, identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, resided in Queensland, and had a live, singleton birth between the first of July 2011 and the first of July 2012. Results 187 women of 207 respondents were included in analyses. Women reported high rates of stressful life events in pregnancy, low levels of choice in place of birth and model of care and limited options to carry out cultural practices. High levels of confidence in parenting were also reported. Women were less likely to report being treated with kindness, understanding and respect by maternity care staff than women answering a similar mainstream survey. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have additional needs to mainstream Australian women. This study identified a number of recommendations to improve services including the need to enhance the cultural competence of maternity services; increase access to continuity of midwifery care models, facilitate more choices in care, work with the strengths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, families and communities, and engage women in the design and delivery of care. PMID:24884930

  18. Carbonate production of an emergent reef platform, Warraber Island, Torres Strait, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Deirdre E.; Kench, Paul S.

    2007-03-01

    Complex relationships exist between tropical reef ecology, carbonate (CaCO3) production and carbonate sinks. This paper investigated census-based techniques for determining the distribution and carbonate production of reef organisms on an emergent platform in central Torres Strait, Australia, and compared the contemporary budget with geological findings to infer shifts in reef productivity over the late Holocene. Results indicate that contemporary carbonate production varies by several orders of magnitude between and within the different reef-flat sub-environments depending on cover type and extent. Average estimated reef-flat production was 1.66 ± 1.78 kg m-2 year-1 (mean ± SD) although only 23% of the area was covered by carbonate producers. Collectively, these organisms produce 17,399 ± 18,618 t CaCO3 year-1, with production dominated by coral (73%) and subordinate contributions by encrusting coralline algae (18%) articulated coralline algae, molluscs, foraminifera and Halimeda (<4%). Comparisons between the production of these organisms across the different reef-flat zones, surface sediment composition and accumulation rates calculated from cores indicate that it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution, density and production of each major organism when considering the types and amounts of carbonate available for storage in the various reef carbonate sinks. These findings raise questions as to the reliability of using modal production rates in global models independent of ecosystem investigation, in particular, indicating that current models may overestimate reef productivity in emergent settings.

  19. Monitoring seabird populations in areas of oil and gas development on the Alaskan continental shelf: Foraging distribution and feeding ecology of seabirds at the Diomede Islands, bering strait. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.F.; Pinchuk, A.; Kitsiskiy, A.; Springer, A.M.; Hatch, S.A.

    1992-10-01

    The distribution of zooplankton and seabirds in relation to oceanography in Bering Strait was investigated July 1-8, 1991. Seabirds were counted at the sea surface on 302 standardized shipboard transects. Zooplankton densities in various depth strata were measured acoustically during 287 seabird transects. Species composition was determined from 65 net-tows at 18 stations. Sea surface salinity and temperature were recorded continuously on transects, and CTD profiles of the water column were obtained at 70 stations. Millions of seabirds, mostly planktivorous Aethial auklets, breed on the Diomede islands in the center of Bering Strait. Three distinct water masses flow north through Bering Strait. East of the Diomedes is the Alaska Coastal Water. Least Auklets and ocean copepods were abundant in stratified Shelf Water and near upwelled Anadyr Water in western Bering Strait. It was concluded that physical processes in Bering Strait determine zooplankton availability to planktivores.

  20. Patterns and correlates of self-reported racial discrimination among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults, 2008–09: analysis of national survey data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is now considerable evidence that racism is a pernicious and enduring social problem with a wide range of detrimental outcomes for individuals, communities and societies. Although indigenous people worldwide are subjected to high levels of racism, there is a paucity of population-based, quantitative data about the factors associated with their reporting of racial discrimination, about the settings in which such discrimination takes place, and about the frequency with which it is experienced. Such information is essential in efforts to reduce both exposure to racism among indigenous people and the harms associated with such exposure. Methods Weighted data on self-reported racial discrimination from over 7,000 Indigenous Australian adults participating in the 2008–09 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, were analysed by socioeconomic, demographic and cultural factors. Results More than one in four respondents (27%) reported experiencing racial discrimination in the past year. Racial discrimination was most commonly reported in public (41% of those reporting any racial discrimination), legal (40%) and work (30%) settings. Among those reporting any racial discrimination, about 40% experienced this discrimination most or all of the time (as opposed to a little or some of the time) in at least one setting. Reporting of racial discrimination peaked in the 35–44 year age group and then declined. Higher reporting of racial discrimination was associated with removal from family, low trust, unemployment, having a university degree, and indicators of cultural identity and participation. Lower reporting of racial discrimination was associated with home ownership, remote residence and having relatively few Indigenous friends. Conclusions These data indicate that racial discrimination is commonly experienced across a wide variety of settings, with public

  1. Factors influencing attendance in a structured physical activity program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in an urban setting: a mixed methods process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women experience higher rates of obesity, chronic disease, and are less active than non-Indigenous Australian women. Lifestyle programs designed to increase physical activity and encourage healthy eating are needed to ameliorate this disparity. The aim of this study was to identify participants’ perceived barriers and enablers to attend group exercise classes as part of a 12-week fitness program. Methods To understand the factors that influence attendance, a mixed method process evaluation was undertaken in which a quantitative measure of attendance in the group exercise classes was used to identify cases for further qualitative investigation. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander women aged 18 to 64 years were recruited to a research trial of a fitness program. The 12-week program included two 60-minute group exercise classes per week, and four nutrition education workshops. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at program completion. Participants were stratified by attendance, and interviews from the highest and lowest 25 percentiles analysed. Rigour was strengthened through use of multiple data analysts, member checking and prolonged engagement in the field. Results Analyses of the post-program interviews revealed that participants enrolled in the program primarily for the perceived health benefits and all (with one exception) found the program met their needs and expectations. The atmosphere of classes was positive and comfortable and they reported developing good relationships with their fellow participants and program staff. Low attendees described more barriers to attendance, such as illness and competing work and family obligations, and were more likely to report logistical issues, such as inconvenient venue or class times. Conclusions Attendance to the ‘Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women’s Fitness Program’ was primarily influenced by the participant’s personal health, logistics and

  2. The characteristics, implementation and effects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion tools: a systematic literature search

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion by and with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Indigenous) Australians is critically important given a wide gap in health parity compared to other Australians. The development and implementation of step-by-step guides, instruments, packages, frameworks or resources has provided a feasible and low-resource strategy for strengthening evidence-informed health promotion practice. Yet there has been little assessment of where and how these tools are implemented or their effectiveness. This paper reviews the characteristics, implementation and effects of Indigenous health promotion tools. Methods Indigenous health promotion tools were identified through a systematic literature search including a prior scoping study, eight databases, references of other reviews and the authors’ knowledge (n = 1494). Documents in the peer reviewed and grey literature were included if they described or evaluated tools designed, recommended or used for strengthening Indigenous Australian health promotion. Eligible publications were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and documented tools classified according to their characteristics, implementation and effects. Quality was appraised using the Dictionary for Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) and Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) tools for quantitative and qualitative studies respectively. Results The review found that Indigenous health promotion tools were widely available. Of 74 publications that met inclusion criteria, sixty (81%) documented tools developed specifically for the Indigenous Australian population. All tools had been developed in reference to evidence; but only 22/74 (30%) publications specified intended or actual implementation, and only 11/74 (15%) publications evaluated impacts of the implemented tools. Impacts included health, environmental, community, organisational and health care improvements. The quality of impact evaluations was strong for only five (7

  3. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri) antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367) with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414) provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy) rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary services, and working in

  4. PTSD Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People in Custody in Australia: Prevalence and Correlates.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Edward; Andersen, Kimina; Davidson, Fiona; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-12-01

    Mental disorder and trauma experiences are highly prevalent among individuals in custody; however, the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on functioning is rarely considered. Indigenous Australians are incarcerated at 13 times the rate of nonindigenous Australians and report high levels of trauma exposure and psychological distress. In analysis of the largest systematic study of mental disorder among indigenous Australians in custody (N = 396), we found that the 12-month prevalence of PTSD was high in both men (12.1%) and women (32.3%). Having PTSD was also associated with high rates of co-occurring mental disorders (anxiety 31.2%, depression 32.8%, psychosis 24.6%, and substance use, 75.4%), lifetime suicidal ideation (50.1%), and suicide attempts (34.4%). Individuals with PTSD, compared to those without, were more likely to experience other mental disorders, OR = 2.42, 95% CI [1.12, 5.80], p = .022; lifetime suicide thoughts, OR = 2.43, 95% CI [1.34, 4.39], p = .001, and attempts, OR = 2.56, 95% CI [1.33, 4.83], p = .002; and high rates of intoxication at the time of arrest. Despite this, most (58.9%) had not accessed any form of mental health care prior to incarceration. These findings highlight the need to identify and manage PTSD in community and custodial populations. PMID:26584243

  5. HF (HIGH FREQUENCY) RADAR MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCULATION IN THE EASTERN STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA NEAR PROTECTION ISLAND (JULY, 1979)

    EPA Science Inventory

    During July 1979 the surface currents in the Eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca were mapped with a High Frequency (HF) radar system (CODAR). These currents were measured simultaneously over several hundred square kilometers continuously for five days. The strong tidal currents and es...

  6. "For the Life of Me, I Can't See Why Those Students Were Let Go on So Long": Educating the Educators, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plater, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, almost 40% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students enrolled in the Graduate Diploma in Indigenous Health Promotion at The University of Sydney failed to complete the course. Although this was not considered unusual when compared to previous years, the decision was made to investigate why so many students struggled to meet the…

  7. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearly bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.

  8. Tidal energy site resource assessment in the East River tidal strait, near Roosevelt Island, New York, New York

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.; Colby, Jonathan

    2014-06-22

    This study demonstrates a site resource assessment to examine the temporal variation of the mean current, turbulence intensities, and power densities for a tidal energy site in the East River tidal strait. These variables were derived from two-months of acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements at the design hub height of the Verdant Power Gen5 hydrokinetic turbine. The study site is a tidal strait that exhibits semi-diurnal tidal current characteristics, with a mean horizontal current speed of 1.4 m s-1, and turbulence intensity of 15% at a reference mean current of 2 m s-1. Flood and ebb flow directions are nearlymore » bi-directional, with higher current magnitude during flood tide, which skews the power production towards the flood tide period. The tidal hydrodynamics at the site are highly regular, as indicated by the tidal current time series that resembles a sinusoidal function. This study also shows that the theoretical force and power densities derived from the current measurements can significantly be influenced by the length of the time window used for averaging the current data. Furthermore, the theoretical power density at the site, derived from the current measurements, is one order of magnitude greater than that reported in the U.S. national resource assessment. As a result, this discrepancy highlights the importance of conducting site resource assessments based on measurements at the tidal energy converter device scale.« less

  9. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  10. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  11. The structure and evolution of Baffin Bay and its implication on the development of the continental margins of northwest Greenland, the Nares Strait, and Baffin Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakey, G.; Roest, W. R.; Lundin, E.; Damaske, D.

    2003-12-01

    the geometry of the plate boundaries between Canada and Greenland, implying that a simple linear Wegener fault along Nares Strait is likely not valid. Questions that remain unsolved, and for which a variety of hypotheses have been proposed include: Did Greenland behave as one plate during the Cenozoic or was it acting as at least two distinct plates; How much displacement took place along Nares Strait; How is the opening of Baffin Bay related to the development of the Sverdrup Basin? We present reconstructions of compiled magnetic, gravity, and bathymetric data between Canada and Greenland (Oakey et. al, 2001) to show how the evolution of Baffin Bay relates to the opening of the North Atlantic as a whole, and speculate on how the early opening history affected the evolution of the conjugate continental margins of northwest Greenland, Nares Strait, and Baffin Island, Canada.

  12. 33 CFR 334.1200 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly shore of Whidbey Island; naval restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 334.1200, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1200 Strait of Juan de Fuca, eastern end; off the westerly...

  13. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    This book deals with the Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo language as spoken on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, an island near the Bering Strait and on the tip of the Asian mainland opposite Russia. This book has been used with college-level classes composed of a mixture of Yupik speakers and well-prepared non-speakers (people who have studied other,…

  14. Volcanism in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, M. R.

    Back-arc and marginal basins make up a significant portion of the earth's crust and they can represent the transition from continental to oceanic crust. The Bransfield Strait is a young marginal basin of the arc-trench system that lies off the northwestern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula. The strait is about 65 km wide and has a maximum water depth of 2000 m. "Active" volcanoes in the Bransfield Strait include two seamounts, which are south of the eastern end of King George Island, and three island volcanoes — Penguin, Deception, and Bridgeman Islands. Alkaline and calc-alkaline suites occur on these islands, and the seamounts are composed of tholeiites and basaltic andesites. This diversity is similar to that found in some back-arc basins, but the Bransfield Strait basalts as a group cannot be classified as back-arc basin or island-arc basalts. The diverse rock types and the chemical similarity of some of the Bransfield Strait basalts to ophiolite basalts suggests that some ophiolites were generated in back-arc basins.

  15. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  16. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This 34 by 59 km sub-scene, acquired on July 5, 2000, covers the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar, separating Spain from Morocco. The promontory on the eastern side of the conspicuous Spanish port is the Rock of Gibraltar. The Rock of Gibraltar was once one of the two classical Pillars of Hercules, crowned with silver columns by Phoenician mariners to mark the limits of safe navigation for the ancient Mediterranean peoples. The rocky promontory still commands the western entrance to the Mediterranean Sea, separated from North Africa only by the narrow Strait of Gibraltar. A British colony, Gibraltar occupies a narrow strip of land at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is separated from the Spanish mainland by a neutral zone contained on a narrow, sandy isthmus. The rocky limestone and shale ridge known as the Rock rises abruptly from the sea, to a maximum elevation of 426 meters (1,398 feet). Because of its strategic location and formidable topography, Gibraltar serves mainly as a British fortress. The Rock has traditionally been a symbol of British naval strength. Most of its sparse land is taken up by air and naval installations, and the civilian population is small. The image is centered at 36 degrees north latitude, 5.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-León, Eva E; Luzardo, Octavio P; Cabrera, Félix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Domínguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-03-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the "Canary Islands Nutrition Survey" (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  18. What processes control the net currents through shallow straits? A review with application to the Bohai Strait, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Wolanski, Eric; Zhang, Hua

    2015-06-01

    We review the key processes controlling the net water circulation in shallow straits. The circulation is mainly barotropic, driven by the difference in mean sea level and tides on either side of the strait, the wind, the meandering of the currents in the adjoining seas, the bathymetry including the shape and width of the mouths and the presence of narrows, shoals, sills, islands, and lateral embayments. As the oceanography forcing can be non-synchronised on either side of the strait, the resulting net currents through the strait may appear chaotic. We apply these findings to the net circulation through the Bohai Strait in China using local wind, remote-sensing data of currents and sea level, and a hydrodynamic model. The net currents through the Bohai Strait were episodic. They were largest during winter storms when the wind generated a cyclonic coastal current in the northern Yellow Sea that flowed across the width of the Bohai Strait. Like the Luzon Strait, this current meandered and a branch of the current intruded into the northern Bohai Strait along the deeper channel. The wind set-up in the Bohai Sea and the wind-driven longshore current in the southern Bohai Sea generated a seaward flow through the southern Bohai Strait, somewhat like in Irbe Strait. As with the straits of the Seto Inland Sea, stagnation occurred in some embayments. As in the Torres Strait, the islands in the southern Bohai Strait retarded the net flow and increased the width of the outflow zone. These flows were also modulated at very long periods (∼60 days) by long waves in the Yellow Sea, possibly generated by meandering of the Kuroshio Current that created an additional sea level slope through the strait. The transit time in the Bohai Strait was 60 and 10 days, respectively, during calm weather and winter storms. The residence time in the Bohai Sea was estimated to be about 1.68 years by the LOICZ model and 1.56 years by the hydrodynamic model, and the influence of the river runoff

  19. MISR Sights the Bering Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    With the Seward Peninsula of Alaska to the east, and Chukotskiy Poluostrov of Siberia to the west, the Bering Strait separates the United States and the Russian Federation by only 90 kilometers. It is named for Danish explorer Vitus Bering, who spotted the Alaskan mainland in 1741 while leading an expedition of Russian sailors. This view of the region was captured by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 18, 2000 during Terra orbit 3562.

    The boundary between the US and Russia lies between Big and Little Diomede Islands, which are visible in the middle of the Bering Strait. The Arctic Circle, at 66.5 degrees north latitude, runs through the Arctic Ocean in the top part of this image. This circle marks the southernmost latitude for which the Sun does not rise above the horizon on the day of the winter solstice. At the bottom of this image is St. Lawrence Island. Situated in the Bering Sea, it is part of Alaska and home to Yupik Eskimos.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  20. Structure of the Bransfield strait crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreider, Al. A.; Schreider, A. A.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Maldonado, A.; Gamboa, L.; Martos, Y.; Lobo, F.; Evsenko, E. I.

    2015-02-01

    Data on the high heat flow, active volcanism, and extensional folding, in combination with modeling of the gravity and magnetic anomalies and earthquake focal mechanisms, indicate that the Bransfield strait floor represents a zone of lithosphere extension forming in the Antarctic Peninsula. The most important structural element of the strait floor is the neovolcanic zone near the South Shetland Islands and the diapirism zone near the Antarctic Peninsula. The discussed stages of rifting of the Bransfield floor reflect the propagating of the American-Antarctic Ridge into the continental lithosphere of the Antarctic Peninsula. The propagating causes thrusting of the South Shetland Island arc onto the peripheral part of the relict Phoenix plate, which is accompanied by the seismicity in the South Shetland trench.

  1. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from the south (36.0N, 5.5W). This scene shows the actual Rock of Gibraltar under cloud cover but most of the Strait of Gibraltar, at the mouth of the Mediterranaen Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, can be seen in good detail. Despite the obliquity of the scene, much of the beauty of the Spanish and Moroccan countryside can still be appreciated.

  2. Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar (36.0N, 5.5W), at the mouth of the Mediterranean Sea, separates Europe and Africa. On the Spanish side of the strait, the port of Cadiz and the Rota Naval Base as well as the great Andalucian city of Seville can be seen. To the south in Morocco, the coastal cities of Tangier, Tetouan and Ceuta are easily seen.

  3. Determining the Leisure Needs of People Having Disabilities: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Needs Assessment Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peniston, Lorraine C.

    This needs assessment survey attempted to determine if community recreation programs, including school-based and college-based programs, are meeting the needs of citizens with disabilities living on the Northern Mariana Islands. The survey polled 35 people with disabilities about the effectiveness of community recreation programs and services and…

  4. Tectonic evolution of Bransfield Strait, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel Hugh Njal

    Bransfield Strait is a young (<4 Ma?), actively extending marginal basin located between the NW Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands, in the backarc region of the South Shetland Trench. Its structural evolution is probably influenced by both subduction-related processes at the trench and the Antarctic-Scotia strike-slip plate boundary to the NE. Previous studies suggest that Bransfield Strait is floored by thinned continental crust formed by rifting of the South Shetland Islands away from the Antarctic Peninsula, with axial neovolcanism interpreted as evidence of sea-floor spreading. New deep-penetration multichannel seismic (MCS) data reveal more complexity. The basin is in a transitional stage of rifting. Basin-opening occurs by propagation of rifting from NE to SW, evidenced by changes in the neovolcanic expression along the basin axial deep and by changes in structural style along the Antarctic Peninsula margin. A phase of magmatically-induced uplift is interpreted in the earlier stage of rifting (SW), followed by subsidence and extension on low-angle, NW-dipping detachment faults (NE). Local magmatism and footwall uplift is associated with the detachments. The structural asymmetry of Bransfield Strait and identification of detachment faults suggests that the basin is opening by simple-shear lithospheric extension. Comparison with the East African Rift system, Lau Basin-Havre Trough backarc, Woodlark basin and Mesozoic-age Rocas Verdes basin supports the contention that Bransfield Strait rifting is in a transitional stage between continental/arc rifting and organized sea-floor spreading, and that it is a useful modern analog for the Rocas Verdes basin. Furthermore, it suggests that detachment faulting may be a common feature of backarc basins. Recognition of low-angle detachment faulting and simple-shear extension is essential for estimating basin extension, and the amount of crustal shortening and thickening that may occur during inversion of a

  5. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.145 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and...

  6. Effects of tidal current phase at the junction of two straits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warner, J.; Schoellhamer, D.; Burau, J.; Schladow, G.

    2002-01-01

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Bay has a local salinity minimum created by the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island and Carquinez Straits. The salinity minimum creates converging baroclinic pressure gradients in Mare Island Strait. Equipment was deployed at four stations in the straits for 6 months from September 1997 to March 1998 to measure tidal variability of velocity, conductivity, temperature, depth, and suspended sediment concentration. Analysis of the measured time series shows that on a tidal time scale in Mare Island Strait, the landward and seaward baroclinic pressure gradients in the local salinity minimum interact with the barotropic gradient, creating regions of enhanced shear in the water column during the flood and reduced shear during the ebb. On a tidally averaged time scale, baroclinic pressure gradients converge on the tidally averaged salinity minimum and drive a converging near-bed and diverging surface current circulation pattern, forming a "baroclinic convergence zone" in Mare Island Strait. Historically large sedimentation rates in this area are attributed to the convergence zone. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tide and tidal current observation in the Karimata Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zexun; Fang, Guohong; Sulistiyo, Budi; Dwi Susanto, R.; Setiawan, Agus; Rameyo Adi, Tukul; Qiao, Fangli; Fan, Bin; Li, Shujiang

    2013-04-01

    It is believed that the water exchanges between the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas are significant, and play an important role in the water mass formation and air-sea interactions of both the South China Sea and Indonesian Seas. It has also been found that the current in Sunda Strait has been obvious seasonal variation, which indicates the water exchange between West Indonesian Seas and India Ocean. In order to make quantitative evaluation of the magnitudes of the exchange, the First Institute of Oceanography (FIO), China, the Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research, Indonesia, and the Lamont-Doheries Earth Observatory, USA established a collaborative program, "The South-China Sea-Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration" in 2006. And, they extend and expand the cooperation to Sunda Strait in 2008, the title of the collaborative program was changed to "The South China Sea - Indonesian Seas Transport/Exchange (SITE) and Dynamics of Sunda and Lombok Straits, and Their Impacts on Seasonal Fish Migration". Till now, 12 joint cruises have been conducted since December, 2007. Ten Trawl-Resistant Bottom Mounts (TRBM) have been deployed in the Karimata and Sunda Straits. The TRBMs are equipped with ADCPs and tide gauges for measuring current profiles and sea levels, respectively. The temperature-salinity profiles were measured with ship-board CTD during the cruises. Data obtained in Karimata Strait revealed that a significant water mass transport. This indicates that the Karimata Strait throughflow can greatly impacts the circulation of both the South China Sea and the Indonesian Seas. The data obtained at the 5 stations alone the two sections in the Karimata Strait were used to study the tide and tidal currents in the Karimata Strait. 2 TRBMs were deployed at Section A, as well as 3 at Section B, which lies at the southeast of Section A. Station B1 is in the Gaspar Strait between Bangka Island and Belitung Island, Stations

  8. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and the Strait of Georgia: General. 167.1330 Section 167.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and the Strait of Georgia: General. 167.1330 Section 167.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and the Strait of Georgia: General. 167.1330 Section 167.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1330 - In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and the Strait of Georgia: General. 167.1330 Section 167.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....1330 In Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia: General. The traffic separation scheme in Haro Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia consists of a series of traffic...

  12. Sociodemographic and lifestyle statistics of oldest old people (>80 years) living in ikaria island: the ikaria study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the "Blue Zones". Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the "Blue Zones". The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the "secrets" of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life. PMID:21403883

  13. Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Statistics of Oldest Old People (>80 Years) Living in Ikaria Island: The Ikaria Study

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Siasos, Gerasimos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Skoumas, John; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. There are places around the world where people live longer and they are active past the age of 100 years, sharing common behavioral characteristics; these places (i.e., Sardinia in Italy, Okinawa in Japan, Loma Linda in California and Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica) have been named the “Blue Zones”. Recently it was reported that people in Ikaria Island, Greece, have also one of the highest life expectancies in the world, and joined the “Blue Zones”. The aim of this work work was to evaluate various demographic, lifestyle and psychological characteristics of very old (>80 years) people participated in Ikaria Study. Methods. During 2009, 1420 people (aged 30+) men and women from Ikaria Island, Greece, were voluntarily enrolled in the study. For this work, 89 males and 98 females over the age of 80 yrs were studied (13% of the sample). Socio-demographic, clinical, psychological and lifestyle characteristics were assessed using standard questionnaires and procedures. Results. A large proportion of the Ikaria Study's sample was over the age of 80; moreover, the percent of people over 90 were much higher than the European population average. The majority of the oldest old participants reported daily physical activities, healthy eating habits, avoidance of smoking, frequent socializing, mid-day naps and extremely low rates of depression. Conclusion. Modifiable risk factors, such as physical activity, diet, smoking cessation and mid-day naps, might depict the “secrets” of the long-livers; these findings suggest that the interaction of environmental, behavioral together with clinical characteristics may determine longevity. This concept must be further explored in order to understand how these factors relate and which are the most important in shaping prolonged life. PMID:21403883

  14. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years (1978??2) of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait.

  15. Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast over Piers 22 and 23 toward Mare Island Strait and the City of Vallejo - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. The floating forest: traditional knowledge and use of matupá vegetation islands by riverine peoples of the central Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carolina T; Shepard, Glenn H; Piedade, Maria T F

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  17. The Floating Forest: Traditional Knowledge and Use of Matupá Vegetation Islands by Riverine Peoples of the Central Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Carolina T.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Piedade, Maria T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Matupás are floating vegetation islands found in floodplain lakes of the central Brazilian Amazon. They form initially from the agglomeration of aquatic vegetation, and through time can accumulate a substrate of organic matter sufficient to grow forest patches of several hectares in area and up to 12 m in height. There is little published information on matupás despite their singular characteristics and importance to local fauna and people. In this study we document the traditional ecological knowledge of riverine populations who live near and interact with matupás. We expected that their knowledge, acquired through long term observations and use in different stages of the matupá life cycle, could help clarify various aspects about the ecology and natural history of these islands that field biologists may not have had the opportunity to observe. Research was carried out in five riverine communities of the Amanã Sustainable Development Reserve (Brazil). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 inhabitants in order to register local understandings of how matupás are formed, biotic/abiotic factors related to their occurrence, the plants and animals that occur on them, their ecological relevance, and local uses. Local people elucidated several little-known aspects about matupá ecology, especially regarding the importance of seasonal dynamics of high/low water for matupás formation and the relevance of these islands for fish populations. Soil from matupás is especially fertile and is frequently gathered for use in vegetable gardens. In some cases, crops are planted directly onto matupás, representing an incipient agricultural experiment that was previously undocumented in the Amazon. Matupás are also considered a strategic habitat for fishing, mainly for arapaima (Arapaima gigas). The systematic study of traditional ecological knowledge proved to be an important tool for understanding this little-known Amazonian landscape. PMID:25837281

  18. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  19. The cause of the 2008 cold disaster in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Enhui; Jiang, Yuwu; Li, Li; Hong, Huasheng; Yan, Xiaohai

    2013-02-01

    The offshore branch of the China Coastal Current in the Taiwan Strait normally makes a U-turn north of the Zhangyun Ridge. In early 2008, the current continued straight and carried water as cold as 14 °C toward Penghu Island, causing damage to the local aquaculture and coral reef ecosystem. This study investigates the mechanism behind this intrusion of cold water using available data and a three-dimensional model. The model results show that the 2008 intrusion can be divided into three stages. At the beginning of February, the offshore branch of the China Coastal Current formed a U-shape in the Taiwan Strait; the branch moved cold water from the western strait to the central strait when the offshore geostrophic current, which is related to the southward sea level and density gradients, overcame the onshore Ekman transport caused by the northeasterly monsoon. In the second stage, in mid-February, strong northeasterly winds intensified the southwest current in the Taiwan Strait and resulted in abnormal transport of the cold water from the central strait to Penghu Island. Finally, at the end of February, the warm northeast current was re-established due to weakened wind, and the cold water gradually retreated to the north. The second processes occurred immediately after the first, resulting in the unique intrusion of cold water.

  20. 33 CFR 80.1390 - Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia. 80.1390 Section 80.1390 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Georgia. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Haro Strait and the Strait of Georgia....

  1. 33 CFR 80.1390 - Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia. 80.1390 Section 80.1390 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Georgia. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Haro Strait and the Strait of Georgia....

  2. 33 CFR 80.1390 - Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia. 80.1390 Section 80.1390 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Georgia. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Haro Strait and the Strait of Georgia....

  3. 33 CFR 80.1390 - Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia. 80.1390 Section 80.1390 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Georgia. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Haro Strait and the Strait of Georgia....

  4. 33 CFR 80.1390 - Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia. 80.1390 Section 80.1390 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Georgia. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Haro Strait and the Strait of Georgia....

  5. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′...

  6. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′...

  7. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′...

  8. 46 CFR 7.145 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Haro Strait and Strait of Georgia WA. 7.145 Section 7.145 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES... of Georgia WA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Angeles Point to latitude 48°21.1′...

  9. The vulnerability of the Strait of Georgia (Canada) to future hypoxia and ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianson, Debby; Allen, Susan; Moore-Maley, Ben; Haigh, Rowan; Johannessen, Sophia; Macdonald, Robie; Krogh, Jeremy; Simpson, Eleanor; Kohfeld, Karen; Hamme, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    The Canadian Pacific coast is filled with fjords and islands. Circulation in the region is dynamic, so that large changes in acidity (pH) and oxygen may occur both in space and time. The Strait of Georgia (Canada) is a large (200 X 30 km) semi-enclosed basin, that has relatively low pH with respect to the adjacent outer coast and yet hosts a lucrative aquaculture industry. On the other hand this region is relatively well oxygenated due to gas exchange in the turbulent (tidal) flow in the narrow Straits with sills connecting it with the outer coast. We investigate the role that this intense gas exchange plays in protecting the Strait of Georgia from future hypoxia and ocean acidification. Finally, we contrast surface water properties (including dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity) measured on large ships with those measured nearshore and at shore-based aquaculture sites within the Strait.

  10. Davis Strait and Ungava Fault Zone: First Results From a Recent Geophysical Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Gohl, K.; Neben, S.; Volkmar, D.; Funck, T.; Gerlings, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Davis Strait is a bathymetric high that separates the southern Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea. These basins are the result of Cretaceous and Paleogene rifting and seafloor spreading between the North American plate and Greenland. Being one of the main tectonic features of the Davis Strait, the Ungava Fault Zone is associated with transform motion related to a northward movement of Greenland relative to North America during rifting and seafloor spreading in Baffin Bay and Labrador Sea. The plate tectonic reconstruction of the Davis Strait contributes significantly to the understanding of the geodynamic history of the North-American - Greenland plates, not only the Davis Strait area but also the area of Lancaster Sound and Nares Strait, where it could shed light into the so-called Nares Strait Conflict. It is still under debate whether the spreading between Greenland and Baffin Island was compensated by sinistral transform motion along the proposed Wegener-Fault. Thus Nares Strait (trace of the Wegener Fault) and Lancaster Sound (failed arm rift) are relicts of this scenario. The lack of evidence for transform motion between Greenland and Ellesmere Island contradicts this model and provokes the conflict. As major compression along the Eurekan Fold Belt overprinted the proposed transform motion along the Wegener Fault, the Ungava Fault Zone in the Davis Strait could give the missing information for the plate tectonic reconstruction. The onshore-offshore geology and structural setting of Baffin Island is analysed by recent publications that show an essentially non-volcanic continental margin at Baffin Island that is interrupted by a volcanic-style margin around Cape Dyer. Intensive magmatic activity during the initial opening phase is indicated by widespread seaward-dipping-reflector sequences (SDRS) north of Cape Dyer. On the other hand, the structural setting of the Greenland margin side is unclear. The identification of the corresponding conjugate

  11. Two kinorhynch species (Cyclorhagida, Echinoderidae, Echinoderes) show different distribution patterns across Tsugaru Strait, Northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Hiruta, Shimpei F; Kajihara, Hiroshi; Dick, Matthew H

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the geographic population structures of two intertidal kinorhynch species, Echinoderes sensibilis and Echinoderes sp. A, in the vicinity of Tsugaru Strait between Honshu and Hokkaido Islands, Japan, to examine whether the distribution or connectivity of populations of either species has been constrained by the strait. For each species, we examined the geographic distribution of COI haplotypes, constructed a median-joining haplotype network, and calculated statistics of genetic variation and connectivity. Tsugaru Strait is the northern range limit for E. sensibilis, which comprises a large, evolutionarily stable metapopulation that appears to have undergone a reduction in size followed by expansion; connectivity is low among most local populations, including across Tsugaru Strait. A divergent haplotype lineage showing no variation occurred only at Horozuki, suggesting recent immigration there from outside the study area. Echinoderes sp. A underwent a severe population bottleneck followed by rapid expansion. It occurred at all sampling sites on both sides of the strait, with high connectivity between populations across the strait. There is a zone of secondary contact between moderately divergent, presumably previously allopatric lineages in eastern Hokkaido. Present-day conditions in the strait have existed only for the past 8000 years, and differences in these species' distributions and apparent connectivity across the strait may relate to conditions existing in the strait when the species underwent population expansions or shifts in range; these historical events were not necessarily concurrent between the species, and occurred more than 8000 years ago. We discuss dispersal mechanisms for kinorhynchs, which could include suspension transport or rafting. PMID:25001913

  12. Freshwater exhange in the Sunda Strait estimated by Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.; Maximenko, N. A.; Melnichenko, O.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific and Indian Oceans are connected at a low latitude via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Through direct observations it is now understood that approximately 10 to 15 Sv of water are transported from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. The implications of this transport, including impacts to water mass formation, heat and freshwater budgets and potential feedbacks to the atmosphere are still under investigation. One of the complexities in this region is the large number of smaller straits and passages between islands that may or may not play an important role in ITF processes. Many of these straits are more narrow than the typical resolution of ocean circulation models, and therefore are not properly simulated. For mass transport this is likely not an issue, since recent observations suggest that most of the mass transport flows via the Makassar Strait and then exits to the Indian Ocean via the Lombok, Ombai and Timor passages. This study, however, focuses on the fresh water transport between the Indonesian Seas and the Indian Ocean in particular via the Sunda Strait. There are very few direct observations of the upper ocean stratification in this region. Conversely, the recent launch of the Aquarius mission provides a unique opportunity to study the transport of fresh water, as indicated by sea surface salinity variability, between the Java Sea and the eastern Indian Ocean. Numerical model results, Argo measurements and Aquarius-derived sea surface salinity are used to examine the annual variability of fresh water exchange via the Sunda Strait. Model mass transport is typically low, averaging less than 1 Sv, but fresh water transport could have important implications for stratification along the Sumatra/Java southern coast and thus impact coastal wave propagation. The satellite derived sea surface salinity will be used to show the importance of seasonal variations in this region.

  13. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  15. Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands.

    PubMed

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan J; Cox, Paul Alan

    2006-06-15

    Fanihi -- flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus mariannus, Pteropodidae) -- are a highly salient component of the traditional Chamorro diet. A neurotoxic, non-protein amino acid, beta-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) accumulates in flying foxes, which forage on the seeds of Cycas micronesica (Cycadaceae) in Guam's forests. BMAA occurs throughout flying fox tissues both as a free amino acid and in a protein-bound form. It is not destroyed by cooking. Protein-bound BMAA also remains in cycad flour which has been washed and prepared by the Chamorro people as tortillas, dumplings, and thickened soups. Other animals that forage on cycad seeds may also provide BMAA inputs into the traditional Chamorro diet. PMID:16457975

  16. EFFECTS OF TIDAL CURRENT PHASE AT THE JUNCTION OF TWO STRAITS. (R826940)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Estuaries typically have a monotonic increase in salinity from freshwater at the head of the estuary to ocean water at the mouth, creating a consistent direction for the longitudinal baroclinic pressure gradient. However, Mare Island Strait in San Francisco Ba...

  17. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  18. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  19. Climate change and consequences in the Arctic: perception of climate change by the Nenets people of Vaigach Island

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Alexander N.; Mikhailova, Galina V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctic climate change is already having a significant impact on the environment, economic activity, and public health. For the northern peoples, traditions and cultural identity are closely related to the natural environment so any change will have consequences for society in several ways. Methods A questionnaire was given to the population on the Vaigach island, the Nenets who rely to a large degree on hunting, fishing and reindeer herding for survival. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted about perception of climate change. Results Climate change is observed and has already had an impact on daily life according to more than 50% of the respondents. The winter season is now colder and longer and the summer season colder and shorter. A decrease in standard of living was noticeable but few were planning to leave. Conclusion Climate change has been noticed in the region and it has a negative impact on the standard of living for the Nenets. However, as of yet they do not want to leave as cultural identity is important for their overall well-being. PMID:22091216

  20. Estimation of strait transport in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Hirose, N.; Usui, N.; Tsujino, H.

    2010-12-01

    Volume transport through the major channels is still diverse in realistic eddy-resolving models. For instance, time-mean transport through the Tokara Strait is predicted as 16.9Sv by Maltrud and McClean (2005) or 36-72Sv by Hurlburt et al. (1996). However the difference may be decreased by constraining measurement data, i.e., data assimilation. The assimilated estimates from two different systems of Meteorological Research Institute and Kyushu University (MOVE-WNP and DREAMS_B) show realistic averages of 22-23Sv through the Tokara Strait. Inverse estimation of adjustable parameters implies that reduction of wind stress and strong vertical viscosity are crucial to prevent excessive transport and associated instabilities in a forward model. It is noted that both of the assimilated results show a deep northward flow of 3-4Sv through the Kerama Gap in Ryukyu Islands. The core depth (~500m) of this subsurface current is similar to Ryukyu Current. Further analysis shows coherent changes of Soya and Tsushima Warm Currents, which is consistent to the Okhotsk wind theory of Tsujino et al. (2008). On the other hand, the changes of Tsushima Strait transport are nearly independent from the Kuroshio or the Taiwan Warm Current.

  1. Fram Strait sea ice outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Cunningham, G. F.; Pang, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize 24 years of ice export estimates and examine, over a 9-year record, the associated variability in the time-varying upward-looking sonar (ULS) thickness distributions of the Fram Strait. A more thorough assessment of the PMW (passive microwave) ice motion with 5 years of synthetic aperture radar (SAR)observations shows the uncertainties to be consistent with that found by Kwok and Rothrock [1999], giving greater confidence to the record of ice flux calculations.

  2. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  3. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  4. End-stage kidney disease among indigenous peoples of Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Stephen P

    2013-05-01

    Although possessing different anthropological origins, there are similarities in the epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among the indigenous peoples of Australia (the Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) and New Zealand (Maori and Pacific Peoples). In both countries there is a substantially increased rate of ESKD among these groups. This is more marked in Australia than in New Zealand, but in both countries the relative rate (in comparison to non-indigenous rates) as well as absolute rate have nearly stabilized in recent years. The excess risk affects females particularly-in contrast to the non-indigenous picture. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, there is a strong age interaction, with the most marked risk being among those aged 25 to 45 years. Indigenous peoples are less likely to be treated with home dialysis, and much less likely to receive a kidney transplant. In particular, rates of living donation are very low among indigenous groups in both countries. Outcomes during dialysis treatment and during transplantation are inferior to those of nonindigenous ones, even after adjustment for the higher prevalence of comorbidities. The underlying causes for these differences are complex, but the slowing and possible stabilization of incident rate changes is heartening. PMID:25018983

  5. Social Justice Report, 1999. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner, HREOC. Report to the Attorney-General as Required by Section 46C(1)(a) of the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, William

    This report examines the disadvantaged and marginalized condition of the Indigenous peoples of Australia as a human rights issue, focusing on issues concerning Indigenous young people. Permeating the report is the idea that this disadvantage arises from a history of overt and structural discrimination and that special efforts and differential…

  6. Bedform facies in western Torres Strait and the influence of hydrodynamics, coastal geometry, and sediment supply on their distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-04-01

    This study uses outputs from hydrodynamic and bedload transport models combined with satellite imagery, aerial photography, and bathymetric data to understand the distributions and mechanisms maintaining six spatially extensive bedform facies in western Torres Strait. Changes in bedform morphology occur along north-south variations in coastal geometry and east-west variations in hydrodynamic regime. Numerous islands create an environment that favours the formation of banner banks in the south, while other sandbank morphologies occur on an extensive and comparatively 'flat' basement to the north. The western side of Torres Strait experiences net bedload transport that is directed to the west throughout the year and favours the formation of bedforms that prefer unidirectional bedload transport regimes (i.e. barchan-shaped sandbanks and sand ribbons). The eastern side of the strait experiences seasonal changes in the direction of net bedload transport and maintains 'S' and 'V' shaped sandbanks. Sediment availability also influences the bedform facies. Western Torres Strait experiences net westward bedload transport through the Strait. However, sandbanks (indicating high sediment availability) are found in the central shallow and high current velocity areas, while sand ribbons (indicating low sediment availability) are a distal facies on the western side of the Strait. This sequence of bedforms indicates that sediments are preferentially trapped within the central portion of the Strait and not transported further west into the Gulf of Carpentaria.

