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Sample records for stratospheric cloud formation

  1. Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, M.A. )

    1994-04-22

    Before the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was generally assumed that gas-phase chemical reactions controlled the abundance of stratospheric ozone. However, the massive springtime ozone losses over Antarctica first reported by Farman et al in 1985 could not be explained on the basis of gas-phase chemistry alone. In 1986, Solomon et al suggested that chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) could be important for the observed ozone losses. Since that time, an explosion of laboratory, field, and theoretical research in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry has occurred. Recent work has indicated that the most important heterogeneous reaction on PSCs is ClONO[sub 2] + HCl [yields] Cl[sub 2] + HNO[sub 3]. This reaction converts inert chlorine into photochemically active Cl[sub 2]. Photolysis of Cl[sub 2] then leads to chlorine radicals capable of destroying ozone through very efficient catalytic chain reactions. New observations during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition found stoichiometric loss of ClONO[sub 2] and HCl in air processed by PSCs in accordance with reaction 1. Attention is turning toward understanding what kinds of aerosols form in the stratospheric, their formation mechanism, surface area, and specific chemical reactivity. Some of the latest findings, which underline the importance of aerosols, were presented at a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration workshop in Boulder, Colorado.

  2. Cloud formation, convection, and stratospheric dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Wang, Tao; Avery, Melody A.; Jensen, Eric J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis winds, temperatures, and anvil cloud ice, we use our domain-filling, forward trajectory model combined with a new cloud module to show that convective transport of saturated air and ice to altitudes below the tropopause has a significant impact on stratospheric water vapor and upper tropospheric clouds. We find that including cloud microphysical processes (rather than assuming that parcel water vapor never exceeds saturation) increases the lower stratospheric average H2O by 10-20%. Our model-computed cloud fraction shows reasonably good agreement with tropical upper troposphere (TUT) cloud frequency observed by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument in boreal winter with poorer agreement in summer. Our results suggest that over 40% of TUT cirrus is due to convection, and it is the saturated air from convection rather than injected cloud ice that primarily contributes to this increase. Convection can add up to 13% more water to the stratosphere. With just convective hydration (convection adds vapor up to saturation), the global lower stratospheric modeled water vapor is close to Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Adding convectively injected ice increases the modeled water vapor to ~8% over observations. Improving the representation of MERRA tropopause temperatures fields reduces stratospheric water vapor by ~4%.

  3. Tropical Tropopause Layer Cloud Formation, Convection and Stratospheric Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Dessler, A. E.; Wang, T.; Avery, M. A.; Jensen, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Using MERRA reanalysis winds, temperatures and anvil cloud ice, we use our domain-filling, forward trajectory model to study the impact that more realistic cloud formation and convective water injection has on stratospheric water vapor. Our model computed cloud fraction shows reasonable agreement with cloud frequency observed by HIRDLS and CALIOP in the tropical troposphere layer (TTL). Our results suggest that ~64% of the cirrus formed in the TTL are due convection. Overall we find that inclusion of cloud microphysical processes increases stratospheric water vapor by 0.5 ppmv. Adding anvil ice increases stratospheric water vapor by an additional 0.5-0.6 ppmv but has a bigger impact on cloud formation with an increase of ~20-30% in TTL cloud fraction. With convection and cloud dehydration global 18-30 km average water vapor is ~5-7% higher than MLS water vapor observations. Adding waves to the MERRA temperature fields reduces stratospheric water vapor bringing our estimates to within 3% of MLS.

  4. Formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloyan, Artash; Yermakov, Alex; Arutyunyan, Vardan; Larin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    A new mathematical model of the global transport of gaseous species and aerosols in the atmosphere and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres was constructed. PSCs play a significant role in ozone chemistry since heterogeneous reactions proceed on their particle surfaces and in the bulk, affecting the gas composition of the atmosphere, specifically, the content of chlorine and nitrogen compounds, which are actively involved in the destruction of ozone. Stratospheric clouds are generated by co-condensation of water vapor and nitric acid on sulfate particles and in some cases during the freezing of supercooled water as well as when nitric acid vapors are dissolved in sulfate aerosol particles [1]. These clouds differ in their chemical composition and microphysics [2]. In this study, we propose new kinetic equations describing the variability of species in the gas and condensed phases to simulate the formation of PSCs. Most models for the formation of PSCs use constant background values of sulfate aerosols in the lower stratosphere. This approach is too simplistic since sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere are characterized by considerably nonuniform spatial and temporal variations. Two PSC types are considered: Type 1 refers to the formation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and Type 2 refers to the formation of particles composed of different proportions of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O. Their formation is coupled with the spatial problem of sulfate aerosol generation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere incorporating the chemical and kinetic transformation processes (photochemistry, nucleation, condensation/evaporation, and coagulation) and using a non-equilibrium particle-size distribution [3]. In this formulation, the system of equations is closed and allows an adequate description of the PSC dynamics in the stratosphere. Using the model developed, numerical experiments were performed to reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of

  5. On the theories of type 1 polar stratospheric cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, A. Robert; Kulmala, Markku; Laaksonen, Ari; Vesala, Timo

    1995-06-01

    Several mechanisms for the production of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles are investigated using the classical theories of nucleation and freezing and the multicomponent condensation theory. These mechanisms invoke particle compositions ranging from binary (H2SO4/H2O) solution, solid sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) and ternary (HNO3/H2O/H2SO4) solution to binary (HNO3/H2O) solution and solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). Empirical relations, derived from classical nucleation studies, are used to calculate the surface energies required in calculations of nucleation and freezing. Using these data, we calculate that the nucleation of nitric acid solutions or solid phases onto SAT particles is not efficient. Homogeneous freezing of SAT or NAT from ternary solutions does not occur under stratospheric conditions. Homogeneous freezing of water ice can occur at temperatures near the frost point of pure water. Heterogeneous freezing is a strong function of the contact parameter between the emergent crystal and the initiating seed particle. Heterogeneous freezing of the stratospheric aerosol to SAT and NAT at temperatures above the frost point is not ruled out by our calculations. If formed, NAT can deplete the gas phase nitric acid concentration, by condensational growth, more efficiently than ternary droplets. We conclude that the most likely route to type 1 PSC particles is via condensational growth of ternary solution droplets followed by rapid freezing to NAT, SAT, and water ice at temperatures near the ice frost point. The particles formed are then stable and can reduce nitric acid vapor pressures to the saturation vapor pressure over NAT at all temperatures below the NAT point. Such a mechanism is consistent with observations.

  6. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds - Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Hamill, Patrick; Goodman, Jindra K.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the PSC particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is the inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an Er-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 198 K as found for the Antarctic samples.

  7. Particle size distributions in Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, growth and freezing of sulfuric acid droplets, and implications for cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, James E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Kelly, K. K.; Loewenstein, M.; Ferry, G. V.; Chan, K. R.; Gary, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper uses particle size and volume measurements obtained with the forward scattering spectrometer probe model 300 during January and February 1989 in the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Experiment to investigate processes important in the formation and growth of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. It is suggested on the basis of comparisons of the observations with expected sulfuric acid droplet deliquescence that in the Arctic a major fraction of the sulfuric acid droplets remain liquid until temperatures at least as low as 193 K. It is proposed that homogeneous freezing of the sulfuric acid droplets might occur near 190 K and might play a role in the formation of PSCs.

  8. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds: Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, R.F.; Snetsinger, K.G. ); Hamill, P.; Goodman, J.K. ); McCormick, M.P. )

    1990-03-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an ER-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 198 K was found for the Antarctic samples.

  9. Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to changes in water vapour and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosrawi, F.; Urban, J.; Lossow, S.; Stiller, G.; Weigel, K.; Braesicke, P.; Pitts, M. C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Murtagh, D.

    2016-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was suggested that a cooling of stratospheric temperatures by 1 K or an increase of 1 ppmv of stratospheric water vapour could promote denitrification, the permanent removal of nitrogen species from the stratosphere by solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. In fact, during the two Arctic winters 2009/10 and 2010/11 the strongest denitrification in the recent decade was observed. Sensitivity studies along air parcel trajectories are performed to test how a future stratospheric water vapour (H2O) increase of 1 ppmv or a temperature decrease of 1 K would affect PSC formation. We perform our study based on measurements made during the Arctic winter 2010/11. Air parcel trajectories were calculated 6 days backward in time based on PSCs detected by CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder satellite observations). The sensitivity study was performed on single trajectories as well as on a trajectory ensemble. The sensitivity study shows a clear prolongation of the potential for PSC formation and PSC existence when the temperature in the stratosphere is decreased by 1 K and water vapour is increased by 1 ppmv. Based on 15 years of satellite measurements (2000-2014) from UARS/HALOE, Envisat/MIPAS, Odin/SMR, Aura/MLS, Envisat/SCIAMACHY and SCISAT/ACE-FTS it is further investigated if there is a decrease in temperature and/or increase of water vapour (H2O) observed in the polar regions similar to that observed at midlatitudes and in the tropics. Performing linear regression analyses we derive from the Envisat/MIPAS (2002-2012) and Aura/MLS (2004-2014) observations predominantly positive changes in the potential temperature range 350 to 1000 K. The linear changes in water vapour derived from Envisat/MIPAS observations are largely insignificant, while those from Aura/MLS are mostly significant. For the temperature neither of the two instruments indicate any significant changes. Given the strong inter-annual variation observed in

  10. Heterogeneous Formation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds- Part 1: Nucleation of Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooss, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  11. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-09-01

    Satellite-based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid-December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled a thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  12. Denitrification of the polar winter stratosphere - Implications of SAM II cloud formation temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Toon, O. B.

    1990-01-01

    The SAM II extinction profiles and the associated temperature profiles are used to determine the amount of denitrification of the winter polar stratospheres. Clear evidence of the denitrification process in the Antarctic data is seen. There are indications in the Arctic data that denitrification mechanisms may be at work there also. At the latitudes observed by the SAM II satellite system, denitrification begins before the formation of extensive ice clouds and may be due to sedimentation of nitric acid particles. However, the possibility of dinitrification by type II PSCs at latitudes not observed by SAM II cannot be excluded.

  13. Investigating Type I Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation Mechanisms with POAM Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W.; Drdla, K.; Fromm, M.; Hoppel, K.; Browell, E.; Hamill, P.; Dempsey, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Type Ia PSCs are believed to be composed of nitric acid hydrate particles. Recent results from the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign showed evidence that this type of PSC was composed of a small number of very large particles capable of sedimentary denitrification of regions of the stratosphere. It is unknown whether homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation is responsible for the formation of these PSCs. Arctic winters are tending to be colder in response to global tropospheric warming. The degree to which this influences ozone depletion will depend on the freezing mechanism of nitric acid hydrate particles. If nucleation is homogeneous it implies that the freezing process is an inherent property of the particle, while heterogeneous freezing means that the extent of PSCs will depend in part on the number of nuclei available. The Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM)II and III satellites have been making observations of stratospheric aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) since 1994. Recently, we have developed a technique that can discriminate between Type Ia and Ib PSCs using these observations. A statistical approach is employed to demonstrate the robustness of this approach and results are compared with lidar measurements. The technique is used to analyze observations from POAM II and II during Northern Hemisphere winters where significant PSC formation occurred with the objective of exploring Type I PSC formation mechanisms. The different PSCs identified using this method exhibit different growth curve as expressed as extinction versus temperature.

  14. Modeling the formation of polar stratospheric clouds with allowance for kinetic and heterogeneous processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloyan, A. E.; Yermakov, A. N.; Arutyunyan, V. O.

    2015-05-01

    A new mathematical model of global transport of multicomponent gaseous admixtures and aerosols in the atmosphere and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) in both hemispheres has been constructed. Two types of PSCs are considered: type Ia, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), and type Ib, supercooled ternary solutions of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O (STS). New equations are used to describe the variation in gas- and condensed-phase components on the basis of their thermodynamic properties. The formation of PSCs is coupled with sulfate aerosols generated in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and with chemical and kinetic transformation processes (photochemistry, nucleation, condensation/evaporation, and coagulation). Using this coupled model, numerical experiments were performed to reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of PSCs in winter in both hemispheres. First, the formation of primary sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere is considered and then these aerosols are incorporated to the PSC model. The results of the numerical experiments are analyzed.

  15. Heterogeneous formation of polar stratospheric clouds - Part 1: Nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Engel, I.; Luo, B. P.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Grooß, J.-U.; Peter, T.

    2013-03-01

    Satellite based observations during the Arctic winter of 2009/2010 provide firm evidence that, in contrast to the current understanding, the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) in the polar stratosphere does not only occur on preexisting ice particles. In order to explain the NAT clouds observed over the Arctic in mid December 2009, a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism is required, occurring via immersion freezing on the surface of solid particles, likely of meteoritic origin. For the first time, a detailed microphysical modelling of this NAT formation pathway has been carried out. Heterogeneous NAT formation was calculated along more than sixty thousand trajectories, ending at Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) observation points. Comparing the optical properties of the modelled NAT with these observations enabled the thorough validation of a newly developed NAT nucleation parameterisation, which has been built into the Zurich Optical and Microphysical box Model (ZOMM). The parameterisation is based on active site theory, is simple to implement in models and provides substantial advantages over previous approaches which involved a constant rate of NAT nucleation in a given volume of air. It is shown that the new method is capable of reproducing observed PSCs very well, despite the varied conditions experienced by air parcels travelling along the different trajectories. In a companion paper, ZOMM is applied to a later period of the winter, when ice PSCs are also present, and it is shown that the observed PSCs are also represented extremely well under these conditions.

  16. Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B. ); Turco, R.P. )

    1991-06-01

    During the Antarctic winter, strange and often invisible clouds form in the stratosphere over the pole. These clouds of ice and frozen nitric acid play a crucial role in the chemical cycle responsible for the recent appearance of the annual ozone hole. Their chemistry removes compounds that would normally trap ozone-destroying free chlorine produced by the breakdown of CFCs. The paper describes these clouds, their formation, and the mechanisms by which these clouds help chlorine destroy ozone.

  17. Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, D.J.; Deshler, T. )

    1991-02-20

    The results of six balloon flights at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, under varying temperature conditions, are used in a study of polar stratospheric clouds during September 1989. A new particle counter, with size resolution in the 0.5 {mu}m radius region, indicated that size distributions observed in the clouds were bimodal. Mode radii ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 {mu}m were observed for the small particle mode, representing the sulfate layer or condensational growth enhancements of it. Mode radii generally ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 {mu}m for the large particle mode at concentrations 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than the small particle mode. The large particle mode, when observed at temperatures above the water ice point, is believed to be the result of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) condensation on larger particles of the sulfate layer. In this case the HNO{sub 3} condensed mass mixing ratios were 1 to 5 ppbv for most of the cloud layers. Generally, the large particle NAT concentrations were higher in the lower stratosphere, indicating the redistribution of HNO{sub 3} through particle sedimentation. On several occasions, distributions were observed with mode radii as high as 7 {mu}m, and correspondingly large inferred mass, indicating water ice clouds in the 12 to 15 km region. On other occasions, absence of such clouds at very low temperatures inferred water vapor mixing ratios of less than 3 ppmv.

  18. Solid-state photochemistry as a formation mechanism for Titan's stratospheric C4N2 ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Yung, Y. L.; McLain, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    We propose that C4N2 ice clouds observed in Titan's springtime polar stratosphere arise due to solid-state photochemistry occurring within extant ice cloud particles of HCN-HC3N mixtures. This formation process resembles the halogen-induced ice particle surface chemistry that leads to condensed nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and ozone depletion in Earth's polar stratosphere. As our analysis of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer 478 cm-1 ice emission feature demonstrates, this solid-state photochemistry mechanism eliminates the need for the relatively high C4N2 saturation vapor pressures required (even though they are not observed) when the ice is produced through the usual procedure of direct condensation from the vapor.

  19. A case of type I polar stratospheric cloud formation by heterogeneous nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Ferry, G. V.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Goodman, J.; Dye, J. E.; Baumgardner, D.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft flew on January 24, 1989, from Stavanger to Spitsbergen, Norway, at the 430-440 K potential temperature surface (19.2-19.8 km pressure altitude). Aerosols were sampled continuously by an optical particle counter (PMS-FSSP300) for concentration and size analyses, and during five 10-min intervals by four wire and one replicator impactor for concentration, size, composition, and phase analysis. During sampling, the air saturation of H2O with respect to ice changed from 20 to 100 percent, and of HNO3 with respect to nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) from subsaturation to supersaturation. Data from both instruments indicate a condensation of hydrochloric acid and, later, nitric acid on the background aerosol particles as the ambient temperature decreases along the flight track. This heterogeneous nucleation mechanism generates type I polar stratospheric cloud particles of 10-fold enhanced optical depth, which could play a role in stratospheric ozone depletion.

  20. Physical processes in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard; Jordan, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    A one dimensional model of cloud microphysics was used to simulate the formation and evolution of polar stratospheric ice clouds. Some of the processes which are included in the model are outlined. It is found that the clouds must undergo preferential nucleation upon the existing aerosols just as do tropospheric cirrus clouds. Therefore, there is an energy barrier between stratospheric nitric acid particles and ice particles implying that nitric acid does not form a continuous set of solutions between the trihydrate and ice. The Kelvin barrier is not significant in controlling the rate of formation of ice particles. It was found that the cloud properties are sensitive to the rate at which the air parcels cool. In wave clouds, with cooling rates of hundreds of degrees per day, most of the existing aerosols nucleate and become ice particles. Such clouds have particles with sizes on the order of a few microns, optical depths on order of unity and are probably not efficient at removing materials from the stratosphere. In clouds which form with cooling rates of a few degrees per day or less, only a small fraction of the aerosols become cloud particles. In such clouds the particle radius is larger than 10 microns, the optical depths are low and water vapor is efficiently removed. Seasonal simulations show that the lowest water vapor mixing ratio is determined by the lowest temperature reached, and that the time when clouds disappear is controlled by the time when temperatures begin to rise above the minimum values.

  1. Investigation of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Solid Particle Formation Mechanisms Using ILAS and AVHRR Observations in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irie, H.; Pagan, K. L.; Tabazadeh, A.; Legg, M. J.; Sugita, T.

    2004-01-01

    Satellite observations of denitrification and ice clouds in the Arctic lower stratosphere in February 1997 are used with Lagrangian microphysical box model calculations to evaluate nucleation mechanisms of solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. The occurrences of ice clouds are not correlated in time and space with the locations of back trajectories of denitrified air masses, indicating that ice particle surfaces are not always a prerequisite for the formation of solid PSCs that lead to denitrification. In contrast, the model calculations incorporating a pseudoheterogeneous freezing process occurring at the vapor-liquid interface can quantitatively explain most of the observed denitrification when the nucleation activation free energy for nitric acid dihydrate formation is raised by only approx.10% relative to the current published values. Once nucleated, the conversion of nitric acid dihydrate to the stable trihydrate phase brings the computed levels of denitrification closer to the measurements. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0320 Atmospheric Composition and SblctureC: loud physics and chemistry; 0340 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Middle atmosphere-composition and chemistry

  2. The ozone hole - The role of polar stratospheric cloud particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    The role of polar stratospheric clouds in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is considered. Several researchers have suggested that the decrease in ozone over Antarctica is related to the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) which had been observed in the antarctic winter stratosphere. Some of the pertinent characteristics of polar stratospheric clouds are discussed, and it is shown how these clouds may participate in the ozone destruction process. The satellite data for PSCs is analyzed, and statistical information regarding the number and maximum extinctions of these clouds is presented. Evidence that the polar stratospheric clouds are composed of frozen nitric acid is considered. It is suggested that the evaporation of the clouds, in late August and September, will release HOCl and HNO3 to the environment. This could be followed by the photodissociation of HOCl to OH and Cl, which would very effectively destroy ozone. However, the ozone destruction mechanism could be halted when enough of the evaporated nitric acid is photolized.

  3. Titan's Tropopause Temperatures from CIRS: Implications for Stratospheric Methane Cloud Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Barnes, J. W.; Flasar, F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) far-IR spectra enable the construction of Titan's temperature profile in the altitude region containing the tropopause. Whereas the methane V4 band at 1306/cm (7.7 microns) is the primary opacity source for deducing thermal structure between 100 km and 500 km, N2-N2 collision-induced absorption between 70 and 140/cm (143 microns and 71 microns) is utilized to determine temperatures at Titan's tropopause. Additional opacity due to aerosol and nitrile ices must also be taken into account in this part of the far-IR spectral region. The spectral characteristics of these particulate opacities have been deduced from CIRS limb data at 58degS, 15degS, 15degN, and 85degN. Empirically, the spectral shapes of these opacities appear to be independent of both latitude and altitude below 300 km (Anderson and Samuelson, 2011, Icarus 212, 762-778), justifying the extension of these spectral properties to all latitudes. We find that Titan's tropopause temperature is cooler than the HAS! value of 70.5K by approx. 6K. This leads to the possibility that subsidence at high northern latitudes can cause methane condensation in the winter polar stratosphere. A search for methane clouds in this region is in progress.

  4. Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: Case studies from February 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, E. D.; Huret, N.; Taupin, F. G.-; Renard, J.-B.; Pirre, M.; Eckermann, S. D.; Larsen, N.; Deshler, T.; Lefèvre, F.; Payan, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.

    2000-03-01

    Recent theories of solid polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) formation have shown that particles could remain liquid down to 3 K or 4 K below the ice frost point. Such temperatures are rarely reached in the Arctic stratosphere at synoptic scale, but nevertheless, solid PSCs are frequently observed. Mesoscale processes such as mountain-induced gravity waves could be responsible for their formation. In this paper, a microphysical-chemical Lagrangian model (MiPLaSMO) and a mountain wave model (NRL/MWFM) are used to interpret balloon-borne measurements made by an optical particle counter (OPC) and by the Absorption par Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (AMON) instrument above Kiruna on February 25 and 26, 1997, respectively. The model results show good agreement with the particle size distributions obtained by the OPC in a layer of large particles, and allow us to interpret this layer as an evaporating mesoscale type Ia PSC (nitric acid trihydrate) mixed with liquid particles. The detection of a layer of solid particles by AMON is also qualitatively reproduced by the model and is interpreted to be frozen sulfate acid aerosols (SAT). In this situation, the impact of mountain waves on chlorine activation is studied. It appears that mesoscale perturbations amplify significantly the amount of computed ClO, as compared to synoptic runs. Moreover, MiPLaSMO chemical results concerning HNO3 and HCl agree with measurements made by the Limb Profile Monitor of the Atmosphere (LPMA) instrument on February 26 at a very close location to AMON, and explain part of the differences between LPMA measurement and Reactive Processes Ruling the Ozone Budget in the Stratosphere (REPROBUS) model outputs.

  5. Laboratory studies of the formation of polar stratospheric clouds: Nitric acid condensation on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1995-10-01

    Thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to 5 × 10-8 - 8 × 10-7 torr HNO3 and 2 - 3 × 10-4 torr H2O and cooled to temperatures near the ice frost point. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the condensed-phase species during isothermal experiments, and gas pressures were monitored with mass spectrometry. Supercooled liquid sulfuric acid films exposed to HNO3 (6 ≤ SNAT ≤ 114) showed indications of HNO3 uptake to form ternary solutions of approximately 4 wt % HNO3, 38 wt % H2SO4, and 59 wt % H2O, followed by crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). NAT crystallization did not initiate significant crystallization of the supercooled H2SO4, but the H2SO4 often crystallized to sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) upon warming. In contrast, when crystalline SAT films were exposed to HNO3 and water, NAT did not condense within several hours, even at HNO3 saturation ratios of 30 or higher. Calculations of the contact parameter from experimental data indicate that m <0.76 for NAT on SAT. Our film studies suggest that crystalline polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) growth is most easily accomplished when stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs) remain liquid, absorb HNO3, and produce crystalline nitric acid trihydrate via heterogeneous nucleation. If SSAs crystallize to SAT at some point during the winter, nitric acid condensation is hindered, and PSC formation could become more difficult.

  6. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, M A; Hudson, P K; Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ice particles found within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and upper tropospheric cirrus clouds can dramatically impact the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. The formation of PSCs and the subsequent chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces are key components of the massive ozone hole observed each spring over Antarctica. Cirrus clouds also provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions and significantly modify the Earth's climate by changing the visible and infrared radiation fluxes. Although the role of ice particles in climate and chemistry is well recognized, the exact mechanisms of cloud formation are still unknown, and thus it is difficult to predict how anthropogenic activities will change cloud abundances in the future. This article focuses on the nucleation, chemistry, and microphysical properties of ice particles composing PSCs and cirrus clouds. A general overview of the current state of research is presented along with some unresolved issues facing scientists in the future. PMID:11031290

  7. Condensed Acids In Antartic Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Toon, O. B.; Ferry, G. V.; Starr, W. L.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Chan, K. R.; Goodman, J. K.; Livingston, J. M.; Verma, S.; Fong, W.

    1992-01-01

    Report dicusses nitrate, sulfate, and chloride contents of stratospheric aerosols during 1987 Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Emphasizes growth of HNO3*3H2O particles in polar stratospheric clouds. Important in testing theories concerning Antarctic "ozone hole".

  8. Large-scale variations in ozone and polar stratospheric clouds measured with airborne lidar during formation of the 1987 ozone hole over Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browell, Edward V.; Poole, Lamont R.; Mccormick, M. Patrick; Ismail, Syed; Butler, Carolyn F.; Kooi, Susan A.; Szedlmayer, Margaret M.; Jones, Rod; Krueger, Arlin J.; Tuck, Adrian

    1988-01-01

    A joint field experiment between NASA and NOAA was conducted during August to September 1987 to obtain in situ and remote measurements of key gases and aerosols from aircraft platforms during the formation of the ozone (O3) hole over Antarctica. The ER-2 (advanced U-2) and DC-8 aircraft from the NASA Ames Research Center were used in this field experiment. The NASA Langley Research Center's airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system was operated from the DC-8 to obtain profiles of O3 and polar stratospheric clouds in the lower stratosphere during long-range flights over Antarctica from August 28 to September 29, 1987. The airborne DIAL system was configured to transmit simultaneously four laser wavelengths (301, 311, 622, and 1064 nm) above the DC-8 for DIAL measurements of O3 profiles between 11 to 20 km ASL (geometric altitude above sea level) and multiple wavelength aerosol backscatter measurements between 11 to 24 km ASL. A total of 13 DC-8 flights were made over Antarctica with 2 flights reaching the South Pole. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) were detected in multiple thin layers in the 11 to 21 km ASL altitude range with each layer having a typical thickness of less than 1 km. Two types of PSC's were found based on aerosol backscattering ratios: predominantly water ice clouds (type 2) and clouds with scattering characteristics consistent with binary solid nitric acid/water clouds (type 1). Large-scale cross sections of O3 distributions were obtained. The data provides additional information about a potentially important transport mechanism that may influence the O3 budget inside the vortex. There is also some evidence that strong low pressure systems in the troposphere are associated with regions of lower stratospheric O3. This paper discusses the spatial and temporal variations of O3 inside and outside the polar vortex region during the development of the O3 hole and relates these data to other measurements obtained during this field experiment.

  9. On the influence of polar stratospheric cloud formation on chemical composition during the 1988/89 Arctic winter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; McKenna, D.S. ); Poole, L.R. ); Solomon, S. )

    1990-03-01

    The northern winter polar vortex is more disturbed dynamically and warmer than the Antarctic equivalent, and correspondingly fewer polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are observed to form. However, the rapid flow of stratospheric air through slow moving synoptically forced PSC regions can result in exposure of both vortical and extra vortical air to PSCs intermittently throughout the winter months. This periodic exposure to PSCs may be sufficient to perturb the chemical composition of large volumes of northern hemisphere air. The synoptic forcing also leads to marked meridional flow which has a profound effect on chemical composition, having major impacts on both short term ozone depletion and the longer term recovery to lower ClOx abundances. Accurate simulation of the air flow is thus essential for the reliable calculation of ozone loss in polar regions.

  10. Polar stratospheric clouds and ozone depletion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of investigations into the correlation between the depletion of ozone and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Satellite measurements from Nimbus 7 showed that over the years the depletion from austral spring to austral spring has generally worsened. Approximately 70 percent of the ozone above Antarctica, which equals about 3 percent of the earth's ozone, is lost during September and October. Various hypotheses for ozone depletion are discussed including the theory suggesting that chlorine compounds might be responsible for the ozone hole, whereby chlorine enters the atmosphere as a component of chlorofluorocarbons produced by humans. The three types of PSCs, nitric acid trihydrate, slowly cooling water-ice, and rapidly cooling water-ice clouds act as important components of the Antarctic ozone depletion. It is indicated that destruction of the ozone will be more severe each year for the next few decades, leading to a doubling in area of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  11. How do Polar Stratospheric Clouds Form?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, Katja; Gandrud, Bruce; Baumgardner, Darrel; Herman, Robert; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    SOLVE measurements have been compared with results from a microphysical model to understand the composition and formation of the polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) observed during SOLVE. Evidence that the majority of the particles remain liquid throughout the winter will be presented. However, a small fraction of the particles do freeze, and the presence of these frozen particles can not be explained by current theories, in which the only freezing mechanism is homogeneous freezing to ice below the ice frost point. Alternative formation mechanisms, in particular homogeneous freezing above the ice frost point and heterogeneous freezing, have been explored using the microphysical model. Both nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) have been considered as possible compositions for the solid-phase nitric acid aerosols. Comparisons between the model results and the SOLVE measurements will be used to constrain the possible formation mechanisms. Other effects of these frozen particles will also be discussed, in particular denitrification.

  12. Cloud Condensation in Titan's Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romani, Paul N.; Anderson, Carrie M.

    2011-01-01

    A 1-D condensation model is developed for the purpose of reproducing ice clouds in Titan's lower stratosphere observed by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard Cassini. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), cyanoacetylene (HC3N), and ethane (C2H6) vapors are treated as chemically inert gas species that flow from an upper boundary at 500 km to a condensation sink near Titan's tropopause (-45 km). Gas vertical profiles are determined from eddy mixing and a downward flux at the upper boundary. The condensation sink is based upon diffusive growth of the cloud particles and is proportional to the degree of supersaturation in the cloud formation regIOn. Observations of the vapor phase abundances above the condensation levels and the locations and properties of the ice clouds provide constraints on the free parameters in the model. Vapor phase abundances are determined from CIRS mid-IR observations, whereas cloud particle sizes, altitudes, and latitudinal distributions are derived from analyses of CIRS far-IR observations of Titan. Specific cloud constraints include: I) mean particle radii of2-3 J.lm inferred from the V6 506 cm- band of HC3N, 2) latitudinal abundance distributions of condensed nitriles, inferred from a composite emission feature that peaks at 160/cm , and 3) a possible hydrocarbon cloud layer at high latitudes, located near an altitude of 60 km, which peaks between 60 and 80 cm l . Nitrile abundances appear to diminish substantially at high northern latitudes over the time period 2005 to 2010 (northern mid winter to early spring). Use of multiple gas species provides a consistency check on the eddy mixing coefficient profile. The flux at the upper boundary is the net column chemical production from the upper atmosphere and provides a constraint on chemical pathways leading to the production of these compounds. Comparison of the differing lifetimes, vapor phase transport, vapor phase loss rate, and particle sedimentation, sheds light on temporal stability

  13. Proceedings of a Workshop on Polar Stratospheric Clouds: Their Role in Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P. (Editor); Mcmaster, L. R. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The potential role of polar stratospheric clouds in atmospheric processes was assessed. The observations of polar stratospheric clouds with the Nimbus 7 SAM II satellite experiment were reviewed and a preliminary analysis of their formation, impact on other remote sensing experiments, and potential impact on climate were presented. The potential effect of polar stratospheric clouds on climate, radiation balance, atmospheric dynamics, stratospheric chemistry and water vapor budget, and cloud microphysics was assessed. Conclusions and recommendations, a synopsis of materials and complementary material to support those conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  14. Polar stratospheric clouds inferred from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, J.; Jones, R. L.; Remsberg, E. E.; Tuck, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Anomalously high radiances from the ozone channel of the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) sounding instrument have been observed in the Northern Hemisphere winter lower stratosphere. Such events, thought to be due to polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), are examined further by computing relative humidities using Stratospheric Sounding Unit temperatures and water vapor measurements from the LIMS Map Archive Tape analyses. Regions identified as PSCs are found to correspond closely to regions of high humidity. While instances of saturation were found, the average humidity at the centers of 39 PSCs was calculated to be 58 percent. Possible reasons for this apparent discrepancy are discussed. Applying a similar approach to the Southern Hemisphere, in 1979, virtually no PSCs are found in the vortex after September 10 at 20 km. This result has important implications for a number of proposed explanations for the Antarctic ozone hole.

  15. Observational Evidence Against Mountain-Wave Generation of Ice Nuclei as a Prerequisite for the Formation of Three Solid Nitric Acid Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed in the Arctic in Early December 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, Kathy L.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Hervig, Mark E.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Browell, Edward V.; Legg, Marion J.; Foschi, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    A number of recently published papers suggest that mountain-wave activity in the stratosphere, producing ice particles when temperatures drop below the ice frost point, may be the primary source of large NAT particles. In this paper we use measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites to map out regions of ice clouds produced by stratospheric mountain-wave activity inside the Arctic vortex. Lidar observations from three DC-8 flights in early December 1999 show the presence of solid nitric acid (Type Ia or NAT) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). By using back trajectories and superimposing the position maps on the AVHRR cloud imagery products, we show that these observed NAT clouds could not have originated at locations of high-amplitude mountain-wave activity. We also show that mountain-wave PSC climatology data and Mountain Wave Forecast Model 2.0 (MWFM-2) raw hemispheric ray and grid box averaged hemispheric wave temperature amplitude hindcast data from the same time period are in agreement with the AVHRR data. Our results show that ice cloud formation in mountain waves cannot explain how at least three large scale NAT clouds were formed in the stratosphere in early December 1999.

  16. Composition of Polar Stratospheric Clouds from Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, M. A.; Anthony, S. E.; Disselkamp, R.; Toon, O. B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) have recently been implicated in Arctic and Antarctic ozone destruction. Although the chemistry is well documented, the composition of the clouds remains uncertain. The most common PSCs (type I) are thought to be composed of HNO3/H2O mixtures. Although the exact process is not clear, type I PSCs are believed to nucleate on preexisting stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs) composed of sulfuric acid and water. We are using infrared spectroscopy to study the composition and formation mechanism of type I PSCs. In the laboratory, we have used FTIR spectroscopy to probe the composition and phase of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O aerosols under winter polar stratospheric conditions. We have also used recently measured infrared optical constants for HNO3/H2O mixtures to analyze solar infrared extinction measurements of type I PSCs obtained in September 1987 over Antarctica. The results of these studies will be discussed in the context of current theories for polar stratospheric clouds formation.

  17. Composition of polar stratospheric clouds from infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, M.A.; Anthony, S.E.; Disselkamp, R.; Toon, O.B.

    1995-12-31

    Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) have recently been implicated in Arctic and Antarctic ozone destruction. Although the chemistry is well documented, the composition of the clouds remains uncertain. The most common PSCs (type I) are thought to be composed of HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O mixtures. Although the exact process is not clear, type I PSCs are believed to nucleate on preexisting stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs) composed of sulfuric acid and water. We are using infrared spectroscopy to study the composition and formation mechanism of type I PSCs. In the laboratory, we have used FTIR spectroscopy to probe the composition and phase of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O aerosols under winter polar stratospheric conditions. We have also used recently measured infrared optical constants for HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O mixtures to analyze solar infrared extinction measurements of type I PSCs obtained in September, 1987 over Antarctica. The results of these studies will be discussed in the context of current theories for polar stratospheric cloud formation.

  18. Characteristics of cirrus clouds in the tropical lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Suginori; Luo, Zhengzhao Johnny; Kubota, Hisayuki; Shibata, Takashi; Okamoto, Hajime; Ishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    A unique type of cloud in the tropical lower stratosphere, which we call "stratospheric cirrus", is described in this study. Stratospheric cirrus clouds are generally detached from overshooting deep convection and are much smaller than subvisual cirrus often observed near the tropical tropopause. We analyzed two cases of stratospheric cirrus in the tropical and subtropical lower stratosphere captured by the space-borne lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Both cases occurred 2-3 hours after the most active phase of the nearby convective cloud clusters. Case 1 has a double-layer structure above the cold point height (CPH); the CPH and two cloud top heights are, respectively, 17.8, 18.9, and 19.9 km. Case 2 has a single cloud layer where CPH and the cloud top height are, respectively, 16.5 and 18.7 km. The mode radius and ice water content of the stratospheric cirrus clouds are estimated to be 4-10 μm and 0.2-0.8 mg/m3 based on the radar-lidar method and consideration of the cloud particle terminal velocity. Comparisons with previous numerical model simulation studies suggest that the double-layer stratospheric cirrus clouds are likely from an overshooting plume, pushed up into the stratosphere in an overshoot when warm stratospheric air is inhomogeneously mixed with cold overshooting air. The single-layer stratospheric cirrus cloud is associated with some non-negligible wind shear, so it could be a jumping cirrus cloud, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it came from an overshooting plume because of the similarity in cloud characteristics and morphology between the two cases. Guided by the case studies, an automatic algorithm was developed to select stratospheric cirrus clouds for global survey and statistical analysis. A total of four years of CALIPSO and space-borne cloud radar (CloudSat) data were analyzed. Statistical analysis suggests that stratospheric cirrus clouds occur on the order of 3.0 × 103 times a year

  19. Monitoring of the Polar Stratospheric Clouds formation and evolution in Antarctica in August 2007 during IPY with the MATCH method applied to lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoux, Nadege; David, Christine; Klekociuk, Andrew; Pitts, Michael; di Liberto, Luca; Snels, Marcel; Jumelet, Julien; Bekki, Slimane; Larsen, Niels

    2010-05-01

    The project ORACLE-O3 ("Ozone layer and UV RAdiation in a changing CLimate Evaluated during IPY") is one of the coordinated international proposals selected for the International Polar Year (IPY). As part of this global project, LOLITA-PSC ("Lagrangian Observations with Lidar Investigations and Trajectories in Antarctica and Arctic, of PSC") is devoted to Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) studies. Indeed, understanding the formation and evolution of PSC is an important issue to quantify the impact of climate changes on their frequency of formation and, further, on chlorine activation and subsequent ozone depletion. In this framework, three lidar stations performed PSC observations in Antarctica during the 2006, 2007, and 2008 winters: Davis (68.58°S, 77.97°E), McMurdo (77.86°S, 166.48°E) and Dumont D'Urville (66.67°S, 140.01°E). The data are completed with the lidar data from CALIOP ("Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization") onboard the CALIPSO ("Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation") satellite. Lagrangian trajectory calculations are used to identify air masses with PSCs sounded by several ground-based lidar stations with the same method, called MATCH, applied for the first time in Arctic to study the ozone depletion with radiosoundings. The evolution of the optical properties of the PSCs and thus the type of PSCs formed (supercooled ternary solution, nitric acid trihydrate particles or ice particles) could thus be linked to the thermodynamical evolution of the air mass deduced from the trajectories. A modeling with the microphysical model of the Danish Meteorological Institute allows assessing our ability to predict PSCs for various environmental conditions. Indeed, from pressure and temperature evolution, the model allows retrieving the types of particles formed as well as their mean radii, their concentrations and could also simulate the lidar signals. In a first step, a case in August 2007 around 17-18 km, involving

  20. Homogenous Surface Nucleation of Solid Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, A.; Hamill, P.; Salcedo, D.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A general surface nucleation rate theory is presented for the homogeneous freezing of crystalline germs on the surfaces of aqueous particles. While nucleation rates in a standard classical homogeneous freezing rate theory scale with volume, the rates in a surface-based theory scale with surface area. The theory is used to convert volume-based information on laboratory freezing rates (in units of cu cm, seconds) of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD) aerosols into surface-based values (in units of sq cm, seconds). We show that a surface-based model is capable of reproducing measured nucleation rates of NAT and NAD aerosols from concentrated aqueous HNO3 solutions in the temperature range of 165 to 205 K. Laboratory measured nucleation rates are used to derive free energies for NAT and NAD germ formation in the stratosphere. NAD germ free energies range from about 23 to 26 kcal mole, allowing for fast and efficient homogeneous NAD particle production in the stratosphere. However, NAT germ formation energies are large (greater than 26 kcal mole) enough to prevent efficient NAT particle production in the stratosphere. We show that the atmospheric NAD particle production rates based on the surface rate theory are roughly 2 orders of magnitude larger than those obtained from a standard volume-based rate theory. Atmospheric volume and surface production of NAD particles will nearly cease in the stratosphere when denitrification in the air exceeds 40 and 78%, respectively. We show that a surface-based (volume-based) homogeneous freezing rate theory gives particle production rates, which are (not) consistent with both laboratory and atmospheric data on the nucleation of solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  1. CALIOP Polar Stratospheric Cloud Data Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Baskin, W. E.; Lucker, P. L.

    2012-12-01

    Spaceborne observations from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar on the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite are providing a rich new dataset for studying polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) characteristics. We have developed an approach for both detection and composition classification of PSCs based on CALIOP backscatter and depolarization measurements. The algorithm includes both the CALIOP 532-nm scattering ratio and perpendicular backscatter coefficient for cloud detection, which significantly improves the detection of tenuous PSC mixtures with Nitric Acid Trihydrate (NAT) particles in low number density, and incorporates an innovative successive horizontal averaging scheme to enable the detection of strongly backscattering PSCs at fine horizontal resolution (5-km) and more tenuous clouds at increasingly coarser averaging scales. The algorithm also includes a scheme for classifying PSCs by composition based on the CALIOP aerosol depolarization and inverse scattering ratio. To date, only a research version of this PSC data product has been available on request. An autonomous production version is currently under development with the beta version scheduled to be released by the end of 2012. The PSC product will be archived and distributed by the Atmospheric Science Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). This poster presents an overview of the PSC detection and composition algorithms, describes the output parameters of the new PSC production version, and show examples to illustrate the utility of the data product. The poster also describes ancillary data chosen to better facilitate the use of the PSC data product for science applications.

  2. Stratospheric ion and aerosol chemistry and possible links with cirrus cloud microphysics - A critical assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohnen, Volker A.

    1990-01-01

    Aspects of stratospheric ion chemistry and physics are assessed as they relate to aerosol formation and the transport of aerosols to upper tropospheric regions to create conditions favorable for cirrus cloud formation. It is found that ion-induced nucleation and other known phase transitions involving ions and sulfuric acid vapor are probably not efficient processes for stratospheric aerosol formation, and cannot compete with condensation of sulfuric acid on preexisting particles of volcanic or meteoritic origin which are larger than about 0.15 micron in radius. Thus, galactic cosmic rays cannot have a significant impact on stratospheric aerosol population. Changes in the stratospheric aerosol burden due to volcanos are up to two orders of magnitude larger than changes in ion densities. Thus, volcanic activity may modulate the radiative properties of cirrus clouds.

  3. Can we modify stratospheric water vapor by deliberate cloud seeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baojun; Yin, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Stratospheric water vapor has an important effect on Earth's climate. Considering the significance of overshooting deep convection in modulating the water vapor content (WVC) of the lower stratosphere (LS), we use a three-dimensional convective cloud model to simulate the effects of various silver iodide (AgI) seeding scenarios on tropical overshooting deep convection that occurred on 30 November 2005 in Darwin, Australia. The primary motivation for this study is to investigate whether the WVC in the LS can be artificially modified by deliberate cloud seeding. It is found that AgI seeding done at the early stages of clouds produces significant effects on cloud microphysical and dynamical properties, and that further affects the WVC in the LS, while seeding at the mature stages of clouds has only a slight impact. The response of stratospheric water vapor to changes in the amount of seeding agent is nonlinear. The seeding with a small (large) amount of AgI increases (decreases) the WVC in the LS, due to enhanced (reduced) production and vertical transport of cloud ice from the troposphere and subsequent sublimation in the stratosphere. The results show that stratospheric water vapor can be artificially altered by deliberate cloud seeding with proper amount of seeding agent. This study also shows an important role of graupel in regulating cloud microphysics and dynamics and in modifying the WVC in the LS.

  4. Spectroscopic Evidence Against Nitric Acid Trihydrate in Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) play a key role in the photochemical mechanism thought to be responsible for ozone depletion in the Antarctic and Arctic. Reactions of PSC particles activate chlorine to forms that are capable of photochemical ozone destruction, and sequester nitrogen oxides (NOx) that would otherwise deactivate the chlorine. Although the heterogeneous chemistry is now well established, the composition of the clouds themselves is uncertain. It is commonly thought that they are composed of nitric acid trihydrate, although observations have left this question unresolved. Here we reanalyse infrared spectra of type 1 PSCs obtained in Antarctica in September 1987, using recently measured optical constants of the various compounds that might be present in PSCs. We find these PSCs were not composed of nitric acid trihydrate but instead had a more complex compositon, perhaps that of a ternary solution. Because cloud formation is sensitive to their composition, this finding will alter our understanding of the locations and conditions in which PSCs form. In addition, the extent of ozone loss depends on the ability of the PSCs to remove NOx permanently through sedimentation, The sedimentation rates depend on PSC particle size which in turn is controlled by the composition and formation mechanism.