  7. Using paleolimnology to track the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems from southern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelutti, Neal; McCleary, Kathryn M.; Antoniades, Dermot; Sutherland, Patricia; Blais, Jules M.; Douglas, Marianne S. V.; Smol, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Paleolimnological approaches can be used to determine the ways in which past Arctic peoples have affected the ecosystems in which they live, and simultaneously to reconstruct the climate and other aspects of the environment that may have influenced local populations. Here we analyze sediment cores from seven ponds on the south-western coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut, in order to assess the impacts of early Arctic peoples on freshwater ecosystems. Prior to the historic Inuit occupation, the study area was extensively inhabited by Thule culture Inuit (ca 1200-1600 AD) and by an earlier Arctic group, the Dorset culture Palaeo-Eskimos (ca 500 BC-1500 AD) and their predecessors from as early as 2500 BC. The study ponds were selected to cover a gradient of the intensity of human activity in their catchments. The ecological impacts of early hunting societies can be detected using paleolimnology because the butchering of marine mammals released nutrients that eutrophied nearby ponds and left distinct geochemical signals in the sediments. The degree of eutrophication in the small freshwater ponds depended on the length of the occupation, as well as the amount and type of marine mammals taken as primary prey items (eg, whales, walrus, or seals). All sediment cores were AMS 14C dated to establish their chronologies, and analyzed for diatoms and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N). Both diatoms and sedimentary δ15N have been previously demonstrated to respond sensitively to nutrient enrichment from Inuit whalers. Our δ15N and diatom data record nutrient enrichment in lakes surrounded by either long-term Thule or Dorset settlements. The Dorset sites that were the locations of periodic seasonal gatherings did not register any evidence of eutrophication in the nearby ponds, reflecting the shorter, less intensive nature of these occupations. Similarly, nearby control ponds with no evidence of significant human activity in their catchments showed little-to-no changes in δ15N

  8. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). Design/Setting/Patient population: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu’uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction ≤45%, 3) Age of 21 years or older. Data were analyzed by odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and multiple logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Methamphetamine use. Results: Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03–0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5–47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8–75). Conclusions: Risk factors associated with MU in NH and PIPs with heart failure include: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs. PMID:19436660

  9. A history of the people of Bikini following nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands: with recollections and views of elders of Bikini Atoll.

    PubMed

    Niedenthal, J

    1997-07-01

    The people of Bikini Atoll were moved from their homeland in 1946 to make way for the testing of 23 nuclear weapons by the United States government, beginning with the world's fourth atomic detonation. The subsequent half-century exodus of the Bikini people included a 2-y stay on Rongerik Atoll, where near starvation resulted, and a 6-mo sojourn on Kwajalein Atoll, where they lived in tents beside a runway used by the U.S. military. In 1948, they were finally relocated to Kili, a small, isolated, 200-acre island owned by the U.S. Trust Territory government. Numerous hardships have been faced there, not the least of which was the loss of skills required for self-sustenance. Located 425 miles south of Bikini, Kili Island is without a sheltered lagoon. Thus for six months of the year, fishing and sailing become futile endeavors. Because of the residual radioactive contamination from the nuclear testing, the majority of the Bikinian population still resides on Kili today. One attempt was made to resettle Bikini in the late 1960's when President Lyndon B. Johnson, on recommendations from the Atomic Energy Commission, declared Bikini Atoll safe for habitation. In 1978, however, it was discovered by the U.S. Department of Energy that in the span of only one year, some of the returned islanders were showing a 75% increase in their body burdens of 137Cs. In 1978, the people residing on Bikini were moved again, this time to a small island in Majuro Atoll. In the early 1980's, the Bikinians filed a class action lawsuit against the U.S. government for damages arising out of the nuclear testing program. Although the claim was dismissed, eventually a $90 million trust fund was established for their local government. Since then the leaders of the people of Bikini residing on Kili Island and Majuro Atoll have been confronted with the immense responsibility of determining how to clean their atoll while at the same time maintaining the health and welfare of their displaced

  10. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  12. Paleogeodynamics of the Bransfield Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreider, Al. A.

    2015-09-01

    The axes of zones split off between the northern continental slope of the Bransfield Basin and its southern slope belonging to the Antarctic Peninsula are reconstructed by determining the Euler poles and rotation angles that describe the splitting-off process. The revealed difference in the depths of joined isobaths of up to a hundred of meters reflects the different-scale slippage of peripheral parts of the continental crust from the main body of the Antarctic Peninsula along the plane of the through-lithosphere fracture. On the basis of paleogeodynamic reconstruction, it is possible to reconstruct also the initial bottom topography before the splitting off of the slipping fragments. It is shown that peripheral areas towered initially over the main surface of the shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula for many tens of meters. The locations of tectonic distortions along both borders of the strait due to transtension are reconstructed.

  13. Gravitational circulation in a tidal strait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Burau, J.R.; Simpson, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Eight months of continuous measurements of tidal current profiles with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were made in Carquinez Strait, California, during 1988 for the purpose of estimating long-term variations in vertical profiles of Eulerian residual currents. Salinity stratification near the ADCP deployment site also was analyzed. The strength of density-driven gravitational circulation and the amount of salinity stratification in the strait varied significantly over the spring-neap tidal cycle. Density currents and stratification were greater during neap tides when vertical mixing from the tide is at a minimum. Landward residual currents along the bottom were observed only during neap tides. Simulations made with a three-dimensional model to supplement the field measurements show a significant, tidally induced lateral variation in residual currents across the strait. The Stokes drift of 1-2 cm/s in the strait is small relative to the speed of gravitational currents.

  14. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  15. Beach morphology and coastline evolution in the southern Bohai Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Jianzheng; Li, Weiran; Zhu, Longhai; Hu, Rijun; Jiang, shenghui; Sun, Yonggen; Wang, Huijuan

    2015-10-01

    The beach studied in this paper spans a length of 51 km and is one of several long sandy beaches in the southern Bohai Strait. Due to the obstruction of islands in the northeast and the influence of the underwater topography, the wave environment in the offshore area is complex; beach types and sediment transport characteristics vary along different coasts. The coastlines extracted from six aerial photographs in different years were compared to demonstrate the evolving features. Seven typical beach profiles were selected to study the lateral beach variation characteristics. Continuous wind and wave observation data from Beihuangcheng ocean station during 2009 were employed for the hindcast of the local wave environment using a regional spectral wave model. Then the results of the wave hindcast were incorporated into the LITDRIFT model to compute the sediment transport rates and directions along the coasts and analyze the longshore sand movement. The results show that the coastline evolution of sand beaches in the southern Bohai Strait has spatial and temporal variations and the coast can be divided into four typical regions. Region (I), the north coast of Qimudao, is a slightly eroded and dissipative beach with a large sediment transport rate; Region (II), the southwest coast of Gangluan Port, is a slightly deposited and dissipative beach with moderate sediment transport rate; Region (III), in the central area, is a beach that is gradually transformed from a slightly eroded dissipative beach to a moderately or slightly strong eroded bar-trough beach from west to east with a relatively moderate sediment transport rate. Region (IV), on the east coast, is a strongly eroded and reflective beach with a weak sediment transport rate. The wave conditions exhibit an increasing trend from west to east in the offshore area. The distribution of the wave-induced current inside the wave breaking region and the littoral sediment transport in the nearshore region exhibit a gradual

  16. Greek Islands, Western Asia Minor as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This north-looking view shows the western margin of Turkey (right) and the Dodecanese Islands of Greece between the Aegean Sea (left) and the Sea of Crete (foreground). The largest island is Crete (foreground) with the semicircular island of Thira beyond. Thira is dominated by the volcanoe Santorini. Two airplane contrails appear between the Turkish mainland and the large island of Rhodes immediately offshore. The narrow straits of the Dardanelles, joining the Black Sea to the Mediterranean, can be detected top left.

  17. The interaction of short surface waves with stratified flow in Raccoon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. T.; Pearman, D. W.; Herbers, T. H.; Largier, J. L.; McIntyre, S.; Jessen, P.

    2012-12-01

    Strong tidal currents and complex wave-current interaction characterize the west side of Raccoon Strait, the narrow waterway between Angel Island and the Tiburon Peninsula in San Francisco Bay. The surface and internal hydrodynamics in this area are strongly affected by the presence of a shallow sill (depth ~10m) that extends partially across the strait near the western tip of Angel Island. In this work we present observations collected during several field experiments in 2011 and 2012 in Raccoon Strait, San Francisco Bay, using shipboard ADCP, bottom mounted ADCPs, CTDs, and Wave Resolving Drifters (WRDs). By combining observations from bottom-mounted, fixed (Eulerian) instruments and newly developed Lagrangian drifters that can resolve wind wave dynamics and surface drifts, we relate the spatial structure of the stratified flow dynamics with the observed wave evolution in the area. We analyze the interaction and characteristics of the wave blocking dynamics observed near the sill, the development of a subduction zone of surface waters during flood tide, and the occurrence of an internal lee wave downstream of the sill.

  18. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “GS,” which is bounded by a line...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “GS,” which is bounded by a line...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “GS,” which is bounded by a line...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1332 - In the Strait of Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the Strait of Georgia. 167... Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1332 In the Strait of Georgia. In the Strait of Georgia, the following are established: (a) Precautionary area “GS,” which is bounded by a line...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1385 - Strait of Juan de Fuca.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca. 80.1385... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1385 Strait of Juan de Fuca. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca....

  3. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  4. Numerical Modelling of Tsunamis Generated by Hypothetical Landslides in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A. B.; Thomson, R. E.; Bornhold, B. D.; Fine, I. V.; Kulikov, E. A.

    A modified and corrected version of the viscous slide model of Jiang and LeBlond (1994) is used to assess the tsunami risk associated with hypothetical underwater slope failures in two coastal areas of British Columbia having potentially unstable sediment deposits: (a) Malaspina Strait, separating the mainland coast and Texada Island in the central Strait of Georgia; and (b) Roberts Bank on the foreslope of the Fraser River Delta in the southern Strait of Georgia. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the capability of the model for tsunami risk assessment and to improve upon previous studies of tsunami risk in the region based on reasonable submarine landslide scenarios. The potential risk from tsunamis associated with slide failures has been examined, but the likelihood of failure events themselves was not considered. For the Malaspina Strait scenarios, simulated tsunamis are generated by failure of a lobe of perched sediment situ ated on the slope of eastern Texada Island. Failure as a flow slide of the estimated 1,250,000 m3 of sediment generates wave troughs reaching -4.9 m and trough-to-crest heights of 6 to 8 m along the coast of Texada Island. At Cape Cockburn, on the opposite side of the strait, wave heights of 1.5 to 2.0 m are produced. For Roberts Bank, simulated waves are examined for two separate failure scenarios. The larger slide (Case 1) involves the failure of a sediment lobe with lateral dimensions of 7 × 3 km2 and volume of 0.75 km3 while the smaller slide (Case 2) fails a sediment lobe with dimensions of 4 × 2.6 km2 and volume of 0.23 km3. Computations were made both for high (+3 m) and low (-3 m) tide conditions. For both failure volumes, maximum wave amplitudes (up to 18 m for Case 1 and 8 m for Case 2) occur on the coasts of Mayne and Galiano Islands, opposite the source area. Wave amplitudes are much smaller (1 to 4 m) on the mainl and coast because of the reflection of the initial waves from Roberts Bank. Additional numerical

  5. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  6. A case study in strategic change: developing a strategic research program to address cardiovascular disease and related disorders in aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and rural and remote settings.

    PubMed

    Field, Pat; Wakerman, John

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a strategic change process. It identifies and reviews the critical factors that impact on, and need to be considered in order to successfully initiate and implement change. The problem was the narrow focus and priorities of a well-established research program. We undertook a stringent process to refocus the program to the areas of greatest need. The paper provides information on the process undertaken to achieve the change and other factors that impacted. The outcome has been considered successful in the first instance. However the long-term picture may not be as positive. Reviewing and presenting the process and influential factors provides the reader with the opportunity to compare this scenario with their own experience and thereby develop their own change strategies. PMID:12404975

  7. Sediment Distribution in Central San Francisco Bay in the Vicinity of Raccoon Strait.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, K. A.; White, L. D.; Vavro, M.; Tran, J.; Basconcillo, N.; Kheradyar, T.; Pestrong, R.

    2003-12-01

    We collected sediment grab samples from twenty-one sites distributed within a 2-km2 area in Central San Francisco Bay, including Raccoon Strait, which is located between the Tiburon Peninsula and Angel Island. We gathered these samples in May and August of 2003, dried and disaggregated them using a Gilson Sieve Tester, and analyzed the sediments by weight percent. Our purpose in monitoring sediment distributions over time in Central San Francisco Bay is to gain understanding of the oceanographic dynamics of the bay-delta estuarine system. Our initial results indicate that grain sizes range from > 2 millimeters to < 125 microns with coarser samples located at the entrance to Raccoon Strait. We anticipate collecting samples from these twenty-one sites in November of 2003, and eventually relating the sediment distribution patterns to seasonal variations in transport. This study is part of a larger-scale project involving bedform migration and current transport in Central San Francisco Bay.

  8. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  9. Spring Ice Chokes the Bering Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS image of the Bering Sea, Bering Straight and southern Arctic Ocean acquired 7 May 2000. Image generated from MODIS band 2 (0.85 um) at 250 m spatial resolution. Detailed structure and leads in the ice pack are apparent. Ice flow from the Bering Strait southward to the Bearing Sea is seen in great detail. George Riggs, NASA GSFC

  10. Variablility of Fram Strait Ice Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.; Rothrock, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the winter sea ice export through the Fram Strait using ice motion from satellite passive microwave data. Sea ice motion (October through May)is obtained by tracking the displacement of common features in sequential 85 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperature fields.

  11. First Davis Strait discovery overcomes offshore hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    In spite of icebergs umpredictable currents and brief drilling seasons, the first discovery well was completed recently in the Davis Strait. The success of this well, known as Hekja 0-71, has opened the waters off the northeastern coast of Canada to more exploration. A discussion is presented of how the well was drilled, the problems encountered and how they were overcome.

  12. Gliders in the Fram Strait Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Schauer, Ursula; Rohr, Harald; Lee, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Variability of oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait, one of the main gateways to the Arctic Ocean, has been monitored since 1997 by the array of 16 moorings and summer hydrographic sections. The main focus is on the inflow of warm Atlantic waters from the Nordic Seas, the only source of heat for the Arctic Ocean, and on the freshwater outflow to the North Atlantic. However, spatial resolution of the moored array, which varies from 10 to 30 km, is not sufficient to resolve the mesoscale variability of the complex, topographically flow through the strait. In the recently established multidisciplinary Fram Strait Observatory a combination of oceanographic observations by moorings and gliders with acoustic tomography measurements and the eddy-resolving numerical model will provide a new tool to assess the contribution of mesoscale dynamics to the variability of oceanic fluxes through Fram Strait. Since 2007, in the framework of the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the long-term moored observations in Fram Strait have been complemented with repeated glider sections. During eight summer and autumn missions the oceanographic data with high spatial resolution were collected down to 1000 m by Seagliders profiling along the moored array. Here we report on the results from five years of gliders measurements and a comparison of glider data to observations from moorings and ship-borne CTD sections. The special attention is paid to measurements in the West Spitsbergen Current, where gliders have to operate in the strong current regime (occasional events up to 1 m/s). Spatially averaged glider data were also applied in the finite element inverse model FEMSECT and preliminary results are presented. Future plans envisage a substitution of the upper part of moored array with repeated glider sections to achieve year-round glider operations in the partially sea-ice covered region. Since 2010 the array of RAFOS sources and tomographic sources providing RAFOS signal with

  13. Out-of-Africa, the peopling of continents and islands: tracing uniparental gene trees across the map

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Genetic relationships between human groups were first studied by comparisons of relative allele frequency at multiple loci. Geographical study of detailed, highly resolved trees of single, non-recombining uniparental loci (mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA and Y chromosome/non-recombining Y: NRY), following specific lineages rather than populations, then revolutionized knowledge of the peopling of the world, although, curiously, the use of geographically highly specific mutations that protect against malaria, found on individual autosomal globin genes, were first in single-locus phylogeography. mtDNA, with its high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation rates and relative ease of dating, led the way and gave stronger proof of the recent near replacement of all human species by anatomically modern humans (AMH). AMH left Africa via a single southern exit about 70 000 years ago and rapidly spread around the Indian Ocean towards the Antipodes, long before a small branch left a South Asian colony, earlier on the trail, to populate Europe. The worldwide skeleton phylogeny of mtDNA is fully resolved, but a regional analysis will continue to illuminate subsequent migrations. NRY with a lower SNP mutation rate still has a dating problem relating to use the of single tandem repeats (STRs), but has validated mtDNA results and with more geographical specificity and genomic size, as with the autosomal human genome, has much more detail to offer for the future. PMID:22312044

  14. Introduced marine species: Management arrangements of consideration for the Torres Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, Kerry M.; Hilliard, Robert; Russell, Barry; Clark, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Introduced marine species (IMS) can have significant impacts on economic, ecological, social and cultural aspects of coastal marine environments. There is, therefore, a need to minimise these impacts through the implementation of comprehensive and consistent management strategies and monitoring processes that work towards preventing introductions, detecting introductions if they were to occur and managing incursions should they be detected. There is also the need to ensure that approaches taken are comparable to provide consistency of IMS management effort, particularly across areas that are multi-jurisdictional (e.g. spanning State or Territory borders). A number of studies have examined IMS, their vectors and management arrangements for the Torres Strait region, a multi-jurisdictional area between Queensland, Australia and Papua New Guinea. This paper presents information from a baseline survey conducted in the Torres Strait for marine pests in conjunction with a synthesis of information from other studies on IMS risks, their vectors and management strategies of relevance to the Torres Strait region. A number of strengths, but also gaps, between the various jurisdictions have been identified and discussed. Processes such as the establishment of Biosecurity Queensland as a specialist group and the development of the National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions are occurring. However, the Torres Strait region is at current risk of marine pest inoculation, particularly for species such as Perna viridis, and management strategies to minimise this risk are lacking. The information presented here will assist management groups in their ability to work towards mitigating the risk of an IMS being translocated to and negatively impacting the unique and diverse ecology of the marine systems, and the industries, people and customs that rely on the coastal marine environment for food, recreation and commerce in the Torres Strait.

  15. Magnetic properties as tracers for source-to-sink dispersal of sediments: A case study in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An

    2011-09-01

    Different lithologies between Taiwan and southeastern China lead to diverse mineralogical composition for weathering products derived from the two shores of the Taiwan Strait. Pyrrhotite and magnetite are respectively the dominant magnetic minerals associated with fluvial sediments from western Taiwan and southeastern China. While magnetite commonly co-exists with pyrrhotite in sediments sourced from Taiwan, pyrrhotite has not been found in sediments sourced from mainland China. Associated with such a distinction are vast differences in magnetic properties, including magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM, HIRM and the S-ratio, which can be used to study the provenances of sediments in the Taiwan Strait and adjoining marginal seas. Based on any two of these parameters, the magnetic characteristics of much of the Taiwan Strait sediment can be explained using a two-endmember mixing model. Source-to-sink dispersal of sediments in the Taiwan Strait can then be traced from the distribution of these parameters. The results not only corroborate an earlier study based on radionuclides and particle size distribution ( Huh et al., 2011) but reveal more diagnostic details. Besides spatial distribution based on a large number (216) of surface sediments, we also analyzed temporal variation of magnetic properties in six well-dated cores collected at key sites along the sediment source-to-sink pathways. From profiles of these parameters in cores from the middle of the northern Taiwan Strait, it is calculated that sediment supply from Taiwan has increased substantially in the past five decades, which may very well be related to accelerated land use and increased frequency of intense rainfalls in Taiwan during the same period. The approach described in this work may be extended to other source-to-sink systems around the world and through time, especially the mountainous islands fringing the Pacific and Indian Oceans in southeastern Asia. As with Taiwan, these islands have high

  16. Sea Ice Thickness Variability in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerland, S.; Renner, A.; Haas, C.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M.; Hansen, E.; Hendricks, S.; Hudson, S. R.; Beckers, J.; Goodwin, H.

    2011-12-01

    On this poster, we show results from airborne electromagnetic (EM) sea ice thickness measurements demonstrating the temporal and spatial complexity of the ice thickness distribution in Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard. Knowledge about the spatial and temporal sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean is necessary to assess the state of the sea-ice cover, and to understand relevant processes and changes. Since 2003, the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) has been conducting systematic in situ monitoring of sea ice thickness in the western Fram Strait, using both ground and airborne techniques. Fram Strait is a key region for large-scale ice dynamics in the Arctic. It represents the main export route for sea ice from the Arctic and the only deep strait connecting the interior Arctic Ocean and the rest of the world oceans. The ice thickness distribution in this region is the result of a combination of dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice processes. Transects for airborne EM observations were flown by NPI in spring 2005, 2008, and late summer 2010, and by the Alfred Wegener Institute in spring 2009. The regional ice thickness distributions are supplemented with ground measurements including snow thickness observations taken on ice stations during ship expeditions in spring 2005, 2007, and 2008 and annually in late summer from 2003 to 2011. From all these observations, we can show the differing characteristics of the thickness distributions in spring (2005, 2008, 2009) and late summer (2010) when the ice thickness is at its annual maximum (end of the freezing period) and minimum (end of the melting period), respectively. The ice thickness distribution can also vary spatially over short distances in north-south direction. Features such as the East Greenland Polynya, which varies in size for a given time from year to year, contribute to the spatial and temporal variability on the Greenlandic Shelf. In spring 2005, a gradient is visible across Fram Strait from

  17. Freshwater fluxes through the Western Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Michael; Heywood, Karen; Dennis, Paul; Goldson, Laura; White, Rowan; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Schauer, Ursula; Østerhus, Svein

    Two hydrographic and δ18O transects across Fram Strait (Aug-Sept 1997, 1998) are used to examine freshwater contributions to the East Greenland Current (EGC). The EGC featured up to ˜16% meteoric water in both years, but was made comparatively more saline through the formation of up to ˜11 m of sea ice. We derive meteoric water fluxes of ˜3680 km³yr-1 in Aug-Sept 1997, and ˜2000 km³yr-1 in Aug-Sept 1998. The 1997 and 1998 data show a long-term mean sea ice flux through Fram Strait around half the long-term mean meteoric water flux. A 1991 δ18O section [Bauch et al., 1995] yielded a very similar ratio. Our 1998 section reveals fresh, low-δ18O water on the East Greenland shelf whose comparatively large volume constitutes a potentially significant contribution to the total freshwater flux through Fram Strait. Such fluxes are important to the regional and global thermohaline circulation; we suggest that efforts towards monitoring both the EGC and East Greenland shelf waters are thus required.

  18. The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laurel S.; Coates, Anthony G.; Berggren, William A.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Zhang, Jijun

    1996-08-01

    Miocene sediments of the Caribbean Gatun and Chagres formations, Panama Canal basin, were deposited within an archipelagic strait that connected Caribbean and Pacific waters. Shallow-water (˜ 25 m) benthic foraminifera of the Gatun Formation have a strong Caribbean affinity, indicating that a significant interoceanic, biogeographic barrier had formed at ˜ 8 Ma. However, benthic foraminifera of the overlying Chagres Formation are bathyal and markedly Pacific in affinity, indicating that at ˜ 6 Ma, waters of the Panama isthmian strait deepened to ˜ 200 500 m and Pacific bathyal waters flowed into the Caribbean. The Chagres Formation crops out at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal in a large wedge of cross-laminated sandstone and coquina. The cross-laminations and coarse grain size indicate high-energy currents atypical of bathyal settings. We infer that a jet of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent Equatorial Undercurrent passed through the Panama isthmian strait to deposit these sediments on the Caribbean side. This later entry of Pacific taxa into the Caribbean had no apparent effect on the subsequent composition of Caribbean faunas.

  19. Backarc basin evolution and cordilleran orogenesis: Insights from new ocean-bottom seismograph refraction profiling in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel H. N.; Christeson, Gail L.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.

    2003-02-01

    Bransfield Strait, a backarc basin off the northwestern Antarctic Peninsula, is a modern analog for Cretaceous basins inverted in the compressional tectonic regime that initiated the Andean Cordillera. Eight new refraction ocean-bottom seismograph profiles in the strait demonstrate that crustal thickness in the deep central basin increases from northeast to southwest, from ˜10 km to ˜14 16 km. This confirms multichannel seismic interpretation of upper crustal structures suggesting that the Bransfield basin is opening by northeast to southwest rift propagation within arc crust of the Antarctic Peninsula, a process also recorded in the obducted Cretaceous Rocas Verdes basin of the southernmost Andes. Thinning is most prominent along the axis of the strait, where the crust is ˜9 11 km thick. In contrast, thicknesses beneath the Antarctic Peninsula margin and the inactive South Shetland Islands pedestal are ˜18 km and ˜24 km, respectively. Seismic velocities and thicknesses suggest that new oceanic crust is not yet being generated. Extension is focused along the northwest margin, imparting the physiographic asymmetry to the strait. Comparing the Bransfield basin with the inverted Rocas Verdes basin and intraoceanic counterparts in the western Pacific suggests that rift propagation and trench-side focusing of extension may be fundamental features of young backarc basins. Resultant asymmetry may facilitate observed obduction of backarc basin floor and arc rocks onto continental margins during compressional orogenesis.

  20. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥ 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  1. Coastal cape and canyon effects on wind-driven upwelling in northern Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoyun; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu

    2014-07-01

    A combination of observations and numerical model is used to reveal the upwelling features and mechanisms in the northern Taiwan Strait during summer. In situ data give evidence of the upwelling in the form of thermocline tilting upward onshore. The remote sensing data show a strip of upwelling in the coastal region, which occurs more than half a summer. The upwelling probability map indicates there are two upwelling cores, one located downstream of Pingtan Island formed as cape effect and the other over the coastal canyon off the Sansha Bay. Remote sensing data and numerical model results suggest that the southerly wind plays a key role in shaping this upwelling strip, while the tides regulate the upwelling location through tidal mixing effect in the shallow water region, especially lee of Pingtan Island. Further numerical experiments using idealized cape and coastal canyon topography show that vertical velocity is intensified downstream of the cape and canyon. The vorticity equation shows that relative vorticity change along a streamline and frictional diffusion of vorticity are responsible for the vertical velocity off the cape and within and around the canyon. According to the conservation of potential vorticity, the variation of relative vorticity along a streamline over irregular topography, e.g., cape and canyon, is the main mechanism for the two upwelling cores in the northern Taiwan Strait.

  2. 78 FR 36655 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Carquinez Strait, Martinez, CA AGENCY... Drawbridge across the Carquinez Strait, mile 7.0 at Martinez, CA. The deviation is necessary to perform a..., at Martinez, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides 135 feet vertical clearance above Mean...

  3. Offshore finfish mariculture in the Strait of Juan de Fuca

    SciTech Connect

    Rensel, Jack; Kiefer, Dale; Forster, John R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Evans, Nathan R.

    2007-10-07

    Finfish mariculture has existed in the U.S. Pacific Northwest for over thirty years, but for the past 15 years most effort has focused on culture of Atlantic salmon in protected, inshore cage sites. The Strait of Juan de Fuca (the "Strait") is a large area with relatively sparce shoreline development and several apparent advantages for mariculture using offshore technology.

  4. Strait of Gibraltar seen from STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Swift currents flow through the Strait of Gibraltar, producing complicated patterns in the surface waters. Some of those patterns are highlighted in the sunglint in this photograph. The Mediterranian Sea is on the upper right, the Atlantic Ocean in in the lower left. Few features can be seen on the Mediterranian side, but current shears (straight lines coming off Spain), several sets of internal waves (impinging on the Spanish continental shelf) and ship wakes can be seen on the Atlantic side, west of Cadiz. Both Tangier and Cadiz show up in the sunglint as well.

  5. Monitoring sea ice flux through Fram Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweiger, Axel J.; Rothrock, D. Andrew

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for estimating daily ice velocity through Fram Strait is presented. Ice velocity fields are estimated from a combination of motions observed by SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) or buoys and drift estimated by a simple wind drift model. The analysis includes ice motion vectors from approximately 300 pairs of ERS-1 images, Feb. - Jun. 1993. ESA UILR8 low resolution images derived from the Fast Delivery (FD) products are analyzed to produce ice velocity vectors using a semi-automated interactive approach. This method reveals substantial variability in the ice motion field that would not be apparent from a single data source.

  6. Submarine geology framework of the Strait of Gibralter

    SciTech Connect

    Mrah, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Three-dimensional, computer-generated bathymetric views and high-resolution sparker profiles are presented to illustrate the geologic framework of the Strait of Gibraltar. 'The Ridge,' an apparent structural feature, divides the Strait into a deeper, more narrow eastern portion and a shallower, wider and more irregular western portion. Sparker profiles show the Moroccan and Spanish shelves to be underlain by rocks whose deformation correlates with the structural deformation of the Betic and Rif Mountains. However, a portion of the center portion of the Strait is floored with approximately 700 m of horizontal sediments despite the adjacent structural deformation and the presence of strong bottom currents. The alternating sequence of well-layered and chaotic-layered sediments suggests periods of large-scale subaqueous landslides that post-date the structural deformation of the Strait. In other areas, the Strait appears to be free of unconsolidated sediments. Large bedrock horsts modify the topography of the floor and side walls.

  7. Observations of double arch formation in the Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torgerson, Lenora J.; Stringer, William J.

    1985-10-01

    During the time that ice is present in the Bering Strait, it is constantly moving, both northward and southward, subject to wind and current stresses. There were, however, several times in the last decade when the ice was prevented from travelling through the Strait. The blockage of ice was due to the formation of fairly stable double arches that extended across the Strait. Six episodes of double arch formation, resulting in ice blockage in the Bering Strait, were recorded on NOAA satellite imagery spanning the last eleven years; one additional episode was seen on Landsat imagery. All of the incidences of double arching occurred between February and May. In the most extreme case the arches prevented the southward flow of ice through the Strait for at least 27 days during April and May 1980.

  8. Geodetic surveys across the Messina Straits (southern Italy) seismogenetic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, M.; Baldi, P.; Bonini, C.; Casula, G.; Gandolfi, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Messina Straits, southern Italy, unfortunately became famous after the occurrence of the great earthquake of December 28, 1908, Ms = 7.5, that caused thousands of deaths and severe destruction over a wide area along the Sicilian and Calabrian coasts. After that time many geophysical and geological studies were performed to evaluate the seismic characteristics of the 1908 earthquake, the seismic risk and the geological evolution of this region in the framework of Mediterranean geodynamics. In 1970, a geodetic network was set up across the Straits and was repeatedly measured with terrestrial techniques until 1980, showing a northward displacement of the Sicilian sites with respect to the Calabrian ones, between 1970 and 1971. In 1987, the old terrestrial network was surveyed again for the first time by the GPS technique, improving the accuracy of the coordinate determinations. Finally, in 1994, a wider network was established and surveyed again to collect additional GPS observations from a larger area across the Straits. In this paper, an analysis of the results obtained from the two GPS surveys with respect to those achieved by the terrestrial surveys (from 1970 to 1980) is given. This analysis shows there has not been significant crustal horizontal deformation across the Straits in the last 15 years. Although this crustal tectonic 'quiescence' corresponds to a low seismic activity level in the Straits area, terrestrial and GPS geodetic results would agree with Straits geophysical models excluding any aseismic deformations acting perpendicular to the Straits axis.

  9. Late Pleistocene ice export events into the Arctic Ocean from the M'Clure Strait Ice Stream, Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Clark, Chris D.; Darby, Dennis A.; Hodgson, Douglas A.

    2005-12-01

    Rapidly-flowing sectors of an ice sheet (ice streams) can play an important role in abrupt climate change through the delivery of icebergs and meltwater and the subsequent disruption of ocean thermohaline circulation (e.g., the North Atlantic's Heinrich events). Recently, several cores have been raised from the Arctic Ocean which document the existence of massive ice export events during the Late Pleistocene and whose provenance has been linked to source regions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. In this paper, satellite imagery is used to map glacial geomorphology in the vicinity of Victoria Island, Banks Island and Prince of Wales Island (Canadian Arctic) in order to reconstruct ice flow patterns in the highly complex glacial landscape. A total of 88 discrete flow-sets are mapped and of these, 13 exhibit the characteristic geomorphology of palaeo-ice streams (i.e., parallel patterns of large, highly elongated mega-scale glacial lineations forming a convergent flow pattern with abrupt lateral margins). Previous studies by other workers and cross-cutting relationships indicate that the majority of these ice streams are relatively young and operated during or immediately prior to deglaciation. Our new mapping, however, documents a large (> 700 km long; 110 km wide) and relatively old ice stream imprint centred in M'Clintock Channel and converging into Viscount Melville Sound. A trough mouth fan located on the continental shelf suggests that it extended along M'Clure Strait and was grounded at the shelf edge. The location of the M'Clure Strait Ice Stream exactly matches the source area of 4 (possibly 5) major ice export events recorded in core PS1230 raised from Fram Strait, the major ice exit for the Arctic Ocean. These ice export events occur at ˜12.9, ˜15.6, ˜22 and 29.8 ka ( 14C yr BP) and we argue that they record vigorous episodes of activity of the M'Clure Strait Ice Stream. The timing of these events is remarkably similar to the North Atlantic's Heinrich

  10. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  11. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  12. Closing the transport budget of the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Clément; Beal, Lisa M.

    2014-04-01

    Closing the mean mass budget of the Florida Straits is fundamental to understanding the source waters of the Gulf Stream and for constraining ocean simulations and forecasts in a region of complex topography. Existing transport time series of the inflow through Yucatan Channel and the outflow at 27°N yield a 9 Sv difference in the mean, which cannot be reconciled by the two minor inflows between. Here we present a synthesis of transport estimates from throughout the Florida Straits, using velocity data collected aboard the cruise ship Explorer of the Seas. Our transports form a consistent mass budget and conform with the northern outflow from the Straits of 32.1 ± 3.3 Sv, as measured continuously by cable. In particular, we find an average of 30.0 ± 5.3 Sv for the inflow to southern Florida Straits and estimate that Old Bahama Channel contributes less than an additional 2 Sv.

  13. Numerical modeling of late Glacial Laurentide advance of ice across Hudson Strait: Insights into terrestrial and marine geology, mass balance, and calving flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeffer, W.T.; Dyurgerov, M.; Kaplan, M.; Dwyer, J.; Sassolas, C.; Jennings, A.; Raup, B.; Manley, W.

    1997-01-01

    A time-dependent finite element model was used to reconstruct the advance of ice from a late Glacial dome on northern Quebec/Labrador across Hudson Strait to Meta Incognita Peninsula (Baffin Island) and subsequently to the 9.9-9.6 ka 14C Gold Cove position on Hall Peninsula. Terrestrial geological and geophysical information from Quebec and Labrador was used to constrain initial and boundary conditions, and the model results are compared with terrestrial geological information from Baffin Island and considered in the context of the marine event DC-0 and the Younger Dryas cooling. We conclude that advance across Hudson Strait from Ungava Bay to Baffin Island is possible using realistic glacier physics under a variety of reasonable boundary conditions. Production of ice flux from a dome centered on northeastern Quebec and Labrador sufficient to deliver geologically inferred ice thickness at Gold Cove (Hall Peninsula) appears to require extensive penetration of sliding south from Ungava Bay. The discharge of ice into the ocean associated with advance and retreat across Hudson Strait does not peak at a time coincident with the start of the Younger Dryas and is less than minimum values proposed to influence North Atlantic thermohaline circulation; nevertheless, a significant fraction of freshwater input to the North Atlantic may have been provided abruptly and at a critical time by this event.

  14. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Long Wave Propagation Into the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolkova, E.

    2012-12-01

    The East Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 penetrated worldwide and provided an unprecedented level of observations. In particular, it was clearly recorded at eight US and Canadian tide gauge stations in the Salish Sea, a collective term for the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Puget Sound, Strait of Georgia, and related waters. The Juan de Fuca strait has a shape of a straight channel of a nearly constant (22-23 km) width for most of its length, especially for about its fist 50 km from the ocean. Thus the ocean input is essentially a plane wave propagating in the direction of the channel. There is an NOS tide gauge station in Neah Bay, right at the strait entrance from the ocean. Thus the Salish Sea represents a natural laboratory to test a tsunami model, with a measurable input and multiple observations along 300 km long wave path. Benchmarking/validation of tsunami models is a necessary element of numerical modeling of tsunamis. Laboratory benchmarks allow to test a model against known input and output, but have a disadvantage of being only simplified, greatly down-scaled copies of the real world. Field benchmarks allow to test a model in the real-wold settings, but rarely supply all the necessary data. In particular, the input to the model remains unknown to some extent. In this context, the 2011 East Japan tsunami propagation in the Salish Sea represents a field benchmark with the data quality of a lab one. The tsunami propagation in the Salish Sea, coupled with tide, was simulated with the MOST model. The 2-day-long input into the model was read from the Neah Bay tide gauge. The model results were compared with the observations at the locations. The agreement between the simulations and observations over the entire wave train is better the longer the wavelength, being very good for the tidal component and longer-period tsunami components. Some conclusions were made about patterns of wave penetration into the Salish Sea, for different wavelengths.

  16. Geodetic surveys in Messina straits area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, P.; Achilli, V.; Mulargia, F.; Broccio, F.

    1983-03-01

    By using the fit of theoretical displacements on a fault according to Mindlin and Cheng (1950) dislocation theory, the vertical deformation field (maximum subsidence of 70 cm) associated to the Dec. 28 1908 Messina M=7.0 earthquake is compared to the results of a spirit levelling survey that we performed in the Messina Straits area in 1981 1982. The differences in level from the last levelling campaign in the area, completed in 1970, show that the coastlines have undergone a moderate differential subsidence of about 1 mm/year in the last decade. This is in agreement with the trend observed around 1908 and with the data of the Messina tide-gauge relative to the period 1897 1908 and 1910 1918. The lack of data in the period 1918 1970 does not allow definite conclusions about the vertical tectonic deformations in the area. Recent data on planimetric deformations have shown a South-North relative motion of Sicily. A comparison with the theoretical displacements indicates that a pure dip-slip of 4 cm on the 1908 fault system does explain the observed vertical deformation, but not the horizontal.