  5. Clouds in the Tropical Lowermost Stratosphere Observed by ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, J. J.; Galkina, I.; Sioris, C. E.; Nowlan, C. R.; McElroy, T.; Zou, J.; Hu, J.; Drummond, J. R.; McLinden, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    Evidence for the occurrence of cloud particles in the tropical lowermost stratosphere in the 2004-2007 period is presented. This study is based on measurements by the three Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) instruments onboard SCI-SAT. The Vis & NIR Imagers are used to determine the presence of clouds and their top height. The Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations are used to determine the size distribution and composition of the aerosols. The FTS has a 4 km field-of-view. Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) provide more precise altitude determination of the thermal tropopause and the cloud tops by virtue of its smaller FOV (~1 km). Clouds in the tropical lower stratosphere are a rare occurrence but April 2005 produced a few such cases, consistent with previous observations by OSIRIS. We discuss several individual case studies that demonstrate the presence of large particles (mode radius of ~8 microns) clearly above the tropopause.

  6. Polar stratospheric clouds climatology over Dumont d'Urville between 1989 and 1993 and the influence of volcanic aerosols on their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.; Bekki, S.; Godin, S.; MéGie, G.; Chipperfield, M. P.

    1998-09-01

    The first polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) climatology ever established from lidar data and relative to a specific site is presented here. It is based on lidar backscatter and depolarization measurements of PSCs carried out between 1989 and 1993 at Dumont d'Urville (66°S, 140°E), which is a primary station of the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Changes (NDSC). The climatology was subdivided based on the stratospheric sulphuric acid aerosol content (background aerosols in 1989-1991 and volcanic aerosols in 1992-1993 following the Mount Pinatubo eruption). PSCs were mainly observed in July and August. Very few water ice clouds (type II) were detected. Most of the PSCs tended to form around the peak in sulphuric acid aerosol, between 17 and 23 km in 1989-1991 and between 11 and 20 km in 1992-1993. This tendency suggests that sulphuric acid aerosols are very likely to act as condensation nuclei for PSCs. As shown by previous lidar studies [Browell et al, 1990], two type I subclasses were identified: depolarizing (nonspherical) particles (type Ia) and nondepolarizing (spherical) particles (type Ib). No type Ia PSCs were detected above the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) saturation temperature, TNAT, lending support to the theory that NAT is the main component of type Ia PSCs. There was also no evidence of the existence of sulphuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) in the data. Some type Ib PSCs were observed close to the frost point, showing that supersaturation with respect to NAT is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the existence of solid PSCs. No type Ib PSCs were clearly detected above TNAT in 1989-1991 whereas 18% of the PSCs seem to be found at temperatures above TNAT in 1992-1993. This difference might be linked to the HNO3 uptake by volcanic sulphuric acid particles starting at higher temperatures. The fraction of type Ia out of the total PSCs observations was lower in 1992-1993 than in 1989-1991. This difference was not found to be highly

  7. Quasi-Liquid Layer Formation on Ice under Stratospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, V. Faye; Loerting, Thomas; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of the interaction of hydrogen chloride (HCl) with ice is essential to understanding at a molecular level the processes responsible for ozone depletion involving polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. To explain the catalytic role PSC particle surfaces play during chlorine activation, we proposed previously that HCl induces the formation of a disordered region on the ice surface, a quasi-liquid layer (QLL), at stratospheric conditions. The QLL is known to exist in pure ice crystals at temperatures near the melting point, but its existence at stratospheric temperatures (-85 C to -70 C) had not been reported yet. We studied the interaction of HCl with ice under stratospheric conditions using the complementary approach of a) ellipsometry to directly monitor the ice surface, using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to monitor the gas phase species present in the ellipsometry experiments, and b) flow-tube experiments with CIMS detection. Here we show that trace amounts of HCl induce QLL formation at stratospheric temperatures, and that the QLL enhances the chlorine-activation reaction of HCl with chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), and also enhances acetic acid (CH3COOH) adsorption.

  8. Case Studies of The Dynamical Development of Polar Stratospheric Clouds Using Multistatic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enell, C.-F.; Stebel, K.; Gustavsson, B.; Kirkwood, S.; Brändström, U.; Steen, Å.

    The important role of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in stratospheric chemistry is firmly established. The formation of PSCs is closely related to temperature, which is affected by wave activity on different scales. PSC occurrence thus reflects radiative and/or dynamical stratospheric temperature changes. The most obvious indication of PSC presence is the visual observation of mother-of- pearl clouds. We present case studies of the development of visual PSCs undertaken by means of ground-based cameras. Our observations show that the presence of mother- of-pearl clouds varies on a scale smaller than that of typical mesoscale models. The images are studied further in the context of the meteorological, dynamical situa- tion, and visibility conditions (solar elevation and tropospheric cloudiness).

  9. Theoretical Studies of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Clouds and Aerosols in Support of SOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2002-01-01

    We proposed a number of theoretical efforts to support NASA's SOLVE Mission which took place in Kiruna, Sweden in the winter of 1999-2000. We proposed to serve as one of the DC-8 project scientists, to work with various instrument teams to better understand the composition of polar stratospheric clouds, and their properties, and to help understand the physical conditions which lead to cloud formation in the polar winter.

  10. Status of Numerical Modelling of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Their Effect on Stratospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Michelangeli, D. V.; Kletskin, I.

    2003-04-01

    A multi-dimensional stratospheric model for aerosols including detailed Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) microphysical processes, heterogeneous chemistry and comprehensive gas phase chemistry is being developed to study the formation and evolution of PSCs and the effect of heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of PSCs on polar stratospheric ozone. The model can be used in parcel mode or one, two, three dimensions. Background sulfate aerosols, frozen sulfate aerosols (sulfuric acid tetrahydrate, SAT) , Type 1a PSCs (nitric acid trihydrate, NAT ), Type 1b PSCs (supercooled ternary solution, STS ), and Type 2 PSCs (water ice crystals) are all treated as interactive elements in the model. The possible microphysical processes included in the model are: uptake of HNO_3 and H_2O on background sulphate droplets to form Type 1b and evaporation of HNO_3 and H_2O from Type 1b to return background sulphate droplets; homogenous freezing of Type 1b to form Type 2 PSCs; heterogeneous nucleation of SAT to form NAT particles, and NAT to form Type 2 PSC ice; deliquescence of SAT to form Type 1b STS and melting of SAT to form background sulphate droplets. In addition, the model involves the growth of ice and NAT by H_2O and HNO_3 deposition, evaporation, coagulation, sedimentation and transport processes. Heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen, chlorine, and bromine compounds in and on sulphate droplets, ternary, and ice particles are considered in the model. In this paper, preliminary simulation results of sensitivity tests are presented to display the basic features of PSCs and their effects on polar ozone. Comparisons with satellite measurements will be discussed.

  11. Effects of a polar stratospheric cloud parameterization on ozone depletion due to stratospheric aircraft in a two-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, D.B.; Douglass, A.R.; Jackman, C.H.

    1994-09-20

    A parameterization of Type 1 and 2 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is presented which is appropriate for use in two-dimensional (2-D) photochemical models of the stratosphere. The calculation of PSC frequency of occurrence and surface area density uses climatological temperature probability distributions obtained from National Meteorological Center data to avoid using zonal mean temperatures, which are not good predictors of PSC behavior. The parameterization does not attempt to model the microphysics of PSCs. The parameterization predicts changes in PSC formation and heterogeneous processing due to perturbations of stratospheric trace constituents. It is therefore useful in assessing the potential effects of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft (high speed civil transports, or HSCTs) on stratospheric composition. The model calculated frequency of PSC occurrence agrees well with a climatology based on stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM) II observations. PSCs are predicted to occur in the tropics. Their vertical range is narrow, however, and their impact on model O{sub 3} fields is small. When PSC and sulfate aerosol heterogeneous processes are included in the model calculations, the O{sub 3} change for 1980-1990 is in substantially better agreement with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) - derived O{sub 3} trend than otherwise. However, significant discrepancies in the northern midlatitudes remain. The overall changes in model O{sub 3} response to standard HSCT perturbation scenarios produced by the parameterization are small and tend to decrease the model sensitivity to the HSCT perturbation. However, in the southern hemisphere spring a significant increase in O{sub 3} sensitivity to HSCT perturbations is found. At this location and time, increased PSC formation leads to increased levels of active chlorine, which produce the O{sub 3} decrease. 38 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Effects of a polar stratosphere cloud parameterization on ozone depletion due to stratospheric aircraft in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    A parameterization of Type 1 and 2 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is presented which is appropriate for use in two-dimensional (2-D) photochemical models of the stratosphere. The calculations of PSC frequency of occurrence and surface area density uses climatological temperature probability distributions obtained from National Meteorological Center data to avoid using zonal mean temperatures, which are not good predictors of PSC behavior. The parameterization does not attempt to model the microphysics of PSCs. The parameterization predicts changes in PSC formation and heterogeneous processing due to perturbations of stratospheric trace constituents. It is therefore useful in assessing the potential effects of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft (high speed civil transports, or HSCTs) on stratospheric composition. the model calculated frequency of PSC occurrence agrees well with a climatology based on stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM) 2 observations. PSCs are predicted to occur in the tropics. Their vertical range is narrow, however, and their impact on model O3 fields is small. When PSC and sulfate aerosol heterogeneous processes are included in the model calculations, the O3 change for 1980 - 1990 is in substantially better agreement with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)-derived O3 trend than otherwise. The overall changes in model O3 response to standard HSCT perturbation scenarios produced by the parameterization are small and tend to decrease the model sensitivity to the HSCT perturbation. However, in the southern hemisphere spring a significant increase in O3 sensitivity to HSCT perturbations is found. At this location and time, increased PSC formation leads to increased levels of active chlorine, which produce the O3 decreases.

  13. Combined system for observations of tropospheric and stratospheric thin clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, A.; Gobbi, G.P.; Viterbini, M.; Ugazio, S. CNR, Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Frascati )

    1993-02-01

    A balloon-borne sonde and a polarization lidar have been developed to make combined observations of thin tropospheric and stratospheric clouds. Their first application was a campaign organized to study Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds, which are involved in the process of ozone depletion. The sonde collects cloud particles larger than 4 microns in diameter on a transparent impactor and observes them by means of a CCD camera microscope. Images are transmitted in real time to the ground station for recording and analysis. Shape, dimension, and size distribution of the particles are obtained from these frames. The lidar provides complementary information about the cloud optical depth, backscattering, depolarization, vertical distribution, and temporal evolution. Characteristics of both instruments are described. The experiments performed during the 1990 spring campaign at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, are discussed, and some results are reported to show the capabilities of the combined system. 14 refs.

  14. Cloud-to-stratosphere lightning discharges - A radio emission model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations of rare cloud-to-stratospheric lightning discharges suggest the events are inherently 'slow-rising', with the emitted energy reaching peak values in about 10 milliseconds. Applying a dipole radiation model, it is demonstrated that the emitted radio wave energy from such slow-rising events is strongest below about 50 Hz, and possesses a significant rolloff at higher frequencies. In the analysis, various current distributions are considered in order to determine the effect on the radio spectrum. Near 10 kHz, the emission from cloud-to-stratospheric lightning is significantly reduced as compared to the typical cloud-to-ground return stroke, with amplitudes as much as 50 dB lower. This result may explain the lack of detection of VLF signals from recently observed long-lasting discharge events.

  15. Mesospheric cloud formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Formation of mesospheric clouds as a result of deposition of large amounts of H2O by the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) of the solar power satellite system is discussed. The conditions which must be met in order to form and maintain clouds near the mesopause are described. The frequency and magnitude of H2O injections from the HLLV rocket exhaust are considered.

  16. Polar stratospheric clouds observed by lidar at McMurdo Station during the 1993 winter

    SciTech Connect

    Adriani, A.; Gobbi, G.P.; Donfrancesco, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Since 1990, a lidar system has been operating at McMurdo Station (78{degrees}S 167{degrees}E) during the local spring. In 1993, it performed measurements between 1 March and 10 October. The lidar can monitor the presence of clouds by measuring the light backscattered from the atmosphere. After system calibration, the received signal is compared with the one expected from an atmosphere not containing particles. On such a basis, a parameter called backscattering ratio, R, is calculated. When particles are not present R is 1. Any value larger than 1 is related to the presence of particles. Lidar can be used to monitor clouds in the lower stratosphere (polar stratospheric clouds - PSCs- or volcanic clouds). PSCs have an important role in the heterogeneous chemistry of the polar stratosphere, and their presence is strictly linked with the `ozone hole`. During the 1993 winter and spring, the antarctic stratosphere still presented a measurable amount of volcanic aerosol from the Mount Pinatubo eruption. The volcanic aerosols facilitated the formation of PSCs observed during the 1993 winter because they need condensation nuclei to form. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Chemical analysis of refractory stratospheric aerosol particles collected within the arctic vortex and inside polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Martin; Weigel, Ralf; Kandler, Konrad; Günther, Gebhard; Molleker, Sergej; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Vogel, Bärbel; Weinbruch, Stephan; Borrmann, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric aerosol particles with diameters larger than about 10 nm were collected within the arctic vortex during two polar flight campaigns: RECONCILE in winter 2010 and ESSenCe in winter 2011. Impactors were installed on board the aircraft M-55 Geophysica, which was operated from Kiruna, Sweden. Flights were performed at a height of up to 21 km and some of the particle samples were taken within distinct polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). The chemical composition, size and morphology of refractory particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. During ESSenCe no refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were sampled. In total 116 small silicate, Fe-rich, Pb-rich and aluminum oxide spheres were found. In contrast to ESSenCe in early winter, during the late-winter RECONCILE mission the air masses were subsiding inside the Arctic winter vortex from the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, thus initializing a transport of refractory aerosol particles into the lower stratosphere. During RECONCILE, 759 refractory particles with diameters above 500 nm were found consisting of silicates, silicate / carbon mixtures, Fe-rich particles, Ca-rich particles and complex metal mixtures. In the size range below 500 nm the presence of soot was also proven. While the data base is still sparse, the general tendency of a lower abundance of refractory particles during PSC events compared to non-PSC situations was observed. The detection of large refractory particles in the stratosphere, as well as the experimental finding that these particles were not observed in the particle samples (upper size limit ˜ 5 µm) taken during PSC events, strengthens the hypothesis that such particles are present in the lower polar stratosphere in late winter and have provided a surface for heterogeneous nucleation during PSC formation.

  18. Observations of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds by Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Fromm, Michael; Spinhirne, James

    2005-01-01

    Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) frequently occur in the polar regions during winter and are important because they play a role in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. During late September and early October 2003, GLAS frequently observed PSCs over western Antarctica. At the peak of this activity on September 29 and 30 we investigate the vertical structure and extent, horizontal coverage and backscatter characteristics of the PSCs using the GLAS data. The PSCs were found to cover an area approximately 10 to 15 % of the size of Antarctica in a region where enhanced PSC frequency has been noted by previous PSC climatology studies. The area of PSC formation was found to coincide with the coldest temperatures in the lower stratosphere. In addition, extensive cloudiness was seen within the troposphere below the PSCs indicating that tropospheric disturbances might have played a role in their formation.

  19. Mixed-phased particles in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.; Loerting, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone depletion, differential scanning calorimeter. The rate of chlorine activation reactions, which lead to ozone depletion in the winter/spring polar stratosphere (Molina, 1994), depends on the phase state of the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice crystals (McNeil et al., 2006). PSCs are thought to consist of solid ice and NAT (nitric acid trihydrate, HNO3× 3H2O) particles and supercooled HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. The corresponding PSCs are called Type II, Ia, and Ib PSCs, respectively (Zondlo et al., 1998). Type II PSCs are formed in the Antarctic region below the ice frost point of 189 K by homogeneous freezing of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets (Chang et al., 1999) with the excess of HNO3. The PSC ice crystals are thought to be solid. However, the fate of H+, NO3-, SO42- ions during freezing was not investigated. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of freezing emulsified HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets of sizes and compositions representative of the polar stratosphere demonstrate that during the freezing of the droplets, H+, NO3-, SO42- are expelled from the ice lattice. The expelled ions form a residual solution around the formed ice crystals. The residual solution does not freeze but transforms to glassy state at ~150 K (Bogdan et al., 2010). By contrast to glass-formation in these nitric-acid rich ternary mixtures the residual solution freezes in the case of sulphuric-acid rich ternary mixtures (Bogdan and Molina, 2009). For example, we can consider the phase separation into ice and a residual solution during the freezing of 23/3 wt% HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. On cooling, ice is formed at ~189 K. This is inferred from the fact that the corresponding melting peak at ~248 K exactly matches the melting point of ice in the phase diagram of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O containing 3 wt % H2SO4. After the ice has formed, the glass transition occurs at Tg ≈ 150 K. The appearance of the glass transition indicates that the

  20. Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, S.T.; Bailey, P.L.; Gille, J.C.; Lee, E.C.; Mergenthaler, J.L.; Roche, A.E.; Kumer, J.B.; Fishbein, E.F.; Waters, J.W.; Lahoz, W.A.

    1994-10-15

    Multiwavelength observations of Antarctic and midlatitude aerosol by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are used to demonstrate a technique that identifies the location of polar stratospheric clouds. The technique discussed uses the normalized area of the triangle formed by the aerosol extinctions at 925, 1257, and 1605 cm{sup {minus}1} (10.8, 8.0, and 6.2 {mu}m) to derive a spectral aerosol measure M of the aerosol spectrum. Mie calculations for spherical particles and T-matrix calculations for spheroidal particles are used to generate theoretical spectral extinction curves for sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles. The values of the spectral aerosol measure M for the sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles are shown to be different. Aerosol extinction data, corresponding to temperatures between 180 and 220 K at a pressure of 46 hPa (near 21-km altitude) for 18 August 1992, are used to demonstrate the technique. Thermodynamic calculations, based upon frost-point calculation and laboratory phase-equilibrium studies of nitric acid trihydrate, are used to predict the location of nitric acid trihydrate cloud particles. 47 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Spectral signatures of polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Bailey, P. L.; Gille, J. C.; Lee, E. C.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Roche, A. E.; Kumer, J. B.; Fishbein, E. F.; Waters, J. W.; Lahoz, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of Antarctic and midlatitude aerosol by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are used to demonstrate a technique that identifies the location of polar stratospheric clouds. The technique discussed uses the normalized area of the triangle formed by the aerosol extinctions at 925, 1257, and 1605/cm (10.8, 8.0, and 6.2 micrometers) to derive a spectral aerosol measure M of the aerosol spectrum. Mie calculations for spherical particles and T-matrix calculations for spheriodal particles are used to generate theoretical spectral extinction curves for sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles. The values of the spectral aerosol measure M for the sulfate and polar stratospheric cloud particles are shown to be different. Aerosol extinction data, corresponding to temperatures between 180 and 220 K at a pressure of 46 hPa (near 21-km altitude) for 18 August 1992, are used to demonstrate the technique. Thermodynamic calculations, based upon frost-point calculations and laboratory phase-equilibrium studies of nitric acid trihydrate, are used to predict the location of nitric acid trihydrate cloud particles.

  2. The polar stratospheric cloud event of January 24. II - Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.; Mckenna, D. S.; Solomon, S.; Poole, L. R.; Brune, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1988/89 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE), observations of the chemical composition, aerosol characteristics and atmospheric state were obtained from two aircraft, a NASA ER-2 and a DC-8. This paper presents a diagnosis of observations obtained using the ER-2 on January 24, 1989, using a Lagrangian coupled microphysical-photochemical model. The high chlorine monoxide mixing ratios observed from the ER-2 on the afternoon of January 24, 1989 are interpreted as a result of in situ heterogeneous release of reactive chlorine from the reservoirs HCl and CIONO2 on type-1 polar stratospheric cloud particles observed to be present at that time. This essential element in theories of polar ozone depletion has never before been observed directly in the stratosphere.

  3. Researchers Focus on Fire Clouds That Reach to the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-08-01

    Volcanic eruptions are not the only violent events that can inject smoke-colored and cauliflower-textured clouds into the stratosphere. Pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCB) storms can, too. These recently discovered phenomena are storms caused or aided by fire; they have many characteristics similar to thunderstorms, including lightning, hail, and extreme vertical height through the troposphere and into the lower stratosphere. Common wisdom had held that “the only event that can explosively pollute the stratosphere is a volcanic eruption,” Michael Fromm, a meteorologist with the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C., said at a 9 August press briefing at the 2010 Meeting of the Americas in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. “Now we know that pyroCBs can do a version of this, thanks to the heat from fire.”

  4. Observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds down to the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keckhut, P.; David, Ch.; Marchand, M.; Bekki, S.; Jumelet, J.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2007-05-01

    A Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) was detected for the first time in January 2006 over Southern Europe after 25 years of systematic lidar observations. This cloud was observed while the polar vortex was highly distorted during the initial phase of a major stratospheric warming. Very cold stratospheric temperatures (<190 K) centred over the Northern-Western Europe were reported, extending down to the South of France where lidar observations were performed. CTM (Chemical Transport Model) investigations show that this event led to a significant direct ozone destruction (35 ppb/day), within and outside the vortex as chlorine activated air masses were moved to sunlight regions allowing ozone destruction. If such exceptional events of mid-latitudes PSCs were to become frequent in the future, they should not compromise the ozone recovery because their effect appears to be limited temporally and spatially. More importantly, these events might tend to be associated with the initial phase of a stratospheric warming that results into a weakening and warming of the polar vortex and hence into a reduced probability occurrence of PSC temperatures during the rest of the winter.

  5. Observation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds down to the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keckhut, P.; David, Ch.; Marchand, M.; Bekki, S.; Jumelet, J.; Hauchecorne, A.; Höpfner, M.

    2007-10-01

    A Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) was detected for the first time in January 2006 over Southern Europe after 25 years of systematic lidar observations. This cloud was observed while the polar vortex was highly distorted during the initial phase of a major stratospheric warming. Very cold stratospheric temperatures (<190 K) centred over the Northern-Western Europe were reported, extending down to the South of France where lidar observations were performed. CTM (Chemical Transport Model) investigations show that this event led to a significant direct ozone destruction (35 ppb/day), within and outside the vortex as chlorine activated air masses were moved to sunlight regions allowing ozone destruction. If such exceptional events of mid-latitudes PSCs were to become frequent in the future, they should not compromise the ozone recovery because their effect appears to be limited temporally and spatially. More importantly, these events might tend to be associated with the initial phase of a stratospheric warming that results into a weakening and warming of the polar vortex and hence into a reduced probability occurrence of PSC temperatures during the rest of the winter.