  17. Varying sediment sources (Hudson Strait, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Bay) to the NW Labrador Sea slope between and during Heinrich events 0 to 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Barber, D.C.; Jennings, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Maclean, B.; Kirby, M.E.; Stoner, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Core HU97048-007PC was recovered from the continental Labrador Sea slope at a water depth of 945 m, 250 km seaward from the mouth of Cumberland Sound, and 400 km north of Hudson Strait. Cumberland Sound is a structural trough partly floored by Cretaceous mudstones and Paleozoic carbonates. The record extends from ∼10 to 58 ka. On-board logging revealed a complex series of lithofacies, including buff-colored detrital carbonate-rich sediments [Heinrich (H)-events] frequently bracketed by black facies. We investigate the provenance of these facies using quantitative X-ray diffraction on drill-core samples from Paleozoic and Cretaceous bedrock from the SE Baffin Island Shelf, and on the < 2-mm sediment fraction in a transect of five cores from Cumberland Sound to the NW Labrador Sea. A sediment unmixing program was used to discriminate between sediment sources, which included dolomite-rich sediments from Baffin Bay, calcite-rich sediments from Hudson Strait and discrete sources from Cumberland Sound. Results indicated that the bulk of the sediment was derived from Cumberland Sound, but Baffin Bay contributed to sediments coeval with H-0 (Younger Dryas), whereas Hudson Strait was the source during H-events 1–4. Contributions from the Cretaceous outcrops within Cumberland Sound bracket H-events, thus both leading and lagging Hudson Strait-sourced H-events.

  18. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  19. STS-56 Earth observation of the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the Strait of Gibraltar. A small bank of clouds marks the passage between Spain and Morocco at the western edge of the Mediterranean Sea. This passage, one of the two Pilars of Hercules of the Ancient Greeks, is now known as the Strait of Gibraltar. The cities of Cadiz on the Atlantic Coast of Spain and Malaga on the Mediterranean coast, as well as Tangier, Morocco (facing the strait), can be seen. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-56 photos, a subtle difference in the water color on the Atlantic side suggests that a pulse of surface water had recently flowed out of the Mediterranean into the Atlantic.

  20. [The possible causes of the tragedy of "Port Famine" in the Strait of Magellan].

    PubMed

    Espinoza G, Juan Pablo; Espinoza G, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food. After three winters only 17 to 18 people survived according to the testimony of one of the survivors, that was rescued by an English sailor named Cavendish, which renamed the village "Rey Don Felipe" as "Port Famine". When he observed the scenes of abandonment and death, he supposed that the settlers died due to lack of food. Other factors that facilitated the desolation were hypothermia, execution, anthropophagy and lesions caused by natives. There is also a possibility that intoxication by red tide (harmful algal bloom) could explain in part the finding of unburied corpses in the strait beaches. PMID:21279261

  1. 75 FR 68568 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... SECURITY United States Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait AGENCY... the Bering Strait. The goal of the study is to help reduce the risk of marine casualties and increase... did not consider areas north of the Bering Strait. Necessity for a New Port Access Route Study...

  2. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  3. Effect of tidal phase on solute flushing from a strait: SF6 tracer study in the East River, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplow, T.; Schlosser, P.; Ho, D. T.

    2003-12-01

    Flow in the East River, a 25 km tidal strait connecting Long Island Sound with New York Harbor, is driven by a tidal phase lag between the two ends of the strait. The direction and rate of solutes transported in the strait, including natural materials as well as anthropogenic contaminants, has important implications for the environmental management of Long Island Sound and other fragile local ecosystems. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a successful deliberate tracer for rivers, estuaries, and coastal areas. It is non-reactive, inexpensive, and offers an extremely low detection limit. High-resolution transport studies of complex coastal and estuarine areas up to 100 km2, and lasting up to two weeks, have recently been achieved using a boat-mounted SF6 measurement system with a sampling interval of 1 min and a detection limit of 1 x 10-14 mol L-1. In June 2003, two injections of 6.2 mol sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were made 8 days apart in the East River to study residual circulation and rates of solute dissipation at different states of the tide. Both injections were made at the same location, but the first injection occurred at the slack before flood (northward flow), and the second injection occurred at the slack before ebb (southward flow). Tidally synchronized surveys of the SF6 tracer patch were made by boat for 7 days following the flood injection and for 5 days following the ebb injection. For the flood and ebb injections, respectively, mean displacement of the center of tracer mass within the East River, a proxy for residual circulation, was northward at 0.31 +/- 0.35 and 1.5 +/- 1.0 km day-1, mean fractional tracer loss due to tidal flushing was 0.32 +/- 0.06 day-1 and 0.52 +/- 0.10 day-1, and mean residence time was 2.6 +/- 0.4 days and 1.3 +/- 0.6 days. These tracer loss rates include a small correction for air-water gas exchange, which was estimated by a combination of previously established relationships between gas transfer velocity and wind speeds, river

  4. Investigation of saline water intrusions into the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania) and two-layer flow in the Klaipeda Strait using finite element hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlys, Petras; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg; Gulbinskas, Saulius; Bellafiore, Debora

    2013-04-01

    This work is focused on the application of a modelling system to simulate 3-D interaction between the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea coastal waters and to reflect spatio-temporal dynamics of marine waters in the Curonian Lagoon. The model system is based on the finite element program package SHYFEM which can be used to resolve the hydrodynamic equations in lagoons, coastal seas, estuaries and lakes. The results of a one year 3-D model simulation with real weather and hydrological forcing show that the saline water intrusions from the sea through Klaipeda Strait are gradually decreasing with distance from the sea and become negligible (average annual salinity about 0.5 psu) at a distance of about 20 km to the south of Kiaules Nugara island. Analyses of the simulation results also show this area being highly heterogeneous according to the vertical salinity distribution. While in the deeper Klaipeda Strait (harbour waterway) differences in average salinity between near bottom and surface layers varies in the range 2-2.5 psu, in the rest of the Curonian Lagoon it is less than 0.1 psu. Analyses of the simulation results confirmed the presence of a two-directional flow that from time to time changes to either saline water one-directional flow to the Curonian Lagoon or fresh water one-directional flow to the sea. Two-directional flow duration decreases with a distance from sea entrance in Klaipeda Strait from around 180 days year-1 close to the sea entrance to 50 days year-1 just behind Kiaules Nugara island. One-directional outflow duration is increasing with a distance from the sea entrance from 100 to 225 days year-1. One-directional inflow duration occurs in the range 85-100 days year-1. The analysis of the ratio of buoyancy layer thickness and water depth (hb/H), and the Wedderburn number showed three main flow regimes in the strait identifying the main importance of wind action in the along-strait direction. Absence of wind or cross-strait wind regimes allow the

  5. Investigation of saline water intrusions into the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania) and two-layer flow in the Klaipėda Strait using finite element hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlys, P.; Ferrarin, C.; Umgiesser, G.; Gulbinskas, S.; Bellafiore, D.

    2013-02-01

    This work is focused on the application of a modelling system to simulate 3-D interaction between the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea coastal waters and to reflect spatio-temporal dynamics of marine waters in the Curonian Lagoon. The model system is based on the finite element program package SHYFEM which can be used to resolve the hydrodynamic equations in lagoons, coastal seas, estuaries and lakes. The results of a one year 3-D model simulation with real weather and hydrological forcing show that the saline water intrusions from the sea through Klaipėda Strait are gradually decreasing with distance from the sea and become negligible (average annual salinity about 0.5 ‰) at a~distance of about 20 km to the south of Kiaulės Nugara island. Analyses of the simulation results also show this area being highly heterogeneous according to the vertical salinity distribution. While in the deeper Klaipėda Strait (harbour waterway) differences in average salinity between near bottom and surface layers varies in the range 2-2.5 ‰, in the rest of the Curonian Lagoon it is less than 0.1 ‰. Analyses of the simulation results confirmed the presence of a two-directional flow that from time to time changes to either saline water one-directional flow to the Curonian Lagoon or fresh water one-directional flow to the sea. Two-directional flow duration decreases with a distance from sea entrance in Klaipėda Strait from around 180 days yr-1 close to the sea entrance to 50 days yr-1 just behind Kiaulės Nugara island. One-directional outflow duration is increasing with a distance from the sea entrance from 100 to 225 days yr-1. One-directional inflow duration occurs in the range 85-100 days yr-1. The analysis of the ratio of buoyancy layer thickness to water depth (hb/H) and the Wedderburn number showed three main flow regimes in the strait, identifying the main importance of wind action in the along-strait direction. Absence of wind or cross-strait wind regimes allow the

  6. The Most Disadvantaged? Indigenous Education Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    Australian policy towards Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people has historically been one of subjugation and acculturation. It wasn't until 1972 that a policy of self-determination for Aboriginal Australians (later to include Torres Strait Islanders) was introduced. The first year that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders were…

  7. An abandoned rift in the southwestern part of the South Scotia Ridge (Antarctica): Implications for the genesis of the Bransfield Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodolo, Emanuele; Pérez, Lara F.

    2015-12-01

    The western segment of the South Scotia Ridge is a narrow submarine ridge composed of continental crustal blocks, which hosts the left-lateral boundary between the Scotia and Antarctic plates. This plate boundary segment gradually merges westward with the Bransfield Strait, a young (<4 Ma) basin located between the South Shetland Islands and the northern segment of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here we present a series of multichannel seismic profiles that reveal the presence of a linear chain of submarine volcanic edifices running parallel to the present-day Scotia-Antarctic plate boundary. These edifices consist of alkali basalts (~4 Ma), as shown by published data from a dredge haul. The occurrence, distribution, and shape of these magmatic manifestations suggest that they were emplaced in a rift-related environment, associated with the activity of the former western segment of the Scotia-Antarctic plate boundary. When spreading centers of the Phoenix-Antarctic ridge NW of the South Shetland Islands became inactive at about 3.3 Ma, the former western Scotia-Antarctic plate boundary was abandoned, and it moved to the present-day location of the Bransfield Strait, where the motion was accommodated, and where active extension is ongoing. The proposed mechanism for the development of the Bransfield Strait, consistent with the temporal sequence of tectonic events, reconciles discrepancies in tectonic evolutionary models presented till now and does not require the presence of slab-pull and/or slab retreat forces. The Bransfield Strait is not a classic back-arc basin, but rather an actively extending marginal basin at the transition from mature rifting to incipient, punctiform spreading.

  8. Observations of fresh, anticyclonic eddies in the Hudson Strait outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, David A.; Straneo, Fiammetta; Lentz, Steven J.; Saint-Laurent, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The waters that flow out through Hudson Strait, a coastal system that connects Hudson Bay with the Labrador Sea, constitute the third largest freshwater contribution to the northern North Atlantic. Recent studies have documented the mean structure and transport of the outflow, as well as highlighting significant variability on synoptic scales (days-week). This study examines the outflow's variability on these synoptic scales through the use of observations collected by a mooring array from 2005 to 2006. We focus on the mechanisms that cause the freshwater export to be concentrated in a series of discrete pulses during the fall/winter season. We find that the pulses occur once every 4.4 days on average and are associated with anticyclonic, surface-trapped eddies propagated through the strait by the mean outflow. Their occurrence is related to the passage of storms across Hudson Bay, although local instability processes also play a role in their formation. The eddies are responsible for approximately 40% of the mean volume transport and 50% of the mean freshwater transport out of the strait. We discuss the implications of this freshwater release mechanism on the delivery of nutrient-rich and highly stratified waters to the Labrador shelf, a productive region south of Hudson Strait.

  9. Monitoring Fram Strait sea ice outflow and thin ice thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, R.

    2001-01-01

    We propose to: 1) use sequential SAR maps to monitor the profile of sea ice motion through Fram Strait over the period 2003 throught 2005; and 2) explore the potential of using L-band polarimetric data to determine the thickness of thin ice over the same region.

  10. THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA INTERTIDAL AND SUBTIDAL BENTHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the second year results of an intertidal and shallow subtidal benthic sampling program at ten sites along the Washington State coast of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The purpose of this program was to provide a quantitative characterization of the marine, shall...

  11. Influence of oceanographic features on spatial and interannual variability of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; de Souza, Márcio Silva; Tavano, Virginia Maria; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras

    2015-02-01

    Spatial variability and interannual variability of phytoplankton biomass, estimated as chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and taxonomic groups, were analyzed in relation to environmental conditions in the Bransfield Strait (BS). This study is based upon both in situ (2003, 2004, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2010) and satellite (2002-2010) data, during the austral summer. A thermohaline front was predominately observed between the colder and saltier waters under the influence of transitional water with Weddell Sea influence (TWW) in the southeastern BS, and the fresher and warmer waters associated with the presence of transitional water with Bellingshausen Sea influence (TBW) in the northwestern BS. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the dominance of microplanktonic diatoms was associated with higher Chl-a within shallow upper mixed layers, with relatively strong pycnocline in the TBW, particularly close to the South Shetland Islands (SSI). Conversely, the TWW was primarily characterized by lower Chl-a within deeper mixed layers or a well-mixed water column and dominated by nanoplanktonic flagellates (including haptophytes and cryptophytes). Spatial variability based on both in situ and satellite data suggests that the Bransfield Strait acts as a typical Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) and the phytoplankton community there is governed by a combination of processes acting synergistically: the sea ice retreat, allowing for a penetration of light into the water column, and a relatively shallow upper mixed layer with strong pycnocline, primarily in the TBW, retaining organisms near the surface when light conditions are adequate. Interannual variability in Chl-a and species composition indicate an alternation between diatom-dominated and flagellate-dominated assemblages. These shifts are potentially related to the different stages of phytoplankton succession, as a result of varying water column physical features, principally influenced by the dynamic occupation of the TBW

  12. An Examination of Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities, South Shetland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson Maurice, S. D.; Wiens, D. A.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    We examine the crustal and upper mantle structure of Bransfield Strait, the South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula using data from the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA). We use Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion measurements from 20 teleseismic events to determine the interstation phase velocities at periods between 16 and 120 seconds. Maps of the velocities indicate crust with continental properties beneath the South Shetland Islands, the Antarctic Peninsula, and the area southwest of the Hero Fracture Zone. Thinner crust (less than 20 km thick) with backarc spreading mantle velocities lies within the Bransfield Basin proper. The seismic velocities indicate more established spreading in the northeastern portion of Bransfield Strait, and we see no evidence of anisotropy within the mantle.

  13. Revised circulation scheme north of the Denmark Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Våge, Kjetil; Pickart, Robert S.; Spall, Michael A.; Moore, G. W. K.; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Torres, Daniel J.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Nilsen, Jan Even Ø.

    2013-09-01

    The circulation and water mass transports north of the Denmark Strait are investigated using recently collected and historical in situ data along with an idealized numerical model and atmospheric reanalysis fields. Emphasis is placed on the pathways of dense water feeding the Denmark Strait Overflow Water plume as well as the upper-layer circulation of freshwater. It is found that the East Greenland Current (EGC) bifurcates at the northern end of the Blosseville Basin, some 450 km upstream of the Denmark Strait, advecting overflow water and surface freshwater away from the boundary. This “separated EGC” flows southward adjacent to the previously identified North Icelandic Jet, indicating that approximately 70% of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water approaches the sill along the Iceland continental slope. Roughly a quarter of the freshwater transport of the EGC is diverted offshore via the bifurcation. Two hypotheses are examined to explain the existence of the separated EGC. The atmospheric fields demonstrate that flow distortion due to the orography of Greenland imparts significant vorticity into the ocean in this region. The negative wind stress curl, together with the closed bathymetric contours of the Blosseville Basin, is conducive for spinning up an anti-cyclonic gyre whose offshore branch could represent the separated EGC. An idealized numerical simulation suggests instead that the current is primarily eddy-forced. In particular, baroclinic instability of the model EGC spawns large anti-cyclones that migrate offshore and coalesce upon reaching the Iceland continental slope, resulting in the separated EGC. Regardless of the formation mechanism, the recently obtained shipboard data and historical hydrography both indicate that the separated EGC is a permanent feature of the circulation north of the Denmark Strait.

  14. Observed volume fluxes and mixing in the Dardanelles Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosz, Ewa; Teague, William J.; Book, Jeffrey W.; Beşiktepe, Šükrü T.

    2013-10-01

    Pairs of moorings equipped with current profilers were deployed at each end of the Dardanelles Strait and remained in place for over 13 months. Current observations were able to resolve well the exchange flow and volume fluxes. Volume fluxes showed distinct temporal variability in upper and lower layers, especially evident on synoptic time scales. The synoptic flux variability in the upper layer was coherent with the local atmospheric forcing and the bottom pressure anomaly gradient, while the flux variations in the lower layer were related to the bottom pressure anomaly gradient. Estimated volume flux values were often two or more times larger than their respective annual means. Annual upper-layer flux means were 25.66 × 10-3 and 36.68 × 10-3 Sv, whereas the lower-layer averages were 14.02 × 10-3 and 31.67 × 10-3 Sv for the Marmara and Aegean sections, respectively. The fluxes also showed that there was a net low-salinity water outflow to the Aegean Sea, and that they varied weakly on longer time scales (monthly to seasonal). High-salinity water fluxes (≥ 39 psu) were used to calculate strait-averaged vertical eddy diffusivities which ranged between 10-4 and 10-2 m2 s-1. Additionally, microstructure observations were used to evaluate vertical eddy diffusivities. These estimates indicated that mixing in the strait varied spatially and temporarily, and it was dependent on complex strait geometry, exchange flow status, and partially on meteorological conditions. Large values of eddy diffusivities, with a depth-averaged mean of 1.3 × 10-2 m2 s-1, and vigorous mixing were found in the Nara Pass, the narrowest section in the Dardanelles Strait.

  15. Modeling the biogeochemical seasonal cycle in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Romero, E.; Vichi, M.; Castro, M.; Macías, J.; Macías, D.; García, C. M.; Bruno, M.

    2014-11-01

    A physical-biological coupled model was used to estimate the effect of the physical processes at the Strait of Gibraltar over the biogeochemical features of the Atlantic Inflow (AI) towards the Mediterranean Sea. This work was focused on the seasonal variation of the biogeochemical patterns in the AI and the role of the Strait; including primary production and phytoplankton features. As the physical model is 1D (horizontal) and two-layer, different integration methods for the primary production in the Biogeochemical Fluxes Model (BFM) have been evaluated. An approach based on the integration of a production-irradiance function was the chosen method. Using this Plankton Functional Type model (BFM), a simplified phytoplankton seasonal cycle in the AI was simulated. Main results included a principal bloom in spring dominated by nanoflagellates, whereas minimum biomass (mostly picophytoplankton) was simulated during summer. Physical processes occurring in the Strait could trigger primary production and raise phytoplankton biomass (during spring and autumn), mainly due to two combined effects. First, in the Strait a strong interfacial mixing (causing nutrient supply to the upper layer) is produced, and, second, a shoaling of the surface Atlantic layer occurs eastward. Our results show that these phenomena caused an integrated production of 105 g C m- 2 year- 1 in the eastern side of the Strait, and would also modify the proportion of the different phytoplankton groups. Nanoflagellates were favored during spring/autumn while picophytoplankton is more abundant in summer. Finally, AI could represent a relevant source of nutrients and biomass to Alboran Sea, fertilizing the upper layer of this area with 4.95 megatons nitrate year- 1 (79.83 gigamol year- 1) and 0.44 megatons C year- 1. A main advantage of this coupled model is the capability of solving relevant high-resolution processes as the tidal forcing without expensive computing requirements, allowing to assess the

  16. On M2 tidal amplitude enhancement in the Taiwan Strait and its asymmetry in the cross-strait direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang; Wang, Lu; Kuang, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the Taiwan Strait (TS) and asymmetric M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction have been found and reproduced in numerical simulations. In this study, Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) is applied to investigate the mechanisms behind these features. Model results show that the linear interaction of waves from the East China Sea (ECS) and the Luzon Strait (LS) can explain the formation of the co-amplitude and co-phase lines of the M2 tide in the nodal point area, while the waves from the ECS dominate the tidal motion in the TS according to a basic linear wave superposition. Model simulation also show that wave reflection and transition occur when the M2 tidal waves from the ECS propagate through the TS and encounter an sharply deepened topography. The interaction of these induced reflection waves and the incident waves from the ECS is the main cause for the enhanced M2 tidal amplitude in the TS. The distribution of the sharply deepened topography, rather than the Coriolis effect, is the main reason for the asymmetry of the M2 tidal amplitude in the cross-strait direction in the TS. These findings provide some references for tidal dynamics in other areas, especially where long waves propagate through the shallow water to the deep sea.

  17. Influence of a narrow strait connecting a large ocean and a small sea on magnetotelluric data: Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Castillo, Lourdes; Junge, Andreas; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Löwer, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Long period magnetotelluric (LMT) data are generally used as the prime tool to shed light on the conductivity of the deep crust and upper mantle structure. Naturally, LMT data are sensitive to the influence of highly conductive bodies even at far distances. Sea water constitutes the main widespread electrical conductor at shallow levels of the Earth's crust. Its low resistivity values, around 0.25 Ωm, contrast sharply with most geological structures of solid earth. Consequently, the presence of irregular continental borders and varying bathymetries significantly influences LMT parameter, such as phase tensor and tipper vectors. This effect is especially important in areas where large and small oceans are connected by narrow gateways. The Gibraltar Strait (southern Spain) connects the vast Atlantic Ocean with the irregular and relatively small Mediterranean Sea. Several 3D models have been developed in the region nearby the Strait, some featuring a roughly simplified geological structure, to show the influence of seawater on tipper and phase tensor. Here, detailed bathymetry (General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans, GEBCO) including the coastline is considered in a model that enables us to analyze the influence of the Strait of Gibraltar on LMT data. We stress the significance of the Sea for LMT data interpretation and the development of 3D conductivity models, especially in regions involving complex coastline geometries and bathymetry near narrow straits. Forward modeling studies are essential to accurately appraise the sea influence, which may mask 3D geological structures.

  18. Laurentide Ice Sheet lithospheric loading, ice streaming in Hudson Strait, Heinrich events 1 &amp; 11: Potential linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Tarasov, Lev

    2014-05-01

    Several hypothesis have been put forth with respect to the trigger mechanisms of Heinrich (H) events linked to major Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) streaming pulses in Hudson Strait (cf. Channel et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 2012, for their occurrence during the late Pleistocene), the most frequently evoked being a binge/purge quasi-oscillatory behavior of the LIS (e.g., MacAyeal, Paleoceanography, 1993; Clarke et al., Geophys. Monograph., 1999). These hypotheses must consider various factors affecting ice instability in such an environment: bedrock/sea-floor topography and lithology in the Hudson Strait and feeding tributary ice stream areas, relative sea-level changes, ice accumulation rates, thickness and thermal conditions at its base, possibly sub-surface water temperatures below the ice -shelf area, etc. Thus one should consider the possibility that Heinrich events from this source might have been triggered by any or a combination ofrelated ice instability mechanisms. Here, we would like to pay specific attention to the role of relative sea-level changes at the very outlet of the ice-stream, i.e., in the narrow and shallow sill of Resolution, Lawson and Killiniq islands, between Baffin Island and the Labrador peninsula. Its present bathymetry (about 200 m in its shallowest parts) contrasts with that of the adjacent deep Hudson Strait basin, reaching a depth of nearly 800m west of the sill, this gives Hudson Strait a fjord-like bottom-topography, leading to episodes with an anchored LIS ice-shelf at the sill, alternating with intervals of accelerated surging. This process has been well documented as early as 1977 for the West Antarctica Ice Sheet by T. Hughes (Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys.). In Hudson Strait, the H1 and H11 streaming events followed with a few kyr offset the maximum extension of the Wisconsinian and Illinoian LIS, respectively. Relative sea-level (RSL) changes for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)-H1 better documented time-interval (e.g., Gibb et

  19. Operational trials of remote mosquito trap systems for Japanese encephalitis virus surveillance in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Zborowski, Paul; Kerlin, Tim J; Banks, David; Walker, James A; Lee, Jonathan M; Montgomery, Brian L; Smith, Greg A; Pyke, Alyssa T; Smith, Ina L

    2007-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) appears nearly annually in the Torres Strait in far northern Queensland, Australia, and is a threat to invade the Australian mainland. Surveillance has involved the use of sentinel pigs that develop detectable viremias and antibody titers to JEV. However, pigs are amplifying hosts for JEV, and thus pose a health risk to the public and to pig handlers who bleed the pigs. A remote mosquito trap system would not have these risks. We report on trials using a remote mosquito trap system for the surveillance of JEV in the Torres Strait. The Mosquito Magnet (MM) Pro, MM Liberty Plus, and a novel updraft trap, the NAQS Mozzie Trap, were run at Badu and Moa islands in the Torres Strait and at Bamaga in the northern Cape York Peninsula from 2002-2005. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect JEV nucleic acid in weekly mosquito collections. Sentinel pigs located at Badu were also bled and the serum processed by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for JEV antigen and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-JEV antibodies. JEV was detected in mosquito collections each year but not in each trap. No JEV was detected in trapped mosquitoes before detection in sentinel pigs. The mosquito trap system cost ca. AU$10,000 per site, about AU$5,000 less than a pig-based system. However, trap failures caused by mosquito-clogged motors, electrical faults, and blocked gas lines reduced the efficacy of some mosquito traps. Nonetheless, a remote mosquito trap system, employing stand alone traps and PCR for viral antigen detection, can be a safe, economical way to detect arbovirus activity in remote areas. PMID:18021024

  20. New evidence from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago for the resubmergence of Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, John H.; Furze, Mark F. A.

    2008-07-01

    Widespread molluscan samples were collected from raised marine sediments to date the last retreat of the NW Laurentide Ice Sheet from the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. At the head of Mercy Bay, northern Banks Island, deglacial mud at the modern coast contains Hiatella arctica and Portlandia arctica bivalves, as well as Cyrtodaria kurriana, previously unreported for this area. Multiple H. arctica and C. kurriana valves from this site yield a mean age of 11.5 14C ka BP (with 740 yr marine reservoir correction). The occurrence of C. kurriana, a low Arctic taxon, raises questions concerning its origin, because evidence is currently lacking for a molluscan refugium in the Arctic Ocean during the last glacial maximum. Elsewhere, the oldest late glacial age available on C. kurriana comes from the Laptev Sea where it is < 10.3 14C ka BP and attributed to a North Atlantic source. This is 2000 cal yr younger than the Mercy Bay samples reported here, making the Laptev Sea, ~ 3000 km to the west, an unlikely source. An alternate route from the North Atlantic into the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was precluded by coalescent Laurentide, Innuitian and Greenland ice east of Banks Island until ~ 10 14C ka BP. We conclude that the presence of C. kurriana on northern Banks Island records migration from the North Pacific. This requires the resubmergence of Bering Strait by 11.5 14C ka BP, extending previous age determinations on the reconnection of the Pacific and Arctic oceans by up to 1000 yr. This renewed ingress of Pacific water likely played an important role in re-establishing Arctic Ocean surface currents, including the evacuation of thick multi-year sea ice into the North Atlantic prior to the Younger Dryas geochron.

  1. Bio-optical characteristics along the Straits of Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Vivian; Frouin, Robert; Negri, Rubén; Silva, Ricardo; Pompeu, Mayza; Rudorff, Natalia; Cabral, Anderson; Dogliotti, Ana; Martinez, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    The Straits of Magallanes at the tip of South America connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The variability in the absorption characteristics by phytoplankton (aph(440)), non-pigmented particles, NPP (aNPP(440)), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter, CDOM (ay(440)), measured along the Straits in late summer 2011 (R/V Melville MV1102 cruise), was analyzed. Satellite-derived monthly PAR data showed that at the time of the cruise the western sector was exposed to a low-light environment (~ 16 mol quanta m-2d-1) while the eastern sector received higher irradiance (~ 28 mol quanta m-2d-1). In the Patagonian Shelf total absorption was dominated by phytoplankton (up to 76%; aph(440)=0.265 m-1), while in the Atlantic Sector of the Straits, the major contributor was NPP (up to 42%; aNPP(440)=0.138 m-1), and in the Pacific Sector of the Straits CDOM contributed up to 80% of the total absorption (ay(440)=0.232 m-1). These changes could be related in part to the input of fresh water from glacier melting and rain in the Pacific Sector (ay(440) vs salinity rs=-0.98). The carbon biomass (C) was composed in its majority by pico-phytoplankton and secondly by nano-phytoplankton, with exception of the Atlantic Sector where the micro-phytoplankton dominated. Carbon to chlorophyll-a ratios (C:Chla) were very low throughout the Straits (average of ~ 6) because of photoacclimation to the extremely low light. Complementary pigments data obtained in spring 2003 by the BEAGLE expedition indicated the predominance of diatoms all along the Straits, but the bio-optical trend resembled the one found in late summer 2011, i.e., NPP dominated the absorption in the well mixed Atlantic Sector, phytoplankton in the Middle Sector, and CDOM in the Pacific Sector. These results emphasize that underwater light is the major factor affecting phytoplankton growth and physiology, and that prevalent physical and geochemical conditions play an important role regulating the bio-optical properties in

  2. Time-Frequency Variability of Kuroshio Meanders in Tokara Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Yamashiro, T.; Nishina, A.; Ichikawa, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Kuroshio path in the northern Okinawa Trough, Japan, located between the continental slope and Tokara Strait, exhibits meandering motions with largest displacements in the East China Sea; these motions have dominant periods in the broad range of 30-90 days. Understanding the dynamic nature of such meanders is crucial to predicting small and large meanders of the Kuroshio path off the south coast of Japan. Previous numerical simulations suggest that the Kuroshio path meanders in the northern Okinawa Trough become nonstationary in variance because of changes in background states of the Kuroshio in the northern Okinawa Trough, but a detailed analysis based on observed data has yet to be performed. The purpose of the present study is to provide a detailed description of the time-frequency variability of Kuroshio path meanders observed in Tokara Strait. Three Kuroshio indicators were subjected to wavelet analysis for the period 1984-2004: the Kuroshio Position Index (KPI) in Tokara Strait, Kuroshio Volume Transport (KVT) in Tokara Strait, and the basal current velocity of the Kuroshio on the continental slope in the northern Okinawa Trough. The 30-90 day variance of the KPI shows a season-fixed nature, with larger amplitudes in the period December-July. The amplitude of the variance in this phenomenon is also modulated by interannual variations, with small variance recorded during 1989-1992, large variance during 1993-1998, and a return to small variance from 1999-2003. This interannual variation is positively correlated with that of the KVT. The largest variance of the KPI during February-April precedes the largest volume transport in April-May by about 1 month, suggesting that eddy vorticity flux strengthens the mean current field. Previous numerical simulations reproduce the recirculation gyre as a cyclonic eddy in the area between the continental slope and Tokara Strait; this gyre is analogous to the northern recirculation gyre associated with the eastward jet

  3. Transitional care coordination in New York City jails: facilitating linkages to care for people with HIV returning home from Rikers Island.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alison O; Cohen, Louise R; Harriman, Graham; Teixeira, Paul A; Cruzado-Quinones, Jacqueline; Venters, Homer

    2013-10-01

    New York City (NYC) jails are the epicenter of an epidemic that overwhelmingly affects Black and Hispanic men and offer a significant opportunity for public health intervention. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene instituted population based approaches to identify the HIV-infected, initiate discharge planning at jail admission, and facilitate post-release linkages to primary care. Using a caring and supportive 'warm transitions' approach, transitional care services are integral to continuity of care. Since 2010, over three-quarters of known HIV-infected inmates admitted to jails received discharge plans; 74 % of those released were linked to primary care. The EnhanceLink initiative's new Health Liaison, a lynchpin role, facilitated 250 court-led placements in medical alternatives to incarceration. Transitional care coordination programs are critical to facilitate continuity of care for people with chronic health conditions including the HIV-infected returning home from jail and for the public health of the communities to which they return. PMID:23128979

  4. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  5. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait.

    PubMed

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013-2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO4(2-), NO3(-), and NH4(+), while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  6. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-03-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42‑, NO3‑, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait.

  7. Inter-comparison of Seasonal Variation, Chemical Characteristics, and Source Identification of Atmospheric Fine Particles on Both Sides of the Taiwan Strait

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsung-Chang; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Huang, Hu-Ching; Lee, Chon-Lin; Wu, Shui-Ping; Tong, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles in areas around the Taiwan Strait were firstly investigated. Fine particles (PM2.5) were simultaneously collected at two sites on the west-side, one site at an offshore island, and three sites on the east-side of the Taiwan Strait in 2013–2014. Field sampling results indicated that the average PM2.5 concentrations at the west-side sampling sites were generally higher than those at the east-side sampling sites. In terms of chemical composition, the most abundant water-soluble ionic species of PM2.5 were SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+, while natural crustal elements dominated the metallic content of PM2.5, and the most abundant anthropogenic metals of PM2.5 were Pb, Ni and Zn. Moreover, high OC/EC ratios of PM2.5 were commonly observed at the west-side sampling sites, which are located at the downwind of major stationary sources. Results from CMB receptor modeling showed that the major sources of PM2.5 were anthropogenic sources and secondary aerosols at the both sides, and natural sources dominated PM2.5 at the offshore site. A consistent decrease of secondary sulfate and nitrate contribution to PM2.5 suggested the transportation of aged particles from the west-side to the east-side of the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26973085

  8. The use of climatologies and Bayesian models to link observations to outcomes; an example from the Torres Strait.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Scott; Berkelmans, Ray

    2014-05-01

    After widespread coral bleaching in the Torres Strait in 2009-2010 a monitoring program was established under the National Environmental Research Program and run by the Torres Strait Regional Authority to identify ocean conditions that may lead to future bleaching. One component of this program was a real time ocean monitoring station located between Thursday and Horn Islands in the south-western part of the Torres Strait. A key outcome of the project was to make the scientific data and knowledge available to the local communities in a form that they could engage with and with which they could act to instigate outcomes relevant to their needs. The project developed climatologies to give context to the temperature data allowing for historical limits to define the significance of the real time data as related to the longer term mean. This allowed the identification of 'normal', 'significant' and 'extreme' temperature events which could be linked into appropriate responses. Bayesian models were used to encapsulate the current scientific knowledge about the drivers and responses involved in coral bleaching. These models were used to convert the environmental parameters to an output index reflecting the current and future likelihood of coral bleaching occurring. Two web sites were used to integrate the real time data, climatology data and the bleaching indices generated from the Bayesian models. The first was a more technical site developed for the local environmental managers within the Torres Strait Regional Authority, the second was targeted at the general public with a display located within the local radio station and broadcast on a daily basis. Engagement with the project has been high to the point where additional monitoring stations and data display kiosks are to be installed in the near future. The combination of climatologies to give context and conceptual models to embody system knowledge has allowed the project to go from delivering simple measurements to

  9. New direct Overflow Observations at the Denmark Strait Sill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrander, A.; Send, U.; Kaese, R. H.

    2003-04-01

    As a key region of the global thermohaline circulation, the Denmark Strait between Iceland and Greenland is the pathway for the densest component of the North Atlantic Deep Water, the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Since 1999, it has been probed with acoustic instruments in the SFB 460 program lead by the Institut f&{uml;u}r Meereskunde Kiel. The data from bottom Pressure/ Inverted Echo Sounders (PIES) and ADCP current profilers, deployed in a model-optimized mooring array at the Denmark Strait sill, resolve both spatial and temporal variability of the overflow. After recovery of moorings in August 2002, the time series available have a total length of 27 months. The data allow for transport estimates based on direct ADCP measurements and integrating geostrophic PIES observations. Including model comparisons, a mean DSOW transport of 3.0 Sv is calculated with an accuracy of ± 0.1 Sv. A statistical analysis with autoregressive moving average models has improved the information about integral time scales and dominant frequencies of the overflow variability. Until now, estimates of the mean DSOW throughflow have been remarkably stable. The PIES observations show a close correlation between sea surface height anomalies and the DSOW plume thickness. This opens a perspective for long term monitoring by remote sensing with relevance for climate change. First comparisons of in-situ measurements and satellite altimetry are presented.

  10. Temporal and spatial variability of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Martin; Nunes, Nuno; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) represents about half of the export of dense waters formed in the Nordic Seas to the deep circulation in the North Atlantic. The passage connecting the two is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation, and highly variable meso-scale current fluctuations are observed in the overflow. In the summer of 2014, the mooring array used for monitoring the Denmark Strait Overflow was expanded from two to five moorings in order to better resolve its spatial variability. Continuous measurements of the velocity field were made using four acoustic profilers (ADCP) and one point current meter (RCM). The instruments were deployed along the sill between the deepest point and 33 km westward of it, towards the Greenland shelf. A descriptive analysis of the structure of the velocity field at the Denmark Strait sill is presented, along with its spatial and temporal variability. The fluctuations are dominated by passing meso-scale vortices, pulsating changes in the strength of the overflow and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. These changes and their respective contribution to the variability of the flow field are discussed with relation to the different source water masses for the DSO. The relationship between spatial coherence and temporal variability on daily to monthly time scales is explored, and the influence of meso-scale eddies on daily to weekly transport estimates is quantified. The results of the analysis are used to develop a measurement strategy for unbiased DSO transport estimates.

  11. Glacial-interglacial organic carbon record from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia: Implications for regional changes in continental vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visser, K.; Thunell, R.; Goni, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies convincingly show that climate in the Western Pacific Warm Pool and other equatorial/tropical regions was significantly colder (by ???3-4??C) during glacial periods, prompting a reexamination of the late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of these regions. This study examines changes in continental vegetation during the last two deglaciations (Terminations I and II) using a sediment core (MD9821-62) recovered from the Makassar Strait, Indonesia. Evidence based on the lignin phenol ratios suggests that vegetation on Borneo and other surrounding islands did not significantly change from tropical rainforest during the last two glacial periods relative to subsequent interglacial periods. This supports the hypothesis that the winter monsoon increased in strength during glacial periods, allowing Indonesia to maintain high rainfall despite the cooler conditions. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variability of Fram Strait Ice Flux and North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ron

    1999-01-01

    An important term in the mass balance of the Arctic Ocean sea ice is the ice export. We estimated the winter sea ice export through the Fram Strait using ice motion from satellite passive microwave data and ice thickness data from moored upward looking sonars. The average winter area flux over the 18-year record (1978-1996) is 670,000 square km, approximately 7% of the area of the Arctic Ocean. The winter area flux ranges from a minimum of 450,000 sq. km in 1984 to a maximum of 906,000 sq km in 1995. The daily, monthly and interannual variabilities of the ice area flux are high. There is an upward trend in the ice area flux over the 18-year record. The average winter volume flux over the winters of October 1990 through May 1995 is 1745 cubic km ranging from a low of 1375 cubic km in 1990 to a high of 2791 cubic km in 1994. The sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait explains more than 80% of the variance in the ice flux over the 18-year record. We use the coefficients from the regression of the time-series of area flux versus pressure gradient across the Fram Strait and ice thickness data to estimate the summer area and volume flux. The average 12-month area flux and volume flux are 919,000 sq km and 2366 cubic km. We find a significant correlation (R =0.86) between the area flux and positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index over the months of December through March. Correlation between our six years of volume flux estimates and the NAO index gives R =0.56. During the high NAO years, a more intense Icelandic low increases the gradient in the sea-level pressure by almost 1 mbar across the Fram Strait thus increasing the atmospheric forcing on ice transport. Correlation is reduced during the negative NAO years because of decreased dominance of this large-scale atmospheric pattern on the sea-level pressure gradient across the Fram Strait. Additional information is contained in the original.

  13. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  14. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  15. Middle pleistocene mollusks from St. Lawrence Island and their significance for the paleo-oceanography of the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, D.M.; Rowland, R.W.; Patton, W.W., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Drift, evidently of Illinoian age, was deposited on St. Lawrence Island at the margin of an ice cap that covered the highlands of the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia and spread far eastward on the continental shelf of northern Bering Sea. Underlying the drift on the northwestward part of the island are mollusk-bearing beds deposited during the Kotzebuan Transgression. A comparison of mollusk faunas from St. Lawrence Island, Chukotka Peninsula, and Kotzebue Sound suggests that the present northward flow through Bering and Anadyr Straits was reversed during the Kotzebuan Transgression. Cold arctic water penetrated southward and southwestward bringing an arctic fauna to the Gulf of Anadyr. Warmer Pacific water probably entered eastern Bering Sea, passed eastward and northeastward around eastern and northern St. Lawrence Island, and then became entrained in the southward currents that passed through Anadyr Strait. ?? 1972.