  6. Monstrous Ice Cloud System in Titan's Present South Polar Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, Robert; McLain, Jason; Achterberg, Richard; Flasar, F. Michael; Milam, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    During southern autumn when sunlight was still available, Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem discovered a cloud around 300 km near Titan's south pole (West, R. A. et al., AAS/DPS Abstracts, 45, #305.03, 2013); the cloud was later determined by Cassini's Visible and InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer to contain HCN ice (de Kok et al., Nature, 514, pp 65-67, 2014). This cloud has proven to be only the tip of an extensive ice cloud system contained in Titan's south polar stratosphere, as seen through the night-vision goggles of Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS). As the sun sets and the gloom of southern winter approaches, evidence is beginning to accumulate from CIRS far-IR spectra that a massive system of nitrile ice clouds is developing in Titan's south polar stratosphere. Even during the depths of northern winter, nothing like the strength of this southern system was evident in corresponding north polar regions.From the long slant paths that are available from limb-viewing CIRS far-IR spectra, we have the first definitive detection of the ν6 band of cyanoacetylene (HC3N) ice in Titan’s south polar stratosphere. In addition, we also see a strong blend of nitrile ice lattice vibration features around 160 cm-1. From these data we are able to derive ice abundances. The most prominent (and still chemically unidentified) ice emission feature, the Haystack, (at 220 cm-1) is also observed. We establish the vertical distributions of the ice cloud systems associated with both the 160 cm-1 feature and the Haystack. The ultimate aim is to refine the physical and possibly the chemical relationships between the two. Transmittance thin film spectra of nitrile ice mixtures obtained in our Spectroscopy for Planetary ICes Environments (SPICE) laboratory are used to support these analyses.

  7. Cirrus and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Studies using CLAES Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mergenthaler, John L.; Douglass, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We've concluded a 3 year (Period of Performance- January 21, 1998 to February 28, 2001) study of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds using CLAES (Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer) data. We have described the progress of this study in monthly reports, UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) science team meetings, American Geophysical Society Meetings, refereed publications and collaborative publications. Work undertaken includes the establishment of CLAES cloud detection criteria, the refinement of CLAES temperature retrieval techniques, compare the findings of CLAES with those of other instruments, and present findings to the larger community. This report describes the progress made in these areas.

  8. Case study of the development of polar stratospheric clouds using bistatic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enell, C.-F.; Brändström, U.; Gustavsson, B.; Kirkwood, S.; Stebel, K.; Steen, A.

    2003-08-01

    The formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) is closely related to wave activity on different scales since waves propagating into the stratosphere perturb the temperature profile. We present here a case study of the development of visible PSCs (mother-of-pearl clouds), appearing at the polar vortex edge on 9 January 1997, under-taken by means of ground-based cameras. It is shown that the presence of stratospheric clouds may be detected semi-automatically and that short-term dynamics such as altitude variations can be tracked in three dimensions. The PSC field showed distinct features separated by approximately 20 km, which implies wave-induced temperature variations on that scale. The wave-induced characteristics were further emphasised by the fact that the PSCs moved within a sloping spatial surface. The appearance of visible mother-of-pearl clouds seems to be related to leewave-induced cooling of air masses, where the synoptic temperature has been close to (but not necessarily below) the threshold temperatures for PSC condensation.

  9. Dehydration of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere by Subvisible Cirrus Clouds Near the Tropical Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.

    1996-01-01

    The extreme dryness of the lower stratosphere is believed to be caused by freeze-drying of air as it enters the stratosphere through the cold tropical tropopause. Previous investigations have been focused on dehydration occurring at the tops of deep convective cloud systems, However, recent observations of a ubiquitous stratiform cirrus cloud layer near the tropical tropopause suggest the possibility of dehydration as air is slowly lifted by large-scale motions, In this study, we have evaluated this possibility using a detailed ice cloud model. Simulations of ice cloud formation in the temperature minima of gravity waves (wave periods of 1 - 2 hours) indicate that large numbers of ice crystals will likely form due to the low temperatures and rapid cooling. As a result, the crystals do not grow larger than about 10 microns, fallspeeds are no greater than a few cm/s, and little or no precipitation or dehydration occurs. However, ice cloud's formed by large-scale vertical motions (with lifetimes of a day or more) should have,fever crystals and more time for crystal sedimentation to occur, resulting in water vapor depletions as large as 1 ppmv near the tropopause. We suggest that gradual lifting near the tropical tropopause, accompanied by formation of thin cirrus, may account for the dehydration.

  10. Arctic stratospheric sulphur injections: radiative forcings and cloud responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Gasparini, B.; Miriam, K.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and climate projections show a high sensitivity of the Arctic climate to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, known as the polar amplification. This study evaluates the options of counteracting the rising polar temperatures by stratospheric sulphur injections in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes.10 Mt of sulphur dioxide are emitted in a point emission source setup centred at the 100 hPa pressure level over Svalbard island (80°N,15°E). We perform simulations with the general circulation models ECHAM5, ECHAM6, and GISS ModelE. We study pulsed emission simulations that differ among themselves by the injection starting date (March-September), injection length (1, 30, or 90 day emission period), and the vertical resolution of the model (for ECHAM6). We find injections in April to be the most efficient in terms of the shortwave radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere over the Arctic region. The distribution of sulphate aerosol spreads out beyond the injection region, with a significant share reaching the Southern Hemisphere. Results from ModelE show high latitude injections could counteract the spring and summer temperature increase due to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Preliminary results with a more realistic description of clouds in ECHAM-HAM reveal a complex pattern of responses, most notably: a decrease in Northern Hemisphere cirrus clouds strengthening the effect of stratospheric aerosols in ECHAM5 a decrease in low-level clouds over the Arctic increasing the incoming solar radiation and causing a net positive radiative balance cirrus clouds are resilient to stratospheric sulphur injections in the absence of sulphate warming

  11. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. Several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the TTL can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model has been used to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the TTL. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth, advection, and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties and cloud frequencies depend strongly on the assumed supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio. I will also discuss the impacts of Kelvin waves and gravity waves on cloud properties and dehydration efficiency. These simulations can be used to determine whether observed lower stratospheric water vapor mixing ratios can be explained by dehydration associated with in situ TTL cloud formation alone.

  12. Clouds, hazes, and the stratospheric methane abundance in Neptune.

    PubMed

    Baines, K H; Hammel, H B

    1994-05-01

    Analysis of high-spatial-resolution (approximately 0.8 arcsec) methane band and continuum imagery of Neptune's relatively homogeneous Equatorial Region yields significant constraints on (1) the stratospheric gaseous methane mixing ratio (fCH4,s), (2) the column abundances and optical properties of stratospheric and tropospheric hydrocarbon hazes, and (3) the wavelength-dependent single-scattering albedo of the 3-bar opaque cloud. From the center-to-limb behavior of the 7270-angstroms and 8900-angstrom sCH4 bands, the stratospheric methane mixing ratio is limited to fCH4,s < 1.7 x 10(-3), with a nominal value of fCH4,s = 3.5 x 10(-4), one to two orders of magnitude less than pre-Voyager estimates, but in agreement with a number of recent ultraviolet and thermal infrared measurements, and largely in agreement with the tropopause mixing ratio implied by Voyager temperature measurements. Upper limits to the stratospheric haze mass column abundance and 6190-angstroms and 8900-angstroms haze opacities are 0.61 microgram cm-2 and 0.075 and 0.042, respectively, with nominal values of 0.20 microgram cm-2 and 0.025 and 0.014 for the 0.2-micrometer radius particles preferred by the recent Voyager PPS analysis of Pryor et al. (1992, Icarus 99, 302-316). The tropospheric CH4 haze opacities are comparable to that found in the stratosphere, upper limits of 0.104 and 0.065 at 6190 angstroms and 8900 angstroms, respectively, with nominal values of 0.085 and 0.058. This indicates a column abundance less than 11.0 micrograms cm-2, corresponding to the methane gas content within a well-mixed 3% methane tropospheric layer only 0.1 cm thick near the 1.5-bar CH4 condensation level. Constraints on the single-scattering albedos of these hazes include (1) for the stratospheric component, 6190-angstroms and 8900-angstroms imaginary indices of refraction less than 0.047 and 0.099, respectively, with 0.000 (conservative scattering) being the nominal value at both wavelengths, and (2) CH4 haze

  13. Effects of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geo-engineering on cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuebbeler, Miriam; Lohmann, Ulrike; Feichter, Johann

    2012-12-01

    Cooling the Earth through the injection of sulphate into the stratosphere is one of the most discussed geo-engineering (GE) schemes. Stratospheric aerosols can sediment into the troposphere, modify the aerosol composition and thus might impact cirrus clouds. We use a global climate model with a physically based parametrization for cirrus clouds in order to investigate possible microphysical and dynamical effects. We find that enhanced stratospheric aerosol loadings as proposed by several GE approaches will likely lead to a reduced ice crystal nucleation rate and thus optically thinner cirrus clouds. These optically thinner cirrus clouds exert a strong negative cloud forcing in the long-wave which contributes by 60% to the overall net GE forcing. This shows that indirect effects of stratospheric aerosols on cirrus clouds may be important and need to be considered in order to estimate the maximum cooling derived from stratospheric GE.

  14. Measurements in polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in September 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshler, Terry

    1991-01-01

    The results of six balloon flights at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, under varying temperature conditions, are used in a study of polar stratospheric clouds during Sept. 1989. A particle counter, with size resolution in the 0.5 micron radius region, indicates that cloud size distributions are always bimodal. Mode radii ranging from 0.05 to 0.10 microns were observed for the small particle mode, representing the sulfate layer or condensational growth enhancements of it. The data are not inconsistent with the expected increase in size with decreasing temperature of the small particle mode in the sulfate layer owing to deliquescence although this phenomenon is often masked by nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) condensation when temperatures are sufficiently low. Mode radii generally ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 micron for the large particle mode at concentrations 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than the small particle mode. The large particle mode, which normally comprises most of the mass, is presumably caused by NAT condensation on larger particles of the sulfate layer and indicates HNO3 mixing ratios of 1 to 5 ppbv for most of the cloud layers observed, suggesting substantial denitrification. On several occasions, distributions were observed with mode radii as high as 7 microns, and correspondingly large inferred mass, indicating water ice clouds in the 12 to 15 km region. On other occasions, absence of such clouds at very low temperatures indicated water vapor mixing ratios of less than 3 ppmv suggesting dehydration. Generally, the inferred HNO3 mixing ratios were higher in the lower stratosphere, suggesting redistribution through particle sedimentation.

  15. Clouds, hazes, and the stratospheric methane abundance in Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Hammel, Heidi B.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of high-spatial-resolution (approximately 0.8 arcsec) methane band and continuum imagery of Neptune's relatively homogeneous Equatorial Region yields significant constraints on (1) the stratospheric gaseous methane mixing ratio (f(sub CH4, S)), (2) the column abundances and optical properties of stratospheric and tropospheric hydrocarbon hazes, and (3) the wavelength-dependent single-scattering albedo of the 3-bar opaque cloud. From the center-to-limb behavior of the 7270-A and 8900-A CH4 bands, the stratospheric methane mixing ratios is limited to f(sub CH4, S) less than 1.7 x 10(exp -3), with a nominal value of f(sub CH4, S) = 3.5 x 10(exp -4), one to two orders of magnitude less than pre-Voyager estimates, but in agreement with a number of recent ultraviolet and thermal infrared measurements, and largely in agreement with the tropopause mixing ratio implied by Voyager temperature measurements. Upper limits to the stratospheric haze mass column abundance and 6190-A and 8900-A haze opacities are 0.61 micrograms/sq cm and 0.075 and 0.042, respectively, with nominal values of 0.20 micrograms/sq cm and 0.025 and 0.014 for the 0.2 micrometers radius particles preferred by the recent Voyager PPS analysis of Pryor et al. (1992). The tropospheric CH4 haze opacities are comparable to that found in the stratosphere, i.e., upper limits of 0.104 and 0.065 at 6190 A and 8900 A, respectively, with nominal values of 0.085 and 0.058. This indicates a column abundance less than 11.0 micrograms/sq cm, corresponding to the methane gas content within a well-mixed 3% methane tropospheric layer only 0.1 cm thick near the 1.5-bar CH4 condensation level. Conservative scattering is ruled out for the opaque cloud near 3 bars marking the bottom of the visible atmosphere. Specifically, we find cloud single-scattering albedos of 0.915 +/- 0.006 at 6340 A, 0.775 +/- 0.012 at 7490 A, and 0.803 +/- 0.010 at 8260 A. Global models utilizing a complete global spectrum confirm the red

  16. Studies on the Effect of Cloud Coverage and Galactic Cosmic Ray on Stratospheric Moistening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal; Das, Saurabh

    2012-07-01

    Increased stratospheric water vapor is one of the significant causes of global warming as increased stratospheric water vapor acts to cool the stratosphere but it warms the underlying troposphere. The sun can influence the clouds by mediating through Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) which controls the nucleation of water droplets in the atmosphere. The role of primary GCR in generating low-level cloud condensation nuclei reflects solar energy back into space affecting the temperature on earth. In the present study, variations of different types of cloud coverage (low, mid and high) are correlated with the intensity of GCR flux and their effects on the stratospheric moistening in the equatorial, mid- latitude and polar region have been investigated for the years 2004 and 2005 using the Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) water vapor data, ISCCP cloud data and GCR from neutron monitor observations at Calgary (51.080 N, 245.870 E). The relation between GCR and stratospheric moistening is also investigated in this paper. Additionally, the latitudinal variation of different types of cloud coverage is also studied for the same period. The southern mid-latitudinal region has the highest coverage of low-level cloud, followed by the equatorial region. Both the Polar Regions are highly covered with mid-level cloud. The mid-latitudinal region shows highest coverage of high-cloud, followed by the equatorial region. Lower level clouds exert a large net cooling effect on the climate indicating an inter-relationship between cosmic ray and cloud coverage. However, the mid and high cloud coverage have no significant correlation with GCR flux. The stratospheric moistening is controlled by transport of water vapour from troposphere to stratosphere through the tropopause region and the oxidation of methane within the stratosphere. Water vapour plays a major role in the chemistry and radiative budget of the stratosphere. One possible water vapor source in the stratosphere is the advection of

  17. SAGE II observations of polar stratospheric clouds near 50 deg N January 31 - February 2, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1990-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form at very cold temperatures which typically occur only at high latitudes during local winter. However, meteorological circumstances in the Arctic during late January 1989 led to PSC formation unusually far to the south, at latitudes (near 50 deg N) being sampled during the period by the orbiting SAGE II instrument. These unusual PSC sightings and the evolution of meteorological conditions which produced the episode are described. Profiles of SAGE II extinction measurements at 0.525 and 1.02 microns show clear signatures of PSCs and indicate that the cloud particles were considerably larger than the background aerosol. It is most important to note that the clouds were sighted at a latitude where there was extensive sunlight, thus increasing the likelihood of ozone loss both locally and downstream due to enhancements in reactive chlorine expected from heterogeneous chemical processing within the PSCs.

  18. Subsidence-induced methane clouds in Titan's winter polar stratosphere and upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Barnes, J. W.; Flasar, F. M.

    2014-11-01

    Titan's atmospheric methane most likely originates from lakes at the surface and subsurface reservoirs. Accordingly, it has been commonly assumed that Titan's tropopause region, where the vertical temperature profile is a minimum, acts as a cold trap for convecting methane, leading to the expectation that the formation of methane clouds in Titan's stratosphere would be rare. The additional assumption that Titan's tropopause temperatures are independent of latitude is also required. However, Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) and Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) data sets reveal colder temperatures in Titan's tropopause region near the winter pole than those at low latitudes and in the summer hemisphere. This, combined with the presence of a cross-equatorial meridional circulation with winter polar subsidence, as suggested by current general circulation models, implies the inevitable formation of Subsidence-Induced Methane Clouds (SIMCs) over Titan's winter pole. We verified this by retrieving the stratospheric methane mole fraction at 70°N from the strength of the far infrared methane pure rotation lines observed by CIRS and by assuming the RSS-derived thermal profile at 74.1°N. Our retrieved methane mole fraction of 1.50 ± 0.15% allows for methane to condense and form SIMCs at altitudes between ∼48 and ∼20 km. Radiative transfer analyses of a color composite image obtained by the Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) during northern winter appear to corroborate the existence of these clouds.

  19. Observations of cirrus clouds in the lowermost stratosphere: common feature, rare incident, or observational artefact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Günther, Gebhard; Müller, Rolf; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Rolf, Christian; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Ground based observations by lidar instruments show evidential occurrence of optically and vertically thin cirrus clouds in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). The knowledge about the potential formation processes of these clouds, their occurrence and distribution, and their radiative impact is very limited. Global observations of LMS cirrus clouds by satellites would be very helpful to better characterise these clouds. However, this is a difficult task because the optical thickness of LMS cirrus is usually at the edge of the detection limit (for space borne limb-sounders) or even below (for infra red nadir sounders).In addition, instrument characteristics can make it difficult to judge if a cloud observation is inside the LMS of just at or below the tropopause. Consequently it is not really proven if LMS cirrus clouds are a rare occasion or a globally common feature. We will give a brief overview of the history of LMS cirrus observations from ground and space borne sensors and are highlighting the sometimes controversial discussion on the observation of clouds in the LMS. Then we will focus on results from measurements of the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) satellite instrument. CRISTA made a number of snapshot measurements of the UT/LS during its two Space Shuttle missions in 1994 and 1997. The measurements demonstrate the potential of the IR limb viewing technique to provide information on several trace constituents and optically thin cirrus clouds with comparably high spatial resolution. The CRISTA data are still unique for IR limb sounders in the sense of vertical (1.5 km) and horizontal (300-500 km) resolution as well as daily global coverage by using three telescopes for three different viewing directions simultaneously. The detection sensitivity for optically thin cirrus clouds is extremely high. Depending on the vertical and horizontal extent of a cirrus cloud, the detection of an ice water content > 10-5g/m3 is

  20. Continuous Lidar Monitoring of Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D

    2009-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) play a primary role in the formation of annual ozone holes over Antarctica during the austral sunrise. Meridional temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, caused by strong radiative cooling, induce a broad dynamic vortex centered near the South Pole that decouples and insulates the winter polar airmass. PSC nucleate and grow as vortex temperatures gradually fall below equilibrium saturation and frost points for ambient sulfate, nitrate, and water vapor concentrations (generally below 197 K). Cloud surfaces promote heterogeneous reactions that convert stable chlorine and bromine-based molecules into photochemically active ones. As spring nears, and the sun reappears and rises, photolysis decomposes these partitioned compounds into individual halogen atoms that react with and catalytically destroy thousands of ozone molecules before they are stochastically neutralized. Despite a generic understanding of the ozone hole paradigm, many key components of the system, such as cloud occurrence, phase, and composition; particle growth mechanisms; and denitrification of the lower stratosphere have yet to be fully resolved. Satellite-based observations have dramatically improved the ability to detect PSC and quantify seasonal polar chemical partitioning. However, coverage directly over the Antarctic plateau is limited by polar-orbiting tracks that rarely exceed 80 degrees S. In December 1999, a NASA Micropulse Lidar Network instrument (MPLNET) was first deployed to the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory (ESRL) Atmospheric Research Observatory at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station for continuous cloud and aerosol profiling. MPLNET instruments are eye-safe, capable of full-time autonomous operation, and suitably rugged and compact to withstand long-term remote deployment. With only brief interruptions during the winters of 2001 and 2002, a nearly continuous data archive exists to the present.

  1. Polar stratospheric clouds as deduced from MLS and CLAES measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ricaud, P.D.; Carr, E.S.; Harwood, R.S.; Lahoz, W.A.

    1995-08-01

    From 30 August 1992 to 3 September 1992 a supersaturated area at 465 K potential temperature ({approximately}50 hPa) is deduced from MLS water vapour measurements over western Antarctica, where high extinction coefficients measured by CLAES indicate Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). These PSCs are attributed partly to the effect of an anticyclone located over South America and partly to localized orographic waves, which raise the isentropes and generate rapid adiabatic cooling. A local minimum in column O{sub 3} ({<=}200DU) is observed in this area, which is believed to be a consequence of the dynamics. Enhanced ClO abundances downstream of the region indicate PSC processing and chlorine activation. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Possible interaction of meteor explosion with stratospheric aerosols on cloud nucleation based on 2011 observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courty, M.-A.; Vaillant, M.; Benoit, R.

    2012-04-01

    stratosphere aerosols is suggested to resulting from the energy released by the meteor explosion. A direct link between the meteor explosion and the subsequent hailstones and heavy precipitation is clearly established by their similar range of composite debris. The meteor explosion is suggested to have initiated phase transformation of the stratospheric aerosols and their agglutination by complex mechanisms that remain to be further elucidated. The agglutinated particles with carbonaceous components have probably initiated condensation processes thus resulting into cloud formation. This was accomplished within a few days as shown by the time lag between the initial meteor explosion and the following precipitation events. The occurrence of the later across approximately the same region as the one of the debris pulverization from the meteor explosion suggests that the trajectory of the meteor would strongly constrain the agglutination processes. This data reveals the occurrence of solid aerosols with carbonaceous components in the stratosphere, most probably loaded by former volcanic events. In the case of serial meteor explosion the agglutination processes could significantly increase the agglutination process of stratospheric aerosols with resulting cloud formation and thus change of radiative forcing. Further research should reveal the role of meteor explosion on climate through cloud-aerosol precipitation interactions.

  3. Cloud formation in substellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Christiane

    2009-02-01

    Clouds seem like an every-day experience. But-do we know how clouds form on brown dwarfs and extra-solar planets? How do they look like? Can we see them? What are they composed of? Cloud formation is an old-fashioned but still outstanding problem for the Earth atmosphere, and it has turned into a challenge for the modelling of brown dwarf and exo-planetary atmospheres. Cloud formation imposes strong feedbacks on the atmospheric structure, not only due to the clouds own opacity, but also due to the depletion of the gas phase, possibly leaving behind a dynamic and still supersaturated atmosphere. I summarise the different approaches taken to model cloud formation in substellar atmospheres and workout their differences. Focusing on the phase-non-equilibrium approach to cloud formation, I demonstrate the inside we gain from detailed microphysical modelling on for instance the material composition and grain size distribution inside the cloud layer on a Brown Dwarf atmosphere. A comparison study on four different cloud approaches in Brown Dwarf atmosphere simulations demonstrates possible uncertainties in interpretation of observational data.

  4. Radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of the radiative effects of polar stratospheric clouds during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment (AAOE) and the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) in which daily 3D Type I nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and Type II water ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were generated in the polar regions during AAOE and the AASE aircraft missions. Mission data on particular composition and size, together with NMC-analyzed temperatures, are used. For AAOE, both Type I and Type II clouds were formed for the time period August 23 to September 17, after which only Type I clouds formed. During AASE, while Type I clouds were formed for each day between January 3 and February 10, Type II clouds formed on only two days, January 24 and 31. Mie theory and a radiative transfer model are used to compute the radiative heating rates during the mission periods, for clear and cloudy lower sky cases. Only the Type II water ice clouds have a significant radiative effect, with the Type I NATO PSCs generating a net heating or cooling of 0.1 K/d or less.

  5. Ice Cloud Formation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Pfister, Leonhard; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor is important not only for its greenhouse forcing, but also because it plays a significant role in stratospheric chemistry. several recent studies have focused on the potential for dehydration due to ice cloud formation in air rising slowly through the tropical tropopause layer. Holton and Gettelman showed that temperature variations associated with horizontal transport of air in the tropopause layer can drive ice cloud formation and dehydration, and Gettelman et al. recently examined the cloud formation and dehydration along kinematic trajectories using simple assumptions about the cloud properties. In this study, we use a Lagrangian, one-dimensional cloud model to further investigate cloud formation and dehydration as air is transported horizontally and vertically through the tropical tropopause layer. Time-height curtains of temperature are extracted from meteorological analyses. The model tracks the growth and sedimentation of individual cloud particles. The regional distribution of clouds simulated in the model is comparable to the subvisible cirrus distribution indicated by SAGE II. The simulated cloud properties depend strongly on the assumed ice supersaturation threshold for ice nucleation. with effective nuclei present (low supersaturation threshold), ice number densities are high (0.1--10 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals do not grow large enough to fall very far, resulting in limited dehydration. With higher supersaturation thresholds, ice number densities are much lower (less than 0.01 cm(circumflex)-3), and ice crystals grow large enough to fall substantially; however, supersaturated air often crosses the tropopause without cloud formation. The clouds typically do not dehydrate the air along trajectories down to the temperature minimum saturation mixing ratio. Rather the water vapor mixing ratio crossing the tropopause along trajectories is typically 10-50% larger than the saturation mixing ratio.

  6. Simultaneous Observations fo Polar Stratospheric Clouds and HNO3 over Scandinavia in January, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, S. T.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Grainger, R. G.; Lambert, A.; Mergenthaler, J. L.; Dye, J. E.; Baumbardner, D.; Randel, W. J.; Tabazadeh, A.; Tie, X.; Pan, L.; Figarol, F.; Wu, F.; Brasseur, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of Polar Stratospheric Cloud aerosol extinction and HNO3 mixing ratios over Scandinavia are examined for January 9-10, 1992. Data measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon, Spectrometer (CLAES), and Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMA) experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are examined at locations adjacent to parcel trajectory positions.

  7. CALIPSO Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations from 2006-2015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.

    2015-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a crucial role in the springtime chemical depletion of ozone at high latitudes. PSC particles (primarily supercooled ternary solution, or STS droplets) provide sites for heterogeneous chemical reactions that transform stable chlorine and bromine reservoir species into highly reactive ozone-destructive forms. Furthermore, large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) PSC particles can irreversibly redistribute odd nitrogen through gravitational sedimentation (a process commonly known as denitrification), which prolongs the ozone depletion process by slowing the reformation of the stable chlorine reservoirs. Spaceborne observations from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar on the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite are providing a rich new dataset for studying PSCs. CALIPSO is an excellent platform for studying polar processes with CALIOP acquiring, on average, over 300,000 backscatter profiles daily at latitudes between 55o and 82o in both hemispheres. PSCs are detected in the CALIOP backscatter profiles using a successive horizontal averaging scheme that enables detection of strongly scattering PSCs (e.g., ice) at the finest possible spatial resolution (5 km), while enhancing the detection of very tenuous PSCs (e.g., low number density NAT) at larger spatial scales (up to 135 km). CALIOP PSCs are separated into composition classes (STS; liquid/NAT mixtures; and ice) based on the ensemble 532-nm scattering ratio (the ratio of total-to-molecular backscatter) and 532-nm particulate depolarization ratio (which is sensitive to the presence of non-spherical, i.e. NAT and ice particles). In this paper, we will provide an overview of the CALIOP PSC detection and composition classification algorithm and then examine the vertical and spatial distribution of PSCs in the Arctic and Antarctic on vortex-wide scales for entire PSC seasons over the more than nine-year data

  8. CALIPSO Polar Stratospheric Cloud Observations from 2006-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Michael; Poole, Lamont

    2015-04-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a crucial role in the springtime chemical depletion of ozone at high latitudes. PSC particles (primarily supercooled ternary solution, or STS droplets) provide sites for heterogeneous chemical reactions that transform stable chlorine and bromine reservoir species into highly reactive ozone-destructive forms. Furthermore, large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) PSC particles can irreversibly redistribute odd nitrogen through gravitational sedimentation (a process commonly known as denitrification), which prolongs the ozone depletion process by slowing the reformation of the stable chlorine reservoirs. Spaceborne observations from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar on the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite are providing a rich new dataset for studying PSCs. CALIPSO is an excellent platform for studying polar processes with CALIOP acquiring, on average, over 300,000 backscatter profiles daily at latitudes between 55 and 82 degrees in both hemispheres. PSCs are detected in the CALIOP backscatter profiles using a successive horizontal averaging scheme that enables detection of strongly scattering PSCs (e.g., ice) at the finest possible spatial resolution (5 km), while enhancing the detection of very tenuous PSCs (e.g., low number density NAT) at larger spatial scales (up to 135 km). CALIOP PSCs are separated into composition classes (STS; liquid/NAT mixtures; and ice) based on the ensemble 532-nm scattering ratio (the ratio of total-to-molecular backscatter) and 532-nm particulate depolarization ratio (which is sensitive to the presence of non-spherical, i.e. NAT and ice particles). In this paper, we will provide an overview of the CALIOP PSC detection and composition classification algorithm and then examine the vertical and spatial distribution of PSCs in the Arctic and Antarctic on vortex-wide scales for entire PSC seasons over the more than nine

  9. Catastrophic loss of stratospheric ozone in dense volcanic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Rapid, localized loss of ozone is predicted to occur in the midlatitude and tropical stratosphere in the presence of very large concentrations of sulfate aerosols. Volcanic eruptions can increase the effective surface area of sulfuric acid so that heterogeneous reactions involving ClONO2, and secondarily N2O5, are able to suppress NO(x) abundances by more than a factor of 10 relative to gas phase chemistry. When NO(x) levels fall below a threshold, e.g., 0.6 ppb at 24 km in mid-latitudes, the chlorine-catalyzed loss of O3 proceeds at rates comparable to those during the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, more than 50 ppb per day. If such losses occurred following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the most volcanically perturbed regions over the tropics and mid-latitudes, this model predicts that they are driven primarily by the suppression of NO(x) below these critical levels. The increase in stratospheric chlorine since El Chichon has made Mount Pinatubo more than twice as effective in causing rapid O3 loss.

  10. Heterogeneous reactions on nitric acid trihydrate. [on surfaces of polar stratospheric cloud particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, S. B.; Keyser, L. F.; Leu, M.-T.; Smith, R. H.; Turco, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    The first direct measurements are reported of the reaction probabilities at stratospheric temperatures for two important heterogeneous reactions on nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the compound which makes up the predominant, type I form of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC). Sticking coefficients and solubilities of HCl and NAT, which are important in modeling physicochemical processes in the stratosphere, are also reported. The results show that the conversion of the chlorine reservoir species in the stratosphere to photochemically active forms can occur within a few days of the first appearance of type I PSCs during the polar winter.

  11. SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) observations of polar stratospheric clouds near 50 degree N January 31-February 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.C. ); Poole, L.R.; McCormick, M.P. )

    1990-03-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) form at very cold temperatures which typically occur only at high latitudes during local winter. However, meteorological circumstances in the Arctic during late January 1989 led to PSC formation unusually far to the south, at latitudes (near 50{degree}N) being sampled during the period (January 31-February 2) by the orbiting SAGE II instrument. These unusual PSC sightings and the evolution of meteorological conditions which produced the episode are described. Profiles of SAGE II extinction measurements at 0.525 and 1.02 {mu}m show clear signatures of PSCs and indicate that the cloud particles were considerably larger than the background aerosol. It is most important to note that the clouds were sighted at a latitude where there was extensive sunlight, thus increasing the likelihood of ozone loss both locally and downstream due to enhancements in reactive chlorine expected from heterogeneous chemical processing within the PSCs.

  12. Polar stratospheric clouds over Finland in the 2012/2013 Arctic winter measured by two Raman lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Anne; Giannakaki, Eleni; Kivi, Rigel; Schrems, Otto; Immler, Franz; Komppula, Mika

    2013-04-01

    Already in December 2012, the Arctic stratospheric vortex reached temperatures sufficiently low for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation over wide areas of Northern Europe and whole Finland. Within Finland, stratospheric aerosol lidar measurements have been and are performed with two Raman lidar systems, the PollyXT, owned by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and situated well below the Arctic circle close to Kuopio (63 N, 27 E) and the MARL lidar owned by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), and situated at the FMI Arctic Research Centre in Sodankylä (67 N, 26 E). The PollyXT has been designed as an autonomous tropospheric lidar system, but it has proven to be able to detect aerosol backscatter and depolarization at least as high up as 25 km. Measurements are ongoing as far as low clouds allow for stratospheric analysis with both lidars until the end of PSC season in February. For the winter 2012/2013, PSC occurrence frequency, types and characteristics will be determined. Comparative analysis with Calipso lidar profiles covering Finland will be performed. Preliminary results from December 17-24 show PSCs detected in Kuopio during seven days with the PollyXT lidar. The altitude of the clouds varied in the range of 17-25 km. In Sodankylä the measurements were running on one day during the period and PSCs were observed between altitudes 17-25 km. For the same time period (December 17-24, 2012) CALIPSO has observed stratospheric layers at all overpasses over Finland (9 tracks on five days). The clouds were observed between 18.5 and 26 km, with varying geometric and optical thickness.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Koehler, Birgit G.; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    1993-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to study nitric-acid/ice films representative of type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). These studies reveal that in addition to amorphous nitric acid/ice mixtures, there are three stable stoichiometric hydrates of nitric acid: nitric-acid monohydrate (NAM), dihydrate (NAD), and trihydrate (NAT). We also observe two distinct crystalline forms of the trihydrate, which we denote alpha- and beta-NAT. These two forms appear to differ in their concentration of crystalline defects, but not in their chemical composition. In addition to probing the composition of type I PSCs, we have also used FTIR spectroscopy to study the interaction of HCl with model PSC films. In this work we find that for HCl pressures in the range 10 exp -5 to 10 exp -7 Torr, HCl is taken up by ice at 155 K to form a thin layer of HCl.6H2O. At 193 K, the uptake of HCl by ice was consistent with less than or equal to monolayer coverage. Uptake of HCl by alpha and beta-NAT at 175 K was also consistent with less than or equal to monolayer coverage.

  14. Formation of Bidisperse Particle Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Zhao, Bing; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2014-11-01

    When a group of dense particles is released instantaneously into water, their motion has been conceptualized as a circulating particle thermal (Ruggerber 2000). However, Wen and Nacamuli (1996) observed the formation of particle clumps characterized by a narrow, fast moving core shedding particles into wakes. They observed the clump formation even for particles in the non-cohesive range as long as the source Rayleigh number was large (Ra > 1E3) or equivalently the source cloud number (Nc) was small (Nc < 3.2E2). This physical phenomenon has been investigated by Zhao et al. (2014) through physical experiments. They proposed the theoretical support for Nc dependence and categorized the formation processes into cloud formation, transitional regime and clump formation. Previous works focused mainly on the behavior of monodisperse particles. The present study further extends the experimental investigation to the formation process of bidisperse particles. Experiments are conducted in a glass tank with a water depth of 90 cm. Finite amounts of sediments with various weight proportions between coarser and finer particles are released from a cylindrical tube. The Nc being tested ranges from 6E-3 to 9.9E-2, which covers all the three formation regimes. The experimental results showed that the introduction of coarse particles promotes cloud formation and reduce the losses of finer particles into the wake. More quantitative descriptions of the effects of source conditions on the formation processes will be presented during the conference.

  15. Microphysical Modelling of Polar Stratospheric Clouds During the 1999-2000 Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, Katja; Schoeberl, Mark; Rosenfield, Joan; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of the 1999-2000 Arctic winter has been examined using a microphysical/photochemical model run along diabatic trajectories. A large number of trajectories have been generated, filling the vortex throughout the region of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation, and extending from November until the vortex breakup, in order to provide representative sampling of the evolution of PSCs and their effect on stratospheric chemistry. The 1999-2000 winter was particularly cold, allowing extensive PSC formation. Many trajectories have ten-day periods continuously below the Type I PSC threshold; significant periods of Type II PSCs are also indicated. The model has been used to test the extent and severity of denitrification and dehydration predicted using a range of different microphysical schemes. Scenarios in which freezing only occurs below the ice frost point (causing explicit coupling of denitrification and dehydration) have been tested, as well as scenarios with partial freezing at warmer temperatures (in which denitrification can occur independently of dehydration). The sensitivity to parameters such as aerosol freezing rates and heterogeneous freezing have been explored. Several scenarios cause sufficient denitrification to affect chlorine partitioning, and in turn, model-predicted ozone depletion, demonstrating that an improved understanding of the microphysics responsible for denitrification is necessary for understanding ozone loss rates.

  16. Properties of Northern Hemisphere polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol in 1991/92 from UARS/ISAMS satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.W.; Lambert, A.; Grainger, R.G.; Rodgers, C.D.; Remedios, J.J.

    1994-10-15

    Observations of polar stratospheric clouds by the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) experiment on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) have revealed new details of their global properties and behavior. These include the vertical and horizontal spatial distributions of Arctic and Antarctic polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as a function of time and air temperature, their optical thicknesses and estimated densities, their spectral properties, and their inferred composition. In particular, ISAMS spectral data allows different PSC types to be distinguished from each other and from volcanic aerosol by their compositional differences. Northern PSCs during the 1991/92 season are found to be more ephemeral and more compact than reported in previous years and to differ markedly in scale from those in the Southern Hemisphere, which cause the Antarctic ozone hole by activating stratospheric chlorine chemistry. There were only two episodes of dense PSC formation in the 1991/92 northern winter, one of which took place in sunlight. The latter correlates well with UARS/Microwave Limb Sounder observations of enhanced chlorine monoxide, but substantial amounts of chlorine monoxide were also reported at times and places with at most very minor PSC activity. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Microphysical Simulation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds Within the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunqian

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are critical elements for polar ozone depletion. A new PSC model coupling stratospheric chemistry, microphysics and climate is constructed and the formation of STS (Super-cooled Ternary Solution) and NAT (Nitric-Acid Trihydrate) PSCs are explored. STS particle properties are dominated by thermodynamics. Simulations of particle volumes and size distributions are generally within the observational error bars. STS particles are not in equilibrium with their environment when the particle surface area is smaller than 4 mum2/cm 3. A new nucleation rate equation for NAT is derived based on observed denitrification in the 2010-2011 Arctic winter. The homogeneous nucleation scheme leads to supermicron NAT particles as observed. The simulated the lidar backscatter, and denitrification are generally within observational error bars. However, the simulations are very sensitive to temperature. Using the same STS and NAT schemes, as well as a prognostic treatment for ice PSC formation and dehydration, the PSCs are simulated during the Antarctic winter of 2010. The current model correctly simulates large NAT particles and denitrification, but cannot produce NAT with high backscattering ratio/number density sometimes observed by CALIPSO. However, our simulated ice has similar backscatter and depolarization which is often attributed to NAT by CALIPSO. Possibly the CALIPSO algorithm misclassifies ice as NAT when the stratosphere is denitrified or dehydrated. STS and NAT form near the pole in May and June, but form a ring outside 80?S later in the winter when polar HNO3 is depleted. Ice always forms in the coldest area, but becomes less abundant later in the winter. The model is missing some processes forming NAT such as gravity waves or evaporating ice. These processes should be added to the model in the future.

  18. Tropical Stratospheric Cloud climatology from the PATMOS-x dataset - an assessment of convective contributions to stratospheric water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Foster, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The PATMOS-x level 2b climatology, generated using three decades of AVHRR measurements, contains valuable information about the past global cloud record. We extract climatologies of tropical deep convective clouds from the PATMOS-x data set, based on the 10.30-11.30 micro meter brightness temperature. A comparison of the cross ropopause convective cloud frequency between ISCCP and PATMOS-x shows that PATMOS-x has a greater frequency of occurrence than does the ISCCP, and this enhanced frequency is attributed to greater horizontal resolution (2 km) in the PATMOS-x data. The high resolution makes this dataset suitable for a search for cross tropopause convection, which happens on length scales down to 1 km. We find there have been several changes in deep convective activity over land during the period 1982 to 2009. We explore specifically the epoch of the HALOE satellite, and find a correlation between land deep convective activity and anomalies in the HALOE stratospheric water retrievals. A simple model is able to predict stratospheric water vapor concentrations highly correlated to that observed using only frequency of deep convection. From this we conclude that deep convection over land contributes to moistening of the lowest tropical stratosphere on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales[1]. [1] GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 38, L18801, 5 PP., 2011 doi:10.1029/2011GL049429

  19. Tropical Stratospheric Cloud climatology from the PATMOS-x dataset - an assessment of convective contributions to stratospheric water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Foster, M. J.; Heidinger, A. K.

    2011-12-01

    The PATMOS-x level 2b climatology, generated using three decades of AVHRR measurements, contains valuable information about the past global cloud record. We extract climatologies of tropical deep convective clouds from the PATMOS-x data set, based on the 10.30-11.30 micro meter brightness temperature. A comparison of the cross ropopause convective cloud frequency between ISCCP and PATMOS-x shows that PATMOS-x has a greater frequency of occurrence than does the ISCCP, and this enhanced frequency is attributed to greater horizontal resolution (1 km) in the PATMOS-x data. The high resolution makes this dataset suitable for a search for cross tropopause convection, which happens on length scales down to 1 km. We find there have been several changes in deep convective activity over land during the period 1982 to 2009. We explore specifically the epoch of the HALOE satellite, and find a correlation between land deep convective activity and anomalies in the HALOE stratospheric water retrievals. A simple model is able to predict stratospheric water vapor concentrations highly correlated to that observed using only frequency of deep convection. From this we conclude that deep convection over land contributes to moistening of the lowest tropical stratosphere on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales.

  20. Tropical stratospheric cloud climatology from the PATMOS-x dataset: An assessment of convective contributions to stratospheric water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Foster, M.; Heidinger, A.

    2011-09-01

    The PATMOS-x level 2b climatology, generated using three decades of AVHRR measurements, contains valuable information about the past global cloud record. We extract climatologies of tropical deep convective clouds from the PATMOS-x data set, based on the 10.30-11.30 μm brightness temperature. A comparison of the cross tropopause convective cloud frequency between ISCCP and PATMOS-x shows that PATMOS-x has a greater frequency of occurrence than does the ISCCP, and this enhanced frequency is attributed to greater horizontal resolution (2 km) in the PATMOS-x data. The high resolution makes this dataset suitable for a search for cross tropopause convection, which happens on length scales down to 1 km. We find there have been several changes in deep convective activity over land during the period 1982 to 2009. We explore specifically the epoch of the HALOE satellite, and find a correlation between land deep convective activity and anomalies in the HALOE stratospheric water retrievals. A simple model is able to predict stratospheric water vapor concentrations highly correlated to that observed using only frequency of deep convection. From this we conclude that deep convection over land contributes to moistening of the lowest tropical stratosphere on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales.

  1. A Climatology of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Types by MIPAS-Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Griessbach, Sabine; Orr, Andrew; Höpfner, Michael; Müller, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    For Chemistry Climate Models (CCM) it is still a challenging task to properly represent the evolution of the polar vortices over the entire winter season. The models usually do not include comprehensive microphysical modules to evolve the formation of different types of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) over the winter. Consequently, predictions on the development and recovery of the future ozone hole have relatively large uncertainties. A climatological record of hemispheric measurement of PSC types could help to better validate and improve the PSC schemes in CCMs. The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument onboard the ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 to April 2012. The infra-red limb emission measurements compile a unique dataset of day and night measurements of polar stratospheric clouds up to the poles. From the spectral measurements in the 4.15-14.6 microns range it is possible to select a number of atmospheric window regions and spectral signatures to classify PSC cloud types like nitric acid hydrates, sulfuric ternary solution droplets, and ice particles. The cloud detection sensitivity is similar to space borne lidars, but MIPAS adds complementary information due to its different measurement technique (limb instead of nadir) and wavelength region. Here we will describe a new classification method for PSCs based on the combination of multiple brightness temperature differences (BTD) and colour ratios. Probability density functions (PDF) of the MIPAS measurements in conjunction with a database of radiative transfer model calculations of realistic PSC particle size distributions enable the definition of regions attributed to specific or mixed types clouds. Applying a naive bias classifier for independent criteria to all defined classes in four 2D PDF distributions, it is possible to assign the most likely PSC type to any measured cloud spectrum. Statistical Monte Carlo test have been applied to quantify

  2. A microphysical connection among biomass burning, cumulus clouds, and stratospheric moisture.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Steven

    2002-02-15

    A likely causal chain is established here that connects humidity in the stratosphere, relative humidity near the tropical tropopause, ice crystal size in towering cumulus clouds, and aerosols associated with tropical biomass burning. The connections are revealed in satellite-observed fluctuations of each quantity on monthly to yearly time scales. More aerosols lead to smaller ice crystals and more water vapor entering the stratosphere. The connections are consistent with physical reasoning, probably hold on longer time scales, and may help to explain why stratospheric water vapor appears to have been increasing for the past five decades. PMID:11847336

  3. Strong modification of stratospheric ozone forcing by cloud and sea-ice adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Hu, Yongyun; Huang, Yi

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the climatic impact of stratospheric ozone recovery (SOR), with a focus on the surface temperature change in atmosphere-slab ocean coupled climate simulations. We find that although SOR would cause significant surface warming (global mean: 0.2 K) in a climate free of clouds and sea ice, it causes surface cooling (-0.06 K) in the real climate. The results here are especially interesting in that the stratosphere-adjusted radiative forcing is positive in both cases. Radiation diagnosis shows that the surface cooling is mainly due to a strong radiative effect resulting from significant reduction of global high clouds and, to a lesser extent, from an increase in high-latitude sea ice. Our simulation experiments suggest that clouds and sea ice are sensitive to stratospheric ozone perturbation, which constitutes a significant radiative adjustment that influences the sign and magnitude of the global surface temperature change.