  16. Everywhere and Nowhere: Invisibility of Aboriginal and Torres Strain Islander Contact Languages in Education and Indigenous Language Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellwood, Juanita; Angelo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    The language ecologies of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Queensland are characterised by widespread language shift to contact language varieties, yet they remain largely invisible in discourses involving Indigenous languages and education. This invisibility--its various causes and its many implications--are explored through a…

  17. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. MIZEX East 1987: Winter Marginal Ice Zone Program in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIZEX'87 Group

    The overall objective o f MIZEX is to gain a better understanding of the mesoscale physical and biological processes by which atmosphere, ice, and ocean interact in the marginal ice zones (MIZ) that are found at the boundaries between ice-covered and open oceans. Improved modeling and better prediction of ice-edge position, ice concentration, and ice type in these regions would be a major step toward expanding human activities, for example, seaborne commerce, fishing, oil exploration and production, and naval operations. In addition, when more accurate parameterizations of mesoscale physical processes are available for inclusion in large-scale models, the result will be a major improvement in hemispherical climatological studies.Winter MIZEX '87 was conducted during March and April 1987 in the Fram Strait and Greenland Sea (see cover) and extended along the MIZ from about 75°N-79°N and 5°W-5°E. The experiment included an intensive 2-day investigation of the Barents Sea MIZ carried out between the southern tip of Svalbard and Bear Island. Two Norwegian ships, R/V Håakon Mosby and the ice-strengthened R/V Polar Circle, and the R/V Valdivia of the Federal Republic of Germany participated in the experiment. Flight operations were carried out by two Canadian aircraft equipped with Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR), a U.S. plane equipped with passive microwave sensors, a Norwegian P3 aircraft, and a helicopter based on the Polar Circle.

  19. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  20. Structure and paleoearthquake records of active submarine faults, Cook Strait, New Zealand: Implications for fault interactions, stress loading, and seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondard, Nicolas; Barnes, Philip M.

    2010-12-01

    A new interpretation of active faulting in central Cook Strait, New Zealand, reveals tectonic structures associated with the spatial transition from subduction to continental transform faulting. Marine seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetric data indicate that there are no throughgoing crustal faults connecting the North Island Dextral Fault Belt and the Marlborough Fault System in South Island. The major faults terminate offshore, associated with 5-20 km wide step-overs and a change in regional fault strike. This structure implies that propagation of strike-slip earthquake ruptures across the strait is not probable. Faulted sedimentary sequences in the Wairau Basin (Marlborough shelf), correlated to glacioeustatic sea level cycles, provide a stratigraphic framework for fault analysis. A high-resolution study of the postglacial (<20 ka) vertical displacement history of the Cloudy and Vernon faults reveals up to six and five paleoearthquakes since 18 ka, respectively. These long-timescale records indicate variable recurrence intervals and possibly variable stress drop, thus conforming to the variable slip model of earthquake behavior. Integration of these data with other submarine and terrestrial paleoearthquake records indicates the presence of clustered earthquake sequences involving multiple faults. Different sequences do not always involve the same faults. It appears that earthquake clustering is driven by fault interactions that lead to specific loading conditions favoring the triggering of earthquakes on major faults in relatively short time intervals. Present-day regional Coulomb stress distribution has been calculated in two scenarios considered to represent minimum and maximum loading conditions. The models, incorporating secular tectonic loading and stress changes associated with major crustal earthquakes, indicate high stress loading in a large part of central Cook Strait. These conditions may favor the triggering of future damaging

  1. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors associated with low HDL-C. Methods PubMed, Medline and Informit ATSI Health databases were systematically searched between 1950 and 2012 for studies on Indigenous Australians reporting mean HDL-C levels in both sexes. Retrieved studies were evaluated by standard criteria. Low HDL-C was defined as: <1.0 mmol/L. Analyses of primary data associating measures of HDL-C with other CVD risk factors were also performed. Results Fifteen of 93 retrieved studies were identified for inclusion. These provided 58 mean HDL-C levels; 29 for each sex, most obtained in rural/regional (20%) or remote settings (60%) and including 51–1641 participants. For Australian Aborigines, mean HDL-C values ranged between 0.81-1.50 mmol/L in females and 0.76-1.60 mmol/L in males. Two of 15 studies reported HDL-C levels for Torres Strait Islander populations, mean HDL-C: 1.00 or 1.11 mmol/L for females and 1.01 or 1.13 mmol/L for males. Low HDL-C was observed only in rural/regional and remote settings - not in national or urban studies (n = 3) in either gender. Diabetes prevalence, mean/median waist-to-hip ratio and circulating C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with HDL-C levels (all P < 0.05). Thirty-four per cent of studies reported lower mean HDL-C levels in females than in males. Conclusions Very low mean HDL-C levels are common in Australian Indigenous populations living in rural and remote communities. Inverse associations between HDL-C and central obesity, diabetes

  2. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  3. Estuarine versus transient flow regimes in Juan de Fuca Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Richard E.; MiháLy, Steven F.; Kulikov, Evgueni A.

    2007-09-01

    Residual currents in Juan de Fuca Strait are observed to switch between two fundamental states: estuarine and transient. The estuarine regime, which prevails roughly 90% of the time in summer and 55% of the time in winter, has a fortnightly modulated, three-layer structure characterized by strong (˜50 cm s-1) outflow above 60 ± 15 m depth, moderate (˜25 cm s-1) inflow between 60 and 125 m depth, and weak (˜10 cm s-1) inflow below 125 ± 10 m depth. Rotation increases the upper layer depth by 40 m on the northern side of the channel and upwelling-favorable coastal winds augment inflow in the bottom layer by as much as 5 cm s-1. Rotation, combined with modulation of the estuarine currents by tidal mixing in the eastern strait, leads to fortnightly variability in the along-channel velocity and cross-channel positioning of the core flow regions. Transient flows, which occur roughly 10% of the time in summer and 45% of the time in winter, are rapidly evolving, horizontally and vertically sheared "reversals" in the estuarine circulation generated during poleward wind events along the outer coast. Major events can persist for several weeks, force a net inward transport, and give rise to an O(10) km wide, surface-intensified, O(100) cm s-1 inflow along the southern (Olympic Peninsula) boundary of the strait. This "Olympic Peninsula Countercurrent" is typically accompanied by an abrupt decrease in salinity, indicating that it is a buoyancy flow originating with low-density water on the northern Washington shelf.

  4. 33 CFR 110.229 - Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. 110.229 Section 110.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.229 Straits of Juan de Fuca, Wash. (a)...

  5. 75 FR 53870 - Security Zone, Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Security Zone, Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan AGENCY... Mackinac Bridge Walk security zone on the Straits of Mackinac from 6 a.m. through 11:59 p.m. on September 6... intentional allision between a vessel and the bridge. During the enforcement period, navigational...

  6. 77 FR 55452 - Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Forest Service Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee (LC-IS RAC) will meet... health and water quality on National Forest System lands. DATES: The meeting will be held September...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  11. The oceanic response of the Turkish Straits System to an extreme drop in atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Jeffrey W.; Jarosz, Ewa; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Beşiktepe, Åükrü

    2014-06-01

    Moorings across all four entry/exit sections of the Dardanelles Strait and the Bosphorus Strait simultaneously measured the response of the Turkish Straits System to the passage of a severe cyclonic storm that included an atmospheric pressure drop of more than 30 mbar in less than 48 h. The bottom pressure response at the Aegean Sea side of the Dardanelles Strait was consistent with an inverted barometer response, but the response at the other sections did not follow an inverted barometer, leading to a large bottom pressure gradient through the Turkish Straits System. Upper-layer flow toward the Aegean Sea was reversed by the storm and flow toward the Black Sea was greatly enhanced. Bottom pressure across the Sea of Marmara peaked 6 h after the passage of the storm's minimum pressure. The response on the Dardanelles side was a combination of sea elevation and pycnocline depth rise, and the response on the Bosphorus side was an even greater sea elevation rise and a drop in pycnocline depth. The peak in bottom pressure in the Sea of Marmara was followed by another reverse in the flow through the Dardanelles Strait as flow was then directed away from the Sea of Marmara in both straits. A simple conceptual model without wind is able to explain fluctuations in bottom pressure in the Sea of Marmara to a 0.89-0.96 level of correlation. This stresses the importance of atmospheric pressure dynamics in driving the mass flux of the Turkish Strait System for extreme storms.

  12. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In...

  14. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In...

  15. 33 CFR 167.1331 - In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1331 In Haro Strait and Boundary Pass. In...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area...

  1. Hydroclimatic variations in the Makassar Strait over the past 5000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, C.; Mohtadi, M.; Holbourn, A. E.; Kuhnt, W.; Hebbeln, D.; Mulitza, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only low-latitude connection between two oceans and an important part of the global conveyor belt influencing global climate. About 80% of the ITF flows through the Makassar Strait between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi and can be modified by the complex climate system over the Maritime continent characterized by interacting climate phenomena like e.g. El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Australasian monsoon system. To assess changes in the hydroclimate of the Makassar Strait in relation to dominant climatic forcing over the past 5,000 years, sediment core SO 217-18517 (1°32.198' S 117°33.756' E, 698 m water depth) collected off the Mahakam Delta, eastern Borneo, was studied. We use shell Mg/Ca ratio in planktic foraminifera to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), sedimentation rates and Ti/Ca ratios to reconstruct changes in terrigenous runoff, and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) as a measure of past changes in sea surface salinity. Zr/Rb ratios are interpreted to indicate changes in grain size distribution. SST shows small-scale variations around 28.5°C during the mid Holocene, a decreasing trend between 3,000 and 1,700 years BP, and thereafter minor variations around 27.5°C. Sedimentation rates were higher between 3,400 and 1,000 years BP. Runoff increased during the past 5,000 years while our data indicate no change in sea surface salinity from mid to late Holocene. Grain size decreased until 1,700 years BP, and remained stable thereafter towards the present. The partly inconsistent timing and pattern of our data indicate the different degree to which our proxies are influenced by different forcings. We will explore the complex connection between local insolation and climate phenomena such as ENSO, dynamic and thermodynamic changes in ITCZ and monsoonal rainfall, their possible relation to high-latitude forcing including an (inter)hemispheric insolation gradient.

  2. Large yearly production of phytoplankton in the Western bering strait.

    PubMed

    Sambrotto, R N; Goering, J J; McRoy, C P

    1984-09-14

    Production in the western Bering Strait is estimated at 324 grams of carbon per square meter per year over 2.12x 10(4) square kilometers. An ice-reduced growing season makes this large amount of primary production unexpected, but it is consistent with the area's large upper trophic level stocks. The productivity is fueled by a cross-shelf flow of nutrient-rich water from the Bering Sea continental slope. This phytoplankton production system from June through September is analogous to a laboratory continuous culture. PMID:17782420

  3. Atlantic to Mediterranean Sea Level Difference Driven by Winds near Gibraltar Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris; Fukumori, Ichiro; Lee, Tong

    2006-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations show that winds near Gibraltar Strait cause an Atlantic Ocean to Mediterranean Sea sea level difference of 20 cm peak to peak with a 3-cm standard deviation for periods of days to years. Theoretical arguments and numerical experiments establish that this wind-driven sea level difference is caused in part by storm surges due to alongshore winds near the North African coastline on the Atlantic side of Gibraltar. The fraction of the Moroccan coastal current offshore of the 284-m isobath is deflected across Gibraltar Strait, west of Camarinal Sill, resulting in a geostrophic surface pressure gradient that contributes to a sea level difference at the stationary limit. The sea level difference is also caused in part by the along-strait wind setup, with a contribution proportional to the along-strait wind stress and to the length of Gibraltar Strait and adjoining regions and inversely proportional to its depth.

  4. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  5. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  6. Distribution of oil and grease and petroleum hydrocarbons in the Straits of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Bakar, R.A.; Woon, W.C.

    1996-07-01

    The Straits of Johor is a narrow stretch of water separating Peninsular Malaysia from Singapore. The two land masses bordering the Straits of Johor are characterized by a wide range of landscapes and activities. On the Malaysian side, which constitutes the state of Johor, lies the state capital as well as a rapidly developing international seaport, in the vicinity of a major industrial area. The eastern portion of the state bordering the straits is relatively undeveloped, comprising of wetland forests. On the Singapore side, apart from a power-generating facility, much of northern Singapore which borders the straits is undeveloped. The Straits of Johor and nearby-waters also represent an important area for fishing and aquaculture activities. Fish traps are a common sight along the length of the straits. Oil pollution has been identified as the major contribution to the deterioration of the marine water quality in the Straits of Johor. Shipping activities involving tankers and other vessels plying the Straits of Malacca, have been recognized as a source of petroleum hydrocarbons in these waters. Land-based industrial and urban sources also contribute to the overall oil pollution load in these waters. In recognizing the need for baseline data in assessing environmental pollution, the Department of Environment has been conducting pollution monitoring programs since 1976, at numerous sampling stations situated in the major river systems of the nation, as well as coastal areas,. including the Straits of Johor. However, as far as oil pollution is concerned, these programs have been restricted to measuring oil and grease. The present study was undertaken to determine petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as oil and grease in water and sediments along the near- coastal areas of the Straits of Johor and near-by waters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions. PMID:15202289

  8. Strong Phylogeographic Structure in a Sedentary Seabird, the Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus)

    PubMed Central

    Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Till, Charlotte E.; Scofield, R. Paul; Tennyson, Alan J. D.; Collins, Catherine J.; Lalas, Chris; Loh, Graeme; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Waters, Jonathan M.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Kennedy, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    New Zealand's endemic Stewart Island Shag (Leucocarbo chalconotus) comprises two regional groups (Otago and Foveaux Strait) that show consistent differentiation in relative frequencies of pied versus dark-bronze morphotypes, the extent of facial carunculation, body size and breeding time. We used modern and ancient DNA (mitochondrial DNA control region one), and morphometric approaches to investigate the phylogeography and taxonomy of L. chalconotus and its closely related sister species, the endemic Chatham Island Shag (L. onslowi). Our analysis shows Leucocarbo shags in southern New Zealand comprise two well-supported clades, each containing both pied and dark-bronze morphs. However, the combined monophyly of these populations is not supported, with the L. chalconotus Otago lineage sister to L. onslowi. Morphometric analysis indicates that Leucocarbo shags from Otago are larger on average than those from Foveaux Strait. Principal co-ordinate analysis of morphometric data showed substantial morphological differentiation between the Otago and Foveaux Strait clades, and L. onslowi. The phylogeographic partitioning detected within L. chalconotus is marked, and such strong structure is rare for phalacrocoracid species. Our phylogenetic results, together with consistent differences in relative proportions of plumage morphs and facial carunculation, and concordant differentiation in body size and breeding time, suggest several alternative evolutionary hypotheses that require further investigation to determine the level of taxonomic distinctiveness that best represents the L. chalconotus Otago and Foveaux Strait clades. PMID:24614677

  9. We, the Asian and Pacific Islander Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dwight L.; And Others

    Demographic data are presented about the people who have immigrated to the United States from Asia and the Pacific Islands. Twelve figures (pie charts, bar graphs, and maps), and eight tables provide detailed, statistical information on such things as (1) distribution of Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States, (2) states with the…

  10. Educational Challenge to the Island States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemala, Francis J.

    1973-01-01

    Argues that educational developments in the South Pacific island communities have been such that education itself has become a war against the people's cultural enrichment, and proposes a possible strategy as an initial step towards reorienting them; the discussion focuses specifically on the Solomon Islands scene. (Author/JM)

  11. Anomalous dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielski, A.; Badin, G.; Kaleschke, L.

    2015-03-01

    The single-particle dispersion of sea ice in the Fram Strait region is investigated using ice drift buoys deployed from 2002 to 2009 within the Fram Strait Cyclones and the Arctic Climate System Study campaigns. A new method to estimate the direction of the mean flow, based on a satellite drift product, is introduced. As a result, the bias in the dispersion introduced by the mean flow is eliminated considering only the displacements of the buoys in the cross-stream direction. Results show an absolute dispersion growing quadratically in time for the first 3 days and an anomalous dispersion regime exhibiting a strongly self-similar scaling following a 5/4 power law for time scales larger than 6 days persisting over the whole time series of length 32 days. The non-Gaussian distribution of the velocity fluctuations with a skewness of -0.15 and a kurtosis of 7.33 as well as the slope of the Lagrangian frequency spectrum between -2 and -1 are in agreement with the anomalous diffusion regime. Comparison with data from the International Arctic Buoy Program yields similar results with an anomalous dispersion starting after 10 days and persisting over the whole time series of length 50 days. The results suggest the presence of deformation and shear acting on the sea ice dispersion. The high correlation between the cross-stream displacements and the cross-stream wind velocities shows the important role of the wind as a source for the anomalous dispersion.

  12. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A. ); Hill, K.C. ); Smith, M.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received [approximately]10[sup 6] km[sup 3] of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana's Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960's, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana's Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable [approximately]300[prime] gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  13. Synoptic Drivers of Bering Strait Wave States, Fall 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Bering Strait region of western Alaska, as the single point of entry to the Arctic from the Pacific, represents an important focal point of activity that ranges from heavy transport operations, such bulk ore carriers as to Teck Alaska Red Dog mine, to Arctic tourism activities, and subsistence fishing and hunting carried out by local residents. Much of that activity is set to increase in the coming years as sea ice continues to recede, allowing greater access to transport and resources in the Arctic Ocean and its marginal seas. The presence of annual sea ice cover has greatly limited the deployment of marine monitoring systems, especially wave measurement buoys. This is problematic because it limits the direct linkage of wave states to their specific synoptic drivers. To begin to address this shortcoming a buoy was deployed just south of the Bering Strait in late July with anticipated pickup in mid October, 2011. Wave events recorded by buoy, which was sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and NOAA, will be examined in terms of the specific synoptic systems responsible. The broader context of how typical these storm systems are will also be overviewed.

  14. Late glacial-Holocene paleocceanography of Hinlopen Strait, northern Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc, N.; Kristensen, D. K.; Slubowska, M.; Rasmussen, T.

    2003-04-01

    Timing and structure of the late and post glacial development of the northern Svalbard margin, together with the initial influx of the Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean are still very poorly constrained. We investigated a sediment core (NP94-51) from a high accumulation area on the continental shelf north of Hinlopen Strait with the purpose of resolving the timing and structure of the last deglaciation. Detailed analyses of ice rafted detritus, benthic and planktic foraminiferal fauna, diatom flora, grain size and radiocarbon dates are used to reconstruct the paleoceanographic evolution of the area. Our results indicate that the disintegration of Hinlopen Strait ice and possibly the northern margin of the Svalbard ice sheet commenced between 13.7 - 13.9 14C Ky BP. Influx of subsurface Atlantic waters into the area (12.6 14C Ky BP) and the retreat of the sea-ice cover with the accompanying opening of the surface waters (10.8 14C Ky BP) happened at different times and both much later than the disintegration of the ice sheets. The transition into the Holocene shows a two-step warming.

  15. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  16. A Navigation Safety Support Model for the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, M. Anil; Otay, Emre N.

    In this study, a real time maritime traffic support model is developed for safe navigation in the Strait of Istanbul, also known as the Bosporus. The present model simulates vessel trajectories corresponding to possible headings, using channel geometry, counter traffic, and surface currents as input. A new MATLAB code is developed for the simulation and the Marine GNC Toolbox (Fossen and Perez, 2004) is used for the vessel hydrodynamics and the auto-pilot model. After computing the trajectory tree of the vessel by forward-mapping its position distribution with respect to the initial position vector, the casualty probabilities of each trajectory are found. Within certain restrictions on vessel geometry, the proposed model predicts the safest possible intended course for the transit vessels based on the navigational parameters including position, speed, and course of the vessel. The model is tested for the Strait of Istanbul for validation. Without loss of generality, the model can be used for any narrow channel with a vessel traffic system providing the necessary input.

  17. Sound-Field Amplification: Enhancing the Classroom Listening Environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Robyn; Theodoros, Deborah; McPherson, Bradley; Smaldino, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Sound-field amplification is an educational tool that allows control of the acoustic environment in a classroom. Teachers wear small microphones that transmit sound to a receiver system attached to loudspeakers around the classroom. The goal of sound-field amplification is to amplify the teacher's voice by a few decibels, and to provide uniform…

  18. Investigation of saline water intrusions into the Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania) and two-layer flow in the Klaipėda Strait using finite element hydrodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemlys, P.; Ferrarin, C.; Umgiesser, G.; Gulbinskas, S.; Bellafiore, D.

    2013-06-01

    This work is focused on the application of a modelling system to simulate 3-D interaction between the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea coastal waters and to reflect spatiotemporal dynamics of marine waters in the Curonian Lagoon. The model system is based on the finite element programme package SHYFEM which can be used to resolve the hydrodynamic equations in lagoons, coastal seas, estuaries and lakes. The results of a one year (2009) 3-D model simulation with real weather and hydrological forcing show that the saline water intrusions from the sea through Klaipėda Strait are gradually decreasing with distance from the sea and become negligible (average annual salinity about 0.57‰) at a distance of about 20 km to the south of Kiaulės Nugara island. Analyses of the simulation results also show this area to be highly heterogeneous according to the vertical salinity distribution. While in the deeper Klaipėda Strait (harbour waterway) differences in average salinity between near bottom and surface layers varies in the range 2-2.5‰, in the rest of the Curonian Lagoon it is less than 0.5‰. The exchange flow showed vertical structure, but was horizontally uniform with the presence of a two-directional flow that from time to time changes to either saline water one-directional flow to the Curonian Lagoon or fresh water one-directional flow to the sea. Two-directional flow duration decreases with a distance from sea entrance in Klaipėda Strait from around 180 days yr-1 close to the sea entrance to 50 days yr-1 just behind Kiaulės Nugara island. One-directional outflow duration is increasing with a distance from the sea entrance from 100 to 225 days yr-1. One-directional inflow duration occurs in the range of 70-100 days yr-1. The analysis of the ratio of buoyancy layer thickness to water depth (hb/H) and the Wedderburn number identified the main importance of wind action on the flow structure. Strong winds from the North and NW determine a barotropic inflow which

  19. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  20. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, Sergey V.; Andreev, Andrey G.; Uleysky, Michael Yu.; Budyansky, Maxim V.

    2014-06-01

    Using Lagrangian methods, we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait correlate significantly with the Near Strait inflow and Bering Strait outflow. Enhanced westward surface flow of the Alaskan Stream across the 174°E section in the northern North Pacific is accompanied by an increased inflow into the Bering Sea through the Near Strait. In summer, the surface flow pattern in the Kamchatka Strait is determined by the passage of anticyclonic and cyclonic mesoscale eddies. The wind stress over the Bering basin in winter-spring is responsible for eddy generation in the region.

  1. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  2. A sediment and organic carbon budget for the greater Strait of Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, S. C.; Macdonald, R. W.; Paton, D. W.

    2003-03-01

    Recent efforts to construct global ocean budgets for carbon have recognized the importance of continental margins. In this study, we constructed budgets for the Strait of Georgia, a temperate, North American west coast basin that receives the inflow of one of the world's major rivers. Drawing from published and unpublished data, we have estimated the magnitude of the various sources and sinks of fresh water, sediment and organic carbon. The Fraser River is the dominant source of fresh water and particles to the strait, contributing approximately 73% of the 158×10 9 m 3 year -1 of water and 64% of the 30×10 9 kg year -1 of particles. Other rivers supply most of the remainder, while rain, groundwater and anthropogenic sources of water and particles are negligible in comparison. Fresh water escapes the Strait of Georgia through Juan de Fuca Strait, but particulate inputs are approximately balanced by sedimentation within the greater Strait of Georgia, implying almost complete trapping of particles. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon are derived mainly from in situ primary production (855×10 6 kg year -1) and from the Fraser River (550×10 6 kg year -1). Other rivers contribute 200×10 6 kg year -1 of organic carbon, and anthropogenic sources (ocean dumping, sewage, pulp mills and aquaculture) a further 119×10 6 kg year -1. Particulate organic carbon is predominantly buried (428×10 6 kg year -1) or oxidized (90×10 6 kg year -1) in the sediments of the strait. About 70% of the organic carbon that enters or is produced in the strait is dissolved. Most of the dissolved organic carbon is oxidized within the strait (784×10 6 kg year -1), but the remainder (400×10 6 kg year -1) is exported to the Pacific Ocean. Although the particulate organic carbon budget by itself implies net autotrophy, dissolved organic carbon oxidation may make the Strait of Georgia slightly net heterotrophic.

  3. Earthquake supersite project in the Messina Straits area (EQUAMES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattia, Mario; Chiarabba, Claudio; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Faccenna, Claudio; Lanari, Riccardo; Matteuzzi, Francesco; Neri, Giancarlo; Patanè, Domenico; Polonia, Alina; Prati, Claudio; Tinti, Stefano; Zerbini, Susanna

    2015-04-01

    A new permanent supersite is going to be proposed to the GEO GSNL (Geohazard Supersites and National Laboratories) for the Messina Straits area (Italy). The justification for this new supersite can be found in its geological and geophysical features and in the exposure to strong earthquakes, also in the recent past (1908). The Messina Supersite infrastructure (EQUAMES: EarthQUAkes in the MEssina Straits) will host, and contribute to the collection of, large amounts of data, basic for the analysis of seismic hazard/risk in this high seismic risk area, including risk from earthquake-related processes such as submarine mass failures and tsunamis. In EQUAMES, data of different types will coexist with models and methods useful for their analysis/interpretation and with first-level products of analysis that can be of interest for different kinds of users. EQUAMES will help all the interested scientific and non-scientific subjects to find and use data and to increase inter-institutional cooperation by addressing the following main topics in the Messina Straits area: • investigation of the geological and physical processes leading to the earthquake preparation and generation; • analysis of seismic shaking at ground (expected and observed); • combination of seismic hazard with vulnerability and exposure data for risk estimates; • analysis of tsunami generation, propagation and coastal inundation deriving from earthquake occurrence also through landslides due to instability conditions of subaerial and submarine slopes; • overall risk associated to earthquake activity in the Supersite area including the different types of cascade effects Many Italian and international Institutions have shown an effective interest in this project where a large variety of geophysical and geological in-situ data will be collected and where the INGV has the leading role with its large infrastructure of seismic, GPS and geochemical permanent stations. The groups supporting EQUAMES

  4. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  5. In Brief: Tsunami hits the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A magnitude 8.1 earthquake shook the Solomon Islands on 1 April at approximately 7:40 A.M. local time. The earthquake generated a tsunami several meters high that struck many of the islands. The earthquake occurred along the boundary of the Pacific plate where the Australia, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea plates subduct beneath it, according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Program. At least 34 people were killed by the tsunami and several dozen more are still missing, according to the National Disaster Council in the Solomon Islands. The NDC estimates that 900-2500 homes were destroyed by the tsunami, displacing about 5500 people.

  6. The Holocene Isolation of Dalma Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Dalma Island can be broadly defined as an emergent salt diapir formed through the halokinetic emplacement of the Precambrian-Cambrian Hormuz Complex. The outline of the island, as seen today, has been much modified by anthropogenic dredge-and-fill activities. The lithofacies of Dalma Island can be subdivided into three distinct geological and geographical provinces. The core of the island is dominated by the sedimentary, evaporitic and volcanic lithologies of the Hormuz Complex. These chaotically distributed units are unconformably overlain by sediments and evaporites of the Miocene Fars Formation. The island's coastline is dominated by Recent bioclastic sediments, primarily derived from reefs at the island's northern coast. Following exposure of the Arabian Gulf floor during the Last Glacial Maximum, marine waters entered the Strait of Hormuz in the latest Pleistocene and the Gulf once again became a shallow epicontinental seaway. Bathymetric surveys reveal that the sea floor surrounding Dalma Island and separating it from the mainland lies at a depth shallower than 40 m. The Holocene transgression would not have had any effect on this area until after 10.2 Ka. After this time, rising ground water levels, associated with the advancing shoreline, may have resulted in the localised formation of shallow lakes or marshes in depressions. As sea level continued to rise, these lakes coalesced and the Dalma Salt Dome became increasingly isolated from the mainland. Once the transgression had reached the -15 m contour, by 8.5 Ka, Dalma would have been completely isolated from the mainland. By 6 ka sea level had reached present levels with continued rise eventually peaking between 1-2 m higher than today. At this time the area of the island would have been much reduced with wide areas of the island's low-lying coastal plain being either submerged or lying in the intertidal environment. The above figures for the isolation of Dalma make two assumptions. Firstly, it is

  7. Stochastic seismic analysis in the Messina strait area

    SciTech Connect

    Cacciola, P.; Maugeri, N.; Muscolino, G.

    2008-07-08

    After 1908 Messina earthquake significant progresses have been carried out in the field of earthquake engineering. Usually seismic action is represented via the so called elastic response spectrum or alternatively by time histories of ground motion acceleration. Due the random nature of the seismic action, alternative representations assume the seismic action as zero-mean Gaussian process fully defined by the so-called Power Spectral Density function. Aim of this paper is the comparative study of the response of linear behaving structures adopting the above representation of the seismic action using recorded earthquakes in the Messina strait area. In this regard, a handy method for determining the power spectral density function of recorded earthquakes is proposed. Numerical examples conducted on the existing space truss located in Torre Faro (Messina) will show the effectiveness of stochastic approach for coping with the seismic analysis of structures.

  8. Eddy-driven recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, Tore; Isachsen, Pâl. Erik; Appen, Wilken-Jon; Albretsen, Jon; Sundfjord, Arild

    2016-04-01

    Eddy-resolving regional ocean model results in conjunction with synthetic float trajectories and observations provide new insights into the recirculation of the Atlantic Water (AW) in Fram Strait that significantly impacts the redistribution of oceanic heat between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. The simulations confirm the existence of a cyclonic gyre around the Molloy Hole near 80°N, suggesting that most of the AW within the West Spitsbergen Current recirculates there, while colder AW recirculates in a westward mean flow south of 79°N that primarily relates to the eastern rim of the Greenland Sea Gyre. The fraction of waters recirculating in the northern branch roughly doubles during winter, coinciding with a seasonal increase of eddy activity along the Yermak Plateau slope that also facilitates subduction of AW beneath the ice edge in this area.

  9. Strait of Gibraltar, Perspective with Landsat Image Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Europe (Spain) is on the left. Africa (Morocco) is on the right. The Rock of Gibraltar, administered by Great Britain, is the peninsula in the back left.

    The Strait of Gibraltar is the only natural gap in the topographic barriers that separate the Mediterranean Sea from the world's oceans. The Sea is about 3700 kilometers (2300 miles) long and covers about 2.5 million square kilometers (one million square miles), while the Strait is only about 13 kilometers (8 miles) wide. Sediment samples from the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea that include evaporite minerals, soils, and fossil plants show that about five million years ago the Strait was topographically blocked and the Sea had evaporated into a deep basin far lower in elevation than the oceans. Consequent changes in the world's hydrologic cycle, including effects upon ocean salinity, likely led to more ice formation in polar regions and more reflection of sunlight back to space, resulting in a cooler global climate at that time. Today, topography plays a key role in our regional climate patterns. But through Earth history, topographic change, even perhaps over areas as small as 13 kilometers across, has also affected the global climate.

    This image was generated from a Landsat satellite image draped over an elevation model produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The view is eastward with a 3-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. Natural colors of the scene (green vegetation, blue water, brown soil, white beaches) are enhanced by image processing, inclusion of some infrared reflectance (as green) to highlight the vegetation pattern, and inclusion of shading of the elevation model to further highlight the topographic features.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30

  10. Wind Velocity Predictions over the Penghu Islands of Taiwan during Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to forecast the hourly wind velocity over the Penghu Islands during tropical cyclones, and to determine the effects of the Central Mountain Range (CMR) terrain of Taiwan over the Penghu Islands based on typhoon tracks. On average, a destructive typhoon hits the Penghu Islands every 15-20 years. As a typhoon approaches Penghu Islands, its track and intensity are influenced by the CMR topography. Therefore, CMR complicates the wind forecast of the Penghu Islands. Six main typhoon tracks (Classes I-VI) are classified based on typhoon directions, as follows: (I) the direction of direct westward movement across CMR of Taiwan, (II) the direction of northward movement traveling through Taiwan Strait, (III) the direction of northward movement along the western coast of Taiwan, (IV) the direction of westward movement traveling through Luzon Strait, (V) the direction of westward movement traveling through the southern East China Sea (near Northern Taiwan), and (VI) the irregular track direction. The adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) were used as the forecasting technique to predict the wind velocity. We analyzed 49 typhoons from 2000 to 2012. Results showed that the ANFIS models provided high-reliability predictions for wind velocity, and the ANFIS achieved more favorable performance than did the MLPNN. In addition, we provide a detailed discussion on the interaction of the CMR with the Penghu Islands based on various track directions.

  11. Tectonics and hydrocarbons in Bass Strait, SE Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.A.; Hill, K.C.; Smith, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrocarbon-rich Gippsland, Bass and Otway basins of Bass Strait were intiatied by Neocomian N-S rifting of Australia from Antarctica, their architecture strongly influenced by Paleozoic basement fabric. In the Aptian-Albain, the rift received {approximately}10{sup 6} km{sup 3} of volcaniclastic sediment from the inferred arc along Gondwana`s Pacific margin. In distal areas, terrestrial source looks accumulated, productive in the Otway Basin. Global plate realignment induced mid-Cretaceous break-up, passing south of Tasmania, creating successor basins, the Gippsland aulacogen, Bass failed rift and Otway passive margin. Mid Cretaceous uplift around the failed rift supplied quartzose (reservoir) sediment to the Otway and Gippsland basins, tunnelling sediment into the aulacogen in the post-rift. Starved Otway inter-delta and Gippsland/Bass lacustine and delta plain sediments developed hydrocarbon source rocks that generated during Tertiary burial. The Gippsland aulacogen, formed during Late Cretaceous Tasman Sea spreading, is primarily extensional in nature and not a strike-slip basin, with traps created by minor Tertiary inversion. Despite large oil discoveries in the 1960`s, the tectonics of the Gippsland Basin remain poorly understood and need to be tied into the Mesozoic evolution of Gondwana`s Pacific margin. Continued prospectivity of Bass Strait is illustrated by the Minerva gas discoveries in the Otway Basin and the recent probable {approximately}300{prime} gross oil column in the Turrum structure in the Gippsland Basin. Critical to future success is understanding the regional tectonics and imaging below Tertiary carbonates.

  12. Tectonic evolution of southern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait: Results from a seismic refraction transect between Canada and Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Thomas; Gohl, Karsten; Damm, Volkmar; Heyde, Ingo

    2012-04-01

    Wide-angle reflection/refraction seismic data were acquired on a 450-km-long transect in southern Baffin Bay extending from Baffin Island to Greenland. Dense air gun shots were recorded on 22 ocean bottom seismometers. APwave velocity model was developed from forward and inverse modeling of the observed travel times. Beneath the Baffin Island shelf, a three-layered continental crust is observed with velocities of 5.5 to 6.9 km/s. Typical for transform margins, there is a sharp transition between continental and oceanic crust. Off Baffin Island, 7-km-thick oceanic crust is interpreted to lie in a major transform fault identified on the gravity map. Beneath the deep Baffin Bay basin, 9-km-thick oceanic crust is encountered but thins to 6 km within an assumed fracture zone. The thicker than normal oceanic crust indicates an ample magma supply, possibly related to melt extracted from a mantle plume. Seaward of the Greenland continental crust, 20-km-thick igneous crust (6.3 to 7.3 km/s) is encountered in a 25-km-wide zone interpreted as a leaky transform fault that can be correlated southward through Davis Strait. The igneous crust is bounded by a 20-km wide basin to the west, underlain by 4-km-thick crust of unknown affinity. This structure is probably associated with transform movements. A high-velocity lower crustal layer (7.1 km/s) of 8 km thickness is indicated beneath the Greenland crust and can be correlated into the adjacent thick igneous crust. Both the thick igneous and Greenland crust are covered by up to 4 km of Paleogene volcanics (5.2 to 5.7 km/s).

  13. Indian Ocean, Maldive Islands, India, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This scene shows a fantastic view of the Indian Ocean with oblique views of the southern portion of India, Palk Strait and Sri Lanka (1.5N, 77.5E). The bottom portion of the photo shows the complete chain of the Maldive Islands. This is a rare detailed view of the atolls that form the Maldives. The dusty atmosphere over India is clearly visible as it extends towards the Bay of Bengal but the atmosphere over the Maldives appears to be clear at this time.

  14. Net sediment transport patterns over the Bohai Strait based on grain size trend analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Gao, Shu; Bokuniewicz, Henry

    2004-06-01

    Grain size trend analysis indicates two distinct characteristics of sediment transport in Bohai Strait. Eastward transport dominates the western area and along the coast of the Shangdong Peninsula. This result supports the previous work which indicated that the Yellow River sediments are transported from the Bohai Sea to the Yellow Sea through the south channel of Bohai Strait, and dispersed into the southern Yellow Sea along the coast of Shangdong Peninsula. In the central eastern Bohai Strait, net deposition is taking place, as indicated by the convergence of the grain size trends. This result is consistent with current circulation pattern on Bohai Strait and the interpretation of strata disclosed by seismic reflection profile. This study supports the use of grain size trend analysis for large-scale areas on the continental shelf.

  15. The consequences of opening the Sunda Strait on the hydrography of the eastern tropical Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Riza Yuliratno; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Southon, John; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Steinke, Stephan; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2015-10-01

    The advection of relatively fresh Java Sea water through the Sunda Strait is presently responsible for the low-salinity "tongue" in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean with salinities as low as 32‰. The evolution of the hydrologic conditions in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean since the last glacial period, when the Sunda shelf was exposed and any advection via the Sunda Strait was cutoff, and the degree to which these conditions were affected by the Sunda Strait opening are not known. Here we have analyzed two sediment cores (GeoB 10042-1 and GeoB 10043-3) collected from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean off the Sunda Strait that cover the past ~40,000 years. We investigate the magnitude of terrigenous supply, sea surface temperature (SST), and seawater δ18O (δ18Osw) changes related to the sea level-driven opening of the Sunda Strait. Our new spliced records off the Sunda Strait show that during the last glacial, average SST was cooler and δ18Osw was higher than elsewhere in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Seawater δ18O decreased ~0.5‰ after the opening of the Sunda Strait at ~10 kyr B.P. accompanied by an SST increase of 1.7°C. We suggest that fresher sea surface conditions have persisted ever since due to a continuous transport of low-salinity Java Sea water into the eastern tropical Indian Ocean via the Sunda Strait that additionally increased marine productivity through the concomitant increase in terrigenous supply.

  16. Seasonally Resolved Surface Water (delta)14C Variability in the Lombok Strait: A Coralline Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Fallon, S J; Moore, M D; Schrag, D P; Charles, C D

    2008-04-23

    We have explored surface water mixing in the Lombok Strait through a {approx}bimonthly resolved surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C time-series reconstructed from a coral in the Lombok Strait that spans 1937 through 1990. The prebomb surface water {Delta}{sup 14}C average is -60.5{per_thousand} and individual samples range from -72{per_thousand} to 134{per_thousand}. The annual average post-bomb maximum occurs in 1973 and is 122{per_thousand}. The timing of the post-bomb maximum is consistent with a primary subtropical source for the surface waters in the Indonesian Seas. During the post-bomb period the coral records regular seasonal cycles of 5-20{per_thousand}. Seasonal high {Delta}{sup 14}C occur during March-May (warm, low salinity), and low {Delta}{sup 14}C occur in September (cool, higher salinity). The {Delta}{sup 14}C seasonality is coherent and in phase with the seasonal {Delta}{sup 14}C cycle observed in Makassar Strait. We estimate the influence of high {Delta}{sup 14}C Makassar Strait (North Pacific) water flowing through the Lombok Strait using a two endmember mixing model and the seasonal extremes observed at the two sites. The percentage of Makassar Strait water varies between 16 and 70%, and between 1955 and 1990 it averages 40%. During La Nina events there is a higher percentage of Makassar Strait (high {Delta}{sup 14}C) water in the Lombok Strait.

  17. Water, salt, and heat exchange through the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovskaya, R. Ya.; Demidov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Based on the multiannual observations (1965-2011), the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variabilities of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates in the Kinburn Strait of the Dnieper-Bug Estuary are studied. A method for calculation of the water, salt, and heat exchange rates through the strait is proposed, and the respective values are specified to be used for solving the practical problems related to efficient use of the water resources in this near-mouth region.