  4. Aerosol measurements in the winter/spring Antarctic stratosphere. I - Correlative measurements with ozone. II - Impact on polar stratospheric cloud theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Harder, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol measurements collected from August 25-November 3, 1986 at McMurdo Station using balloon-borne optical particle counters are examined in order to study the relationship between aerosol and ozone distribution and the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Ozone, aerosol, and condensation nuclei profiles, and pressure, temperature, and humidity measurements are analyzed. It is observed that the height of the stratospheric sulfate layer decreases over the period of measurement suggesting that upwelling in the votex is not important in the zone depletion process. Three theories on PSC formation are described, and the effects of the aerosol measurements on the theories are considered. The three theories are: (1) the original theory of water vapor pressure over a solution of H2SO4 of Steele et al. (1983) and Hamill and Mc Master (1984); (2) the nitric acid theory of PSCs of Toon et al. (1986) and Hamill et al. (1986); and (3) the quasi-cirrus cloud theory of Heymsfield (1986).

  5. Nonorographic generation of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds during December 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchman, Matthew H.; Buker, Marcus L.; Tripoli, Gregory J.; Browell, Edward V.; Grant, William B.; McGee, Thomas J.; Burris, John F.

    2003-03-01

    During December 1999, polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were observed in the absence of conditions conducive to generation by topographic gravity waves. The possibility is explored that PSCs can be generated by inertia gravity waves (IGW) radiating from breaking synoptic-scale Rossby waves on the polar front jet. The aerosol features on 7 and 12 December are selected for comparison with theory and with simulations using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (UWNMS). Consistent with Rossby adjustment theory, a common feature in the UWNMS simulations is radiation of IGW from the tropopause polar front jet, especially from sectors which are evolving rapidly in the Rossby wave breaking process. Packets of gravity wave energy radiate upward and poleward into the cold pool, while individual wave crests propagate poleward and downward, causing mesoscale variations in vertical motion and temperature. On 12 December the eastbound DC-8 lidar observations exhibited a fairly uniform field of six waves in aerosol enhancement in the 14-20 km layer, consistent with vertical displacement by a field of IGW propagating antiparallel to the flow, with characteristic horizontal and vertical wavelengths of ˜300 and ˜10 km. UWNMS simulations show emanation of a field of IGW upward and southwestward from a northward incursion of the polar front jet. The orientation and evolution of the aerosol features on 7 December are consistent with a single PSC induced by an IGW packet propagating from a breaking Rossby wave over western Russia toward the northeast into the coldest part of the base of the polar vortex, with characteristic period ˜9 hours, vertical wavelength ˜12 km, and horizontal wavelength ˜1000 km. Linear theory shows that for both of these cases, IGW energy propagates upward at ˜1 km/hour and horizontally at ˜100 km/hour, with characteristic trace speed ˜30 m/s. The spatial orientation of the PSC along IGW phase lines is contrasted with the nearly

  6. Analysis of a jet stream induced gravity wave associated with an observed stratospheric ice cloud over Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, S.; Hertzog, A.; Hostettler, C.; Bui, T. B.; Lüthi, D.; Wernli, H.

    2004-08-01

    A polar stratospheric ice cloud (PSC type II) was observed by airborne lidar above Greenland on 14 January 2000. It was the unique observation of an ice cloud over Greenland during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign. Mesoscale simulations with the hydrostatic HRM model are presented which, in contrast to global analyses, are capable to produce a vertically propagating gravity wave that induces the low temperatures at the level of the PSC afforded for the ice formation. The simulated minimum temperature is ~8 K below the driving analyses and ~4.5 K below the frost point, exactly coinciding with the location of the observed ice cloud. Despite the high elevations of the Greenland orography the simulated gravity wave is not a mountain wave. Analyses of the horizontal wind divergence, of the background wind profiles, of backward gravity wave ray-tracing trajectories, of HRM experiments with reduced Greenland topography and of several diagnostics near the tropopause level provide evidence that the wave is emitted from an intense, rapidly evolving, anticyclonically curved jet stream. The precise physical process responsible for the wave emission could not be identified definitely, but geostrophic adjustment and shear instability are likely candidates.

    In order to evaluate the potential frequency of such non-orographic polar stratospheric cloud events, the non-linear balance equation diagnostic is performed for the winter 1999/2000. It indicates that ice-PSCs are only occasionally generated by gravity waves emanating from spontaneous adjustment.

  7. Physical Chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O System: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds.

    PubMed

    Molina, M J; Zhang, R; Wooldridge, P J; McMahon, J R; Kim, J E; Chang, H Y; Beyer, K D

    1993-09-10

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. Surface-catalyzed reactions on PSC particles generate chlorine compounds that photolyze readily to yield chlorine radicals, which in turn destroy ozone very efficiently. The most prevalent PSCs form at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point and are believed to consist of HNO(3) hydrates; however, their formation mechanism is unclear. Results of laboratory experiments are presented which indicate that the background stratospheric H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O aerosols provide an essential link in this mechanism: These liquid aerosols absorb significant amounts of HNO(3) vapor, leading most likely to the crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles then grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional amounts of HNO(3) and H(2)O vapor. Furthermore, reaction probability measurements reveal that the chlorine radical precursors are formed readily at polar stratospheric temperatures not just on NAT and ice crystals, but also on liquid H(2)SO(4) solutions and on solid H(2)SO(4) hydrates. These results imply that the chlorine activation efficiency of the aerosol particles increases rapidly as the temperature approaches the ice frost point regardless of the phase or composition of the particles. PMID:17745351

  8. Physical chemistry of the H2SO4/HNO3/H2O system - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M. J.; Zhang, R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Mcmahon, J. R.; Kim, J. E.; Chang, H. Y.; Beyer, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a key role in stratospheric ozone depletion. Surface-catalyzed reactions on PSC particles generate chlorine compounds that photolyze readily to yield chlorine radicals, which in turn destroy ozone very efficiently. The most prevalent PSCs form at temperatures several degrees above the ice frost point and are believed to consist of HNO3 hydrates; however, their formation mechanism is unclear. Results of laboratory experiments are presented which indicate that the background stratospheric H2SO4/H2O aerosols provide an essential link in this mechanism: These liquid aerosols absorb significant amounts of HNO3 vapor, leading most likely to the crystallization of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT). The frozen particles then grow to form PSCs by condensation of additional amounts of HNO3 and H2O vapor. Furthermore, reaction probability measurements reveal that the chlorine radical precursors are formed readily at polar stratospheric temperatures not just on NAT and ice crystals, but also on liquid H2SO4 solutions and on solid H2SO4 hydrates. These results imply that the chlorine activation efficiency of the aerosol particles increases rapidly as the temperature approaches the ice frost point regardless of the phase or composition of the particles.

  9. Arctic polar stratospheric cloud measurements by means of a four wavelength depolarization lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanutti, L.; Castagnoli, F.; Delguasta, M.; Flesia, C.; Godin, S.; Kolenda, J.; Kneipp, H.; Kyro, Esko; Matthey, R.; Morandi, M.

    1994-01-01

    A four wavelength depolarization backscattering lidar has been operated during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE) in Sodankyl, in the Finnish Arctic. The lidar performed measurements during the months of December 1991, January, February and March 1992. The Finnish Meteorological Institute during the same period launched regularly three Radiosondes per day, and three Ozone sondes per week. Both Mt. Pinatubo aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Clouds were measured. The use of four wavelengths, respectively at 355 nm, 532 nm , 750 nm, and 850 nm permits an inversion of the lidar data to determine aerosol particle size. The depolarization technique permits the identification of Polar Stratospheric Clouds. Frequent correlation between Ozone minima and peaks in the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol maxima were detected. Measurements were carried out both within and outside the Polar Vortex.

  10. The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens - Physical and chemical processes in the stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Hamill, P.; Keesee, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The large and diverse set of observational data collected in the high-altitude plumes of the May 18, May 25, and June 13, 1980 eruptions is organized and analyzed with a view to discerning the processes at work. The data serve to guide and constrain detailed model simulations of the volcanic clouds. For this purpose, use is made of a comprehensive one-dimensional model of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, sulfur precursor gases, and volcanic ash and dust. The model takes into account gas-phase and condensed-phase (heterogeneous) chemistry in the clouds, aerosol nucleation and growth, and cloud expansion. Computational results are presented for the time histories of the gaseous species concentrations, aerosol size distributions, and ash burdens of the eruption clouds. Also investigated are the long-term buildup of stratospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere and the persistent effects of injected chlorine and water vapor on stratospheric ozone. It is concluded that SO2, water vapor, and ash were probably the most important substances injected into the stratosphere by the Mount St. Helens volcano, both with respect to their widespread effects on composition and their effect on climate.

  11. Impact of stratospheric aircraft on calculations of nitric acid trihydrate cloud surface area densities using NMC temperatures and 2D model constituent distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.

    1994-01-01

    A parameterization of NAT (nitric acid trihydrate) clouds is developed for use in 2D models of the stratosphere. The parameterization uses model distributions of HNO3 and H2O to determine critical temperatures for NAT formation as a function of latitude and pressure. National Meteorological Center temperature fields are then used to determine monthly temperature frequency distributions, also as a function of latitude and pressure. The fractions of these distributions which fall below the critical temperatures for NAT formation are then used to determine the NAT cloud surface area density for each location in the model grid. By specifying heterogeneous reaction rates as functions of the surface area density, it is then possible to assess the effects of the NAT clouds on model constituent distributions. We also consider the increase in the NAT cloud formation in the presence of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft. The stratospheric aircraft NO(x) and H2O perturbations result in increased HNO3 as well as H2O. This increases the probability of NAT formation substantially, especially if it is assumed that the aircraft perturbations are confined to a corridor region.

  12. Influence of polar stratospheric clouds on the depletion of Antarctic ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, Ross J.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Mcelroy, Michael B.

    1988-01-01

    Precipitation of nitrate in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) can provide a significant sink for Antarctic stratospheric odd nitrogen. It is argued that the depth of the Ozone Hole is sensitive to the occurrence of temperatures below about 196 K. An increase in the prevalence of temperatures below 196 K would enhance ozone loss by increasing the spatial extent and persistence of PSCs, and by decreasing the level of HNO3 that remains following PSC evaporation. Concentrations of halogen gases in the 1960s and earlier were insufficient to support major ozone loss, even if thermal conditions were favorable.

  13. Extreme stratospheric springs and their consequences for the onset of polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siskind, David E.; Allen, Douglas R.; Randall, Cora E.; Harvey, V. Lynn; Hervig, Mark E.; Lumpe, Jerry; Thurairajah, Brentha; Bailey, Scott M.; Russell, James M.

    2015-09-01

    We use data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) explorer and from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) stratospheric analysis to explore the variability in the onset of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) season. Consistent with recently published results, we show that the early onset of the NH PMC season in 2013 was accompanied by a warm springtime stratosphere; conversely, we show that the late onset in 2008 coincides with a very cold springtime stratosphere. Similar stratospheric temperature anomalies for 1997 and 2011 also are connected either directly, through observed temperatures, or indirectly, through an early PMC onset, to conditions near the mesopause. These 4 years, 2008, 1997, 2011, and 2013 represent the extremes of stratospheric springtime temperatures seen in the MERRA analysis and correspond to analogous extrema in planetary wave activity. The three years with enhanced planetary wave activity (1997, 2011 and 2013) are shown to coincide with the recently identified stratospheric Frozen In Anticyclone (FrIAC) phenomenon. FrIACs in 1997 and 2013 are associated with early PMC onsets; however, the dramatic FrIAC of 2011 is not. This may be because the 2011 FrIAC occurred too early in the spring. The link between NH PMC onset and stratospheric FrIAC occurrences represents a new mode of coupling between the stratosphere and mesosphere. Since FrIACs appear to be more frequent in recent years, we speculate that as a result, PMCs may occur earlier as well. Finally we compare the zonal mean zonal winds and observed gravity wave activity for the FrIACs of 2011 and 2013. We find no evidence that gravity wave activity was favored in 2013 relative to 2011, thus suggesting that direct forcing by planetary waves was the key mechanism in accelerating the cooling and moistening of the NH mesopause region in May of 2013.

  14. Lidar Observations of Stratospheric Clouds After Volcanic Eruption of Pinatubo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jinhui; Qiu, Jinhuan; Xia, Qilin; Zhang, Jinding

    1992-01-01

    A very large increase of backscattered light from the stratospheric aerosol layer was observed by using a ruby laser in Beijing (39 degrees 54 minutes N, 116 degrees 27 minutes E) from the end of July 1991 to March 1992. It was concluded that this increase was almost certainly due to the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991. The measuring instruments used are described. Information is given in graphical form for vertical profiles, fluctuation of the maximum backscattering ratio above 20 km during the nine month period, and the time variation of the integrated backscattering coefficient at a height of 15 to 30 km.

  15. Radiatively driven stratosphere-troposphere interactions near the tops of tropical cloud clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, Dean D.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of two numerical simulations of the mechanism involved in the dehydration of air, using the model of Churchill (1988) and Churchill and Houze (1990) which combines the water and ice physics parameterizations and IR and solar-radiation parameterization with a convective adjustment scheme in a kinematic nondynamic framework. One simulation, a cirrus cloud simulation, was to test the Danielsen (1982) hypothesis of a dehydration mechanism for the stratosphere; the other was to simulate the mesoscale updraft in order to test an alternative mechanism for 'freeze-drying' the air. The results show that the physical processes simulated in the mesoscale updraft differ from those in the thin-cirrus simulation. While in the thin-cirrus case, eddy fluxes occur in response to IR radiative destabilization, and, hence, no net transfer occurs between troposphere and stratosphere, the mesosphere updraft case has net upward mass transport into the lower stratosphere.

  16. More rapid polar ozone depletion through the reaction of HOCl with HCl on polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The direct reaction of HOCl with HCl is shown here to play a critical part in polar ozone loss. Observations of high levels of OClO and ClO in the springtime Antarctic stratosphere confirm that most of the available chlorine is in the form of ClO(x). But current photochemical models have difficulty converting HCl to ClO(x) rapidly enough in early spring to account fully for the observations. Here, a chemical model is used to show that the direct reaction of HOCl with HCl provides the missing mechanism. As alternative sources of nitrogen-containing oxidants have been converted in the late autumn to inactive HNO3 by known reactions on the sulfate layer aerosols, the reaction of HOCl with HCl on polar stratospheric clouds becomes the most important pathway for releasing that stratospheric chlorine which goes into polar night as HCl.

  17. Vapor pressures of solid hydrates of nitric Acid: implications for polar stratospheric clouds.

    PubMed

    Worsnop, D R; Zahniser, M S; Fox, L E; Wofsy, S C

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for hydrates of nitric acid: HNO(3).H(2)O, HNO(3).2H(2)O, HNO(3).3H(2)O, and a higher hydrate. Laboratory data indicate that nucleation and persistence of metastable HNO(3).2H(2)O may be favored in polar stratospheric clouds over the slightly more stable HNO(3).3H(2)O. Atmospheric observations indicate that some polar stratospheric clouds may be composed of HNO(3).2H(2)O and HNO(3).3H(2)O. Vapor transfer from HNO(3).2H(2)O to HNO(3).3H(2)O could be a key step in the sedimentation of HNO(3), which plays an important role in the depletion of polar ozone. PMID:17757475

  18. Vapor pressures of solid hydrates of nitric acid - Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.; Fox, Lewis E.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic data are presented for hydrates of nitric acid: HNO3.H2O, HNO3.2H2O, HNO3.3H2O, and a higher hydrate. Laboratory data indicate that nucleation and persistence of metastable HNO3.2H2O may be favored in polar stratospheric clouds over the slightly more stable HNO3.3H2O. Atmospheric observations indicate that some polar stratospheric clouds may be composed of HNO3.2H2O and HNO3.3H2O. Vapor transfer from HNO3.2H2O to HNO3.3H2O could be a key step in the sedimentation of HNO3, which plays an important role in the depletion of polar ozone.

  19. Lidar Observations of the Pinatubo Stratospheric Aerosol Cloud over Frascati, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congeduti, Fernando; Adriani, Alberto; Gobbi, Gian Paolo; Centurioni, Sante

    1992-01-01

    The Pinatubo eruption of June 1991 introduced large plumes into the local stratosphere. On several occasions, volcanic gases and particles reached altitudes of about 30 km, and spread towards the west. A lidar system has been operating to monitor the evolution of the stratospheric aerosol cloud. The backscattering ratio profiles of eight different measurements were chosen to summarize the most significant occurrences of the event. Since the beginning of the winter planetary wave activity, the Pinatubo cloud integrated backscatter exceeded El Chichon's. In this context, the perturbation generated by El Chichon can only be assumed as a lower limit of the one which will follow the Pinatubo eruption. Observations of the event are still in progress.

  20. Characteristics of polar stratospheric clouds as observed by SAM II, SAGE, and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Hamill, P.; Farrukh, U. O.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite and lidar data sets developed over several years of observations are analyzed to detail the macroscopic and microphysical characteristics of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). Mappings were made of the sizes, locations, probabilities of occurrence and temperature dependence of the PSCs, and indicated that PSCs are correlated with an extended stratospheric cloud bank in the cold polar vortex region. The bank is bounded by a 188 K isotherm, and the probability of occurrence drops to 50 percent at the 193 K isotherm. Values of 6.3 particles/cu cm and radii averaging 0.0725 micron/particle are calculated, along with an estimated downward velocity of 0.01 m/sec.

  1. Laboratory measurements of polar stratospheric cloud rate parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenner, Rex D.; Plumb, Ian C.; Ryan, Keith R.

    1994-01-01

    It is now clear that heterogeneous reactions play an important role in controlling the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. In this work, the loss of N2O5 on ice substrates has been studied in a flow reactor in an attempt to gain a more fundamental understanding of these reactions. The apparent reaction probability in this system was found to decrease as the substrate was exposed to N2O5. A model which corrected for the loss of surface sites was developed and although it appears to fit the data for a given experiment quite well, it is concluded that the loss of reactive sites is not the full explanation. In addition, the results of an experimental and modeling study suggest that reaction on the internal surface of the ice substrates is not a major loss mechanism for N2O5 in the current work.

  2. A possible water ice cloud in Jupiter's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Puertas, M.; Montañés-Rodríguez, M. P.; González-Merino, B.; Pallé, E.; García-Melendo, E.; Höpfner, M.; García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.

    2015-10-01

    Jupiter's atmosphere has been sounded in transmission from UV to IR, as if it were a transiting exoplanet by observing one of its satellites, Ganymede, while passing through Jupiter's shadow during a solar eclipse from Ganymede. The spectra show strong extinction due to the presence of aerosols and haze in the atmosphere and strong absorption features from CH4.In addition, the spectra show two broad features near 1.5 and 2.0μm that we tentatively attribute to a layer of H2O ice in Jupiter's stratosphere. While the spectral signatures seem to be unequivocally attributed to crystalline water ice, to explain the strong absorption features requires a large amount of water ice.

  3. Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei in the stratosphere around the plume of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.F.; Hudson, J.G.; Kocmond, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei were made from small samples of stratospheric air taken from a U-2 aircraft at altitudes ranging from 13 to 19 kilometers. The measured concentrations of nuclei both in and outside the plume from the May and June 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens were higher than expected, ranging from about 100 to about 1000 per cubic centimeter active at 1 percent supersaturation.

  4. On the size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, Stefan; Toon, Owen B.; Toon, Goeff C.; Farmer, Crofton B.; Browell, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    Attenuation measurements of the solar radiation between 1.5 and 15 micron wavelengths were performed with the airborne (DC-8) JPL MARK 4 interferometer during the 1987 Antarctic Expedition. The opacities not only provide information about the abundance of stratospheric gases but also about the optical depths of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) at wavelengths of negligible gas absorption (windows). The optical depth of PSCs can be determined for each window once the background attenuation, due to air-molecules and aerosol has been filtered out with a simple extinction law. The ratio of optical thicknesses at different wavelengths reveals information about particle size and particle composition. Among the almost 700 measured spectra only a few PSC cases exist. PSC events are identified by sudden reductions in the spectrally integrated intensity value and are also verified with backscattering data from an upward directed lidar instrument, that was mounted on the DC-8. For the selected case on September 21st at 14.40 GMT, lidar data indicate an optically thin cloud at 18k and later an additional optically thick cloud at 15 km altitude. All results still suffer from: (1) often arbitrary definitions of a clear case, that often already may have contained PSC particles and (2) noise problems that restrict the calculations of optical depths to values larger than 0.001. Once these problems are handled, this instrument may become a valuable tool towards a better understanding of the role PSCs play in the Antarctic stratosphere.

  5. Balloon borne Antarctic frost point measurements and their impact on polar stratospheric cloud theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, James M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Carpenter, J. R.; Harder, J. W.; Oltmans, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    The first balloon-borne frost point measurements over Antarctica were made during September and October, 1987 as part of the NOZE 2 effort at McMurdo. The results indicate water vapor mixing ratios on the order of 2 ppmv in the 15 to 20 km region which is somewhat smaller than the typical values currently being used significantly smaller than the typical values currently being used in polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) theories. The observed water vapor mixing ratio would correspond to saturated conditions for what is thought to be the lowest stratospheric temperatures encountered over the Antarctic. Through the use of available lidar observations there appears to be significant evidence that some PSCs form at temperatures higher than the local frost point (with respect to water) in the 10 to 20 km region thus supporting the nitric acid theory of PSC composition. Clouds near 15 km and below appear to form in regions saturated with respect to water and thus are probably mostly ice water clouds although they could contain relatively small amounts of other constituents. Photographic evidence suggests that the clouds forming above the frost point probably have an appearance quite different from the lower altitude iridescent, colored nacreous clouds.