  18. Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, David W.; Ward, Bruce R.; Batten, Sonia D.

    2004-03-01

    Early ocean movements, residency, and survival of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined in Queen Charlotte Strait, a large (20×100 km2) marine area separating Vancouver Island from the mainland. The results provide the first detailed data on the ocean biology of hatchery and wild steelhead smolts. Initial ocean movements were not strongly directed, with most smolts swimming in the range of 0.2-0.5 body length (BL) s-1. The majority (78%) vacated Queen Charlotte Strait within 1 week of release in freshwater. Relative marine survival of hatchery smolts surgically implanted 1 month prior to release was identical to that of wild smolts implanted on the day of release; survival of hatchery smolts transported to the study site, implanted, and released all on the same day was significantly lower. The results suggest that the early marine survival of hatchery and wild smolts may be fundamentally similar, but that the cumulative stress of transportation and surgery may reduce post-surgery survival. Hatchery smolts moved at higher average swimming speeds than wild smolts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Early marine survival within the study region appears to be relatively high (⩾55%), contradicting assumptions that the early marine phase is the critical period for determining salmon recruitment.

  19. Temporal variations of volume transport through the Taiwan Strait, as identified by three-year measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsien-Wen; Liu, Cho-Teng; Matsuno, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kaoru; Fukudome, Ken-ichi; Yang, Yih; Doong, Dong-Jiing; Tsai, Wei-Ling

    2016-02-01

    The water characteristics of the East China Sea depend on influxes from river run-off, the Kuroshio, and the Taiwan Strait. A three-year observation using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) operated on a ferry provides the first nearly continuous data set concerning the seasonal flow pattern and the volume transport from the Taiwan Strait to the East China Sea. The observed volume transport shows strong seasonality and linkage to the along-strait wind stress. An empirical regression formula between the volume transport and wind was derived to fill the gaps of observation so as to obtain a continuous data set. Based on this unique data set, the three-year mean of monthly volume transport is northeastward throughout the year, large (nearly 3 Sv) in summer and low (nearly zero) in winter. The China Coastal Current flows southward in winter, while the northward-flowing Taiwan Strait Current may reverse direction during severe northeasterly winds in the winter or under typhoons. The sea level difference across Taiwan Strait is closely correlated to the transport through the strait, and their relation is found seasonally nearly stable.

  20. Hans Island: Meteorological Data From an International Borderline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.; Gudmandsen, P.; Hanson, S.; Saldo, R.; Samelson, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Just after midnight on 28 August 1871, the vessel U.S.S. Polaris of the North Polar Expedition, led by C. F. Hall, sailed past a small, uncharted island in the middle of Kennedy Channel [Davis, 1876]. This narrow channel is one of several such marine passages and sounds located between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland that combined together, form Nares Strait. Because of the dense fog at the time, the extent of the island could not be gauged. On the vessel's return voyage almost a year later, on 13 August 1872, the Polaris again passed this island. Expedition notes [e.g., Davis, 1876] reveal that the island was given the name Hans Island, or Hans Ø in Danish, in honor of Hans Hendrik (1834-1889) [see Hendrik, 1878], a Greenlander who assisted the expedition and four others to the region (led by E. K. Kane, 1853-1855 I. I. Hayes, 1860-1861 G. S. Nares, 1875-1876 and N. A. E. Nordenskjöld, 1883).

  1. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  2. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  3. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  4. Tsunami damage along the Andaman Islands coasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Among the first places to be affected by the massive tidal wave that ripped across the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, were the Andaman Islands. Located approximately 850 kilometers north of the epicenter of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami, the islands were not only among the first land masses to be swept under the wave, they have also been rattled by a series of aftershocks. Administrated by the Indian government, about 300,000 people live on the remote island chain, including several indigenous tribes. As of January 3, over 6,000 were confirmed dead or missing in the Andaman Islands. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the Andaman Islands on January 3, 2005. Compared to previous images of the islands, the beaches along the west side of the islands have been stripped bare, leaving a strip of bright tan land along the coast. The change is most notable on North Sentinel Island, home of the Sentinelese aboriginals, and on Interview Island, where the formerly green coastline has been replaced with an abnormally bright ring of bare sand. The large image reveals additional damage along all the islands of the Andaman chain.

  5. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common is Hepatitis B among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)? In the US, Hepatitis B is ... common in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, making it easy for many people born ...

  6. Possible tsunami transmission across the Strait of Gibraltar: numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, V.; Servidio, S.; Vecchio, A.; Anzidei, M.; Guerra, I.

    2012-12-01

    The possibility that a tsunami, generated as a consequence of the large earthquake in the Atlantic or Pacific ocean, could be recorded by the tide gauge stations located in the Mediterranean has been numerically investigated. In particular, direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (SWE) have been performed in order to simulate the transmission of large scale waves trough the Strait of Gibraltar. The SWE have wide applications in ocean and hydraulic engineering: tidal flows in estuary and coastal water regions, bore wave propagation, hydraulic jump, open channel flows, and so on. Among all these examples, the application of SWE to tsunamies is indeed one of the most successful. A numerical scheme, based on a Godunov-type method for solving the SWE with source term, has been proposed in Ref. [1]. In contrast to conventional data reconstruction methods based on conservative variables, the water surface level is chosen as the basis for data reconstruction. This provides accurate values of the conservative variables at cell interfaces so that the fluxes can be accurately calculated with a Riemann solver. The surface gradient method can be incorporated into any Godunov-type method which requires data reconstruction. Here, the MUSCL-Hancock finite-volume method has been combined with a body-fitted cut cell mesh [2], which can efficiently treat irregular boundaries while retaining the simplicity of a Cartesian grid implementation. Preliminary results show that incident waves, coming from the free ocean, can enter the Mediterraneum sea, passing trough the Strait. The incoming wave, altough is strongly reduced in intensity, fragmentate because of the bed profile and the interaction with the coasts, producing low ang high frequency disturbances. In agreement with observations (See Ref. [3]), these numerical simulations suggest that large tsunamis can pass through Gibraltar, initiating anomalous fluctuations in the Mediterraneum. [1] J. G. Zhou, D

  7. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 2. Schedule B regions (Bristol Bay, Kodiak, Bering Straits). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  8. Sea-level change and paleogeographic reconstructions, southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Thomas; Gowan, Evan J.; Hutchinson, Ian; Clague, John J.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.

    2009-06-01

    Forty-eight new and previously published radiocarbon ages constrain deglacial and postglacial sea levels on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Sea level fell rapidly from its high stand of about +75 m elevation just before 14 000 cal BP (12 000 radiocarbon yrs BP) to below the present shoreline by 13 200 cal BP (11 400 radiocarbon years BP). The sea fell below its present level 1000 years later in the central Strait of Georgia and 2000 years later in the northern Strait of Georgia, reflecting regional differences in ice sheet retreat and downwasting. Direct observations only constrain the low stand to be below -11 m and above -40 m. Analysis of the crustal isostatic depression with equations utilizing exponential decay functions appropriate to the Cascadia subduction zone, however, places the low stand at -30 ± 5 m at about 11 200 cal BP (9800 BP). The inferred low stand for southern Vancouver Island, when compared to the sea-level curve previously derived for the central Strait of Georgia to the northwest, generates differential isostatic depression that is consistent with the expected crustal response between the two regions. Morphologic and sub-bottom features previously interpreted to indicate a low stand of -50 to -65 m are re-evaluated and found to be consistent with a low stand of -30 ± 5 m. Submarine banks in eastern Juan de Fuca Strait were emergent at the time of the low stand, but marine passages persisted between southern Vancouver Island and the mainland. The crustal uplift presently occurring in response to the Late Pleistocene collapse of the southwestern sector of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet amounts to about 0.1 mm/yr. The small glacial isostatic adjustment rate is a consequence of low-viscosity mantle in this tectonically active region.

  9. A revised estimate of the Denmark Strait Overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Nuno; Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Larsen, Karin; Valdimarsson, Heðinn; Jónsson, Steingrímur

    2016-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow is a major contributor to the deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. It has now been monitored for two decades, using one or two moored acoustic current profilers deployed at or near the sill. We have recently verified that some of those instruments were affected by a low-velocity bias in the lower part of the water column. A serendipitous double deployment in the Faroe Bank Channel allowed us to develop a robust correction scheme for this bias. The implementation of the correction scheme leads to an increase of about 15% in the average strength of the overflow. The overflow transport was traditionally estimated from one or two profiles using a regression derived from a high resolution regional model. In the summer of 2014, an extended array using five moorings was deployed with the aim of better resolving the horizontal structure of the overflow plume, namely its extension towards the Greenland shelf. The resulting picture after recovery of the array in 2015 is of a very dynamic overflow, with the current structure stabilizing only when averaging over 10-15 days or longer. The improved instrumental coverage also allows a transport estimate based on observations alone. This new method, together with the bias correction, yields an increase of about 10% in the strength of the overflow, but a decrease in its transport variability. The latter is due to compensating changes in the different moorings that could not have been detected with the lower horizontal resolution previously used.

  10. Observed enhanced internal tides in winter near the Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junliang; He, Yinghui; Wang, Dongxiao; Liu, Tongya; Cai, Shuqun

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal characteristics and nonlinear interaction of internal tides (ITs) near the Luzon Strait in the northeastern South China Sea are investigated using 285 day, in situ observation data. It is found that ITs, which are dominated by the first-mode wave throughout the year, are the strongest in subsurface layer. Baroclinic incoherent diurnal (semidiurnal) variance accounts for about 85.7% (78.3%) of diurnal (semidiurnal) ITs. The amplitude and seasonal variation of the diurnal ITs are more prominent than those that are semidiurnal, e.g., the largest kinetic energy densities of diurnal and semidiurnal baroclinic tidal currents are 2.81 and 0.83 KJ/m2 in winter, respectively. It is considered that there are two reasons for the significantly enhanced ITs in winter: (1) it may be due to the Kuroshio intrusion, and (2) the enhanced diurnal ITs may be due to the enhanced diurnal barotropic tidal currents, while the enhanced semidiurnal ITs may be caused by the strong nonlinear interaction between diurnal IT constituents O1 and K1 due to their high vertical shears in subsurface layer. Thus, harmonic semidiurnal constituent D2 with a similar frequency of constituent M2 is induced; it subsequently enhances the semidiurnal ITs in this subsurface layer, and the associated energy is carried downward to enhance the semidiurnal ITs in the upper and lower layers.

  11. Thermohaline structures across the Luzon Strait from seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qunshu; Zheng, Chan

    2011-04-01

    A legacy seismic section across the Luzon Strait was reprocessed using the pre-stack depth migration method to reveal thermohaline structures in the water column. Distinct finescale and mesoscale features can be seen from the seismic image. Vertically, reflective patterns are associated with three water layers: upper layer, intermediate layer, and deep layer. The upper layer can be divided into three areas by two opposing weak-to-transparent zones from west to east with individual thicknesses: ˜400, 550, and 700 m. They are interpreted as the South China Sea upper water, the Kuroshio water, and the Pacific upper water, respectively, separated by two Kuroshio frontal zones. Internal waves are ubiquitous in the Kuroshio water fluctuating in different amplitudes and wavelengths laterally. The finestructure shows the western Kuroshio front zone is composed of three subparallel blanking zones with an average eastward dipping angle of 2.3°. They are regarded as the well-mixed frontal interfaces developed in and along a multi-frontal frontal zone. The transparent reflection of the intermediate water above the Hengchun is suggestive of a well-mixed layer by the near-bottom turbulence. In the Pacific intermediate water near the eastern mouth of the Bashi Channel, there is an inverted crescent-shaped structure, which is likely associated with the intrusion of the South China Sea intermediate water through the Bashi Channel. These imaged features are consistent with the observed oceanographic phenomena in the region.

  12. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-07-08

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices.

  13. Turbulence and dissipation in a computational model of Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Masoud; Sarkar, Sutanu

    2014-11-01

    Generation sites for topographic internal gravity waves can also be sites of intense turbulence. Bottom-intensified flow at critical slopes leads to convective instability and turbulent overturns [Gayen & Sarkar (2011)]. A steep ridge with small excursion number, Ex , but large super criticality can lead to nonlinear features according to observations [Klymak et al. (2008)] and numerical simulations [Legg & Klymak (2008)]. The present work uses high resolution 3-D LES to simulate flow over a model with multiscale topography patterned after a cross-section of Luzon Strait, a double-ridge generation site which was the subject of the recent IWISE experiment. A 1:100 scaling of topography was employed and environmental parameters were chosen to match the slope criticality and Fr number in the field. Several turbulent zones were identified including breaking lee waves, critical slope boundary layer, downslope jets, internal wave beams, and vortical valley flows. The multiscale model topography has subridges where a local Ex may be defined. Wave breaking and turbulence at these subridges can be understood if the local value of Ex is employed when using the Ex -based regimes identified by Jalali et al. (2014) in their DNS of oscillating flow over a single triangular obstacle.

  14. The relative importance of the wind-driven and tidal circulations in Malacca Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haoliang; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Song, Guiting

    2014-10-01

    The Malacca Strait is traditionally treated as a typical tidally-driven channel with the wind-driven and other components considered negligible. However, the strait is frequently affected by intense tropical weather events distorting the background monsoon winds. The variable winds can create large wind-stress curl at the surface level. To answer the question of how significant the wind-driven circulation is to the total circulation, numerical simulations are carried out by isolating or superimposing the different driving mechanisms. Comparison of the time series at selected points reveals that the winds significantly affect the tidal currents in different ways in the northern and southern strait. In the northern wide strait, the tidal current is enhanced while in the southern narrow channel it is weakened. Experiments with uniform water depth confirm that the weakening is mainly due to the interaction among tidal current, wind-driven current and bathymetry in the southern strait. Spectral analysis of the currents in the whole MS quantifies that the wind-driven current energy is more significant in the northern channel than in the southern one. Furthermore, winds with high intensity and large wind-stress curl can produce an eddy as large as the northern channel width which significantly distorts the tidal circulation especially during the neap tide. Vorticity analysis shows that the eddy in the northern Malacca Strait is purely wind-driven. Our study highlights that the wind stress, which has been ignored in previous studies in this region, is an important driver of the circulation in the Malacca Strait even when tidal forcing is strong.

  15. Observations and proxies of the surface layer throughflow in Lombok Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Gordon, Arnold L.; Sprintall, Janet

    2007-03-01

    Seasonal to interannual variability of the Lombok Strait surface layer transport is investigated. The geostrophic transport within the surface layer is estimated from the cross-channel pressure gradient measured by a pair of shallow pressure gauges positioned on opposing sides of Lombok Strait during 1996-1999. The Ekman transport through Lombok Strait, derived from scatterometer winds, is less than 10% or ˜0.15 Sv of the estimated surface layer geostrophic transport. Monsoonal forcing is clearly evident in the regional sea surface height anomalies (SSHA) as derived from the satellite altimeter measurements. During the southeast monsoon, relatively low sea level is observed to the south of Lombok Strait, with relatively high sea level to the north; conditions reverse during the northwest monsoon. Estimated transports from the cross-channel pressure gradient, winds, SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies all reveal interannual variability associated with ENSO. Both the thermocline depth anomaly and the SSHA to the south of the East Java coast correlate significantly (r = 0.7) with the Lombok Strait total surface layer throughflow. The difference of SSHA from the south of the East Java coast minus the SSHA north of Lombok shows a higher correlation (r = 0.84). These high correlation values suggest that SSHA and thermocline depth anomalies can be used as proxies for the Lombok Strait surface layer throughflow. Qualitatively, such proxy transports agree with the surface transport inferred from the pressure gauges and Ekman transport in Lombok Strait from 1996 to 1999, and also with direct velocity measurements from current meter data obtained in 1985 and 2004-2005.

  16. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  17. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  18. Light and nutrient limitation on phytoplankton production in the strait of an enclosed coastal sea (Bisan Strait, eastern Seto Inland Sea, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Hirade, Naoto; Higashizono, Keigo; Tada, Kuninao; Kishimoto, Koji; Oyama, Kenichi; Ichimi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-01

    The Bisan Strait is a vertically well-mixed, shallow area (mean depth 13.9 m) in the Seto Inland Sea. The strait has the lowest Secchi transparency (mean 4.5 m) within the Inland Sea because of active sediment re-suspension. Therefore, in comparison with adjacent areas, phytoplankton production in the strait may be strongly affected by light availability in addition to nutrient availability. In this study, we examined environmental variables, photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves and phytoplankton production in the Bisan Strait over 1 year. There were temporal variations in the light-saturated photosynthesis rate (PBm) and initial slope of P-I curve (αB), with maxima in autumn and minima in spring. Most of the variability in PBm and αB was explained by variations in nutrient concentrations (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) and water temperature. Meanwhile, phytoplankton production reached a peak in summer and a nadir in spring, but an autumn peak in production was not observed. Diagnostic analysis suggested that, for almost all of the year, nutrients were more important for phytoplankton growth than light limitation. However, light limitation became more important in autumn when underwater irradiance reached low levels. Therefore, the lack of an autumn peak in production is likely to be related to light limitation. We suggest that low light availability during the autumn depresses the annual rate of phytoplankton production in the Bisan Strait, in comparison with adjacent areas where seasonal stratification is established and phytoplankton blooms frequently occur in early autumn.

  19. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  20. Vertical structure and variation of currents observed in autumn in the Korea Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Ju

    2015-06-01

    To observe vertical structure and temporal variations of currents in the Tsushima Warm Current region of the Korea Strait, a moored buoy system was deployed in autumn 2009. The moored buoy system measured vertical profiles of current, temperature, and salinity for 24 days and a background hydrographic survey was performed. Along-strait northeastward currents were dominant in the upper layer (8-35 m). The mean current veers counterclockwise from 48 m to 74 m as much as 50°, and its speed is reduced with depth. There were distinct northward onshore currents near the bottom (65-80 m). It was demonstrated that thermal wind relation holds in the inclined pycnocline layer, which generates the counterclockwise veering current structure. Density gradient along the strait is a main factor producing the cross-strait onshore current component below the upper-layer and the cross-strait density gradient reduces the along-strait current component with depth. Previous studies have never focused on the effect of the along-strait density structure on current structure. The first Empirical Orthogonal Function mode (CM1) of current variability explains 70% of local current variations and its vertical structure is close to the mean current structure. The correlation analysis among variations of CM1 current, slope of sea level anomaly (SSLA) and local wind anomaly revealed that the variation of CM1 current is mainly related to the variation of SSLA across the strait (c-SSLA), which is known to be controlled by remote and local wind forcing. Similarity between vertical structures of mean and CM1 current suggests that thermal wind relation is the main dynamics maintaining the counterclockwise turning of CM1 current below the upper layer although the upperlayer CM1 current is controlled by c-SSLA through barotropic geostrophic relation. Time series of temperature and salinity indicate that the thermohaline front between Korean Coastal Water and Tsushima Warm Current Water meanders in

  1. The freshwater composition of the Fram Strait outflow derived from a decade of tracer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul A.; Rabe, Benjamin; Hansen, Edmond; Falck, Eva; Mackensen, Andreas; Rohling, Eelco; Stedmon, Colin; Kristiansen, Svein

    2012-11-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009-2011 sections are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009-2011 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface in late summer than previously. Comparison of April, July and September sections reveals seasonal variations in the inventory of positive sea ice meltwater, with maximum inventories in September sections. The time series of sections reveals a strong anti-correlation between meteoric water and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting that much of the sea ice meltwater and meteoric water at Fram Strait may originate from these regions. However, we also find that the ratio of meteoric water to sea ice meltwater inventories at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, due to an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent sections.

  2. Denmark Strait water circulation traced by heterogeneity in neodymium isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacan, Francois; Jeandel, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Seawater neodymium isotopic composition ( ɛNd) and rare earth element (REE) concentrations were measured along four hydrologic sections within the East Greenland Current (EGC), between the Fram and the Denmark Straits, during summer 1999. EGC intermediate waters, between 77°N and 70°N, displaying similar hydrological characteristics as Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW), had very constant REE characteristics and ɛNd value of -10.9. This constancy reveals the absence of lithogenic input, from the East Greenland margin, into intermediate waters in this area, corroborating previous dissolved aluminum data. The DSOW was characterized by ɛNd=-8.4±1.4. This value can be explained by the imprint of lithogenic formations, mainly basaltic, bordering the Denmark Strait on the intermediate waters described above. However, granitic Precambrian formations seem to contribute, although more slightly, to defining the DSOW Nd signature. This double influence could explain the heterogeneity of the Denmark Strait waters. These results provide a better understanding of the DSOW Nd signature, allowing a better use of this tracer in the study of present and past North Atlantic Deep Water dynamics. Atlantic Water was present at a station located at the mouth of Nansen Fjord, on the western side of Denmark Strait. We suggest that this water reaches the fjord intermittently as isolated water lenses or eddies detached from the northward flowing branch of the Irminger current.

  3. 231Pa/230Th records of Arctic/Atlantic interchange in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, S. S.; McDermott, K. J.; McManus, J. F.; Mukasa, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    Fram Strait, the Arctic Ocean's only deep passage for exchange with lower latitude oceans, today serves as a conduit for waters flowing north into the Arctic Ocean and south into the Atlantic. Reconstruction of circulation patterns and strength at depth in the strait can help to clarify the history of Arctic/Atlantic deep water exchange and Arctic contributions to global meridional overturning circulation. We will present new sedimentary measurements of radioisotopes 231Pa and 230Th to provide information on this exchange in the past and its relationship to sedimentation and climatic events. Coretop and downcore 231Pa/230Th ratios from Arctic sediments indicate that 231Pa has been exported from the central Arctic basin throughout the Holocene and deglaciation. Fram Strait represents a possible sink for this "missing" 231Pa. Preliminary results from ODP Holes 908A and 909A, at 1274 m and 2519 m water depths respectively in the central strait, suggest that ratios in this region during the Holocene have varied between ~0.106 (above the 231Pa/230Th production ratio of 0.093 in seawater, indicating net import of 231Pa)and ~0.055 (well below the production ratio, indicating net export of 231Pa). Further measurements in cores from the Greenland and Svalbard continental slopes will give a fuller regional picture of 231Pa deposition and transport across the strait.

  4. The role of the interface in exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, N. A.; Ochoa, J.; Kinder, T. H.

    1995-06-01

    Five cross-strait hydrographic sections repeated several times during the Gibraltar Experiment in 1985-1986 are used to examine the structure of the interface layer between the inflowing Atlantic waters and outflowing Mediterranean waters in the Strait of Gibraltar. The interface is 60-100 m thick, with a strong vertical salinity gradient identified by fitting individual salinity profiles to a piecewise-linear, three-layer model. The interface is deeper, thicker, fresher, and colder on the west end of the strait than in the Narrows, where there is a minimum in thickness and a maximum in salinity gradient. Farther east, the interface thickens again and continues to get saltier, warmer, and shallower. Property variations in all three layers are also cast in terms of the three principal water types involved in the exchange. The traditional Knudsen model of exchange is extended to three layers, assuming that the interface is a transport-carrying third layer with uniform vertical shear. As much as half of the inflowing or outflowing transport occurs in the interface layer. Transport converges in both the upper and lower layers, implying, over the length of the strait, vertical exchange between layers that is comparable to about half the horizontal exchange. The richness of structure and complexity of interaction between the interface and the upper and lower layers argues against the use of two-layer models to characterize exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar.

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Export Through Fram Strait and Atmospheric Planetary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Koblinsky, Chester (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A link is found between the variability of Arctic sea ice export through Ram Strait and the phase of the longest atmospheric planetary wave (zonal wave 1) in SLP for the period 1958-1997. Previous studies have identified a link between From Strait ice export and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), but this link has been described as unstable because of a lack of consistency over time scales longer than the last two decades. Inconsistent and low correlations are also found between From Strait ice export and the Arctic Oscillation (AD) index. This paper shows that the phase of zonal wave 1 explains 60% - 70% of the simulated From Strait ice export variance over the Goodyear period 1958 - 1997. Unlike the NAB and AD links, these high variances are consistent for both the first and second halves of the Goodyear period. This consistency is attributed to the sensitivity of the wave I phase at high latitudes to the presence of secondary low pressure systems in the Barents Sea that serve to drive sea ice southward through From Strait. These results provide further evidence that the phase of zonal wave 1 in SLP at high latitudes drives regional as well as hemispheric low frequency Arctic Ocean and sea ice variability.

  6. Spatial distribution characteristics of surface tidal currents in the southwest of Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhiben; Wu, Xiongbin; Lin, Hang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xing'an; Li, Lun

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted on the spatial distribution characteristics of surface tidal currents in the southwestern Taiwan Strait based on the quasi-harmonic analysis of current data obtained by two high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) systems. The analysis shows that the tidal current pattern in the southwestern Taiwan Strait is primarily semi-diurnal and influenced significantly by shallow water constituents. The spatial distribution of tidal current ellipses of M2 is probably affected by the interaction between two different systems of tide wave, one from the northern mouth of Taiwan Strait and the other from the Bashi Channel. The directions of the major axes of M2 tidal current ellipses coincide roughly with the axis of the Taiwan Strait. The spatial distribution of the magnitudes of the probable maximum current velocity (PMCS) shows gradual increase of the velocity from northeast to southwest, which is in accordance with the spatial distribution of the measured maximum current velocity (MMCS). The directions of the residual currents are in accordance with the direction of the prevailing monsoon wind at the Taiwan Strait and the direction of the Taiwan warm current during summer. The bathymetry also shows a significant effect on the spatial distribution characteristics of tidal currents.

  7. The inflow of Atlantic water at the Fram Strait and its interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Takao; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    The heat influx of the Atlantic water and its interannual variability through the Fram Strait toward the Arctic Ocean are examined by using a realistically configured ice-ocean general circulation model. The modeled routes of the Atlantic water and high eddy activity around the Fram Strait are consistent with many observations. Two-thirds of the heat transported by the Atlantic water passing through the Fram Strait (78°N) is lost by the westward transport and the sea surface cooling, and the other one-third is injected to the Arctic Ocean. The contribution of oceanic eddy to the westward heat transport is 5% of that of mean current. The variability of sea level pressure anomaly centered at the Nordic Seas explains the interannual variability of the heat passing through the Fram Strait, transported westward, and cooled at the sea surface in the north of the Fram Strait. The interannual variabilities of these heat fluxes have significant correlations with the NAO. The interannual variability of heat transported by the Atlantic water and entering the Arctic Ocean is caused by the variability of the Siberian high.

  8. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest Turkey, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, Turkey is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.

    The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North Anatolian Fault system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North Anatolian Fault system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north Anatolian Fault system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North Anatolian Fault system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the

  9. Variability of Indonesian throughflow within Makassar Strait, 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Ffield, Amy; Gordon, Arnold L.; Adi, T. Rameyo

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to earlier measurements, January 2004 through May 2009 Makassar Strait velocities within the main Pacific inflow pathway of the Indonesian throughflow (ITF) are larger with a clear signal of the Asian-Australian monsoon overriding the relatively weak 2006/2007 El Niño and 2007/2008 La Niña. The Makassar flow is thermocline intensified with maximum along-channel velocity of -0.8 m/s near 120 m during the southeast monsoon, July to September, decreasing to -0.6 m/s from October to December, during the transition to the northwest monsoon. The temperature variability is highly correlated to ENSO, and the salinity variability reveals low-salinity surface water inputs to the ITF, possibly from the Java and Sulu seas. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the velocity profile reveals that the first mode (45%) is dominated by the intrusions of Kelvin waves from the south, the second mode (30%) reflects ENSO modulation, and the third mode (17%) is associated with regional monsoon winds. The strength of the northward intrusions of Kelvin waves plays an important role in the total transport. The 2004-2009 average seasonal transport varied from -15.5 Sv (Sv = 106 m3/s) during the northwest monsoon (January to March) to -9.6 Sv during the monsoon transition (October to December). The annual mean transport is southward at 13.3 ± 3.6 Sv, with small year-to-year range from 12.5 to 14.0 Sv, substantially higher than measurements from 1997 when El Niño suppressed the transport (9.2 Sv).

  10. Variability in categories of Arctic sea ice in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, E.; Ekeberg, O.-C.; Gerland, S.; Pavlova, O.; Spreen, G.; Tschudi, M.

    2014-10-01

    An attempt to quantify the temporal variability in the volume composition of Arctic sea ice is presented. Categories of sea ice in the Transpolar Drift in Fram Strait are derived from monthly ice thickness distributions obtained by moored sonars (1990-2011). The inflection points on each side of the old ice modal peak are used to separate modal ice from ice which is thinner and thicker than ice in the modal range. The volume composition is then quantified through the relative amount of ice belonging to each of the three categories thin, modal, and thick ice in the monthly ice thickness distributions. The trend of thin ice was estimated to be negative at -8.8% per decade (relative to the long-term mean), which was compensated for by increasing trends in modal and thick ice of 7.9% and 4.7% per decade, respectively. A 7-8 year cycle is apparent in the thin and thick ice records, which may explain a loss of deformed ice since 2007. We also quantify how the categories contribute to the mean ice thickness over time. Thick (predominantly deformed) ice dominates the mean ice thickness, constituting on average 66% of the total mean. Following the loss of deformed ice since 2007, the contribution of thick ice to the mean decreased from 75% to 52% at the end of the record. Thin deformed ice did not contribute to this reduction; it was pressure ridges thicker than 5 m that were lost and hence caused the decrease in mean ice thickness.

  11. The Arctic Front in the Fram Strait in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Falck, Eva; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne

    2016-04-01

    The front between Atlantic water carried northward by the main branch of the West Spitsbergen Current and the cooler, fresher Arctic domain in the central Fram Strait, here called the Arctic Front, is important because of the exchange of heat and salt across it. The marked water mass boundary and the dynamics of the front also profoundly affect the living conditions for marine organisms. A northwest-to-southeast transect across the Arctic Front with concurrent shipboard and glider measurements was done in September 2011. The CTD data, nutrient and pigment samples, and underway ADCP data from the research cruise are complemented by the glider observations of temperature and salinity at higher horizontal resolution. In addition, images from the ship's scientific echo sounder are used to qualitatively describe the water column structure and distribution of marine organisms along the transect. Crossing the front from northwest to southeast, the near-surface (5 m) temperature increased by more than 4°C and salinity increased by 0.98 PSU between stations 19 km apart. The front was thus clearly marked in salinity and temperature in the upper 200 m, but below the surface layer it was largely density compensated. The highest chlorophyll-a concentrations were found in subsurface maxima on the Arctic side of the front. We investigate the hydrographic structure of the front, considering properties relevant to cross-frontal exchange and mixing. We also assess the environmental conditions on each side of the front - for example mixed layer depths, nutrient availability, and bio-optical properties - and their implications for marine life.

  12. Discovery of new hydrothermal vent sites in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhammer, G. P.; Chin, C. S.; Keller, R. A.; Dählmann, A.; Sahling, H.; Sarthou, G.; Petersen, S.; Smith, F.; Wilson, C.

    2001-12-01

    We carried out a search for hydrothermal vents in the Central Basin of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The ZAPS (zero angle photon spectrometer) chemical sensor and instrument package (Oregon State University), OFOS (ocean-floor observation system) camera sled and TVG (TV-grab) (GEOMAR) were used to explore the water column and underlying seafloor. These operations were supplemented with a series of dredges. Hydrothermal plumes over Hook Ridge at the eastern end of the basin are confined to the E ridge crest and SE flank. The plumes are complex and sometimes contain two turbidity maxima one widespread feature centered at 1150 m and a smaller, more localized but broad maximum at 600-800 m. We traced the source of the shallower plume to a sunken crater near the ridge crest using sensors on the ZAPS instrument package. Subsequently two TV-grabs from the crater brought back hot, soupy sediment (42-49°C) overlain by hard, siliceous crusts and underlain by a thick layer of volcanic ash. We also recovered chimney fragments whose texture and mineralogy indicate venting temperatures in excess of 250°C. Native sulfur and Fe-sulfides occur in fractures and porous layers in sediment from throughout the area. Pore water data from the crater site are consistent with venting into a thin sediment layer and indicate phase separation of fluids beneath Hook Ridge. The source of the deeper plumes at Hook Ridge has yet to be located. We also explored a series of three parallel volcanic ridges west of Hook Ridge called Three Sisters. We detected water column anomalies indicative of venting with the ZAPS package and recovered hydrothermal barites and sulfides from Middle Sister. We spent considerable time photographing Middle Sister and Hook Ridge but did not identify classic vent fauna at either location. We either missed small areas with our photography or typical MOR vent fauna are absent at these sites.

  13. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen-Chung, Chai

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  14. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1180 - Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. 334.1180 Section 334.1180 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1180 Strait of Juan de Fuca, Wash.; air-to-surface weapon range, restricted area. (a)...

  19. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  20. 76 FR 23191 - Traffic Separation Schemes: In the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Its Approaches; in Puget Sound and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization NPRM Notice of... Strait, Boundary Pass, and the Strait of Georgia'' in the Federal Register (67 FR 54981). We received.... On November 19, 2010, the Coast Guard published an interim rule (75 FR 70818) that codified...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  5. Holocene sedimentary activity in a non-terrestrially coupled submarine canyon: Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Stevens, C. L.; Stirling, M. W.

    2014-06-01

    The Cook Strait Canyon system, located between the North and South islands of New Zealand, is a large (1800 km2), multi-branching, shelf-indenting canyon on an active subduction margin. The canyon comes within 1 km of the coast, but does not intercept fluvial or littoral sediment systems and is therefore defined as a non-terrestrially coupled system. Sediment transport associated with a strong tidal stream, and seafloor disturbance related to numerous high-activity faults, is known from previous studies. Little is known, however, about the rates of sedimentary activity in the canyon and the processes driving it. A substantial dataset of EM300 multibeam bathymetry, gravity cores, 3.5 kHz seismic reflection profiles, camera and video transects and current meter data have been collected across the region between 2002 and 2011. The canyon system therefore provides an excellent study area for understanding sediment transport in a non-coupled submarine canyon system. Analysis of the data reveals a two-staged sediment transport system where: (1) oceanographic (tidal) processes mobilise sediment from the continental shelf and transport it to depocentres in the upper-central canyons, and (2) tectonic (earthquake) processes remobilise sediment that is transported through the lower canyon to the deep ocean. Tidal boundary-layer currents within the canyon reach velocities up to 0.53 m/s and are capable of mobilising fine sand in the central reach of the upper canyons. The velocity is higher at the canyon rim and capable of mobilising coarse sand. Sediment depocentres resulting from this tidally forced sediment transport have a well formed geomorphology within the mid-upper canyon arms of Cook Strait and Nicholson Canyons. Pseudo-static stability modelling, supported by sediment core analysis, indicates that sediment accumulated in the upper canyons fails during seismic events approximately every 100 years. The 100 year return period ground shaking-level (peak ground

  6. Trophic cascades and future harmful algal blooms within ice-free Arctic Seas north of Bering Strait: A simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Chen, F. Robert; Lenes, Jason M.; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Cassano, John J.; Whitledge, Terry E.; Stockwell, Dean; Flint, Mikhail; Sukhanova, Irina N.; Christensen, John

    2011-11-01

    Within larger ice-free regions of the western Arctic Seas, subject to ongoing trophic cascades induced by past overfishing, as well as to possible future eutrophication of the drainage basins of the Yukon and Mackenzie Rivers, prior very toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) - first associated with ∼100 human deaths near Sitka, Alaska in 1799 - may soon expand. Blooms of calcareous coccolithophores in the Bering Sea during 1997-1998 were non-toxic harbingers of the subsequent increments of other non-siliceous phytoplankton. But, now saxitoxic dinoflagellates, e.g. Alexandrium tamarense, were instead found by us within the adjacent downstream Chukchi Sea during SBI cruises of 2002 and 2003. A previous complex, coupled biophysical model had been validated earlier by ship-board observations from the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during the summer of 2002. With inclusion of phosphorus as another chemical state variable to modulate additional competition by recently observed nitrogen-fixers, we now explore here the possible consequences of altered composition of dominant phytoplankton functional groups [diatoms, microflagellates, prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis colonies, coccolithophores, diazotrophs, and dinoflagellates] in relation to increases of the toxic A. tamarense, responding to relaxation of grazing pressure by herbivores north of Bering Strait as part of a continuing trophic cascade. Model formulation was guided by validation observations obtained during 2002-2004 from: cruises of the SBI, CHINARE, and CASES programs; moored arrays in Bering Strait; other RUSALCA cruises around Wrangel Island; and SBI helicopter surveys of the shelf-break regions of the Arctic basin. Our year-long model scenarios during 2002-2003 indicate that post bloom silica-limitation of diatoms, after smaller simulated spring grazing losses, led to subsequent competitive advantages in summer for the coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, and diazotrophs. Immediate top-down control is exerted by imposed

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  8. Sea Level Trend and Variability in the Straits of Singapore and Malacca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Q.; Tkalich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Straits of Singapore and Malacca (SSM) connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, the largest marginal sea situated in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Consequently, sea level in the SSM is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale sea level variability is dominant by the Asian monsoon. Interannual sea level signals are modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In the long term, regional sea level is driven by the global climate change. However, relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on regional sea level in the SSM are yet to be quantified. In present study, publicly available tide gauge records and satellite altimetry data are used to derive long-term sea level trend and variability in SSM. We used the data from research-quality stations, including four located in the Singapore Strait (Tanjong Pagar, Raffles Lighthouse, Sultan Shoal and Sembawang) and seven situated in the Malacca Strait (Kelang, Keling, Kukup, Langkawji, Lumut, Penang and Ko Taphao Noi), each one having 25-39 year data up to the year 2011. Harmonic analysis is performed to filter out astronomic tides from the tide gauge records when necessary; and missing data are reconstructed using identified relationships between sea level and the governing phenomena. The obtained sea level anomalies (SLAs) and reconstructed mean sea level are then validated against satellite altimetry data from AVISO. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea level in the SSM is varying with global mean sea level, rising for the period 1984-2009 at the rate 1.8-2.3 mm/year in the Singapore Strait and 1.1-2.8 mm/year in the Malacca Strait. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ×5 cm with correlation coefficient

  9. Holocene fluctuations of neodymium isotope ratios in eastern Fram Strait sediments - An indication for deepwater variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, K.; Frank, M.; Teschner, C.; Zieringer, M.; Spielhagen, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Fram Strait as the only deep water connection of the world's oceans to the Arctic plays a substantial role for the heat influx to the Arctic Ocean and controls freshening of the Nordic Seas through Arctic sea ice export. Large amounts of warm and saline Atlantic Water derived from the North Atlantic Drift transport most of the heat through eastern Fram Strait to the Arctic basin, resulting in year-round ice-free conditions. Arctic sea ice and cold and fresh waters exit the western part of the strait southward along the Greenland shelf. However, little is still known about the water mass transport at intermediate and bottom water depths in the Fram Strait. High-resolution Holocene sediment sequences from the Western Svalbard margin have been investigated for its neodymium isotope ratios stored in ferromanganese oxyhydroxide coatings of the sediment to derive information on the source of bottom seawater passing the site. The radiogenic isotope data are compared to a multitude of proxy indicators for the climatic and oceanographic variability in the eastern Fram Strait during the past 8,500 years. In order to obtain a calibration of the Nd isotope compositions extracted from sediments to modern bottom water mass signatures in the area, a set of core top and water samples from different water depths in the Fram Strait was additionally investigated for its present-day Nd isotope signatures. A significantly higher inflow of deepwater produced in the Nordic Seas to the core site is inferred for the earlier periods of the Holocene. Cooler surface water conditions and increased sea ice abundances during the late Holocene coincide with more radiogenic Nd isotope ratios likely resembling the neoglacial trend of the northern North Atlantic.

  10. How is the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow Responding to Changes in the Arctic Climate System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, P. A.; Rabe, B.; Hansen, E.

    2013-12-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, delta 18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2011. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2009-2011 sections are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009-2011 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface in late summer than previously. Comparison of April, July and September sections reveals seasonal variations in the inventory of positive sea ice meltwater, with maximum inventories in September sections. The time series of sections reveals a strong anti-correlation between meteoric water and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting that much of the sea ice meltwater and meteoric water at Fram Strait may originate from these regions. However, we also find that the ratio of meteoric water to sea ice meltwater inventories at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, due to an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent sections. From 2010 to 2013, automatic water samplers have provided high frequency year round tracer observations required to resolve seasonal and short-term variations in the freshwater composition at Fram Strait. Measurements from these instruments reveal significant short-term variations in the freshwater composition over the East Greenland Shelf.

  11. How is the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow Responding to Changes in the Arctic Climate System?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Rabe, Benjamin; Granskog, Mats; Stedmon, Colin; Kristiansen, Svein; Hansen, Edmond

    2014-05-01

    The composition of the Fram Strait freshwater outflow is investigated by comparing 10 sections of concurrent salinity, δ18O, nitrate and phosphate measurements collected between 1997 and 2012. The largest inventories of net sea ice meltwater are found in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. The 2009-2012 sections are also the first to show positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC. Sections from September 2009-2012 show an increased input of sea ice meltwater at the surface relative to older September sections. This suggests that more sea ice now melts back into the surface in late summer than previously. Comparison of April, July and September sections reveals seasonal variations in the inventory of positive sea ice meltwater, with maximum inventories in September sections. The time series of sections reveals a strong anti-correlation between meteoric water and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that meteoric water and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. We find that the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait exhibits a similar meteoric water to net sea ice meltwater ratio as the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, suggesting that much of the sea ice meltwater and meteoric water at Fram Strait may originate from these regions. However, we also find that the ratio of meteoric water to sea ice meltwater inventories at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, due to an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent sections. From 2010 to 2013, automatic water samplers have provided high frequency year round tracer observations required to resolve seasonal and short-term variations in the freshwater composition at Fram Strait. Measurements from these instruments reveal significant short-term variations in the freshwater composition over the East Greenland Shelf.

  12. Seismic stratigraphy and geologic history of middle Cretaceous through Cenozoic rocks, southern straits of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.M. III; Austin, J.A. Jr.; Buffler, R.T. )

    1994-03-01

    Multifold and singlefold seismic data and indirect ties to industry wells and Deep Sea Drilling Program and Ocean Drilling Program sites are used to study the middle Cretaceous to Cenozoic history of the southern Straits of Florida. Since the late Albian( ), the southern Straits of florida has evolved from a shallow-water platform to deep-water trough. This evolution is related in part to late Albian( )-middle Cenomanian drowning and segmentation of a shallow-water carbonate [open quotes]mega-bank[close quotes] which extended across the region. Since the Late Cretaceous, shallow-water deposition has continued around Cay Sal Bank and along the southern margin of the South Florida Basin, while deeper water deposition has persisted elsewhere. Evolution of the Straits of Florida is also related to Late Cretaceous-middle Eocene convergence between the North American and Caribbean plates. Regional dip towards the Cuban fold-and-thrust belt suggests that the southern Straits of Florida is an extension of the north Cuban foreland basin. A paleo-Florida Current became active during the early Paleocene along the northern limb of this foreland basin. During this time, the southern Straits of Florida were still relatively shallow and bottom currents persisted over most of the region. Rapid subsidence during the late Eocene caused a change in depositional regimes from current-dominated to predominantly pelagic/hemipelagic sedimentation. Since the late Eocene, the Florida Current has influenced deposition only in the shallower parts of the southern Straits of Florida. There may be potential for stratigraphic traps in this area. Winnowing associated with paleo-Florida Current flow may increase the potential for reservoir quality rocks within these deep-water sediments. 62 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Retreat of the Coalescent Greenland and Innuitian Ice Sheets from Nares Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, A. E.; Bailey, E.; Oliver, B.; Andrews, J. T.; Prins, M. A.; Troelstra, S.; Stoner, J. S.; Reilly, B. T.; Davies-Walczak, M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Nares Strait, which forms one of the main connections between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay was blocked by coalescent Innuitian and Greenland ice sheets during the LGM. Nares Strait opened ca. 9000 cal ka BP when the connection between the two ice sheets was finally severed. Our research focuses on the events and processes leading up to the opening of the strait and the response of the glacier and marine systems to establishment of the throughflow. The study at present involves new analysis of two sediment cores: 2001LSSL-163PC from Smith Sound, at the southern end of Nares Strait, and 2001LSSL-079PC from the mouth of Petermann Fjord at the northern end of the strait. X-radiography and core photographs were studied to establish basic lithofacies and stratigraphy. Foraminiferal faunas provide insight into changes in ice margin proximity, Atlantic Water advection and sea-ice conditions and are used to develop the radiocarbon chronologies. Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sediments aids in determining sediment provenance and the establishment of a north to south connection. Grain size analysis allows sediment processes and sedimentary environments, such as iceberg rafting, current deposition, and sub ice-shelf deposition to be evaluated. A radiocarbon date of >50 kyr was obtained from foraminifera in an overconsolidated, gray diamicton in core 163PC. The diamicton is overlain by a red deglacial sequence of barren laminated sediments followed by gray pebbly mud. Two radiocarbon dates submitted from near the base of the pebbly mud constrain the timing of ice retreat from Smith Sound. The chronology of core 079PC indicates that it captures the opening of Nares Strait, but 4 submitted radiocarbon dates will further constrain its chronology. The goal of the work on these two cores is to lay a framework for extensive marine fieldwork to study ice sheet-ocean interactions in the Petermann Glacier in late summer 2015.

  14. Performance assessment for an operational ocean model of the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xinyou; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Zhang, Zhenchang

    2016-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait Nowcast/Forecast System (TFOR), which is based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System, may be the first operational ocean model to include both tide and circulation processes in the Taiwan Strait. In this study, we assessed the performance of TFOR by investigating the differences between observational data and the results obtained by TFOR, thereby illustrating the ability of TFOR to reproduce significant physical processes. We also evaluated the utility and reliability of TFOR products for successful applications in maritime search and rescue. The mean bias, root mean-squared difference, correlation coefficient (CC), and Willmott skill for the differences in temperature between the cruise observations and the TFOR results were -0.01°C, 1.2°C, 0.87, and 0.92, respectively, and those for the corresponding salinity results were 0.06 PSU, 0.4 PSU, 0.74, and 0.83, respectively. The distributions of the TFOR M2 harmonic constants indicated that TFOR simulates the tidal characteristics well in the Taiwan Strait. The CC between the Taiwan Strait volume transport based on the TFOR results and the along-strait wind stress was 0.77, thereby indicating that monsoon winds exert an important influence on the variability in volume transport through the Taiwan Strait. Statistical analyses of the TFOR results showed that the annual, spring, summer, autumn, and winter mean transport volumes were 1.16, 1.28, 2.52, 0.80, and 0.04 Sv, respectively. In conclusion, the TFOR is robust and it can simulate the temperature, salinity, and velocity in a reasonable and stable manner.

  15. Tidal dynamics with corrected volume transport at Sunda Shelf and Singapore Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung; Xu, Haihua

    2015-04-01

    Connecting the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, the Sunda Shelf displays a complicated transitional hydrodynamic characteristics. At daily timescale, water level and current in the shelf are governed by mixed diurnal and semidiurnal tides. At monthly timescale, mean sea level and seasonal volume transport are amplified by monsoonal winds from the South China Sea. In this study, we present the development of a high-resolution barotropic numerical model for the Sunda Shelf based on the Semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian Finite-Element (SELFE) model. The computational domain includes western half of the South China Sea, Malacca Strait, Java Sea, and is focused on Singapore Strait. Topography complexity is resolved by merging the high-resolution bathymetry data from Jeppesen's C-MAP product and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans One Minute Grid (GEBCO1). A fine unstructured mesh consisting of a half million (447974) elements is generated for the entire domain, with very fine elements (up to 100 meter) along the coast of the Singapore Strait. At open boundaries, the model is forced by FES2012 tide prediction. The model is calibrated at open boundaries based on mean sea level archived from AVISO satellite altimetry data to reproduce corrected monthly volume transport through Malacca, Singapore and Karimata Straits. Surface wind stress is taken into account using daily NCEP climatology downscaled by WRF model. The computed sea level agrees well with tide gauge records and consistent with tidal prediction softwares (TotalTide, MIKE21 and FES2012) at hourly and monthly scales. Computed tidal currents are well compared against ADCP measurements in the Singapore Strait. The mean discharge through the Karimata Strait is 1.3 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s) toward the south, with the maximum of 2.8 Sv in December-January and minimum of -0.8 Sv in July-August. The annual transport through the Malacca Strait is mainly westward, with the mean of 0.13 Sv and

  16. Strait of Kerch water structure derived from the data of contact measurements and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepyzhenko, A. A.; Chepyzhenko, A. I.; Kushnir, V. M.

    2015-02-01

    The data of the joint integrated expedition in the Strait of Kerch carried out by the Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Southern Scientific Center (SSC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences in September 2011 is discussed. The capabilities and results of using the present-day instruments and methods for satellite imagery processing aimed at obtaining quantitative estimates of the concentration of suspended matter and chlorophyll "a" are considered. The features of the water dynamics, as well as the temperature, salinity, concentrations of total suspended matter, and chlorophyll "a" fields, in the Strait of Kerch under the variable wind were studied.

  17. Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Maritime traffic profile in Western Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinhai, C.; Feng, L.; Guojun, P.

    2014-02-01

    The mathematical statistics and spatial analyses for merchant vessels navigating in Western Taiwan Strait are used to unravel potential spatial heterogeneity based on ship tracking records derived from China's coastal Automatic Identification System shore-based network from October 2011 to September 2012. Two maritime traffic profile's indices, composition of vessels, weighted frequency of ship transits, are proposed. Based on the two indices, the most risky hotspots or areas in the Strait are detected by comparing spatial distribution of maritime traffic volume of fishing boat, container ship, crude oil tanker and all ships exclude fishing boats.

  18. Horizontal distributions of surface chlorophyll a and nitrogenous nutrients near Bering Strait and Unimak Pass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Isao; Furuya, Ken; Otobe, Hirotake; Nakai, Toshisuke; Memoto, Takahisa; Hattori, Akihiko

    1982-02-01

    Surface temperature, salinity, nitrate,aammonium, and chlorophyll a were continuously monitored along a north-south transect across the Bering Strait and Unimak Pass region of the southeastern Bering Sea in July 1978. A cold water mass, rich in nitrate and chlorophyll a, north of the Bering Strait, was examined over a distance of 40 km; it was probably associated with local upwelling. Near Unimak Pass, chlorophyll a was inversely correlated with nitrate, suggesting rapid growth of phytoplankton in nutrient-rich Alaskan Stream water during its travel into the Bering Sea. Phytoplankton species composition was consistent with this inference.

  19. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  20. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  1. Abrupt Atmospheric Methane Increases Associated With Hudson Strait Heinrich Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R.; Brook, E.; Chiang, J. C. H.; Blunier, T.; Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Romanini, D.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The drivers of abrupt climate change during the Last Glacial Period are not well understood. While Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles are thought to be linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Ocean Circulation (AMOC), it is not clear how or if Heinrich Events—extensive influxes of icebergs into the North Atlantic Ocean that impacted global climate and biogeochemistry—are related. An enduring problem is the difficultly in dating iceberg rafted debris deposits that typically lack foraminifera. Here we present an ultra-high resolution record of methane from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core at unprecedented, continuous temporal resolution from 67.2-9.8 ka BP, which we propose constrains the timing of Heinrich events. Our methane record essentially mirrors Greenland ice core stable isotope variability across D-O events, except during Heinrich stadials 1, 2, 4 and 5. Partway through these stadials only, methane increases abruptly and rapidly, as at the onset of a D-O event but Greenland temperature exhibits no equivalent response. Speleothem records exhibit signatures of drought in the Northern extra-tropics and intensified monsoonal activity over South America at these times. We use a simple heuristic model to propose that cold air temperatures and extensive sea ice in the North, resulting from Heinrich events, caused extreme reorganization of tropical hydroclimate. This involved curtailment of the seasonal northerly migration of tropical rain belts, leading to intensification of rainfall over Southern Hemisphere tropical wetlands, thus allowing production of excess methane relative to a 'normal' Greenland stadial. We note that this mechanism can operate if AMOC is already in a slowed state when a Heinrich event occurs, as paleo-evidence suggests it was. Heinrich events and associated sea ice cover would therefore act to prolong the duration of this AMOC state. Our findings place the big four Heinrich events of Hudson Strait origin

  2. Single-ping ADCP measurements in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Naranjo, Cristina; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos; Sánchez Leal, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    In most Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) user manuals, it is widely recommended to apply ensemble averaging of the single-pings measurements, in order to obtain reliable observations of the current speed. The random error related to the single-ping measurement is typically too high to be used directly, while the averaging operation reduces the ensemble error of a factor of approximately √N, with N the number of averaged pings. A 75 kHz ADCP moored in the western exit of the Strait of Gibraltar, included in the long-term monitoring of the Mediterranean outflow, has recently served as test setup for a different approach to current measurements. The ensemble averaging has been disabled, while maintaining the internal coordinate conversion made by the instrument, and a series of single-ping measurements has been collected every 36 seconds during a period of approximately 5 months. The huge amount of data has been fluently handled by the instrument, and no abnormal battery consumption has been recorded. On the other hand a long and unique series of very high frequency current measurements has been collected. Results of this novel approach have been exploited in a dual way: from a statistical point of view, the availability of single-ping measurements allows a real estimate of the (a posteriori) ensemble average error of both current and ancillary variables. While the theoretical random error for horizontal velocity is estimated a priori as ˜2 cm s‑1 for a 50 pings ensemble, the value obtained by the a posteriori averaging is ˜15 cm s‑1, with an asymptotical behavior starting from an averaging size of 10 pings per ensemble. This result suggests the presence of external sources of random error (e.g.: turbulence), of higher magnitude than the internal sources (ADCP intrinsic precision), which cannot be reduced by the ensemble averaging. On the other hand, although the instrumental configuration is clearly not suitable for a precise estimation of turbulent

  3. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    equilibrium shape more quickly but were also susceptible to total erosion. Our observations support the hypothesis that the islands were initially carved by high-water volume flows via a unique catastrophic drainage of a pro-glacial lake in the southern North Sea at the Dover Strait rather than by fluvial erosion throughout the Pleistocene.

  4. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE...

  5. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE...

  6. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE...

  7. RECOVERY OF STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA INTERTIDAL HABITAT FOLLOWING EXPERIMENTAL CONTAMINATION WITH OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a second year interim report on the effects of experimental oiling with Prudhoe Bay crude oil on recovery of intertidal infauna and epifauna of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington State. It describes completed studies of the recovery of infauna as recovery rate relates...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to...

  9. Forum Page Letters in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during Relatively Free and Restricted Press Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Ong, James

    In order to identify the scope or limits of the practice of development journalism, a study examined the content of the Forum page in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during relatively free (1979-1980) and restricted (1986-1987) press periods. The study had two major objectives: (1) to study the nature of the Forum page (a readers' letter page in…

  10. Too Distant Shores: The Strait of Gibraltar and the Space of Exception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluhovic, Milija

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on "The Sheep and the Whale" ("Le mouton et la baleine," 2001) by Moroccan-Canadian playwright Ahmed Ghazali, this essay examines political and ethical issues concerning human migration from Africa to Europe. The play's representation of human rights abuses in the Strait of Gibraltar and the dilemmas facing illegal migrants, refugees and…

  11. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  13. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  14. 33 CFR 167.1321 - In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In Puget Sound and its approaches: Rosario Strait. 167.1321 Section 167.1321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1321 In Puget Sound and...

  15. EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTAL OILING ON RECOVERY OF STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA INTERTIDAL HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental studies of the effects of Prudhoe Bay crude oil on the recovery of inter-tidal infauna and epifauna were conducted in the Strait of Juan de Fuca region of Washington State. The studies experimentally evaluated the effect of oil treatment, site, substrate type, season...

  16. 33 CFR 165.928 - Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Mackinac Bridge, Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. 165.928 Section 165.928 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific...

  17. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Southern lanes. 167.1312 Section 167.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W 48°10.99′ N 123°24.84′ W (b) A traffic lane for northbound traffic between the separation zone...

  18. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Western lanes. 167.1311 Section 167.1311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic. (1) The traffic lane is established between...

  19. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Northern lanes. 167.1313 Section 167.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W (b) A traffic lane for southbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  20. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Southern lanes. 167.1312 Section 167.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W 48°10.99′ N 123°24.84′ W (b) A traffic lane for northbound traffic between the separation zone...

  1. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Eastern lanes. 167.1314 Section 167.1314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for westbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Western lanes. 167.1311 Section 167.1311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic. (1) The traffic lane is established between...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Northern lanes. 167.1313 Section 167.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W (b) A traffic lane for southbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  4. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Northern lanes. 167.1313 Section 167.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W (b) A traffic lane for southbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  5. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Western lanes. 167.1311 Section 167.1311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic. (1) The traffic lane is established between...

  6. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Eastern lanes. 167.1314 Section 167.1314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for westbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  7. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Eastern lanes. 167.1314 Section 167.1314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for westbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  8. 33 CFR 167.1311 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Western lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Western lanes. 167.1311 Section 167.1311 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Western lanes. In the western lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic. (1) The traffic lane is established between...

  9. 33 CFR 167.1314 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Eastern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Eastern lanes. 167.1314 Section 167.1314 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Eastern lanes. In the eastern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are established...′ W (b) A traffic lane for westbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  10. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Southern lanes. 167.1312 Section 167.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W 48°10.99′ N 123°24.84′ W (b) A traffic lane for northbound traffic between the separation zone...

  11. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Northern lanes. 167.1313 Section 167.1313 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W (b) A traffic lane for southbound traffic between the separation zone and a line connecting...

  12. 33 CFR 167.1312 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Southern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Southern lanes. 167.1312 Section 167.1312 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Fuca: Southern lanes. In the southern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following are...′ W 48°10.99′ N 123°24.84′ W (b) A traffic lane for northbound traffic between the separation zone...

  13. Last Glacial - Holocene stratigraphic development at the Marmara Sea exit of the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köprülü, Kerem; Alpar, Bedri; Vardar, Denizhan

    2016-03-01

    High resolution Chirp and Sparker data allowed definition and mapping of distinct seismic units in the shallow sediment record (~100 ms) acquired from the southern exit of the Bosphorus Strait; a dynamic depositional environment. The bottommost unit observed in the Chirp data (unit-3) is made up of marine-lacustrine sediments thinning seaward and onlaps the basement rocks which are represented by folded strata in the Sparker data, possibly lower to middle Pleistocene age. It is overlain by a series of prograding deposits along the shelf (unit-2) referring to sediment input from the northern sector depending on the water levels of the paleo Marmara lake's during MIS 3. The uppermost deposits (unit-1) close to the Bosphorus Strait were represented by three separate subunits, unlike to relatively thin drape of sediments observed at the other places in the surrounding regions. The detailed definition of these subunits deduced from the closely-spaced reflection profiles and available radiocarbon ages helped to explain the history of the latest stratigraphic development depending on the connections between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. In addition to the previously proposed major conduits, which controlled the sedimentary deposition at the southern exit of the Bosphorus, namely the Bosphorus Strait and Kurbağalıdere River, another submarine sedimentary pathway at the eastern bank of the strait's channel seems to have delivered sediments directly into the basin.

  14. 33 CFR 100.1307 - Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2nd. 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. 100.1307 Section 100.1307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1307 Special Local Regulations, Strait Thunder Performance, Port Angeles, WA. (a) Regulated...

  15. Solar forcing of Florida Straits surface salinity during the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Matthew W.; Weinlein, William A.; Marcantonio, Franco; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies showed that sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Florida Straits as well as Florida Current transport covaried with changes in North Atlantic climate over the past two millennia. However, little is known about earlier Holocene hydrographic variability in the Florida Straits. Here, we combine Mg/Ca-paleothermometry and stable oxygen isotope measurements on the planktonic foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber (white variety) from Florida Straits sediment core KNR166-2 JPC 51 (24° 24.70' N, 83° 13.14' W, 198 m deep) to reconstruct a high-resolution (˜25 yr/sample) early to mid Holocene record of sea surface temperature and δ18OSW (a proxy for SSS) variability. After removing the influence of global δ18OSW change due to continental ice volume variability, we find that early Holocene SSS enrichments are associated with increased evaporation/precipitation ratios in the Florida Straits during periods of reduced solar forcing, increased ice rafted debris in the North Atlantic and the development of more permanent El Niño-like conditions in the eastern equatorial Pacific. When considered with previous high-resolution reconstructions of Holocene tropical atmospheric circulation changes, our results provide evidence that variations in solar forcing over the early Holocene had a significant impact on the global tropical hydrologic cycle.

  16. A High-Resolution Modeling Study of the Bosphorus Strait Dynamics and Exchange Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sözer, Adil; Sannino, Gianmaria; Özsoy, Emin

    2013-04-01

    An all-time modelling challenge aims to establish a sound understanding of the high energy environment of the Turkish Straits System, relating to inter-basin water and material transports and their influence on the sensitive ecosystems of the adjacent seas. As a first step in this direction, well resolved, high level, physically representative predictive models of the Bosphorus Strait exchange flow hydrodynamics are developed, adequately representing its complex topography, hydraulic controls, dissipative hydraulic jumps, mixing and turbulence mechanisms, with the application of appropriate basin boundary and initial conditions and judiciously selected numerical and physical model options. Both the ROMS and MITgcm models are used and compared for performance. Idealized and real case model results successfully reproduce observed flow features. The unique maximal exchange regime of the Bosphorus Strait, with hydraulic controls are demonstrated, although frictional effects, especially of the highly irregular lateral boundaries, are found to be extremely important, associated with mixing and entrainment and nonlinear dynamics determining the two-way fluxes as a function of sea-level changes across the strait. The intercomparison of ROMS and MITgcm results are extremely satisfactory in the basic elements of the flow, except for some small differences.

  17. Sedimentological effects of strong southward flow in the Straits of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, W.D.; Richardson, M.J.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Periodic southerly currents along the western side of the Straits of Florida are sufficiently strong to erode the seafloor and create large sand waves and coral mounds up to several meters high. Mapping with side-looking sonar and visual observations from the Nuclear Research Submarine NR-1 show that the sand waves are confined to an area about 2 km wide, but over 70 km long. Southerly currents in excess of 50 cm s-1 were measured during our dives, and the size of the bedforms and grain size of sediments suggests currents could attain velocities of 100 cm s-1. The eastern boundary of the sand waves terminates abruptly with an erosional cliff or a series of erosional steps, grades to a zone of nondeposition and then to an area of sediment accumulation. In the central Straits are regions of ripples, megaripples and small coral mounds that indicate persistent flow to the north. Chemical as well as current erosion appears to be altering the seafloor on the southern side of the Northwest Providence Channel, which feeds into the Straits of Florida. Relict lithoherms are abundant in this channel, but they are much smaller than those observed further north in the Straits of Florida. Bedforms and current measurements show a strong northwest flow in the channel along the south wall. ?? 1989.

  18. Deep-sea Corals Reveal Present Temperature and Salinity Conditions in the Florida Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, A. D.; Swart, P. K.; Eberli, G. P.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Reed, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Non-zooxanthellate corals have been found to exist in large accumulations along the seafloor of the Straits of Florida. In order to further understand local environmental conditions impacting these corals, specimens were collected from three sites, west to east across the Straits at depths between 700m and 865m. Oceanographic conditions, including current and temperature regimes, differ between each of these sites. These differences are expected to be recorded in the geochemical signatures of the corals Lophelia pertusa, Enallopsammia profunda, and Keratoisis spp. The coral skeletons collected at each site have been sampled at a high resolution both parallel and perpendicular to the growth axis using a computerized micromill. The excised material was then analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes and minor/trace elemental ratio. Published modern deep-sea coral calibration equations for δ18O and Sr/Ca can be used to reconstruct temperature and salinity variability through time from individual coral specimens and across the Straits, ultimately relating the geochemical signatures to water masses. The calculated temperatures and salinity closely agree to the observed difference in temperature from west to east, and additional evidence of this trend is sought in the geochemistry of benthic foraminifera collected at these three sites. Collectively this data set provides an improved understanding of bottom water conditions and water mass movements through the Straits of Florida.

  19. SYNTHESIS OF BIOLOGICAL DATA FROM THE STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA AND NORTHERN PUGET SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the biological data collected during a 5-year research project, titled 'An Environmental Assessment of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca.' This report also incorporates biological data collected during a similar program conducted by the Wa...

  20. North Pacific Intermediate Water circulation enhanced by the closure of the Bering Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, Karla P.; Ravelo, Ana Christina

    2015-10-01

    The Bering Strait provides a shallow connection that allows freshwater to flow from the North Pacific into the North Atlantic, but this passage was closed during past glacials when sea level was at least 50 m lower than at present. Climate models investigating Bering Strait closure predict that this mechanism increases the salinity in the North Atlantic and reduces the salinity in the North Pacific, inducing a Pacific-Atlantic seesaw in meridional overturning circulation and poleward heat flux. However, the Pacific circulation response to Bering Strait closure, and thus the seesaw theory, has not been tested by long paleoceanographic records. We present long records of foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1342 in the Bering Sea, which provide the first evidence of enhanced North Pacific Intermediate Water when the Bering Strait was closed during each of the extreme glacials of the last 1.2 Myr. These results suggest that orbital-scale variations in North Pacific Intermediate Water are coherent and in phase with variations in upper North Atlantic Deep Water but are unrelated to changes in lower North Atlantic Deep Water. Together, these results provide evidence for systematic, orbital-scale variability in North Pacific Ocean circulation and may challenge the idea of an orbital-scale Pacific-Atlantic seesaw.

  1. The origins of the enigmatic Falkland Islands wolf.

    PubMed

    Austin, Jeremy J; Soubrier, Julien; Prevosti, Francisco J; Prates, Luciano; Trejo, Valentina; Mena, Francisco; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The origins of the extinct Falkland Islands wolf (FIW), Dusicyon australis, have remained a mystery since it was first recorded by Europeans in the seventeenth century. It is the only terrestrial mammal on the Falkland Islands (also known as the Malvinas Islands), which lie ~460 km from Argentina, leading to suggestions of either human-mediated transport or overwater dispersal. Previous studies used ancient DNA from museum specimens to suggest that the FIW diverged from its closest living relative, the South American maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) around 7 Ma, and colonized the islands ~330 ka by unknown means. Here we retrieve ancient DNA from subfossils of an extinct mainland relative, Dusicyon avus, and reveal the FIW lineage became isolated only 16 ka (8-31 ka), during the last glacial phase. Submarine terraces, formed on the Argentine coastal shelf by low sea-stands during this period, suggest that the FIW colonized via a narrow, shallow marine strait, potentially while it was frozen over. PMID:23462995

  2. Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Chua, Queena N.

    2000-01-01

    Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…

  3. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  4. Multidecadal freshening and lightening in the deep waters of the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotto, Tiago S.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Mata, Mauricio M.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2016-06-01

    The deep waters of the Bransfield Strait receive considerable amounts of water from the Weddell Sea continental shelf. The restricted connections to the surrounding ocean and relatively easier access makes the Bransfield Strait an important proxy region for monitoring changes in the dense Weddell Sea shelf water masses, which are an important precursor of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). Long-term hydrographic data from the period 1960s-2010s showed freshening and lightening of the deep water masses of the Bransfield Strait, which was likely caused by large freshwater inputs originating from the western shelf of the Weddell Sea. The rates of freshening and lightening were -0.0010 ± 0.0005 yr-1 and -0.0016 ± 0.0014 kg m-3 yr-1 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.0010 ± 0.0006 yr-1 and -0.0029 ± 0.0013 kg m-3 yr-1 for the eastern basin, respectively. The deep waters showed a high degree of interannual thermohaline variability, which appeared to be caused by changes in the proportions of source water mass mixing between the years. Statistically significant negative correlations between salinity/neutral density fields and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) were observed (-0.56 and -0.62 for the central basin, respectively, and -0.58 and -0.68 for the eastern basin, respectively) between 1980 and 2014. During SAM positive phases, communication between the Weddell Sea and the Bransfield Strait is reduced, which leads to less saline and lighter water masses in the Bransfield Strait; however, the opposite trends are observed during SAM negative phases.

  5. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2006-08-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large.

  6. Mediterranean waters along and across the Strait of Gibraltar, characterization and zonal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; García-Lafuente, Jesús; Bellanco, María J.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    Hydrological data collected in the Strait of Gibraltar have been used to examine the distribution and spatial-temporal evolution of the water masses in the area. The spatial variability has been addressed by means of a clustering method that determines the affinity of a collection of temperature-salinity samples to one of the water masses involved in the exchange. The method, which has been applied to a nearly-synoptic data set, highlights the clear evolution of the Mediterranean Waters as they flow westward through the Strait. While up to four different Mediterranean Waters are spatially distinguishable east of the main sill of Camarinal in the Strait, most of their differentiating characteristics are eroded after flowing over this restrictive topography due to mixing. West of the sill, therefore, speaking of a unique Mediterranean Water seems more appropriate. The same applies to the North Atlantic Central Water flowing in the opposite direction, which is noticeably modified along its path to the Mediterranean Sea, most of its transformation taking place in the Camarinal sill surroundings. A series of repeated transects carried out in the eastern and western sides of the Strait, provided a temporal analysis of the water masses evolution: the temporal variability manifests seasonality in the surface waters, while interannual signal is mainly detected in the deeper water masses. It is worth remarking the statistically significant positive trend of Western Mediterranean Deep Water (0.009 °C/year) and Winter Intermediate Water (0.03 °C/year), with the latter showing also intermittent occurrence in the Strait.

  7. Chlorophyll maxima and water mass interfaces: Tidally induced dynamics in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, D.; Lubián, L. M.; Echevarría, F.; Huertas, I. E.; García, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    A conceptual model proposing the distribution and dynamics of water masses and chlorophyll maxima according to tidal cycle is presented for the Strait of Gibraltar. The proposal is based on the analysis of data registered in a section along the strait at different stages of the tidal cycle. Basic water characteristics were established from CTD casts combined with bottle sampling. Composition and nature of the phytoplankton assemblage were studied by analysis of chlorophyll, pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry, flow cytometry and light microscopy analyses. The usual occurrence of deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) linked to pycnoclines and/or water mass interfaces draws complicate patterns in the Gibraltar region, as three water masses (SAW, MOW and NACW) meet in the upper layers of the water column. The results indicate that the chlorophyll maxima found in the channel of the strait are not homogeneous and could be classified into at least three types: Atlantic maxima, linked to the SAW-NACW interface; suction maxima, present only in the SAW-MOW interface and deep maxima, associated with the transition NACW-MOW on the eastern side of the strait. These chlorophyll maxima are strongly associated with the different water mass interfaces and, even more, to a specific water density following the movement of these water mass interfaces, which is forced mainly by the tidal amplitude in this area. This study also adds new elements supporting the hypothesis that some of the pulsating chlorophyll patches observed in the strait could have a coastal origin, as their characteristics were clearly different from those of other chlorophyll maxima detected in the channel but originating in the open sea.

  8. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Breaking Britain: submerged and buried landforms suggest catastrophic flood breaching of the Dover Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Collier, J.; Garcia, D.; Oggioni, F.; Trentesaux, A.; Vanneste, K.; De Batist, M. A. O.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2015-12-01

    The separation of Britain from mainland Europe in the late Quaternary is widely considered to be a consequence of spillover of a proglacial lake that occupied the present-day southern North Sea basin. This event had significant palaeogeographic, biological and archaeological implications. Lake spillover is inferred to have caused breaching of a Chalk rock dam to form the Dover Strait, thus releasing a significant flood into a subaerial English Channel. Whilst evidence for catastrophic flooding derived from sonar imaging of the seabed in the central Channel is strong, the breaching model is controversial through lack of data at the inferred spillpoint in the Dover Strait. We combine high-resolution sonar-derived bathymetry and seismic reflection data from the eastern English Channel to test the breaching hypothesis. We find a set of isolated, sediment-infilled depressions that are deeply incised into bedrock. Sub-circular to elliptical in planform, <4 kilometres in diameter and ~100 m in depth, these features are clustered along the projected trend of the Chalk dam and best interpreted as giant plunge pools formed by vertical drilling into bedrock by waterfalls. Bathymetric data show evidence of second opening event of the Strait. The floor of a prominent bedrock channel is eroded into cataracts and extensive longitudinal ridge-and-groove bedforms, features characteristic of erosion by catastrophic flood flows. This evidence strongly supports initial erosion of the Dover Strait by lake overspill, plunge pool erosion by waterfalls and subsequent dam breaching. Subsequent modification of the Strait by flood erosion of the Lobourg Channel may have been a consequence of spillover of younger ice-marginal lake systems.

  10. Low-frequency fluctuations in the Indonesian throughflow through Lombok Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arief, Dharma; Murray, Stephen P.

    1996-05-01

    A significant component of the Indonesian throughflow, apparently about 25%, passes through the Lombok Strait. Direct observations in 1985 reported a ˜2 Sv annual average, with an annual cycle of amplitude ˜2 Sv. There are also significant fluctuations in this transport in the 0.01-0.1 cpd frequency band. Shallow pressure gauge data (sea level) inside the strait during the current meter observations were of limited use in explaining the large fluctuations in currents. Sea level data at Cilacap, 720 km west (upcoast), however, overlap the current observations for 5 months and correlate exceedingly well (r = 0.87) with the observations inside the strait at these frequencies. These sea level oscillations in the Indian Ocean force fluctuations in the Lombok throughflow that reach 50-70 cm/s, equivalent to 2-3 Sv. Lagged regression analysis indicates Cilacap sea level leads Lombok currents by 1-2 days, suggesting a low-frequency, progressive wave. Simultaneous data in 1989 from four stations extending from the near-equatorial station at Padang at 1°S to Benoa in the Lombok Strait (2000 km downcoast) clearly show the persistent propagation of low-frequency waves of 20- to 40-cm range along this coast. Lagged correlation on station pairs indicates a phase speed consistent with coastally trapped internal Kelvin waves. We speculate that further eastward progression of these waves to the Timor Passage of Ombai Strait will further modulate the throughflow. The forcing of these waves is not yet identified, but it appears likely that intraseasonal oscillations in the equatorial Indian Ocean winds, as demonstrated by Enfield [1987] for the Pacific, are a probable mechanism. Improved wind data quality in 1991 due to the assimilation of satellite data (special sensor microwave/imager) will allow investigation of remote forcing on more recent data sets.

  11. Composition and fluxes of freshwater through Davis Strait using multiple chemical tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Petrie, Brian; Yeats, Philip; Lee, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Freshwater transport through Davis Strait can supply additional buoyancy to the deep convection region of the Labrador Sea which influences the strength of the meridional overturning circulation and consequently the global climate. The freshwater contribution from local sea ice meltwater, meteoric water (fluvial, glaciofluvial and precipitation) and the Arctic outflow were quantified using oxygen isotope composition (δ18O), salinity and nutrient relationships in September-October, 2004. Freshwater transported by the Arctic outflow was isolated using a modified nutrient relationship method and further deconvoluted into sea ice meltwater, meteoric water and Pacific water. For the first time, fluxes of individual freshwater components were estimated using observations of the velocity field derived from mooring arrays and geostrophic currents from hydrography. The Arctic outflow dominated in western Davis Strait (>60%) and its influence extended eastward close to the Greenland Slope. The sea ice meltwater fraction was small (<2%) and limited to the surface layer of the central and western Strait. The meteoric water fraction was highest on the Greenland Shelf (>6%) and attributed to glacial meltwater. The freshwater inventory of the 0-100 m layer was equivalent to 7.4 m in western Davis Strait: 8 m from the Arctic outflow and -0.6 m from brine rejection. In eastern Davis Strait, the freshwater inventory was 4 m: 3 m from meteoric water and 1 m from sea ice meltwater. The Arctic outflow contributed 82-99 mSv to the southward freshwater transport about 67-81% of the total; glacial meltwater contributed the largest northward transport of 10-30 mSv.

  12. The Two Branches of the Recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Schauer, Ursula; Hattermann, Tore; Albretsen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard is one of the two gateways by which warm Atlantic Water enters the Arctic Ocean providing oceanic heat. The West Spitsbergen Current advects the warm water northward in the eastern Fram Strait. However, only some of this water stays in the boundary current and enters the Arctic Ocean. Another part leaves the boundary current and flows westward across Fram Strait before turning southward in the East Greenland Current. This recirculation of Atlantic Water corresponds with the ice edge in Fram Strait and the two likely depend on each other. Here we present results from a high resolution regional numerical model that shows the recirculation to consist of two branches. The northern branch depends on eddy fluxes while the southern branch exhibits less high frequency variability. We also present a compilation of different observational data in the center of Fram Strait around 0°EW that give insight into the structure of the southern recirculation branch near the ice edge. A glider section resolves the small horizontal scale over which the geostrophic flow occurs. Several meridional CTD sections capture the differences and similarities between different summers. Moorings and Argo floats provide information in winter as well. These observations are compared to the representation of the recirculation in the numerical model. We show that the southern recirculation occurs over a small horizontal distance of about 20km in the vicinity of 79°N and is significantly stronger in winter than in summer. While there is cold freshwater at the surface north of the front, the temperature down to 500m is much higher in the recirculation than further south.

  13. Culture and Apology: The Hainan Island Incident . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2001-01-01

    Studies the dynamic relationship between language, culture, and ideology by examining the recent "apology controversy" between the People's Republic of China and the United States over the U.S. surveillance plane entering Chinese airspace and landing on Hainan Island and the loss of a Chinese pilot. (Author/VWL)

  14. Theory and Research on Bullying and Racism from an Aboriginal Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; Paradies, Yin; Parada, Roberto; Denson, Nida; Priest, Naomi; Bansel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of research on the impact of bullying and racism on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples within Australia. The overarching emphasis was on the variety of physical, social, mental, and educational outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and youth, whilst also critiquing the prevailing…

  15. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  16. The Glacial and Relative Sea Level History of Southern Banks Island, NT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Jessica Megan

    The mapping and dating of surficial glacial landforms and sediments across southern Banks Island document glaciation by the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the last glacial maximum. Geomorphic landforms confirm the operation of an ice stream at least 1000 m thick in Amundsen Gulf that was coalescent with thin, cold-based ice crossing the island's interior, both advancing offshore onto the polar continental shelf. Raised marine shorelines across western and southern Banks Island are barren, recording early withdrawal of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream prior to the resubmergence of Bering Strait and the re-entry of Pacific molluscs ~13,750 cal yr BP. This withdrawal resulted in a loss of ~60,000 km2 of ice --triggering drawdown from the primary northwest LIS divide and instigating changes in subsequent ice flow. The Jesse moraine belt on eastern Banks Island records a lateglacial stillstand and/or readvance of Laurentide ice in Prince of Wales Strait (13,750 -- 12,750 cal yr BP). Fossiliferous raised marine sediments that onlap the Jesse moraine belt constrain final deglaciation to ~12,600 cal yr BP, a minimum age for the breakup of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream. The investigation of a 30 m thick and 6 km wide stratigraphic sequence at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, identifies an advance of the ancestral LIS during the Mid-Pleistocene (sensu lato), substantially diversifying the glacial record on Banks Island. Glacial ice emplaced during this advance has persisted through at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, demonstrating the resilience of circumpolar permafrost. Pervasive deformation of the stratigraphic sequence also records a detailed history of glaciotectonism in proglacial and subglacial settings that can result from interactions between cold-based ice and permafrost terrain. This newly recognized history rejects the long-established paleoenvironmental model of Worth Point that assumed a simple 'layer-cake' stratigraphy.