  6. Microphysical and radiative changes in cirrus clouds by geoengineering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirisan, A.; Spichtinger, P.; Luo, B. P.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wernli, H.; Lohmann, U.; Peter, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the absence of tangible progress in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the implementation of solar radiation management has been suggested as measure to stop global warming. Here we investigate the impacts on northern midlatitude cirrus from continuous SO2emissions of 2-10 Mt/a in the tropical stratosphere. Transport of geoengineering aerosols into the troposphere was calculated along trajectories based on ERA Interim reanalyses using ozone concentrations to quantify the degree of mixing of stratospheric and tropospheric air termed "troposphericity". Modeled size distributions of the geoengineered H2SO4-H2O droplets have been fed into a cirrus box model with spectral microphysics. The geoengineering is predicted to cause changes in ice number density by up to 50%, depending on troposphericity and cooling rate. We estimate the resulting cloud radiative effects from a radiation transfer model. Complex interplay between the few large stratospheric and many small tropospheric H2SO4-H2O droplets gives rise to partly counteracting radiative effects: local increases in cloud radiative forcing up to +2 W/m2for low troposphericities and slow cooling rates, and decreases up to -7.5 W/m2for high troposphericities and fast cooling rates. The resulting mean impact on the northern midlatitudes by changes in cirrus is predicted to be low, namely <1% of the intended radiative forcing by the stratospheric aerosols. This suggests that stratospheric sulphate geoengineering is unlikely to have large microphysical effects on the mean cirrus radiative forcing. However, this study disregards feedbacks, such as temperature and humidity changes in the upper troposphere, which must be examined separately.

  7. Melting of H_2SO_4\\cdot4H_2O Particles upon Cooling: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Thomas; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    1996-06-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are important for the chemical activation of chlorine compounds and subsequent ozone depletion. Solid PSCs can form on sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) (H_2SO_4\\cdot4H_2O) nuclei, but recent laboratory experiments have shown that PSC nucleation on SAT is strongly hindered. A PSC formation mechanism is proposed in which SAT particles melt upon cooling in the presence of HNO_3 to form liquid HNO_3-H_2SO_4\\cdotH_2O droplets 2 to 3 kelvin above the ice frost point. This mechanism offers a PSC formation temperature that is defined by the ambient conditions and sets a temperature limit below which PSCs should form.

  8. Unprecedented Evidence for Large Scale Heterogeneous Nucleation of Polar Stratospheric Clouds, Likely by Nanometer-Sized Meteoritic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, I.; Pitts, M. C.; Luo, B.; Hoyle, C. R.; Zobrist, B.; Jacot, L.; Poole, L. R.; Grooss, J.; Weigel, R.; Borrmann, S.; Ebert, M.; Duprat, J.; Peter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations cast serious doubts on our understanding of the processes responsible for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation. PSCs play crucial roles in polar ozone chemistry by hosting heterogeneous reactions and by removal of reactive nitrogen through sedimenting nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles. An extensive field campaign took place in the Arctic during the winter 2009/2010 within the European Union project RECONCILE, complemented by measurements from the spaceborne CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) instrument. Through trajectory and microphysical box model calculations, we analyzed CALIOP data from the RECONCILE winter to investigate the nucleation of PSC particles in detail. One significant finding was that liquid/NAT mixture PSCs were prevalent in late December 2009, a period during which no ice PSCs were observed, and temperatures were higher by 6 K than required for homogeneous ice freezing at the onset of PSC formation. These NAT particles must have formed through some non-ice nucleation mechanism, which runs counter to the widely held view that the only efficient NAT nuclei were ice crystals formed by homogeneous freezing of STS droplets. Furthermore, in mid-January 2010, a large region of the Arctic vortex cooled below the frost point, leading to widespread synoptic-scale ice PSCs, unusual for the Arctic. Our modeling studies indicate that a match with the CALIOP data calls for new heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms for both NAT and ice particles, namely freezing on nanometer-sized, solid nuclei immersed in the liquid stratospheric aerosols. Number concentrations of non-volatile particles were measured in situ during RECONCILE by means of the heated channel of the condensation nuclei (CN) counter COPAS on board of the high-flying aircraft Geophysica. 60-80 % of all CN survived heating to 250 °C. Offline Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis of RECONCILE impactor samples

  9. A Laboratory Study on the Phase Transition for Polar Stratospheric Cloud Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of different phases of simulated polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles were investigated in the laboratory. Solutions and mixtures of solutions at concentrations 1 to 5 m (molality) of ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, sodium chloride, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were supercooled to prescribed temperatures below their equilibrium melting point. These solutions were contained in small diameter glass tubing of volumes ranging from 2.6 to 0.04 ml. Samples were nucleated by insertion of an ice crystal, or in some cases by a liquid nitrogen cooled wire. Crystallization velocities were determined by timing the crystal growth front passages along the glass tubing. Solution mixtures containing aircraft exhaust (soot) were also examined. Crystallization rates increased as deltaT2, where deltaT is the supercooling for weak solutions (2 m or less). The higher concentrated solutions (greater than 3 m) showed rates significantly less than deltaT2. This reduced rate suggested an onset of a glass phase. Results were applied to the nucleation of highly concentrated solutions at various stages of polar stratospheric cloud development within the polar stratosphere.

  10. Fragmentation of interstellar clouds and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1982-01-01

    The principal issues are addressed: the fragmentation of molecular clouds into units of stellar mass and the impact of star formation on molecular clouds. The observational evidence for fragmentation is summarized, and the gravitational instability described of a uniform spherical cloud collapsing from rest. The implications are considered of a finite pressure for the minimum fragment mass that is attainable in opacity-limited fragmentation. The role of magnetic fields is discussed in resolving the angular momentum problem and in making the collapse anisotropic, with notable consequences for fragmentation theory. Interactions between fragments are described, with emphasis on the effect of protostellar winds on the ambient cloud matter and on inhibiting further star formation. Such interactions are likely to have profound consequences for regulating the rate of star formation and on the energetics and dynamics of molecular clouds.

  11. FORMATION OF MASSIVE MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES BY CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament.

  12. Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinne, S.; Toon, O. B.; Toon, G. C.; Farmer, C. B.; Browell, E. V.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented on polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) observations, based on IR measurements of solar extinction, made by the airborne JPL Mark IV interferometer during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Expedition in 1987, together with the instrumentation and the theoretical aspects of data analysis. Thirty-three PSC cases were analyzed and categorized into two types, I and II, which were found to occur at different altitudes during September. Type I clouds, seen at altitudes above 15 km, contained particles with radii of about 0.5 micarons and nitric acid concentrations greater than 40 percent, while type II clouds, found usually below 15 km, contained particles with radii of 6 microns and larger, composed of water ice. In addition, particles of larger than the 15-micron-size detection limit were encounterd.

  13. Early evolution of a stratospheric volcanic eruption cloud as observed with TOMS and AVHRR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, D.J.; Rose, William I., Jr.; Coke, L.R.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Sprod, I.E.; Krueger, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a detailed study of remote sensing data from the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) satellite detectors, of the 1982 eruption of El Chicho??n, Mexico. The volcanic cloud/atmosphere interactions in the first four days of this eruption were investigated by combining ultraviolet retrievals to estimate the mass of sulfur dioxide in the volcanic cloud [Krueger et al., 1995] with thermal infrared retrievals of the size, optical depth, and mass of fine-grained (1-10 ??m radius) volcanic ash [Wen and Rose, 1994]. Our study provides the first direct evidence of gravitational separation of ash from a stratospheric, gas-rich, plinian eruption column and documents the marked differences in residence times of volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide in volcanic clouds. The eruption column reached as high as 32 km [Carey and Sigurdsson, 1986] and was injected into an atmosphere with a strong wind shear, which allowed for an observation of the separation of sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash. The upper, more sulfur dioxide-rich part of the cloud was transported to the west in the stratosphere, while the fine-grained ash traveled to the south in the troposphere. The mass of sulfur dioxide released was estimated at 7.1 ?? 109 kg with the mass decreasing by approximately 4% 1 day after the peak. The mass of fine-grained volcanic ash detected was estimated at 6.5 ?? 109 kg, amounting to about 0.7% of the estimated mass of the ash which fell out in the mapped ash blanket close to the volcano. Over the following days, 98% of this remaining fine ash was removed from the volcanic cloud, and the effective radius of ash in the volcanic cloud decreased from about 8 ??m to about 4 ??m. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate: Formation and Heterogeneous Chemistry in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Renyi; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated some thermodynamic properties (i.e., freezing/melting points) and heterogeneous chemistry of sulfuric acid monohydrate (SAM, H2SO4.H2O), using a fast flow reactor coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The freezing point observations of thin liquid sulfuric acid films show that for acid contents between 75 and 85 wt % the monohydrate crystallizes readily at temperatures between 220 and 240 K on a glass substrate. Once formed, SAM can be thermodynamically stable in the H2O partial pressure range of (1-4) x 10(exp -4) torr and in the temperature range of 220-240 K. For a constant H2O partial pressure, lowering the temperature causes SAM to melt when the temperature and water partial pressure conditions are out of its stability regime. The reaction probability measurements indicate that the hydrolysis of N2O5 is significantly suppressed owing to the formation of crystalline SAM: The reaction probability on water-rich SAM (with higher relative humidity, or RH) is of the order of 10(exp -3) at 210 K and decreases by more than an order of magnitude for the acid-rich form (with lower RH). The hydrolysis rate of ClONO2 on water-rich SAM is even smaller, of the order of 10(exp -4) at 195 K. These reported values on crystalline SAM are much smaller than those on liquid solutions. No enhancement of these reactions is observed in the presence of HCl vapor at the stratospheric concentrations. In addition, Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller analysis of gas adsorption isotherms and photomicrography have been performed to characterize the surface roughness and porosities of the SAM substrate. The results suggest the possible formation of SAM in some regions of the middle- or low-latitude stratosphere and, consequently, much slower heterogeneous reactions on the frozen aerosols.

  15. Application of physical adsorption thermodynamics to heterogeneous chemistry on polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Scott; Turco, Richard P.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory isotherms for the binding of several nonheterogeneously active atmospheric gases and for HCl to water ice are translated into adsorptive equilibrium constants and surface enthalpies. Extrapolation to polar conditions through the Clausius Clapeyron relation yields coverage estimates below the percent level for N2, Ar, CO2, and CO, suggesting that the crystal faces of type II stratospheric cloud particles may be regarded as clean with respect to these species. For HCl, and perhaps HF and HNO3, estimates rise to several percent, and the adsorbed layer may offer acid or proton sources alternate to the bulk solid for heterogeneous reactions with stratospheric nitrates. Measurements are lacking for many key atmospheric molecules on water ice, and almost entirely for nitric acid trihydrate as substrate. Adsorptive equilibria enter into gas to particle mass flux descriptions, and the binding energy determines rates for desorption of, and encounter between, potential surface reactants.

  16. Dual-polarization airborne lidar observations of polar stratospheric cloud evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Mccormick, M. P.; Kent, G. S.; Hunt, W. H.; Osborn, M. T.

    1990-01-01

    Dual-polarization 0.532 micron lidar data show systematic polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) evolution along a portion of the Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition DC-8 flight of January 31, 1989. This flight leg was roughly aligned with air parcel motion on isentropic surfaces from 400-500 K, where the local adiabatic cooling rate was about 20 K/day. Type 1 PSCs show low depolarization ratios and scattering ratios which approach intermediate limiting values as ambient temperature decreases. These data suggest that Type 1 particles formed by rapid cooling may be nearly spherical and are restricted in size by partitioning of a limited HNO3 vapor supply among many competing growth sites. Type 2 PSCs appear at temperatures below estimated local frost points with increases in depolarization and scattering typical of larger ice crystals.

  17. Theoretical Investigations of Clouds and Aerosols in the Stratosphere and Upper Troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.

    2005-01-01

    support of the Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Data Analysis Program. We investigated a wide variety of issues involving ambient stratospheric aerosols, polar stratospheric clouds or heterogeneous chemistry, analysis of laboratory data, and particles in the upper troposphere. The papers resulting from these studies are listed below. In addition, I participated in the 1999-2000 SOLVE mission as one of the project scientists and in the 2002 CRYSTAL field mission as one of the project scientists. Several CU graduate students and research associates also participated in these mission, under support from the ACMAP program, and worked to interpret data. During the past few years my group has completed a number of projects under the

  18. Lidar observations of polar stratospheric clouds at McMurdo, Antarctica, during NOZE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Bruce M.

    1988-01-01

    SRI International operated a dual wavelength (1.064 micrometer and .532 micrometer) aerosol lidar at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of the National Ozone Expedition-2 (NOZE-2). The objective of the project was to map the vertical distributions of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), which are believed to play an important role in the destruction of ozone in the Antarctic spring. Altitude, thickness, homogeneity, and duration of PSC events as well as information on particle shape, size or number density will be very useful in determining the exact role of PSCs in ozone destructions, and when combined with measurements of other investigators, additional properties of PSCs can be estimated. The results are currently being analyzed in terms of PSC properties which are useful for modeling the stratospheric ozone depletion mechanism.

  19. Star formation in the Magellanic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frogel, Jay A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of their proximity, the Magellanic Clouds provide the opportunity to conduct a detailed study of the history and current state of star formation in dwarf irregular galaxies. There is considerable evidence that star formation in the Clouds was and is proceeding in a manner different from that found in a typical well-ordered spiral galaxy. Star formation in both Clouds appears to have undergone a number of relatively intense bursts. There exist a number of similarities and differences in the current state of star formation in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way. Examination of Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources with ground based telescopes allows identification of highly evolved massive stars with circumstellar shells as well as several types of compact emission line objects.

  20. Stratospheric and solar cycle effects on long-term variability of mesospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.; Baumgarten, G.

    2009-01-01

    Model results of mesospheric ice layers and background conditions at 69°N from 1961 to 2008 are analyzed. The model nudges to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data below ˜45 km. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the mesosphere are kept constant. At polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) altitudes (83 km) temperatures decrease until the mid 1990s by -0.08 K/yr resulting in trends of PMC brightness, occurrence rates, and, to a lesser extent, in PMC altitudes (-0.0166 km/yr). Ice layer trends are consistent with observations by ground-based and satellite instruments. Water vapor increases at PMC heights and decreases above due to increased freeze-drying caused by the temperature trend. Temperature trends in the mesosphere mainly come from shrinking of the stratosphere and from dynamical effects. A solar cycle modulation of H2O is observed in the model consistent with satellite observations. The effect on ice layers is reduced because of redistribution of H2O by freeze-drying. The accidental coincidence of low temperatures and solar cycle minimum in the mid 1990s leads to an overestimation of solar effects on ice layers. A strong correlation between temperatures and PMC altitudes is observed. Applied to historical measurements this gives negligible temperature trends at PMC altitudes (˜0.01-0.02 K/yr). Strong correlations between PMC parameters and background conditions deduced from the model confirm the standard scenario of PMC formation. The PMC sensitivity on temperatures, water vapor, and Ly-α is investigated. PMC heights show little variation with background parameters whereas brightness and occurrence rates show large variations. None of the background parameters can be ignored regarding its influence on ice layers.

  1. Stratospheric and solar cycle effects on long-term variability of mesospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.; Baumgarten, G.

    2009-11-01

    Model results of mesospheric ice layers and background conditions at 69°N from 1961 to 2008 are analyzed. The model nudges to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data below ˜45 km. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the mesosphere are kept constant. At polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) altitudes (83 km) temperatures decrease until the mid 1990s by -0.08 K/yr resulting in trends of PMC brightness, occurrence rates, and, to a lesser extent, in PMC altitudes (-0.0166 km/yr). Ice layer trends are consistent with observations by ground-based and satellite instruments. Water vapor increases at PMC heights and decreases above due to increased freeze-drying caused by the temperature trend. Temperature trends in the mesosphere mainly come from shrinking of the stratosphere and from dynamical effects. A solar cycle modulation of H2O is observed in the model consistent with satellite observations. The effect on ice layers is reduced because of redistribution of H2O by freeze-drying. The accidental coincidence of low temperatures and solar cycle minimum in the mid 1990s leads to an overestimation of solar effects on ice layers. A strong correlation between temperatures and PMC altitudes is observed. Applied to historical measurements this gives negligible temperature trends at PMC altitudes (˜0.01-0.02 K/yr). Strong correlations between PMC parameters and background conditions deduced from the model confirm the standard scenario of PMC formation. The PMC sensitivity on temperatures, water vapor, and Ly-α is investigated. PMC heights show little variation with background parameters whereas brightness and occurrence rates show large variations. None of the background parameters can be ignored regarding its influence on ice layers.

  2. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  3. Autonomous full-time lidar measurements of polar stratospheric clouds at the South Pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, James R.

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) are an artifact of extremely low temperatures in the lower-stratosphere caused by a lack of sunlight during winter. Their presence induces increased concentrations of chlorine and bromine radicals that drive catalytic ozone destruction upon the return of sunlight in spring. An eye-safe micropulse lidar (MPL; 0.23 mum) was installed at the Scott-Amundsen South Pole Station, Antarctica in December 1999 to collect continuous long-term measurements of polar clouds. A four-year data subset for analyzing PSC is derived from measurements for austral winters 2000 and 2003--2005. A statistical algorithm based on MPL signal uncertainties is designed to retrieve PSC boundary heights, attenuated scattering ratios and demonstrate instrument performance for low signal-to-noise measurements. The MPL measurements consist mostly of Type II PSC (i.e., ice). The likelihood for Type I measurements are described for specific conditions. Seasonal PSC macrophysical properties are examined relative to thermodynamic and chemical characteristics. The potential for dehumidification and denitrification of the lower Antarctic stratosphere is examined by comparing PSC observations to theoretical predictions for cloud based on common scenarios for water vapor and nitric acid concentrations. Conceptual models for seasonal PSC occurrence, denitrification and dehumidification and ozone loss are described. A linear relationship is established between total integrated PSC scattering and ozone loss, with high correlation. Polar vortex dynamics are investigated in relation to PSC occurrence, including synoptic-scale geopotential height anomalies, isentropic airmass trajectories and local-scale gravity waves. Moisture overrunning, from quasi-adiabatic cooling and transport along isentropic boundaries, is considered a primary mechanism for PSC occurrence. Middle and late-season PSC are found to be the result of mixing of moist air from the outer edges of the vortex that

  4. Influence of Tropospheric SO2 Emissions on Particle Formation and the Stratospheric Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notholt, J.; Luo, B. P.; Fueglistaler, S.; Weisenstein, D.; Rex, M.; Lawrence, M. G.; Bingemer, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Corti, T.; Warneke, T.; vonKuhlmann, R.; Peters, T.

    2005-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor plays an important role in the chemistry and radiation budget of the stratosphere. Throughout the last decades stratospheric water vapor levels have increased and several processes have been suggested to contribute to this trend. Here we present a mechanism that would link increasing anthropogenic SO2 emissions in southern and eastern Asia with an increase in stratospheric water. Trajectory studies and model simulations suggest that the SO2 increase results in the formation of more sulfuric acid aerosol particles in the upper tropical troposphere. As a consequence, more ice crystals of smaller size are formed in the tropical tropopause, which are lifted into the stratosphere more readily. Our model calculations suggest that such a mechanism could increase the amount of water that entered the stratosphere in the condensed phase by up to 0.5 ppmv from 1950-2000.

  5. Stratospheric Ozone Changes and Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) Trends Observed in SBUV Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLand, M. T.; Thomas, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Olivero, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are observed at 80-85 km altitude and high latitudes (typically > 50°) only during summer months. It has been suggested that long-term variations of PMC occurrence frequency and brightness are indicators of global climate change as represented through changes in mesospheric temperature and water vapor. The Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) series of satellite instruments, although designed to measure stratospheric profile and total column ozone, have made global observations of bright PMCs since November 1978. Previous analysis of SBUV data found that long-term variations in PMC brightness and occurrence frequency were anti-correlated with solar activity, and that a positive secular trend was present at most latitudes. The limited database of mesospheric temperature and water vapor data has precluded further determination of the source of this trend. Motivated by recent studies with the LIMA general circulation model [Berger and Lübken 2011], which relate mesospheric temperature trends to changes in stratospheric ozone, we have investigated the use of stratospheric ozone changes as a proxy for changes in mesospheric heating and temperature. The decrease in ozone from 1979 to the mid-1990s leads to a cooler mesosphere, and is thus consistent with the rise in PMC ice water content observed in the SBUV record during this period. Similarly, stratospheric ozone changes are smaller from the mid-1990s to the present, and PMC ice water content trends are also reduced in recent years. We will discuss these results and their implications for both previous (before 1979) and future PMC behavior.

  6. An experimental study of growth and phase change of polar stratospheric cloud particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John; Teets, Edward

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on understanding phase changes related to solutions which may comprise Polar Stratospheric Clouds. In particular, it is concerned with techniques for investigating specific classes of metastability and phase change which may be important not only in Polar Stratospheric Clouds but in all atmospheric aerosols in general. While the lower level atmospheric aerosol consists of mixtures of (NH4)(SO4)2, NH4HSO4, NaCl among others, there is evidence that aerosol at PSC levels is composed of acid aerosol, either injected from volcanic events (such as Pinatubo) or having diffused upward from the lower atmosphere. In particular, sulfuric acid and nitric acid are known to occur at PSC levels, and are suspected of catalyzing ozone destruction reactions by adsorption on surfaces of crystallized particles. The present study has centered on two approaches: (1) the extent of supercooling (with respect to ice) and supersaturation (with respect to hydrate) and the nature of crystal growth in acid solutions of specific molality; and (2) the nature of growth from the vapor of HNO3 - H2O crystals both on a substrate and on a pre-existing aerosol.

  7. Cloud Optimized Image Format and Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, P.; Plesea, L.; Maurer, T.

    2015-04-01

    Cloud based image storage and processing requires revaluation of formats and processing methods. For the true value of the massive volumes of earth observation data to be realized, the image data needs to be accessible from the cloud. Traditional file formats such as TIF and NITF were developed in the hay day of the desktop and assumed fast low latency file access. Other formats such as JPEG2000 provide for streaming protocols for pixel data, but still require a server to have file access. These concepts no longer truly hold in cloud based elastic storage and computation environments. This paper will provide details of a newly evolving image storage format (MRF) and compression that is optimized for cloud environments. Although the cost of storage continues to fall for large data volumes, there is still significant value in compression. For imagery data to be used in analysis and exploit the extended dynamic range of the new sensors, lossless or controlled lossy compression is of high value. Compression decreases the data volumes stored and reduces the data transferred, but the reduced data size must be balanced with the CPU required to decompress. The paper also outlines a new compression algorithm (LERC) for imagery and elevation data that optimizes this balance. Advantages of the compression include its simple to implement algorithm that enables it to be efficiently accessed using JavaScript. Combing this new cloud based image storage format and compression will help resolve some of the challenges of big image data on the internet.

  8. Polar Stratospheric Cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modelled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Wohltmann, I.; Wegner, T.; Takeda, M.; Pitts, M. C.; Poole, L. R.; Lehmann, R.; Santee, M. L.; Rex, M.