  17. Small population size and extremely low levels of genetic diversity in island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus

    PubMed Central

    Furlan, Elise; Stoklosa, J; Griffiths, J; Gust, N; Ellis, R; Huggins, R M; Weeks, A R

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity generally underpins population resilience and persistence. Reductions in population size and absence of gene flow can lead to reductions in genetic diversity, reproductive fitness, and a limited ability to adapt to environmental change increasing the risk of extinction. Island populations are typically small and isolated, and as a result, inbreeding and reduced genetic diversity elevate their extinction risk. Two island populations of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, exist; a naturally occurring population on King Island in Bass Strait and a recently introduced population on Kangaroo Island off the coast of South Australia. Here we assessed the genetic diversity within these two island populations and contrasted these patterns with genetic diversity estimates in areas from which the populations are likely to have been founded. On Kangaroo Island, we also modeled live capture data to determine estimates of population size. Levels of genetic diversity in King Island platypuses are perilously low, with eight of 13 microsatellite loci fixed, likely reflecting their small population size and prolonged isolation. Estimates of heterozygosity detected by microsatellites (HE= 0.032) are among the lowest level of genetic diversity recorded by this method in a naturally outbreeding vertebrate population. In contrast, estimates of genetic diversity on Kangaroo Island are somewhat higher. However, estimates of small population size and the limited founders combined with genetic isolation are likely to lead to further losses of genetic diversity through time for the Kangaroo Island platypus population. Implications for the future of these and similarly isolated or genetically depauperate populations are discussed. PMID:22837830

  18. Outside influences on the water column of Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, Jeannette M.; Vagle, Svein; Klymak, Jody M.; Williams, William J.; Curry, Beth; Lee, Craig M.

    2015-07-01

    Cumberland Sound, host to a commercially viable fish population in the deepest depths, is a large embayment on the southeast coast of Baffin Island that opens to Davis Strait. Conductivity, temperature, and depth profiles were collected during three summer field seasons (2011-2013), and two moorings were deployed during 2011-2012. Within the sound, salinity increases with increasing depth while water temperature cools reaching a minimum of -1.49°C at roughly 100 m. Below 100 m, the water becomes both warmer and saltier. Temperature-salinity curves for each year followed a similar pattern, but the entire water column in Cumberland Sound cooled from 2011 to 2012, and then warmed through the summer of 2013. Even though the sound's maximum depth is over a kilometer deeper than its sill, water in the entire sound is well oxygenated. A comparison of water masses within the sound and in Davis Strait shows that, above the sill, the sound is flooded with cold Baffin Island Current water following an intermittent geostrophic flow pattern entering the sound along the north coast and leaving along the south. Below the sill, replenishment is infrequent and includes water from both the Baffin Island Current and the West Greenland Current. Deep water replenishment occurred more frequently on spring tides, especially in the fall of 2011. Although the sound's circulation is controlled by outside currents, internal water modifying processes occur such as estuarine flow and wind-driven mixing.

  19. Hydrochanges Gibraltar Campaign - characterization of Mediterranean Outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Taupier Letage, Isabel; Naranjo Rosa, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The precise characterization of the Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar is a very well know issue although a question rather far to be resolved completely. Many scientific efforts have been invested to try to define the exact composition and evolution of the Mediterranean waters (MWs) raising at the entrance of the strait and crossing one of the most dynamically active site of the worldwide oceans. In the framework of the Hydrochanges European programme, the "Gibraltar International Campaign" was carried out onboard the R/V Tethys II by the French Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) in June 2012, with the chance to perform a series of high-resolution CTD meridional transects. The instrument used is a Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP), a towed free-falling CTD, which enables a very high spatial resolution semi-autonomous monitoring of the column water. This work presents the hydrological data set retrieved in the campaign and proposes their usage as tool for the characterization of the composition and the evolution of the Mediterranean outflow along the strait. Two main assumptions are discussed: the generally accepted hypothesis of only two main Mediterranean waters crossing the strait, the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW), and the novel theory, principally supported by the MIO group since last years, of the presence of up to four Mediterranean waters raising at the strait entrance: two intermediate waters, the LIW and the Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) and a further dense water, the Tyrrhenian Deep Water (TDW) flanking the WMDW. In both cases the mixing within these MWs and between them and the Atlantic inflowing waters, namely the Surface Atlantic Water (SAW) and the North Atlantic Central Water (NACW), are analyzed and discussed. A classical mixing triangle approach is proposed for the first assumption, with the definition of a third vertex as a general Atlantic water, and a novel approach

  20. Dynamics of circulation off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, B. K.; Holloway, G.

    1996-10-01

    The Princeton Ocean Model (Blumberg and Mellor,1987) is used to examine dynamical balances in the summer and winter three-dimensional circulation along the west coast of Vancouver Island. The model is initialized with horizontally averaged temperature and salinity over a domain 445 km alongshore by 145 km cross-shore. Forcing is by uniform summer and winter winds and by discharge from Juan de Fuca Strait. A topographic stress parameterization (Eby and Holloway, 1994) is included. In the absence of topographic stress and Juan de Fuca discharge, wind-forced summer circulation is dominated by equatorward flow over the shelf and slope. With topographic stress included, poleward coastal flow develops over the shelf and shelfbreak with a transition zone between poleward and equatorward flow over the slope. When the buoyancy forcing is introduced, an eddy is developed off the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait. Winter circulation tends to be poleward for all combinations of wind, buoyancy and topographic stress forcings. These results agree qualitatively with observations.

  1. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  2. T-PAH contamination in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) at various stations of the Turkish Straits System.

    PubMed

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur; Aksu, Abdullah; Balkıs, Nuray; Öztürk, Bayram

    2014-11-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Turkish Straits Systems were analyzed for sixteen parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This marine organism was selected because of its multitude, wide distribution, being bio indicator for the pollution and consumption by humans. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 589 μg g(-1) in Istanbul Strait, 0.94-36.4 μg g(-1) in Marmara Sea and 0.4-47.9 μg g(-1) in Çanakkale Strait during the samplings. According to the results Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits are more polluted than the Marmara Sea. PMID:25240742

  3. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Ivanov, Boris V.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Falk-Petersen, Stig

    2015-03-01

    Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC was significantly higher (more than 3-fold) compared to Atlantic water in the WSC, with values of absorption coefficient, aCDOM(350), m- 1 of 0.565 ± 0.100 (in 2009) and 0.458 ± 0.117 (in 2010), and 0.138 ± 0.036 (in 2009) and 0.153 ± 0.039 (in 2010), respectively. An opposite pattern was observed for particle absorption with higher absorption found in the eastern part of the Fram Strait. Average values of particle absorption (aP(440), m- 1) were 0.016 ± 0.013 (in 2009) and 0.014 ± 0.011 (in 2010), and 0.047 ± 0.012 (in 2009) and 0.016 ± 0.014 (in 2010), respectively for Polar and Atlantic water. Thus absorption of light in eastern part of the Fram Strait is dominated by particles - predominantly phytoplankton, and the absorption of light in the western part of the strait is dominated by CDOM, with predominantly terrigenous origin. As a result the balance between the importance of CDOM and particulates to the total absorption budget in the upper 0-10 m shifts across Fram Strait. Under water spectral irradiance profiles were generated using ECOLIGHT 5.4.1 and the results indicate that the shift in composition between dissolved and particulate material does not influence substantially the penetration of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the

  4. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, I. E.; Ríos, A. F.; García-Lafuente, J.; Makaoui, A.; Rodríguez-Gálvez, S.; Sánchez-Román, A.; Orbi, A.; Ruíz, J.; Pérez, F. F.

    2009-04-01

    The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series) has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT) was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of -0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr-1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr-1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr-1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches considered for CANT estimation

  5. Recent advancements on modelling the exchange flow dynamics through the Turkish Strait System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannino, Gianmaria; Sözer, Adil; Özsoy, Emin

    2014-05-01

    The system composed by the two narrow Straits, Dardanelles and Bosphorus, and the Marmara Sea is known as the Turkish Straits System (TSS). The scientific questions on the role of the TSS in coupling the adjacent basins of the Mediterranean and Black Seas with highly contrasting properties, in a region of high climatic variability and materials transport depending critically on the cycle of water can only be answered by model predictions of the processes that determine the integral properties of the coupled sub-systems. This can only be achieved if the entire TSS is modeled as a finely resolved integral system that appropriately accounts for the high contrasts in seawater properties, steep topography, hydraulic controls, fine and meso-scale turbulence, nonlinear and non-hydrostatic effects, thermodynamic states and an active free-surface in the fullest extent, based on well represented fluid dynamical principles. In this study the MITgcm is used at very high resolution to study this extreme environment that needs to be represented as a whole and with the full details of its highly contrasting properties. The model domain chosen extends over the entire TSS, including also part of the north-east Aegean Sea at south, and the Black Sea at north of the domain. A non-uniform curvilinear orthogonal grid covers the domain at variable resolution: from less than 50 m in the two Straits up to about 1 Km in the Marmara Sea. To adequately resolve the complex hydraulic dynamics of the TSS, the model grid is made by 100 vertical z-levels. The model is initialized with three different water masses filling the western part of the domain, the Marmara Sea and the eastern side of the domain respectively, with vertical profiles selected from CTD casts obtained during the cruise of the R/V BİLİM of the Institute of Marine Sciences in June-July 2013. With the initial condition specified as lock-exchanges at the two straits, the model is left free to adjust to the expected two

  6. Glider observations of oceanic conditions in the Fram Strait, 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sagen, Hanne; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Latarius, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    The Fram Strait is the deepest gateway to the Arctic Ocean (2600 m sill depth), and a crucial pathway for exchange of heat and freshwater between the Arctic and the rest of the world ocean. The region is important for studying changes in the Arctic Ocean and possible feedback mechanisms between the ocean and sea ice. In order to monitor volume, heat and freshwater exchanges between the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean, the Alfred Wegener Institute and the North Polar Institute have been maintaining an oceanographic mooring array along 78°50'N since 1997. The Fram Strait is characterized by strong variability in temperature, salinity and currents on time and spatial scales corresponding to oceanic mesoscale phenomena. This makes estimation of long-term fluxes difficult. In order to improve monitoring the Fram Strait ocean observing system was extended by a multi-purpose acoustic system for thermometry, passive acoustics, and glider navigation between 2008 and 2012 as part of the ACOBAR project. Acoustic thermometry provides depth range averaged ocean temperature at a high temporal resolution. To improve the spatial resolution of the monitoring system Seagliders were deployed in Fram Strait for a few months at a time following a quasi-zonal transect and profiling down to 1000 m. We present analysis of hydrographic data from the Seagliders operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in the Fram Strait between 2008 and 2012. During eight glider missions physical oceanography data were collected along repeated sections south of the mooring array. In addition to the directly measured hydrographic data (conductivity, temperature, and pressure), depth-averaged current velocities are derived from glider displacements. Data from the five summer (July-September) and three autumn (September-November) glider missions are used to make year-to-year comparisons of vertical temperature and salinity profiles in the upper 1000 m of the water column. Glider section data show a high

  7. Mixing it up in the Makassar Strait: Seasonal Reconstructions from Corals of Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity Allow for Records of Source Water Mixing in the Makassar Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murty, S. A.; Goodkin, N.; Halide, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Suprinhanto, I.; Prayudi, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian seas provide a maze of passages through which relatively warm and fresh water flows from the equatorial Pacific to the Indian Ocean forming the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). As it flows, the ITF provides a transport pathway affecting heat and buoyancy fluxes throughout the region, interacting with both the Asian monsoon and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present and past behavior of the ITF is therefore one of the keys to understanding regional and global climate variability. Past ITF behavior has been previously recorded in massive coral colonies, which serve as continuous, high-resolution climate archives because of their high linear extension rates and annual banding pattern. Here we present Sr/Ca-SST and δ18O-SSS calibrations from three Porites spp. coral colonies located in the southern Makassar Strait, through which roughly 75-80% of all ITF waters flow. At interannual timescales, we find that in all three corals Sr/Ca significantly (all p-values<0.05) correlates with sea surface temperature (SST) during the SE monsoon from July to September, while δ18O is correlated with sea surface salinity (SSS) during the NW monsoon from December to March (all p-values<0.05). HADI SST and SODA SSS instrumental temperature-salinity diagrams from our coral sites indicate that the southern Makassar Strait is a region of surface seawater mixing between end member water masses of the ITF during the SE monsoon. During the NW monsoon, however, end members of the South China Sea Throughflow (SCSTF) instead mix in the surface waters. The strength of our interannual calibrations suggests that it may be possible to reconstruct the ITF and SCSTF surface mixing patterns during their respective monsoon seasons. To preliminarily assess this, we present 150-year seasonally resolved records of Sr/Ca and δ18O to reconstruct surface water mixing in the southern Makassar Strait.

  8. Modelling the upwelling offthe east Hainan Island coast in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Gu, Yanzhen; Li, Peiliang; Wu, Kejian

    2016-03-01

    A synoptic-scale upwelling event that developed offthe east coast of the Hainan Island (EHIU) in the summer of 2010 is defined well via processing the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) data. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with high spatial resolution has been used to investigate this upwelling event. By comparing the ROMS results against tide station data, Argo float profiles and MODIS SST, it is confirmed that the ROMS reproduces the EHIU well. The cooler-water core (CWC) distinguished by waters < 27.5°C in the EHIU, which occurred in the east Qiongzhou Strait mouth area and was bounded by a high temperature gradient, was the focus of this paper. Vertical structure of the CWC suggests that interaction between the westward flow and the bathymetry slope played a significant role in the formation of CWC. Numerical experiments indicated that the westward flow in the Qiongzhou Strait was the result of tidal rectification over variable topography (Shi et al., 2002), thus tides played a critical role on the development of the CWC. The negative wind stress curl that dominated the east Qiongzhou Strait mouth area suppressed the intensity of the CWC by 0.2-0.4°C. Further, nonlinear interaction between tidal currents and wind stress enhanced vertical mixing greatly, which would benefit the development of the CWC.

  9. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  10. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  11. Rapid fluctuations of the Laurentide Ice Sheet at the mouth of Hudson Strait: New evidence for ocean/ice-sheet interactions as a control on the Younger Dryas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gifford H.; Kaufman, Darrell S.

    1990-12-01

    Ice-directional features and erratic lithologies of the last glaciation demonstrate that a major outlet glacier of the Laurentide Ice Sheet flowed NNE across outer Hudson Strait rather than SE down the Strait as previously hypothesized. Ice advanced more than 600 km from a Labradorean source, crossing Hudson Strait and outer Frobisher Bay, and advancing onto Hall Peninsula; the highest summits on Loks Land (circa 400 m asl), a large island at the SE tip of Hall Peninsula, were inundated by Labradorean ice. Three distinct Late Wisconsin advances have been recognized. The earliest, most extensive advance crossed Frobisher about 11.5 kyr B.P. and was maintained for circa 1 kyr. Differences in the extent of amino acid racemization in shells from interstadial and deglacial sites on eastern Loks Land limit the duration of the most extensive Late Wisconsin advance(s) to a brief interval of no more than 2 kyr. Radiocarbon dates on in situ shells and on shells incorporated in till indicate that Frobisher Bay was ice-free from at least 10.5 to 10.2 kyr B.P. after which a second Labradorean advance, the Gold Cove readvance, attained nearly the same extent as the earlier advance. The readvance was short lived, and the Bay was deglaciated before 9.5 kyr B.P. A final readvance occurred during the Cockburn Substage (9 to 8 kyr B.P.), but ice failed to cross Frobisher Bay. The maximum extent of the Labradorean advance coincides with the onset of Younger Dryas cooling. Based on a minimum cross-sectional area and reasonable estimates of ice velocity, the iceberg flux to the North Atlantic Ocean at this time was between 300 to 2400 km³ year-1, about the same as the freshwater influx from the diversion of Lake Agassiz drainage to the St. Lawrence. The input of a significant volume of ice into the North Atlantic via the Labrador Sea would have cooled sea surface and air temperatures, increased sea-surface albedo, and diminished the effectiveness of wind mixing of surface waters

  12. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge. PMID:26234178

  13. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  14. Comparison of Indonesian Throughflow transport observations, Makassar Strait to eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranes, Kevin; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2005-05-01

    The Pacific to Indian Ocean transport within the passageways of the Indonesian seas (ITF) varies on interannual and longer time scales associated with ENSO, the Asian monsoons and interannual climate variability of the Indian Ocean. Although direct current measurements of the ITF are of limited duration, none long enough to properly describe greater than annual variability of the ITF, observations indicate that the bulk of the ITF passes through Makassar Strait. The repeat expendable bathythermograph (XBT) IX1 section begun in 1983 provides the longest time series of the full ITF introduced into the Indian Ocean between northwest Australia and Java. We find that the surface to 600 dbar Makassar Strait transport, as measured by current meter moorings from December 1996 to July 1998, correlates at r = 0.77 +/- 0.14 with the geostrophic transport constructed from IX1 XBT data for that time interval, with a 98 day lag.

  15. Investigating the influence of sea level oscillations in the Danish Straits on the Baltic Sea dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonova, Natalia; Gusev, Anatoly; Diansky, Nikolay; Zakharchuk, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    In this research, we study the influence of dynamic processes in the Danish Straits on the sea surface height (SSH) oscillations in the Baltic Sea. For this purpose, we use the model of marine and oceanic circulation INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model). The simulations were carried out for the period 2009-2010, and the coastal station data were used for verification of SSH modelling quality. Comparison of the simulated data with the ones measured in the coastal points showed us that the model does not describe SSH variability in different areas of the Baltic Sea well enough, so in the following simulation series the in situ SSH data of the coastal measurements were assimilated at the open boundary in the Danish Straits. The results of the new simulation showed us that this approach significantly increases the SSH simulation quality in all areas of the sea, where the comparison was made. In particular, the correlation coefficients between the simulated and measured SSH data increased from 0.21-0.73 to 0.81-0.90. On the basis of these results, it has been suggested that the Baltic Sea SSH variability is largely determined by the influence of the dynamic processes in the Danish Straits, which can be represented as a superposition of oscillations of different space-time scales. These oscillations can either be generated in the straits themselves, or propagate from the North Sea. For verification of this hypothesis and assessment of the oscillation propagation distance in the Baltic Sea, the following experiment was performed. At the open boundary in the Danish Straits, the six harmonics were set with the following parameters: the periods are 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 13.5, 40.5, and 121.5 days, and the amplitude for all the harmonics is 50 cm. The results showed us that the prescribed harmonic oscillations at the open boundary propagate into all areas of the sea without changing the frequency, but with decreasing amplitude. The decrease in amplitude is not

  16. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  17. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Cryptic speciation in a benthic isopod from Patagonian and Falkland Island waters and the impact of glaciations on its population structure

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Florian; Kop, Anna; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Held, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background The Falkland Islands and Patagonia are traditionally assigned to the Magellan Biogeographic Province. Most marine species in Falkland waters are also reported from southern Patagonia. It remains unclear if relatively immobile, marine benthic, shallow-water species maintain gene flow, and by what mechanism. Recurrent fluctuations in sea level during glacial cycles are regarded as a possible mechanism that might have allowed genetic exchange between the regions. However, the realized genetic exchange between the Falkland Islands and Patagonia has never been estimated. Results This study analyses the genetic structure of three populations of the marine shallow-water isopod Serolis paradoxa (Fabricius, 1775) from the Falkland Islands and southern Patagonia (central Strait of Magellan and the Atlantic opening) applying seven nuclear microsatellites and a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Both marker systems report highest genetic diversity for the population from the central Strait of Magellan and lowest for the Falkland Islands. The estimated effective population sizes were large for all populations studied. Significant differentiation was observed among all three populations. The magnitude of differentiation between Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (16S: uncorrected p-distance 2.1%; microsatellites: standardized F'ST > 0.86) was an order of magnitude higher than between populations from within Patagonia. This indicates that there is currently no effective gene flow for nominal S. paradoxa between these two regions and it has been absent for time exceeding the last glacial maximum. We argue that specimens from the Strait of Magellan and the Falkland Islands very likely represent two distinct species that separated in the mid-Pleistocene (about 1 MY BP). Conclusion The results of this study indicate limited gene flow between distant populations of the brooding isopod Serolis paradoxa. The patterns of genetic diversity suggest that the only

  19. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in Fram Strait and associated ice volume fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpen, T.; Gerdes, R.; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; Herber, A.; Selyuzhenok, V.; Smedsrud, L.; Spreen, G.

    2016-03-01

    Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into the composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. A data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected during summer between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. The primary source of the surveyed sea ice leaving Fram Strait is the Laptev Sea and its age has decreased from 3 to 2 years between 1990 and 2012. The thickness data consistently also show a general thinning of sea ice for the last decade, with a decrease in modal thickness of second year and multiyear ice, and a decrease in mean thickness and fraction of ice thicker than 3 m. Local melting in the strait was investigated in two surveys performed in the downstream direction, showing a decrease in sea ice thickness of 0.19 m degree-1 latitude south of 81° N. Further north variability in ice thickness is more related to differences in age and deformation. The thickness observations were combined with ice area export estimates to calculate summer volume fluxes of sea ice. While satellite data show that monthly ice area export had positive trends since 1980 (10.9 × 103 km2 decade-1), the summer (July and August) ice area export is low with high uncertainties. The average volume export amounts to 16.78 km3. Naturally, the volume flux estimates are limited to the period when airborne thickness surveys are available. Nevertheless, we could show that the combination of satellite data and airborne observations can be used to determine volume fluxes through Fram Strait and as such, can be used to bridge the lack of satellite-based sea ice thickness information in summer.

  20. Numerical simulation of marine currents in the Bunaken Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Manongko, J. D. I.

    2016-04-01

    This study intended for the generation of hydroelectric power at suitable area of the strait in order to provide electric current to a close environment. The project uses a three-dimensional model of taking flow into account the variation of hydrostatic pressure in the liquid vertical layers. We brought back to a two-dimensional calculation using the shallow water equations. The objectives of the study are getting simultaneous obtaining the velocities of currents by the component of velocities and distributions of the kinetic energy from the numerical results. The Bunaken strait is 5280 m width for an average depth of 130 m. Numerical calculation is simulated using horizontal meshes of 60 side meters. The numerical solutions obtained by using a time step of one second. It found that there was no great difference between 2D and 3D numerical simulations because the effect of flow velocity in the vertical direction is very small. The numerical results have shown that the average current velocities when low and high tide currents are 1.46 m/s and 0.85 m/s respectively. The kinetic energy ranged from 0.01 to 2.54 kW/m2 when low and high tide in the Bunaken strait area at discharge of 1 Sv, whereas at discharge 2 Sv, 0.11-17.40 kW/m2 and 0.11-2.77 kW/m2 (when low and high tide currents). These results can used in the design of turbines for power generation marine currents in the Bunaken strait at depths below 60 meters.

  1. Population biology of coral trout species in eastern Torres Strait: Implications for fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ashley J.; Currey, Leanne M.; Begg, Gavin A.; Murchie, Cameron D.; Ballagh, Aaron C.

    2008-09-01

    Coral trout ( Plectropomus spp.) are the main target species for commercial fishers in the eastern Torres Strait Reef Line Fishery (ETS RLF). The four species of coral trout known to occur in Torres Strait: Plectropomus leopardus, Plectropomus maculatus, Plectropomus areolatus and Plectropomus laevis are currently managed as a single species in Torres Strait, as there is no species-specific biological information available for the region which could be used to assess whether species differ in their response to fishing pressure. The aim of our study was to determine whether it is appropriate (biologically) to manage coral trout in the ETS RLF as a single species group or whether different management arrangements are required for some species. We used catch data and biological data from samples collected by commercial fishers to examine the distribution within Torres Strait and estimate a range of biological parameters for P. leopardus, P. maculatus and P. areolatus. Insufficient P. laevis samples were collected to reliably examine this species. Results indicated that the population biology, particularly the reproductive biology, of P. areolatus was substantially different to both P. leopardus and P. maculatus. Although it is difficult to predict the response to fishing, P. areolatus may be more vulnerable to fishing than P. leopardus and P. maculatus, due to the larger size at sex change observed for this species and the very low proportion of males protected by the current minimum size limit. Therefore, while the common management arrangements for P. leopardus and P. maculatus appear to be adequate for these species, separate management arrangements are needed for the sustainable harvest of P. areolatus populations in the ETS. Specifically, we recommend the introduction of a maximum size limit for P. areolatus, in addition to the current minimum size limit, which may allow a proportion of males some protection from fishing.

  2. On the waters upstream of Nares Strait, Arctic Ocean, from 1991 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lique, Camille; Alkire, Matthew; Steele, Michael; Lee, Craig M.; Smethie, William M.; Schlosser, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The Lincoln Sea is a bifurcation point, where waters from the Canadian and Eurasian Basins flow to Nares or Fram Strait. Mechanisms that control which waters are found in the Lincoln Sea, and on its continental shelves, are unknown. Using conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD; from hydrographic and ice-tethered profiler surveys), nutrient, and mooring data with the DRAKKAR global 3-D coupled ocean/sea-ice model, the Lincoln Sea was examined from 1991 to 2012. Although both Pacific and Atlantic waters were observed on the North Ellesmere and North Greenland shelves, Atlantic water was shallower on the North Greenland shelf. Thus, deeper than 125 m, water was warmer and saltier on the North Greenland shelf than the North Ellesmere shelf. Three different water types were identified on the North Ellesmere shelf - waters from the Canadian Basin were observed 1992, 1993, 1996, 2005, and 2012, waters from both the Canadian and Eurasian Basins were observed in 2003, 2004, and 2008, and waters with no temperature minima or maxima below the surface mixed layer were observed in 1991, 2006, 2009, and 2010. Mixing with vertical advection speeds of 1×10-4 m s-1 were observed on the continental slope and this mixing could cause the disappearance of the temperature maxima. Model results suggest that currents on the North Ellesmere shelf were weak (less than 10 cm s-1), baroclinic, and directed away from Nares Strait while currents on the North Greenland shelf were stronger (less than 15 cm s-1), and primarily directed towards Nares Strait. CTD, mooring, and model results suggest that the water advected to Nares Strait is primarily from the North Greenland shelf while water on the North Ellesmere shelf is advected westward.

  3. An estimate of the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca transports: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, F.; Samah, A. A.; Ooi, S. H.; Chenoli, S. N.

    2015-02-01

    Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), this study aims to provide an estimate of the volume, freshwater, heat, and salt transports through the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca in the southern region of the South China Sea (SSCS). The modeling system is configured with two one-way nested domains representing parent and child with resolutions of 1/2 and 1/12°, respectively. The simulated currents, sea surface salinity, temperature and various transports (e.g., volume, heat, etc) agree well with the observed values as well as those estimated from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) re-analysis product. The ROMS estimated seasonal and mean annual transports are in accord with those calculated from SODA and those of limited observations. The ROMS estimates of mean annual volume, freshwater, heat and salt transports through the Sunda Shelf into the Java Sea are 0.32Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), 0.023 Sv, 0.032 PW (1 PW = 1015 j s-1), and 0.010 × 109 kg s-1 respectively. The corresponding ROMS estimates for mean annual transports through the Strait of Malacca into Andaman Sea are 0.14, 0.009 Sv, 0.014 PW, and 0.0043 × 109 kg s-1 respectively. The relative percentages of mean annual transports computed individually from those of volume, heat, salinity, and freshwater between the Strait of Malacca and the Sunda Shelf range from 39 to 43.8%. This reflects that the Strait of Malacca plays an equally significant role in the annual transports from the SSCS into the Andaman Sea.

  4. Deep Mediterranean Water footprint measured in the Strait of Gibraltar during the last decade.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo Rosa, Cristina; García Lafuente, Jesús; Sammartino, Simone; Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Deep Mediterranean Water is formed during winter in the Mediterranean Sea due to atmospheric cooling of salty Mediterranean waters. When it reaches the Strait of Gibraltar it finally flows westward into the Atlantic, from where it begins to descend the continental slope by gravity while it mixes with the overlying waters and becomes lighter. Far beyond the strait itself it maintains a recognizable signal and so affects the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic Ocean. Thus, the Strait of Gibraltar is the perfect site to monitor the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean Sea just before Mediterranean Waters incorporate to the Atlantic circulation. From October 2004 until today the Temperature and Salinity of the Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar have been monitored, resulting in a long-term temporal series with more than 11 years of measurements. A Conductivity-Temperature sensor is placed around 12 meters above the seafloor in the Espartel Sill (35°56'N 5°45'W), the last constriction the Mediterranean deep water finds before leaving the Mediterranean, and is configured to take measurements every 30 minutes. The instrument has been collecting data almost continuously from 2004, except for a 2.5 month gap in 2009 and a 5 months gap during 2011. This record allows the study of the long-term trend and the interannual changes occurring over the whole Mediterranean during the last 11 years. First results show a mean temperature of the deep Mediterranean waters of 13.20±0.06 °C and a mean salinity of 38.39±0.02. It is noteworthy the cold signals registered in 2006 and 2013, which could be the result of the severe winters of 2005 and 2012 in Europe, and the positive trend in 2015 toward warmer values. No significant trends have been found for the whole period. On the other hand, the time series exhibits a noticeable interannual variability that merits a deeper analysis.

  5. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  6. Effects of the Bering Strait closure on AMOC and global climate under different background climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Otto-Bliestner, Bette; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Rosenbloom, Nan

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the status of the Bering Strait may have a significant influence on global climate variability on centennial, millennial, and even longer time scales. Here we use multiple versions of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM, versions 2 and 3) to investigate the influence of the Bering Strait closure/opening on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and global mean climate under present-day, 15 thousand-year before present (kyr BP), and 112 kyr BP climate boundary conditions. Our results show that regardless of the version of the model used or the widely different background climates, the Bering Strait's closure produces a robust result of a strengthening of the AMOC, and an increase in the northward meridional heat transport in the Atlantic. As a consequence, the climate becomes warmer in the North Atlantic and the surrounding regions, but cooler in the North Pacific, leading to a seesaw-like climate change between these two basins. For the first time it is noted that the absence of the Bering Strait throughflow causes a slower motion of Arctic sea ice, a reduced upper ocean water exchange between the Arctic and North Atlantic, reduced sea ice export and less fresh water in the North Atlantic. These changes contribute positively to the increased upper ocean density there, thus strengthening the AMOC. Potentially these changes in the North Atlantic could have a significant effect on the ice sheets both upstream and downstream in ice age climate, and further influence global sea level changes.

  7. Distribution of macroalgae and seaweed in the Azov Sea, Kerch Strait, and Taman Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanian, O. V.

    2009-06-01

    The analysis of the macroalgae distribution along the salinity gradient in the Azov Sea, the Kerch strait, and Taman Bay during the summer allowed finding two macroalgae complexes. The first complex (brackish) is formed by algae belonging to the Enteromorpha, Cladophora, Rhizoclonium, and Chaetomorpha genera in the Taganrog Gulf. The second complex (marine) with dominating algae belonging to the Enteromorpha, Chaetomorpha, Ceramium, and Polysiphonia inhabits the littoral part of the Azov Sea itself, the Kerch Strait, and Taman Bay. The saprobe analysis of the flora showed that the majority of macroalgae species inhabiting the Azov Sea are represented by meso- and polysaprobes and a small number of oligosaprobe species inhabit the Kerch Strait. The biggest species diversity of macroalgae was noted in the southwestern part of the sea; the value of Shannon’s index was 0.65 in the Taganrog Gulf, 1.04 in the Azov Sea, 1.38 in Taman Bay. The leading role in the littoral communities of Taganrog Gulf belongs to aquatic flowering plants with Potamogeton perfoliatus being dominant; as the salinity increases, the share of such species as P. pectinatus, Zostera marina, Z. noltii, Ruppia maritime, and Zannichellia major starts to increase.

  8. Metamorphic and structural evolution of the Straits Schist, W. Connecticut: U-PB monazite constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzirotti, A.; Hanson, G.N. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    U-Pb dating of monazites from two outcrops of The Straits Schist south of Waterbury Dome precisely constrains the timing of Acadian metamorphism and deformation. Synkinematic pegmatites which parallel schistosity are common in The Straits Schist south of Waterbury. A pegmatite at the type-section of The Straits Schist east of Straitsville yields U-Pb monazite ages of 385 [+-] 2.5 Ma. At both outcrops the axial planar schistosity is defined by muscovites and biotites which wrap around axes of folds but are not themselves deformed, suggesting they represent a recrystallized fabric. Monazites in the schists at both outcrops display petrographic evidence of grain boundary pinning against mica surfaces and growth across muscovite-biotite grain boundaries, consistent with growth during or after biotite and muscovite crystallization. Monazites from the schist at Straitsville and Naugatuck yield U-Pb ages of 383 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data, coupled with field and petrographic observations, suggest that pegmatite intrusion, deformation, and metamorphic recrystallization occurred within 3 Ma of about 383 Ma.

  9. The Mechanism for the Effect of Chinese Medicine on Strait Episode of Complex Diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Complex diseases always involve some strait episode, such as myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis caused by hypertension, microcirculation dysfunction and injury in heart, brain, lever, and intestine following ischemia and reperfusion, endotoxin induced multiorgan injury, and recovery after intestinal mucosa damage, for which intervention by a single medicine remains unsatisfied in clinic.Chinese medicine has been applied in clinic for more than two thousand years, which presents as a healthcare system using compound formula preparation, treatment based on syndrome differentiation and individualization thus has advantage in dealing with strait episode of complex diseases. However, the mechanism underlying Chinese medicine is not fully understood up till now.This report will explain the mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of Chinese medicine in therapy of strait episode of complex diseases based on the resent outcomes in study of aforementioned complex diseases. The speaker, using the theory of blood stasis and activating blood to remove stasis in Chinese medicine, classified microcirculation dysfunction induced by different causes, such as ischemia and reperfusion, stress, LPS, common cold, investigated the pathogenesis and progressing of each of which. Furthermore, the report explored the material basis and mechanism for compound formula of Chinese medicine with potential of tonifying Qi and activating blood, removing heat to cool blood, identified the ingredient in the compound formula responsible for respective effect.(Presented at the 1920th Meeting, June 3, 2016). PMID:27349663

  10. Johor strait as a hotspot for trace elements contamination in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Ismail, Ahmad; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p < 0.05). Combining with other factors, Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies. PMID:20411236

  11. Interannual variation of freshwater transport and its causes in the Korea Strait: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Sin; Cho, Yang-Ki; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Jung, Kyung Tae; Lee, Byeong-Gweon

    2014-04-01

    The variability of freshwater transport in the Korea Strait (FTKS) affects the circulation and ecosystem of the East/Japan Sea. Numerical simulations using realistic surface forcing, Changjiang River discharge (CRD), and open boundary values were performed to quantify the interannual variation of FTKS and to investigate its underlying physical processes. The simulated salinity and volume transport, which determine the variability of FTKS, were verified by comparing with observations. Salinity played a more important role than volume transport in inducing the interannual variation of FTKS. FTKS has a positive correlation with CRD, difference between precipitation and evaporation (P-E), southeasterly wind, and freshwater transport in the Taiwan Strait (FTTS). FTKS has its best correlation (0.62) with FTTS. The correlations with CRD (0.25) and P-E (0.37) are weaker, probably due to wind stress. The southeasterly wind that drives Changjiang diluted water toward the Korea Strait by Ekman flow in the East China Sea has good correlation (0.51) with FTKS. The vertical structures of FTKS and its variability are more effectively affected by CRD and P-E in the surface layer, FTTS in the middle layer, and the wind in the subsurface layer.

  12. Development of a Hydrodynamic Model of Puget Sound and Northwest Straits

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2007-12-10

    The hydrodynamic model used in this study is the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) developed by the University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth. The unstructured grid and finite volume framework, as well as the capability of wetting/drying simulation and baroclinic simulation, makes FVCOM a good fit to the modeling needs for nearshore restoration in Puget Sound. The model domain covers the entire Puget Sound, Strait of Juan de Fuca, San Juan Passages, and Georgia Strait at the United States-Canada Border. The model is driven by tide, freshwater discharge, and surface wind. Preliminary model validation was conducted for tides at various locations in the straits and Puget Sound using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide data. The hydrodynamic model was successfully linked to the NOAA oil spill model General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment model (GNOME) to predict particle trajectories at various locations in Puget Sound. Model results demonstrated that the Puget Sound GNOME model is a useful tool to obtain first-hand information for emergency response such as oil spill and fish migration pathways.

  13. Geology of the peralkaline volcano at Pantelleria, Strait of Sicily

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahood, G.A.; Hildreth, W.

    1986-01-01

    Situated in a submerged continental rift, Pantelleria is a volcanic island with a subaerial eruptive history longer than 300 Ka. Its eruptive behavior, edifice morphologies, and complex, multiunit geologic history are representative of strongly peralkaline centers. It is dominated by the 6-km-wide Cinque Denti caldera, which formed ca. 45 Ka ago during eruption of the Green Tuff, a strongly rheomorphic unit zoned from pantellerite to trachyte and consisting of falls, surges, and pyroclastic flows. Soon after collapse, trachyte lava flows from an intracaldera central vent built a broad cone that compensated isostatically for the volume of the caldera and nearly filled it. Progressive chemical evolution of the chamber between 45 and 18 Ka ago is recorded in the increasing peralkalinity of the youngest lava of the intracaldera trachyte cone and the few lavas erupted northwest of the caldera. Beginning about 18 Ka ago, inflation of the chamber opened old ring fractures and new radial fractures, along which recently differentiated pantellerite constructed more than 25 pumice cones and shields. Continued uplift raised the northwest half of the intracaldera trachyte cone 275 m, creating the island's present summit, Montagna Grande, by trapdoor uplift. Pantellerite erupted along the trapdoor faults and their hingeline, forming numerous pumice cones and agglutinate sheets as well as five lava domes. Degassing and drawdown of the upper pantelleritic part of a compositionally and thermally stratified magma chamber during this 18-3-Ka episode led to entrainment of subjacent, crystal-rich, pantelleritic trachyte magma as crenulate inclusions. Progressive mixing between host and inclusions resulted in a secular decrease in the degree of evolution of the 0.82 km3 of magma erupted during the episode. The 45-Ka-old caldera is nested within the La Vecchia caldera, which is thought to have formed around 114 Ka ago. This older caldera was filled by three widespread welded units

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variation in Nicobarese Islanders.

    PubMed

    Prasad, B V; Ricker, C E; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Jorde, L B; Bamshad, M

    2001-10-01

    The aboriginal populations living in the Nicobar Islands are hypothesized to be descendants of people who were part of early human dispersals into Southeast Asia. However, analyses of ethnographic histories, languages, morphometric data, and protein polymorphisms have not yet resolved which worldwide populations are most closely related to the Nicobarese. Thus, to explore the origins and affinities of the Nicobar Islanders, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 sequence data from 33 Nicobarese Islanders and compared their mtDNA haplotypes to those of neighboring East Asians, mainland and island Southeast Asians, Indians, Australian aborigines, Pacific Islanders, and Africans. Unique Nicobarese mtDNA haplotypes, including five Nicobarese mtDNA haplotypes linked to the COII/tRNA(Lys) 9-bp deletion, are most closely related to mtDNA haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asian Mon-Kmer-speaking populations (e.g., Cambodians). Thus, the dispersal of southern Chinese into mainland Southeast Asia may have included a westward expansion and colonization of the islands of the Andaman Sea. PMID:11758691

  15. Y chromosome markers and Trans-Bering Strait dispersals.

    PubMed

    Karafet, T; Zegura, S L; Vuturo-Brady, J; Posukh, O; Osipova, L; Wiebe, V; Romero, F; Long, J C; Harihara, S; Jin, F; Dashnyam, B; Gerelsaikhan, T; Omoto, K; Hammer, M F

    1997-03-01

    Five polymorphisms involving two paternally inherited loci were surveyed in 38 world populations (n = 1,631) to investigate the origins of Native Americans. One of the six Y chromosome combination haplotypes (1T) was found at relatively high frequencies (17.8-75.0%) in nine Native American populations (n = 206) representing the three major linguistic divisions in the New World. Overall, these data do not support the Greenberg et al. (1986) tripartite model for the early peopling of the Americas. The 1T haplotype was also discovered at a low frequency in Siberian Eskimos (3/22), Chukchi (1/6), and Evens (1/65) but was absent from 17 other Asian populations (n = 987). The perplexing presence of the 1T haplotype in northeastern Siberia may be due to back-migration from the New World to Asia. PMID:9098500

  16. Addressing Uncomfortable Issues: Reflexivity as a Tool for Culturally Safe Practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognised that research with Aboriginal communities needs to be ethical, meaningful and useful, in a way that is defined by communities themselves. This article provides an example of how reflexivity, from a number of positions and paradigms, can be used to undertake such research. I used a reflexive journal to document and critically…

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH challenges in a local, national and global context. PMID:27190981

  18. A Step on the Messy Path to Alignment: Developing the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Intercultural Capability Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerke, Veronica; Taylor, Kate; Kickett, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Like many other Australian universities, Curtin University identifies intercultural capabilities in its list of graduate attributes. Within this mandate, Curtin is increasingly foregrounding the need for graduates to develop Indigenous cultural capabilities. It is widely recognised that in order to develop these capabilities in graduates,…

  19. Pre-pregnancy predictors of diabetes in pregnancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sandra K; Lynch, John; Esterman, Adrian; McDermott, Robyn

    2012-08-01

    To identify pre-pregnancy risk factors for diabetes in pregnancy among a cohort of Australian Indigenous women. Data on 1,009 Indigenous women of childbearing age who participated in a 1998-2000 health screening program in far north Queensland were linked to Queensland hospitalisations data. Women who attended hospital after their health check for a pregnancy-related condition were identified. The data on women who were hospitalised for birth were also linked to Queensland perinatal data. Of 220 women who gave birth, 23 had diabetes in the pregnancy following their health check. A strong predictor of having a subsequent pregnancy affected by diabetes was suboptimal glucose control before conception. The presence of the metabolic syndrome predicted over a threefold increase in risk among non-diabetic women after adjustment for age and ethnicity (PR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.54-8.00). For each 1-cm increase in waist circumference, there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 4% for diabetes in pregnancy (1.04; 1.01-1.06). For each 1-mmHg increase in blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), there was an age-adjusted increase in risk of 3% (1.03; 1.01-1.05 and 1.03; 1.00-1.07, respectively). Associations between hypercholesterolaemia and dyslipidaemia and diabetes in the subsequent pregnancy were diminished after adjustment for age and ethnicity. The risk for women with "hyper-triglyceridaemic waist" phenotype before pregnancy was diminished by adjustment for age, ethnicity and baseline fasting glucose. Alcohol intake, smoking, level of physical activity and red cell folate showed little effect. Identification of women at particularly high risk for future diabetes in pregnancy, given their pre-pregnancy health, is important so that they can manage their risks and where overweight or obesity is a factor, interventions aimed at weight management should be implemented. PMID:21959925

  20. 78 FR 38835 - Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display, Mare Island Strait, Vallejo, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks... near Vallejo, CA in support of the City of Vallejo Fourth of July Fireworks Display on July 4,...

  1. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects.

    PubMed

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-04-26

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public healthThis approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH challenges in a local, national and global context. PMID:27190981

  2. 3 CFR 8947 - Proclamation 8947 of March 25, 2013. Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Salish people often lived in villages of wooden-plank houses and used numerous smaller sites for fishing... barbs used for fishing hooks and projectile points, are also found on the islands. Scientists working in... wetlands on Lopez Island and one on Patos Island are the most significant freshwater habitats in the...

  3. Expanded Late Wisconsinan ice cap and ice sheet margins in the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, F. Chantel; England, John H.

    2014-05-01

    Recent mapping of surficial geology and geomorphology in the western Canadian High Arctic (Melville and Eglinton islands), together with new radiocarbon dates acquired from ice-contact raised marine sediments, document expanded late Wisconsinan ice limits for the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet and the western Innuitian Ice Sheet. An extension of the northwestern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet onto Eglinton Island is proposed based on evidence from till containing erratics derived from the Canadian Shield and a pattern of meltwater channels indicating ice retreat offshore into M'Clure Strait. Expansion of the western Melville Island Ice Cap (part of the western, lowland sector of the Innuitian Ice Sheet) to its offshore late Wisconsinan limit was facilitated by coalescence with the Laurentide Ice Sheet, whose buttressing allowed thickening to occur. Estimates of ice extent and thickness (>500 m) of the western Melville Island Ice Cap are in agreement with high marine limits (≤70 m asl). Lateral and proglacial meltwater channels, moraines and glaciomarine, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial deposits indicate radial retreat of the western Melville Island Ice Cap onto central highlands after ˜13.0 cal ka BP. Older marine limit shorelines on southern Eglinton Island (˜13.6 cal ka BP) are broadly synchronous with the early and rapid deglaciation of other areas formerly glaciated by the northwestern Laurentide Ice Sheet to the southeast and southwest (˜14.2-13.6 cal ka BP). The collapse of the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet in M'Clure Strait beginning at ˜14.2 cal ka BP, in addition to prior inferred thinning, opens the possibility that it made a significant contribution to meltwater pulse 1A.

  4. Fault activity in the epicentral area of the 1580 Dover Strait (Pas-de-Calais) earthquake (northwestern Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Moreno, D.; Verbeeck, K.; Camelbeeck, T.; De Batist, M.; Oggioni, F.; Zurita Hurtado, O.; Versteeg, W.; Jomard, H.; Collier, J. S.; Gupta, S.; Trentesaux, A.; Vanneste, K.

    2015-05-01

    On 1580 April 6 one of the most destructive earthquakes of northwestern Europe took place in the Dover Strait (Pas de Calais). The epicentre of this seismic event, the magnitude of which is estimated to have been about 6.0, has been located in the offshore continuation of the North Artois shear zone, a major Variscan tectonic structure that traverses the Dover Strait. The location of this and two other moderate magnitude historical earthquakes in the Dover Strait suggests that the North Artois shear zone or some of its fault segments may be presently active. In order to investigate the possible fault activity in the epicentral area of the AD 1580 earthquake, we have gathered a large set of bathymetric and seismic-reflection data covering the almost-entire width of the Dover Strait. These data have revealed a broad structural zone comprising several subparallel WNW-ESE trending faults and folds, some of them significantly offsetting the Cretaceous bedrock. The geophysical investigation has also shown some indication of possible Quaternary fault activity. However, this activity only appears to have affected the lowermost layers of the sediment infilling Middle Pleistocene palaeobasins. This indicates that, if these faults have been active since Middle Pleistocene, their slip rates must have been very low. Hence, the AD 1580 earthquake appears to be a very infrequent event in the Dover Strait, representing a good example of the moderate magnitude earthquakes that sometimes occur in plate interiors on faults with unknown historical seismicity.

  5. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  6. Physical and biological characteristics of the pelagic system across Fram Strait to Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hop, Haakon; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Svendsen, Harald; Kwasniewski, Slawek; Pavlov, Vladimir; Pavlova, Olga; Søreide, Janne E.

    2006-10-01

    The Fram Strait is very important with regard to heat and mass exchange in the Arctic Ocean, and the large quantities of heat carried north by the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) influence the climate in the Arctic region as a whole. A large volume of water and ice is transported through Fram Strait, with net water transport of 1.7-3.2 Sv southward in the East Greenland Current and a volume ice flux in the range of 0.06-0.11 Sv. The mean annual ice flux is about 866,000 km 2 yr -1. The Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden fjord system on the coast of Spitsbergen, or at the eastern extreme of Fram Strait, is mainly affected by the northbound transport of water in the WSC. Mixing processes on the shelf result in Transformed Atlantic Water in the fjords, and the advection of Atlantic water also carries boreal fauna into the fjords. The phytoplankton production is about 80 g C m -2 yr -1 in Fram Strait, and has been estimated both below and above this for Kongsfjorden. The zooplankton fauna is diverse, but dominated in terms of biomass by calanoid copepods, particularly Calanus glacialis and C. finmarchicus. Other important copepods include C. hyperboreus, Metridia longa and the smaller, more numerous Pseudocalanus ( P. minutus and P. acuspes), Microcalanus ( M. pusillus and M. pygmaeus) and Oithona similis. The most important species of other taxa appear to be the amphipods Themisto libellula and T. abyssorum, the euphausiids Thysanoessa inermis and T. longicaudata and the chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Eukrohnia hamata. A comparison between the open ocean of Fram Strait and the restricted fjord system of Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden can be made within limitations. The same species tend to dominate, but the Fram Strait zooplankton fauna differs by the presence of meso- and bathypelagic copepods. The seasonal and inter-annual variation in zooplankton is described for Kongsfjorden based on the record during July 1996-2002. The ice macrofauna is much less diverse, consisting of a

  7. Recent summer sea ice thickness surveys in the Fram Strait and associated volume fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumpen, T.; Gerdes, R.; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; Herber, A.; Selyuzhenok, V.; Smedsrud, L.; Spreen, G.

    2015-09-01

    Fram Strait is the main gateway for sea ice export out of the Arctic Ocean, and therefore observations there give insight into composition and properties of Arctic sea ice in general and how it varies over time. An extensive data set of ground-based and airborne electromagnetic ice thickness measurements collected between 2001 and 2012 is presented here, including long transects well into the southern part of the Transpolar Drift obtained using fixed-wing aircrafts. The source area for the surveyed ice is primarily the Laptev Sea, and the estimated age is consistent with a decreased from 3 to 2 years between 1990 and 2012. The data consistently also show a general thinning for the last decade, with a decrease in modal thickness of second year and multiyear ice, and a decrease in mean thickness and fraction of ice thicker than 3 m. Local melting in the strait was investigated in two surveys performed in the downstream direction, showing a decrease of 0.19 m degree-1 latitude south of 81° N probably driven by bottom melting from warm water of Atlantic origin. Further north variability in ice thickness is more related to differences in age and deformation. The thickness observations were combined with ice area export estimates to calculate summer volume fluxes of sea ice. This shows that it is possible to determine volume fluxes through Fram Strait during summer when satellite based sea ice thickness information is missing. While the ice area export based on satellite remote sensing shows positive trends since 2001, the mean fluxes during summer (July and August) are small (18 km3), and long-term trends are uncertain due to the limited surveys available.

  8. Reconstruction of transports through the Strait of Gibraltar from limited observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordà, G.; Sánchez-Román, A.; Gomis, D.

    2016-04-01

    Observing the water transports through the Strait of Gibraltar is a difficult task. Here we present a methodology aimed to obtain the inflow, outflow and net transport of water from the limited set of available observations, currently consisting of an upward looking ADCP deployed at Espartel sill, two tide gauges located at each side of the Strait and radars monitoring the surface velocities. More precisely, we reconstruct the velocity field over a vertical section across the Strait using a reduced order optimal interpolation technique fed with the spatial covariance patterns deduced from high resolution numerical simulations. As a first step we carry out some sensitivity experiments with synthetic data that demonstrate the high potential of the approach. The reconstruction methodology can reproduce very satisfactorily the variability of the transports with estimated correlations for the inflow, outflow and net over 0.9 in all the cases and estimated RMS errors of 0.03, 0.08 and 0.05 Sv, respectively. However, we have also found that the reconstruction is sensible to bias problems, mostly due to the sensitivity of the method to the differences between the statistics of the actual and modeled velocity profiles. The sensitivity experiments have been used to tune the parameters of the method and a reconstruction of actual monthly transports has been performed for the period 2004-2010 along with an estimate of the associated uncertainty. This reconstruction provides for the first time a multiannual time series of the inflow and the net transports solely based on in situ observations. Therefore it can be used as an independent estimate for the validation of numerical models and surface freshwater fluxes in the Mediterranean.

  9. Current Pattern Change in the Fram Strait at the Pliocene/Pleistocene Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, C.; Geissler, W. H.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Jokat, W.

    2014-12-01

    Thick packages of drift-type sediments were identified in the northwestern and central part of the Fram Strait, mainly along the western Yermak Plateau flank, but also in the central, flat part of the Fram Strait. A large-scale field of sediment waves was found north of 80.5°, along the Yermak Plateau rise. This field separates two drift bodies, a deeper one towards west and a shallower one towards east. The drift bodies were deposited by bottom currents, most likely by the northbound Yermak Branch of the West Spitsbergen Current, but an influence of a southbound current on the westren drift body cannot be ruled out. Within the drift bodies and even more pronounced withing the sediment waves, a stratigraphic boundary is clearly visible. It separates a lower package of waves migrating upslope at a low angle of ~5° from an upper package with significantly increased wave crest migration at ~16.5°. Using the seismic network, this stratigraphic boundary could be tracked to ODP Leg 151, Site 911, where it corresponds to the lithostratigraphic boundary between units IA and IB dated to 2.7 Ma. The increase in wave-crest migration angle points at a shift towards higher sedimentation rates at 2.7 Ma. This corresponds to the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere glaciation with a major expansion of the Scandinavian, northern Barents Sea, North American and Greenland ice sheets. The Barents Shelf that was subaerially exposed and the expansion of the northern Barents Sea ice sheet (as well as Svalbard) are the likely sources for enhanced erosion and fluvial input along the pathway of the West Spitsbergen Current, resulting in higher sedimentation rates in the Fram Strait.

  10. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  11. Mercury contamination in the estuaries and coastal sediments of the Strait of Malacca.

    PubMed

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. This work profiled the magnitude of mercury pollution in the tropical estuaries and coastal sediments of the Strait of Malacca. Mercury was extracted through the ultrasound-assisted mercury extraction method and analyzed using the flow injection mercury system. The mean concentration of mercury in the sediment samples was 61.43 ± 23.25 μg/kg, ranging from 16.55 ± 0.61 to 114.02 ± 1.54 μg/kg. Geoaccumulation index revealed that a total of 13% of sampling sites were moderately enriched with mercury. The northern part of the Strait of Malacca had the highest mean mercury (Hg) concentration (76.36 ± 27.25 μg/kg), followed by the southern (64.59 ± 16.09 μg/kg) and central (39.33 ± 12.91 μg/kg) parts. Sediment mercury concentration in the current study was lower than other regions like Japan, China, Indian, east Mediterranean, and Taiwan. When compared to the Canadian interim marine and freshwater sediment, China's soil interim environmental guidelines, mercury contamination in the Strait of Malacca was found to be below these permissible limits. Sediment organic matter content was found to have significant correlation with sediment mercury concentration. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in tropical estuaries and coastal sediments. PMID:25380712

  12. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S; Gunawan, Budi; Ryou, Albert S

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  13. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  14. Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biescas Gorriz, Berta; Carniel, Sandro; Sallarès, Valentí; Rodriguez Ranero, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic imaging of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the Strait of Gibraltar Berta Biescas (1), Sandro Carniel (2) , Valentí Sallarès (3) and Cesar R. Ranero(3) (1) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Bologna, Italy (2) Istituto di Scienze Marine, CNR, Venice, Italy (3) Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain Acoustic reflectivity acquired with multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) systems allow to detect and explore the thermohaline structure in the ocean with vertical and lateral resolutions in the order of 10 m, covering hundreds of kilometers in the lateral dimension and the full-depth water column. In this work we present a MCS 2D profile that crosses the Strait of Gibraltar, from the Alboran Sea to the internal Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic Ocean). The MCS data was acquired during the Topomed-Gassis Cruise (European Science Foundation TopoEurope), which was carried out on board of the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa in October 2011. The strong thermohaline contrast between the Mediterranean water and the Atlantic water, characterizes this area and allows to visualize, with unprecedented resolution, the acoustic reflectivity associated to the dense flow of the Mediterranean water outflowing through the prominent slope of the Strait of Gibraltar. During the first kilometers, the dense flow drops attached to the continental slope until it reaches the buoyancy depth at 700 m. Then, it detaches from the sea floor and continues flowing towards the Atlantic Ocean, occupying the layer at 700-1500 m deep and developing clear staircase layers. The reflectivity images display near seabed reflections that could well correspond to turbidity layers. The XBT data acquired coincident in time and space with the MCS data will help us in the interpretation and analysis of the acoustic data.

  15. Devonian-Carboniferous tectonics and basin deformation in the Cabot Strait Area, eastern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, G.S.; Hall, J.

    1994-11-01

    The Magdalen Basin, in the Cabot Strait-Bay St. George area, was a major depocenter for Devonian-Carboniferous sediments in eastern Canada. Structure within the basin is complex and is characterized by northeast- and east-trending, mainly dextral strike-slip faults associated with the bend in the Appalachian orogenic belt known as the St. Lawrence Promontory. Under the Cabot Strait two linear grabens parallel the major fault trends and preserve up to 6 km of Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks, comprising mainly coarse-grained terrigenous clastics with a Lower Carboniferous transgressive episode recorded by marine carbonates, evaporites, and fine-grained clastics. Several unconformities within the sedimentary succession record deformation associated with movement along the regional strike-slip faults. Minor local unconformities are interpreted within the upper Horton (early Visean), upper Barachois (late Westphalian), and post-Pennsylvanian successions. A major unconformity cuts out most of the Namurian and Westphalian section in the study area and can be correlated on a regional scale. Kinematic strain partitioning along the master Cabot fault led to the development of doubly vergent compressional structures within a wrench borderland. This was complicated by transpressive deformation at a restraining bend in the master fault, and by deformation associated with over-stepped ends of splays of the regional fault system. The Magdalen Basin probably formed in an early phase of post-Acadian extension, and was later reactivated by regional strike-slip faults. The presence of thick source and reservoir rocks, as well as diverse trapping possibilities and a favorable burial and maturation history, indicate that the Cabot Strait area has good potential for accumulating and preserving petroleum.

  16. Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J.; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M.; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability. PMID:24633248

  17. Late Quaternary sediments on the outer shelf of the Korea Strait and their paleoceanographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. I.; Kang, S.; Yoo, H. S.; Jung, H. S.; Choi, J. Y.; Kim, H. N.; Shin, I. H.

    2006-11-01

    Sedimentological and micropaleontological characteristics of core sediments from the outer shelf of the Korea Strait, which connects the northern East China Sea and the East Sea (Sea of Japan), were investigated to elucidate the paleoceanographic environment, especially the timing of the Kuroshio inflow, since the last glacial maximum. The core sediments, containing continuous records of the last 15,000 years, are characterized by a relatively high mud content (more than 50%, on average) and well-developed tide-influenced sedimentary structures. Their mineralogy suggests that the material originated from the paleo-Nakdong River system, which extended across the shelf of the Korea Strait during low sea-level periods. Planktonic foraminifers reveal a series of well-defined changes in paleoceanographic conditions during the late Pleistocene Holocene. Down-core variations in the abundance of four foraminiferal assemblages, i.e., cold, coastal, tropical subtropical, and Kuroshio water groups comprising characteristic planktonic species, suggest the occurrence of a distinct paleoenvironmental change in the surface water at 7,000 years b.p., i.e., from 15,000 to 7,000 years b.p., the area was influenced by coastal waters whereas since ca. 7,000 years b.p., it has been under the influence of open-sea water related to the Kuroshio Current flow, associated with both higher temperature and higher salinity. In particular, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata increased markedly in abundance at this time, documenting the inflow of the Kuroshio into the study area. These data indicate that the coastal water stage terminated at ca. 7,000 years b.p. when the warm Kuroshio and its major branch, the Tsushima Current, began to flow into the East Sea, as is the case today. The intrusion of the Tsushima Current through the Korea Strait after ca. 7,000 years b.p. resulted in abrupt changes in sedimentation rates and a dramatic increase in abundance of the Kuroshio indicator species, P

  18. Modeling the Lead(Pb) concentrations in corals in the Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lee, J.; Nurhati, I. S.; Switzer, A. D.; Boyle, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The leaded gasoline has dominated the global Pb emission and has imposed serious health problems in the past 50 years. While countries in North America and Western Europe phased out leaded gasoline in 1970s and early 1980s, many fast developing Asian countries have been using it until recently. In order to monitor anthropogenic Pb variations in marine environments, the history of seawater Pb in the Singapore Strait -- one of the world's busiest shipping lanes has been reconstructed from a 50 year-long coral core (Lee et al., unpublished record). A 50-year-long coral Pb/Ca record from the Singapore Strait was measured using isotope dilution ICPMS (for Pb) and FAAS (for Ca). Here, we propose a statistical model to correlate lead measured in the Singapore coral (Pb/Ca) and the possible Pb sources in the region. The measurement reveals that the Pb in coral is only weakly correlated with Pb the gasoline emission from the neighboring countries (i.e. Singapore, Malaysia, and Batam Indonesia). Such weak correlation implies that either the gasoline may not be a dominating source to Singapore Strait or the transport process of the Pb (either atmospheric or oceanographic) in this region complicates the interpretation. In this case, we tested a number of statistical correlations to understand the possible roles of leaded gasoline emission, rainfall, sediment flux and the residence time of the Pb inferred by the Pb210 data. From our current tests, a relatively high correlation appeared between the Pb in coral and the local annual precipitation, with a lag time of 2 years. The 2 year lag is somewhat surprising and we expect to elaborate further by correlating the Pb in coral with the Pb isotope signatures in an attempt to identify possible sources.;

  19. Intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the main channel of the Taiwan Strait in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan; Huang, Ting-Hsuan; He, Xianqiang; Wang, Shu-Lun; Hsin, Yi-Chia; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhai, Weidong; Lui, Hon-Kit; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The Penghu Channel is the main channel connecting the East and South China Seas, two of the largest marginal seas in the world. Located in the southeast of Taiwan Strait, the Penghu Channel is usually covered by the high salinity water from the South China Sea and the Kuroshio. However, we observed abnormal low-salinity water in the Penghu Channel during a cruise through the southern Taiwan Strait and northern South China Sea in August 2008. We argue that the normalized alkalinity is a good indicator for the identification of a river plume as it is not affected by rainwater. Using satellite-derived water transparency and chlorophyll images and field-measured alkalinity, the source of this low salinity water was found to be the intrusion of the Pearl River plume. A significant phytoplankton bloom across the entire Taiwan Strait occurred with the intrusion event. The intrusion was not a unique event, as we also found a strong jet-shaped Pearl River plume intruding into the Penghu Channel in the summer of 2009 from cloud-free satellite-derived images. Time series satellite data reveal that the Pearl River plume intrudes into the Penghu Channel in the summer of most years. Multiple data analysis and modeling simulation indicate that a large river discharge and strong southwesterly winds on the shelf may be responsible for the significant intrusion of the Pearl River plume into the Penghu Channel in summer. As the Pearl River plume has a high nutrient and dissolved inorganic carbon content, combined with the strong northward flows through the Penghu Channel, such intrusions may contribute to the nutrient dynamics and carbon budget of the East and northern South China Seas.

  20. Interannual variability of the Mediterranean outflow observed in Espartel sill, western Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GarcíA-Lafuente, J.; Delgado, J.; SáNchez RomáN, A.; Soto, J.; Carracedo, L.; DíAz Del RíO, G.

    2009-10-01

    Four-year time series of observations in Espartel sill at the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar have been analyzed in order to investigate the variability of the Mediterranean outflow. It is assumed that the observed variability comes from the changing properties of the dense waters that are located at the maximum depth from where they can be uplifted in the upstream basin (Alborán Sea, inside the Mediterranean Sea) and evacuated through the strait. From this perspective, the following three mechanisms are investigated: (1) the replenishment of the deep basin by newly formed Western Mediterranean Deep Water that, depending on its density, can either uplift old resident waters or lay above them leaving in any case a cold signature in the temperature series; (2) the presence/absence of the energetic anticyclonic gyres in the Alborán Sea, particularly the western one, which can transfer momentum to the underlying Mediterranean vein and provide it with additional energy to ascend over the sills of the strait; and (3) the meteorologically enhanced flows that follow the rapid changes of atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean basin, which would be able to aspire deeper waters residing in the upstream basin. The three mechanisms act on different timescales, from annual in case (1) to monthly in case (2) to weekly in case (3) although these two latter are modulated annually by the seasonal prevalence of the western Alborán gyre in summer and of the strong meteorologically driven fluctuations in winter. The mechanisms overlap at annual timescales making it difficult to separate out the different contributions.

  1. Geochemical trends across an arc-continent collision zone: magma sources and slab-wedge transfer processes below the Pantar Strait volcanoes, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elburg, Marlina A.; van Bergen, Manfred; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Foden, John; Vroon, Pieter; Zulkarnain, Iskandar; Nasution, Asnawir

    2002-09-01

    Four volcanoes in the Pantar Strait, the westernmost part of the extinct sector of the east Sunda arc, show remarkable across-arc variation in elemental abundances (K 2O: 1.2 to 4.3%), trace element ratios (Pb/Ce: 0.4 to 0.18; Ce/Yb: 20 to 55) and isotope ratios ( 143Nd/ 144Nd: 0.51263 to 0.51245; 87Sr/ 86Sr: 0.7053 to 0.7068; 206Pb/ 204Pb: 19.29 to 19.15). Pb isotopes are decoupled from Sr and Nd isotopes, with the frontal volcanoes showing the higher Nd and Pb and lower Sr isotopic ratios. The isotopic and trace element ratios of the volcanic samples are best explained by modification of a MORB-type source (with Indian Ocean island basalt-type Pb isotopic characteristics) by a fluid and a partial melt of subducted continental material (SCM). The frontal volcano contains the highest proportion of the fluid component, with a small contribution of partial melt. The source of the rear-arc volcano is strongly influenced by a partial melt of SCM that had undergone a previous dehydration event, by which it lost most of its fluid-mobile elements such as Pb. The SCM partial melt was in equilibrium with both rutile and garnet, whereas mantle melting took place in the presence of residual mica. The relatively large across-arc increase in incompatible elements can be explained by a combination of increasing addition of SCM partial melt, changing mantle wedge fertility and smaller degrees of partial melting toward the rear of the arc. Comparison with a more westerly across-arc transect shows that the relatively low 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios of the frontal volcano, and the decoupling of Pb from Sr and Nd isotopes are unique to the Pantar Strait volcanoes. This is likely to reflect magma generation in a collisional environment, where the leading edge of the Australian continent, rather than subducted sediment, contributes to the magma source.

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Crustal structure of Deception Island volcano from P wave seismic tomography: Tectonic and volcanic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandomeneghi, Daria; Barclay, Andrew; Almendros, Javier; IbañEz Godoy, Jesús M.; Wilcock, William S. D.; Ben-Zvi, Tami

    2009-06-01

    Deception Island (62°59'S, 60°41'W) is an active volcano located in the Bransfield Strait between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The island is composed of rocks that date from <0.75 Ma to historical eruptions (1842, 1967, 1969, and 1970), and nowadays most of its activity is represented by vigorous hydrothermal circulation, slight resurgence of the inner bay floor, and intense seismicity, with frequent volcano-tectonic and long-period events. In January 2005 an extensive seismic survey took place in and around the island to collect high-quality data for a high-resolution P wave velocity tomography study. A total of 95 land and 14 ocean bottom seismometers were deployed, and more than 6600 air gun shots were fired. As a result of this experiment, more than 70,000 travel time data were used to obtain the velocity model, which resolves strong P wave velocity contrasts down to 5 km depth. The joint interpretation of the Vp distribution together with the results of geological, geochemical, and other geophysical (magnetic and gravimetric) measurements allows us to map and interpret several volcanic features of the island and surroundings. The most striking feature is the low P wave velocity beneath the caldera floor which represents the seismic image of an extensive region of magma beneath a sediment-filled basin. Another low-velocity zone to the east of Deception Island corresponds to seafloor sedimentary deposits, while high velocities to the northwest are interpreted as the crystalline basement of the South Shetland Islands platform. In general, in the tomographic image we observe NE-SW and NW-SE distributions of velocity contrasts that are compatible with the regional tectonic directions and suggest that the volcanic evolution of Deception Island is strongly conditioned by the Bransfield Basin geodynamics.

  4. Formation of Denmark strait overflow water by mixing in the East Greenland Current

    SciTech Connect

    Strass, V.H.; Fahrbach, E.; Schauer, U.; Sellmann, L. )

    1993-04-15

    The Greenland, Iceland, and Norwegian seas are major sources of water feeding the North Atlantic Deep Water in the worlds present ocean circulation. The authors report on data collected in 1987 through 1989 which indicate that a mass of water with characteristics of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is formed in the East Greenland Current. The DSOW has been observed to have a residence time of 3 to 4 years at the surface before spilling southward. This provides a very fast transfer of surface water with atmospheric signatures into the deep ocean. They offer explanations for the formation of this water mass.

  5. Application of chemometric studies to metal concentrations in molluscs from the Strait of Magellan (Chile).

    PubMed

    España, M S Astorga; Rodríguez, E M Rodríguez; Romero, C Díaz

    2007-05-01

    Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Ni, and Cd concentrations were determined in 126 mollusc samples belonging to five different species (Mytilus chilensis, n = 47; Nacella deaurata, n = 65; Aulacomya ater, n = 4; Fissurella picta, n = 4; Acanthina monodon, n = 6) collected from the coasts of the Strait of Magellan. The metals analysed presented significant differences between the mean concentrations for the mollusc species considered. Factor and discriminant analyses made possible the differentiation of the mollusc species. In addition, when discriminant analysis was used, good classifications were obtained according to sampling zone and weight-to-length ratio of the organisms. PMID:17375348

  6. Tidal dynamics in the Bay of Algeciras (Strait of Gibraltar) by a numerical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammartino, Simone; García Lafuente, Jesús; Sanchez Garrido, José Carlos; De los Santos, Francisco Javier; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique; Bruno, Miguel; Concepción Calero, María

    2013-04-01

    The Bay of Algeciras (southwest of Spain) is located at the eastern part of the Strait of Gibraltar where the well-known two-way exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea occurs. The bay and its port have a strategic relevance in terms of maritime traffic and supply of fuel and goods, making the whole area a high risk environment for pollution derived from its commercial activities. Thus, a complete knowledge of the hydrodynamics of the bay is crucial to cope with an efficient management of its environment. A high-resolution numerical three-dimensional model has been applied to the study of the dynamics of the bay at the tidal scale. After a satisfactory validation, based on a comprehensive set of measurements collected in the area in 2011, the model outputs are used for a detailed analysis of the local hydrodynamics. The bay is characterized by a standing-wave pattern of the barotropic dynamics, inherited by the strait region, with a flow across the mouth of 2.7x10-3 Sv, in quadrature with the SSH oscillations. However, the harmonic analysis of the meridional velocity in the cross-bay section at its mouth and in the longitudinal section between the mouth and the head reveals a marked baroclinic structure of the flow, with values one order higher than the barotropic flow. The upper layer and the lower layer flows are clearly in antiphase with a very thin layer of maximum change of phase and minimum amplitude, roughly coinciding with the average location of the isohaline S=37.5. The origin of this structure is the important internal tide acting into the area, characterized by a clear shorewards propagation, with the possible presence of an amphidromic point in the west side of the mouth and a quarter-wave resonance amplifying the internal oscillations. The analysis of the zonally integrated meridional transport (meridional stream function) reveals a circulation scheme opposite to the one of the strait. During the flood tide, while in the strait

  7. Linking onshore and offshore erosion and sediment transport in the Strait of Messina, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, R.; Mitchell, N. C.; Brocklehurst, S. H.; Argnani, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Sicilian and Calabrian coasts either side of the Strait of Messina in southern Italy provide an opportunity to observe the response of subaerial drainage systems to variations in bedrock erodibility and uplift rate. Offshore processes include hyperpycnal currents derived from onshore drainages, as well as longitudinal flow along the Messina Channel. The narrow continental shelves allow a direct connection between these onshore and offshore processes. NE Sicily and SW Calabria are mainly composed of granite, high-grade gneiss, limestone and meta-pelite. Published Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift rates from bedrock terraces and erosional notches indicate that uplife rates increase away from the Strait, on both sides. Digital topographic analyses reveal that, on the Sicilian side, longitudinal channel profiles exhibit generally concave upward trends with many locally steep reaches (knickpoints). Many of the large scale knickpoints (150-200 m in height) occur at drainage areas below the transition from debris-flow dominated colluvial channels to stream-flow dominated fluvial channels. There is a positive but weak correlation between channel steepness and uplift rate. This correlation is strongest near the drainage divide, with a weaker correlation downstream, where a major shear zone generally reduces the bedrock resistance, irrespective of lithology. The distribution of landslides has been mapped on both sides of the Strait of Messina using aerial photography, revealing contrasting controls on landslide distribution. In Sicily, landslides are most frequent where uplift rates are most rapid and rainfall heaviest. The Calabrian landscape is less incised, so landslides are confined to valley sides, with low-relief interfluves free of landslides. Offshore, geomorphic features have been characterised from multi-beam bathymetric and Chirp data. The central feature is the Messina Channel, which runs north-south. Although the channel does not meander prominently

  8. Chapter 24 Lateral variability of the estuarine turbidity maximum in a tidal strait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) in response to freshwater flow, tidal forcing, and bed dynamics has been studied extensively by many researchers. However, the majority of investigations focus on the longitudinal position and strength of the ETM, which can vary over tidal, spring-neap, and seasonal timescales. ETMs may become longitudinally fixed due to bathymetric constraints, and thus the lateral position may vary significantly on differing timescales. Lateral dynamics of the ETM may affect contaminant uptake in biologically active regions, while local deposition patterns may be affected by the dominant lateral position. A longitudinally fixed ETM in Carquinez Strait, California, was studied to specifically investigate the dynamics of lateral ETM variability during April 2004. an abrupt topographical control on the north side restricts gravitational circulation resulting in convergence and particle trapping, creating the ETM. The cross-section was continuously monitored with two upward-looking velocity profilers and four optical backscatterance sensors. In addition, cross-sectional measurements over one tidal cycle were performed during a spring tide with boat-mounted velocity and water quality profilers. The lateral and vertical positions of the ETM center of mass varied by a maximum of 250 and 5 m, respectively (20% of width and 17% of depth) over the tidal timescale, while tidally averaged lateral and vertical positions varied substantially less (50 and 1 m, respectively). ETM position responded to tidal energy (Urms), with higher vertical position and a laterally centered position resulting from increased mixing during spring tides, and a northerly lateral position from decreased mixing during neap tides. Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling of this period reproduces the lateral and vertical movements of the ETM center of mass. Modeling results indicate increased gravitational circulation in the strait and enhanced particle

  9. EDXRF analysis of Straits Chinese porcelains for zirconium and niobium using a cadmium-109 source

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, C.T.

    1986-08-01

    An annular Cd-109 source was used to induce fluorescent X-rays from 37 pieces of Straits Chinese porcelain of which four were modern pieces and the rest were produced from the nineteenth century up to the Republic period (1912-1939). Experimental data show that for zirconium and niobium infinite thickness is reached for a thickness of about 1.5 mm. A plot of the intensity of the K/sub ..cap alpha..//sub 1/ line of Zr against that of Nb shows that all Ch'ing and Republic pieces cluster together and are quite distinct from the modern pieces, allowing easy nondestructive identification of modern fakes.

  10. Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-02-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced, which allows for an application of the inverse-Gaussian-transit-time distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Mean current velocity measurements along the same section from 2002-2010 were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon by the boundary currents above 840 m through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD-based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data, by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996, rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 µmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 µmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10 and 35 µmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a net outflow of ˜ 0.4 DIC and ˜ 0.01 PgC yr-1 anthropogenic carbon from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic, albeit with high uncertainties.

  11. On the origin and propagation of Denmark Strait Overflow Water Anomalies in the Irminger Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Köllner, Manuela; Dye, Stephen; Rudels, Bert; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2015-04-01

    Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. We present an analysis of observed hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays to quantify the variability and to track anomalies of DSOW: (1) at the Denmark Strait sill, (2) at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and (3) at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik). The aim of the combined arrays is to cover the overflow plume and its modifications due to its descent and mixing with ambient waters from the sill of Denmark Strait to approx. 2000 m depth in the northern Irminger Basin. Eddy variability dominates the high frequency variations in all DSOW records. Variability on time scales from interannual to weekly is present at all moorings, but no long term trends are detected in the time series. The seasonal cycle is of no importance for the properties measured at the sill, but its significance increases with downstream distance. A low pass filter (cut-off at 20 days) is applied to the time series in order to remove synoptic scale variations: single eddies are likely not traceable and probably merge with each other or fade along the descending pathway of the DSOW plume. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array show coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations are only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays reveal propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 16 days. Despite a difference of 1.5°C between the mean temperatures at both arrays, which are about 500 km away from each other, temperature anomalies can be traced along the DSOW pathway. In contrast, the correlations in salinity are low and only significant

  12. Genesis of a submarine sinkhole without subaerial exposure: Straits of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Lewis A.; Paull, Charles K.; Hobson, Brett

    1995-10-01

    A sinkhole has been identified on side-scan sonar images and from near-bottom echo sounder data in the southern Straits of Florida in 575 m of water. Sinkholes are often thought to form exclusively in subaerial environments and for this reason have been used as indicators of sea level. This sinkhole exists within a Quaternary sediment apron in water depths too great to have been subaerially exposed by Neogene sea-level lowstands, thus indicating that sinkholes can develop within the submarine environment.

  13. A Review of the Turkish Straits System: Challenges for Modeling, Inter-Basin Coupling and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özsoy, Emin; Sannino, Gianmaria; Sözer, Adil; Gürses, Özgür

    2015-04-01

    The Turkish Straits System (TSS), a highly energetic, strongly stratified system of hydraulically controlled, turbulent, upper ocean and straits intensified exchange flows, governs the coupling Mediterranean and Black Seas, and largely influences their combined mixing and renewal characteristics. The modeling of such a system is a 'grand challenge' not only because of the need to account for an existing mosaic of complex nonlinear and topographically controlled processes, but also because of the absolute need to capture the fine scales of the two straits, Dardanelles and Bosphorus and their exits, which dominate and determine the response of the system. A stepwise and complementary strategy has been used to develop models that explain the individual as well as systemic behavior, utilizing the variable resolution ROMS model for studies of the Bosphorus, the curvilinear coordinate MITgcm and the unstructured grid FEOM model for studies of the entire TSS, fully resolving the influence of the fine-scale processes at straits. A review of the modeling development and the results at different levels of complexity are given, along with inter-model comparisons and partial observational verification of the results. Details of the strait currents, mixing, fluxes, hydraulic controls, energy fluxes, Marmara Sea circulation, time-dependent response to atmospheric forcing and sensitivity to the selected parameterizations are discussed in relation to available observations. It is shown that the different components of the TSS have widely varying time scales of response, while the straits alone are responsible for the faster elements. The TSS cases with closed boundaries, including a realistic range of artificially produced net barotropic flow have demonstrated the expected changes in Marmara Sea circulation. Realistic coupling of the TSS model with the adjacent basins, taking full account of the hydrological cycle is a formidable problem where progress is currently being made. The

  14. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  15. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  16. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  17. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  18. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  19. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  20. GIS-Based Paleotopographic Reconstructions of the Queen Elizabeth Islands at 8500 14C yr B.P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, S. C.; Leverington, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Until ~11,000 14C yr B.P., the Queen Elizabeth Islands of the Canadian High Arctic were covered by the Innuitian Ice Sheet and by the northernmost extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The loading of the crust by these ice masses resulted in glacio-isostatic subsidence, most notably in the eastern part of the archipelago. Gradual deglaciation of the region was accompanied by differential glacio-isostatic rebound, with areas of greatest rebound corresponding to areas of greatest prior loading and subsidence. Changes in the effects of glacial loading and unloading, combined with changes in the volume and loading effects of sea water, progressively transformed the paleogeography of the region during deglaciation. In this research, geographic information system (GIS) software was used to reconstruct the topography (including bathymetry) of the Queen Elizabeth Islands at 8500 14C yr B.P. Both moderate-resolution (1 arc minute per pixel) and high-resolution (3 arc seconds per pixel) databases of paleotopography were created by subtracting interpolated isobase data (derived from England et al., 2006) from databases of modern topography. These paleotopographic databases were used to generate cartographic visualizations and to quantify aspects of the forms and extents of straits and major islands. The greater elevations and steeper slopes of the peripheries of large eastern islands such as Ellesmere and Devon resulted in surface areas at 8500 14C yr B.P. that were only ~8% less than at present, despite the concentration of glacial loading here. The lower elevations and slopes of islands in the central part of the archipelago facilitated the substantial and even complete submergence of landmasses below sea level at 8500 14C yr B.P. For example, Bathurst Island had a surface area that was ~45% less than that of today, and islands including Loughheed, Graham, and Byam Martin were almost entirely submerged below the surface of an open sea at this time. The geometries of local