    2015-08-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO and of HCl, ClO and HNO3 by MLS along air mass trajectories to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels, and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/10 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed, and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an airmass encountered PSCs. The observed and modelled dependence of the rate of chlorine activation on the PSC composition class was small. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  9. Polar stratospheric cloud evolution and chlorine activation measured by CALIPSO and MLS, and modeled by ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Wohltmann, Ingo; Wegner, Tobias; Takeda, Masanori; Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.; Lehmann, Ralph; Santee, Michelle L.; Rex, Markus

    2016-03-01

    We examined observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) by CALIPSO, and of HCl and ClO by MLS along air mass trajectories, to investigate the dependence of the inferred PSC composition on the temperature history of the air parcels and the dependence of the level of chlorine activation on PSC composition. Several case studies based on individual trajectories from the Arctic winter 2009/2010 were conducted, with the trajectories chosen such that the first processing of the air mass by PSCs in this winter occurred on the trajectory. Transitions of PSC composition classes were observed to be highly dependent on the temperature history. In cases of a gradual temperature decrease, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and super-cooled ternary solution (STS) mixture clouds were observed. In cases of rapid temperature decrease, STS clouds were first observed, followed by NAT/STS mixture clouds. When temperatures dropped below the frost point, ice clouds formed and then transformed into NAT/STS mixture clouds when temperature increased above the frost point. The threshold temperature for rapid chlorine activation on PSCs is approximately 4 K below the NAT existence temperature, TNAT. Furthermore, simulations of the ATLAS chemistry and transport box model along the trajectories were used to corroborate the measurements and show good agreement with the observations. Rapid chlorine activation was observed when an air mass encountered PSCs. Usually, chlorine activation was limited by the amount of available ClONO2. Where ClONO2 was not the limiting factor, a large dependence on temperature was evident.

  10. What role do type I polar stratospheric cloud and aerosol parameterizations play in modelled lower stratospheric chlorine activation and ozone loss?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sessler, J.; Good, P.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Pyle, J. A.

    1996-12-01

    The chlorine activation and subsequent ozone loss of the northern winter lower stratosphere have been modelled using different schemes for type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and sulphate aerosols. Type I PSCs were assumed to consist of either nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) at equilibrium, supercooled ternary solutions (STS) at equilibrium, or to follow a hysteresis cycle between frozen and liquid particles depending on the temperature history. The sulphate aerosol was assumed to be present as either liquid binary H2SO4/H2O aerosol (LBA) or as solid sulphuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT). Our box model integrations show that NAT and STS, representing the upper and lower limits of lower stratospheric chlorine activation, respectively, appear to destroy ozone equally efficiently after a cold PSC event (Tmin ≤ 190K at 50 mbar). For higher minimum temperatures, up to the equilibrium NAT point, there is significantly more ozone loss in the NAT scheme than in the STS scheme. On NAT, chlorine is activated directly by ClONO2 + HCl → 2Cl + HNO3, whereas on STS, indirect activation by ClONO2 + H2O → HOCl + HNO3 followed by HOCl + HCl → 2Cl + H2O, dominates. During the processing period, the indirect activation on STS will produce a temporary peak in HOCl. Box model integrations also show that direct chlorine activation is faster on SAT than on LBA, yielding significantly more ozone loss in air parcels which remain below the SAT melting point (215-220 K). Our single-layer chemical transport model simulations (θ = 465K) of the lower stratospheric chlorine activation during Arctic winter 1994/1995 show that chlorine is activated more quickly on NAT than on STS. However, in mid December 1994, when temperatures are low enough for substantial STS particle growth, maximum active chlorine becomes similar in both schemes and remains similar until the end of January 1995. A model integration which includes SAT produces up to 200 parts per trillion by volume more ClOx, inside

  11. Effects of stratospheric aerosols and thin cirrus clouds on the atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: simulations.

    PubMed

    Gordon, H R; Zhang, T; He, F; Ding, K

    1997-01-20

    Using simulations, we determine the influence of stratospheric aerosol and thin cirrus clouds on the performance of the proposed atmospheric correction algorithm for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data over the oceans. Further, we investigate the possibility of using the radiance exiting the top of the atmosphere in the 1.38-microm water vapor absorption band to remove their effects prior to application of the algorithm. The computations suggest that for moderate optical thicknesses in the stratosphere, i.e., tau(s) < or approximately 0.15, the stratospheric aerosol-cirrus cloud contamination does not seriously degrade the MODIS except for the combination of large (approximately 60 degrees) solar zenith angles and large (approximately 45 degrees) viewing angles, for which multiple-scattering effects can be expected to be particularly severe. The performance of a hierarchy of stratospheric aerosol/cirrus cloud removal procedures for employing the 1.38-microm water vapor absorption band to correct for stratospheric aerosol/cirrus clouds, ranging from simply subtracting the reflectance at 1.38 microm from that in the visible bands, to assuming that their optical properties are known and carrying out multiple-scattering computations of their effect by the use of the 1.38-microm reflectance-derived concentration, are studied for stratospheric aerosol optical thicknesses at 865 nm as large as 0.15 and for cirrus cloud optical thicknesses at 865 nm as large as 1.0. Typically, those procedures requiring the most knowledge concerning the aerosol optical properties (and also the most complex) performed the best; however, for tau(s) < or approximately 0.15, their performance is usually not significantly better than that found by applying the simplest correction procedure. A semiempirical algorithm is presented that permits accurate correction for thin cirrus clouds with tau(s) as large as unity when an accurate estimate of the cirrus cloud

  12. Characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds With Spaceborne Lidar: CALIPSO and the 2006 Antarctic Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Thomason, L. W.; Poole, Lamont R.; Winker, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The role of polar stratospheric clouds in polar ozone loss has been well documented. The CALIPSO satellite mission offers a new opportunity to characterize PSCs on spatial and temporal scales previously unavailable. A PSC detection algorithm based on a single wavelength threshold approach has been developed for CALIPSO. The method appears to accurately detect PSCs of all opacities, including tenuous clouds, with a very low rate of false positives and few missed clouds. We applied the algorithm to CALIPSO data acquired during the 2006 Antarctic winter season from 13 June through 31 October. The spatial and temporal distribution of CALIPSO PSC observations is illustrated with weekly maps of PSC occurrence. The evolution of the 2006 PSC season is depicted by time series of daily PSC frequency as a function of altitude. Comparisons with virtual solar occultation data indicate that CALIPSO provides a different view of the PSC season than attained with previous solar occultation satellites. Measurement-based time series of PSC areal coverage and vertically-integrated PSC volume are computed from the CALIPSO data. The observed area covered with PSCs is significantly smaller than would be inferred from a temperature-based proxy such as TNAT but is similar in magnitude to that inferred from TSTS. The potential of CALIPSO measurements for investigating PSC microphysics is illustrated using combinations of lidar backscatter coefficient and volume depolarization to infer composition for two CALIPSO PSC scenes.

  13. Radiative-dynamical and microphysical processes of thin cirrus clouds controlling humidity of air entering the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Fueglistaler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Thin cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are of great interest due to their role in the control of water vapor and temperature in the TTL. Previous research on TTL cirrus clouds has focussed mainly on microphysical processes, specifically the ice nucleation mechanism and dehydration efficiency. Here, we use a cloud resolving model to analyse the sensitivity of TTL cirrus characteristics and impacts with respect to microphysical and radiative processes. A steady-state TTL cirrus cloud field is obtained in the model forced with dynamical conditions typical for the TTL (2-dimensional setup with a Kelvin-wave temperature perturbation). Our model results show that the dehydration efficiency (as given by the domain average relative humidity in the layer of cloud occurrence) is relatively insensitive to the ice nucleation mechanism, i.e. homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation. Rather, TTL cirrus affect the water vapor entering the stratosphere via an indirect effect associated with the cloud radiative heating and dynamics. Resolving the cloud radiative heating and the radiatively induced circulations approximately doubles the domain average ice mass. The cloud radiative heating is proportional to the domain average ice mass, and the observed increase in domain average ice mass induces a domain average temperature increase of a few Kelvin. The corresponding increase in water vapor entering the stratosphere is estimated to be about 30 to 40%.

  14. Experimental Insights into the Sulfuric Acid/Water Phase Diagram: Implications for Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, K. D.; Hansen, A. R.

    2002-05-01

    We have investigated the H2SO4/H2O binary liquid/solid phase diagram using a highly sensitive differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy of thin films. In particular we have sought to investigate the region from pure ice to sulfuric acid hemihexahydrate (SAH, H2SO4ú6.5H2O), including a detailed look at the sulfuric acid octahydrate (SAO). Our studies have found that there is a unique, repeatable IR spectra for SAO, which is not merely a combination of spectra of ice and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT), as has been previously suggested could be the case. From our DSC studies, we have identified the melting, or solid/solid phase transition of the octahydrate. We have also determined from our studies using the energy of fusion for SAO that SAO is a major component of H2SO4 solutions in the range 20 - 40 wt.% when they freeze. Our results indicate that SAO could be a significant portion of solid or partially frozen polar stratospheric cloud particles. As such, key stratospheric reactions should be studied on SAO surfaces.

  15. Simulations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Denitrification Using Laboratory Freezing Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, Katja; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    During the 1999-2000 Arctic winter, the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) provided evidence of widespread solid-phase polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) accompanied by severe nitrification. Previous simulations have shown that a freezing process occurring at temperatures above the ice frost point is necessary to explain these observations. In this work, the nitric acid freezing rates measured by Salcedo et al. and discussed by Tabazadeh et al. have been examined. These freezing rates have been tested in winter-long microphysical simulations of the 1999-2000 Arctic vortex evolution in order to determine whether they can explain the observations. A range of cases have been explored, including whether the PSC particles are composed of nitric acid dihydrate or trihydrate, whether the freezing process is a bulk process or occurs only on the particle surfaces, and uncertainties in the derived freezing rates. Finally, the possibility that meteoritic debris enhances the freezing rate has also been examined. The results of these simulations have been compared with key PSC and denitrification measurements made by the SOLVE campaign. The cases that best reproduce the measurements will he highlighted, with a discussion of the implications for our understanding of PSCs.

  16. Fourier transform infrared studies of the interaction of HCl with model polar stratospheric cloud films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, Birgit G.; Mcneill, Laurie S.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    Heterogeneous reactions involving hydrochloric acid adsorbed on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are postulated to contribute to polar ozone loss. Using FTIR spectroscopy to probe the condensed phase, we have examined the interaction of HCl with ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) films representative of types II and I PSCs, respectively. For HCl pressures in the range of 10 exp -7 to 10 exp -5 Torr, our FTIR studies show that a small amount of crystalline HCl-6H2O formed on or in ice at 155 K. However, for higher HCl pressures, we observed that the entire film of ice rapidly converted into an amorphous 4:1 H2O:HCl mixture. From HCl-uptake experiments with P(HCl) = 8 x 10 exp -7 Torr, we estimate roughly that the diffusion coefficient of HCl in ice is around 2 x 10 exp -12 sq cm/s at 158 K. For higher temperatures more closely approximating those found in the stratosphere, we were unable to detect bulk HCl uptake by ice. Indirect evidence suggests that HCl adsorption onto the surface of model PSC films inhibited the evaporation of both ice and NAT by 3-5 K.

  17. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-01-01

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

  18. The interannual variability of polar stratospheric clouds and related parameters in Antarctica during September and October

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.R.; McCormick, M.P. ); Solomon, S. ); Pitts, M.C. )

    1989-10-01

    Antarctic polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) sightings by the orbiting SAM II sensor during September and October show a pronounced Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) signal, and October sightings have increased markedly over the past 10 years in years of westerly QBO phase. The QBO in PSC frequency is likely to affect the rate of Antarctic heterogeneous chemical processes and, hence, ozone depletion. Studies of the observed long-term temperature trend suggest that the decadal PSC trend probably results from the ozone decline through its effect on stratospheric heating rates. A more detailed analysis of data from 1986 and 1987 shows that there were more PSCs in 1987 and that they persisted much later into the spring season as compared to 1986. Qualitatively similar behavior was found for the OClO column abundances and 18-km ozone depletion observed at McMurdo Station during these 2 years. These observations suggest that both the intensity and duration of heterogeneous chemical processes are likely greater during colder, QBO-westerly phase years.

  19. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties from Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Yang, P.; McGee, T. J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A retrieval algorithm has been developed for the microphysical analysis of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) optical data obtained using lidar instrumentation. The parameterization scheme of the PSC microphysical properties allows for coexistence of up to three different particle types with size-dependent shapes. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method has been used to calculate optical properties of particles with maximum dimensions equal to or less than 2 mu m and with shapes that can be considered more representative of PSCs on the scale of individual crystals than the commonly assumed spheroids. Specifically. these are irregular and hexagonal crystals. Selection of the optical parameters that are input to the inversion algorithm is based on a potential data set such as that gathered by two of the lidars on board the NASA DC-8 during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 0 p (SAGE) Ozone Loss Validation experiment (SOLVE) campaign in winter 1999/2000: the Airborne Raman Ozone and Temperature Lidar (AROTEL) and the NASA Langley Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). The 0 microphysical retrieval algorithm has been applied to study how particle shape assumptions affect the inversion of lidar data measured in leewave PSCs. The model simulations show that under the assumption of spheroidal particle shapes, PSC surface and volume density are systematically smaller than the FDTD-based values by, respectively, approximately 10-30% and approximately 5-23%.

  20. Chlorine chemistry on polar stratospheric cloud particles in the Arctic winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Toohey, D. W.; Avallone, L. M.; Anderson, J. G.; Newman, P.; Lait, L.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Elkins, J. W.; Chan, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and chlorine monoxide (ClO) in the Arctic winter vortex showed large HCl losses of up to 1 ppbv, which were correlated with high ClO levels of up to 1.4 ppbv. Air parcel trajectory analysis identified that this conversion of inorganic chlorine occurred at air temperatures of less than 196 -/+ 4 kelvin. High ClO was always accompanied by loss of HCl mixing ratios equal to 1/2(ClO+ 2Cl2O2). These data indicate that the heterogeneous reaction HCl + ClONO2 - Cl2 + HNO3 on particles of polar stratospheric clouds establishes the chlorine partitioning, which, contrary to earlier notions, begins with an excess of ClONO2, not HCl.

  1. Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite measurements of el Chichon stratospheric aerosols. 1: Cloud morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, D. W.; Clancy, R. T.; Eparvier, F. G.; Thomas, G. E.; Thomas, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    Data from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) is used to track the time, latitude, and altitude (above 18 km) development of the aerosol cloud injected into the stratosphere by the eruption of el Chichon. This unique data set, using scattering data from the near-infrared (1.27 and 1.87 microns) and visible (440 nm) spectrometers on SME, covers the period from the initial injection in April 1982 through the end of 1986. Although the bulk of the mass is contained in the latitude band from 10 deg S to 30 deg N for the entire duration of the measurements, transport of material to high latitudes is apparent in the data in the post eruption period. The times aerosol density maxima vary greatly as a function of altitude and latitude.

  2. Optical imaging of cloud-to-stratosphere/mesosphere lightning over the Amazon Basin (CS/LAB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, Davis D.; Wescott, Eugene M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the CS/LAB project was to obtain images of cloud to stratosphere lightning discharges from aboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory while flying in the vicinity of thunderstorms over the Amazon Basin. We devised a low light level imaging package as an add-on experiment to an airborne Laboratory deployment to South America during May-June, 1993. We were not successful in obtaining the desired images during the South American deployment. However, in a follow up flight over the American Midwest during the night of July 8-9, 1993 we recorded nineteen examples of the events over intense thunderstorms. From the observations were estimated absolute brightness, terminal altitudes, flash duration, horizontal extents, emission volumes, and frequencies relative to negative and positive ground strokes.

  3. Diffusion and location of hydorchloric acid in ice: Implications for polar stratosphere clouds and ozone depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, E.W.; Mulvaney, R. ); Oates, K. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors have carried out experiments to study the incorporation and movement of HCl within the structure of ice. These involved freezing HCl solutions, and observing them in a scanning electron microscope fitted with an X-ray microanalysis system. The authors are able to show that HCl is not easily incorporated into ice crystals, but is strongly partitioned towards the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the diffusion of HCl through ice crystals is slow. These results contradict the interpretation of earlier experiments. They mean that if HCl is to be available for reaction on polar stratospheric cloud particles, as required by current theories of Antarctic ozone depletion, then it must be present in some form other than a solid solution.

  4. Detection of Ice Polar Stratospheric Clouds from Assimilation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Benson, Craig; Liu, Hui-Chun; Pawson, Steven; Chang, Ping; Riishojgaard, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique is presented for detection of ice polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) that form at extremely low temperatures in the lower polar stratosphere during winter. Temperature is a major factor in determining abundance of PSCs, which in turn provide surfaces for heterogeneous chemical reactions leading to ozone loss and radiative cooling. The technique infers the presence of ice PSCs using radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. Brightness temperatures are computed from short-term GEOS-5 forecasts for several hundred AIRS channels, using a radiation transfer module. The differences between collocated AIRS observations and these computed values are the observed-minus-forecast (O-F) residuals in the assimilation system. Because the radiation model assumes clear-sky conditions, we hypothesize that these O-F residuals contain quantitative information about PSCs. This is confirmed using sparse data from the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III occultation instrument. The analysis focuses on 0-F residuals for the 6.79pm AIRS moisture channel. At coincident locations, when POAM III detects ice clouds, the AIRS O-F residuals for this channel are lower than -2K. When no ice PSCs are evident in POAM III data, the AIRS 0-F residuals are larger. Given this relationship, the high spatial density of AIRS data is used to construct maps of regions where 0-F residuals are lower than -2K, as a proxy for ice PSCs. The spatial scales and spatio-temporal variations of these PSCs in the Antarctic and Arctic are discussed on the basis of these maps.

  5. Radiatively forced dispersion of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic cloud and induced temperature perturbations in the stratosphere during the first few months following the eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard E.; Houben, Howard; Toon, Owen B.

    1994-01-01

    A combined 3-dimensional circulation model and aerosol microphysical/transport model is used to simulate the dispersion of the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic cloud in the stratosphere for the first few months following the eruption. Radiative heating of the cloud due to upwelling infrared radiation from the troposphere is shown to be an important factor affecting the transport. Without cloud heating, cloud material stays mostly north of the equator, whereas with cloud heating, the cloud is transported southward across the equator within the first two weeks following the eruption. Generally the simulations agree with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) satellite observations showing the latitude distribution of cloud material to be between about 20 deg S and 30 deg N within the first few months. Temperature perturbations in the stratosphere induced by the aerosol heating are generally 1-4 K, in the range of those observed.

  6. Effects of polar stratospheric clouds in the Nimbus 7 LIMS Version 6 data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, Ellis; Harvey, V. Lynn

    2016-07-01

    The historic Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) measurements of 1978-1979 from the Nimbus 7 satellite were re-processed with Version 6 (V6) algorithms and archived in 2002. The V6 data set employs updated radiance registration methods, improved spectroscopic line parameters, and a common vertical resolution for all retrieved parameters. Retrieved profiles are spaced about every 1.6° of latitude along orbits and include the additional parameter of geopotential height. Profiles of O3 are sensitive to perturbations from emissions of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). This work presents results of implementing a first-order screening for effects of PSCs using simple algorithms based on vertical gradients of the O3 mixing ratio. Their occurrences are compared with the co-located, retrieved temperatures and related to the temperature thresholds needed for saturation of H2O and/or HNO3 vapor onto PSC particles. Observed daily locations where the major PSC screening criteria are satisfied are validated against PSCs observed with the Stratospheric Aerosol Monitor (SAM) II experiment also on Nimbus 7. Remnants of emissions from PSCs are characterized for O3 and HNO3 following the screening. PSCs may also impart a warm bias in the co-located LIMS temperatures, but by no more than 1-2 K at the altitudes of where effects of PSCs are a maximum in the ozone; thus, no PSC screening was applied to the V6 temperatures. Minimum temperatures vary between 187 and 194 K and often occur 1 to 2 km above where PSC effects are first identified in the ozone (most often between about 21 and 28 hPa). Those temperature-pressure values are consistent with conditions for the existence of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) mixtures and to a lesser extent of super-cooled ternary solution (STS) droplets. A local, temporary uptake of HNO3 vapor of order 1-3 ppbv is indicated during mid-January for the 550 K surface. Seven-month time series of the distributions of LIMS O3 and HNO3 are shown

  7. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: The role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes.

  8. A comparison of the longitudinal distributions of polar stratospheric clouds and temperatures for the 1987 Antarctic spring

    SciTech Connect

    Watterson, I.G. ); Tuck, A.F. )

    1989-11-30

    The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II stratospheric extinction coefficients have been analyzed to provide information on the geographical distribution of Antarctic stratospheric clouds in 1987. The peak extinction above 15 km was determined for each of the approximately 14 vertical profiles each day. A longitude by time graph of this extinction is presented, extending from early June to late October. Similar graphs for extinction at 17 km and for temperature at 17 km and 70 mbar geopotential height from the National Meteorological Center at the measurement locations are also shown. It is assumed that extinction is a measure of cloud density. Statistics of the fractional incidence of cloud and of temperature and pressure for five time periods and 24 longitudinal sectors are presented. Cloud incidences for latitudes which either cross or pass to the south of the Antarctic Peninsula are shown. In order to remove the effect of the latitudinal drift of the measurements the statistics are also shown for data binned by 70-mbar geopotential height relative to the minimum within the vortex. In general, there is a good correlation between enhanced extinctions and cold temperatures. Both exhibit a planetary wave structure which tends to move eastward. However, the distribution of dense clouds is highly zonally asymmetric and unlike that of temperature. These clouds are very rare over East Antarctica even when temperatures are low there. After July, clouds are also rare close to the center of the vortex, as determined by the 70-mbar geopotential height of the measurement locations. It is concluded that both cold temperature and the availability of condensable material are important in determining the location of cloud.

  9. A multi-wavelength classification method for polar stratospheric cloud types using infrared limb spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, Reinhold; Hoffmann, Lars; Höpfner, Michael; Griessbach, Sabine; Müller, Rolf; Pitts, Michael C.; Orr, Andrew M. W.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on board the ESA Envisat satellite operated from July 2002 until April 2012. The infrared limb emission measurements represent a unique dataset of daytime and night-time observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) up to both poles. Cloud detection sensitivity is comparable to space-borne lidars, and it is possible to classify different cloud types from the spectral measurements in different atmospheric windows regions. Here we present a new infrared PSC classification scheme based on the combination of a well-established two-colour ratio method and multiple 2-D brightness temperature difference probability density functions. The method is a simple probabilistic classifier based on Bayes' theorem with a strong independence assumption. The method has been tested in conjunction with a database of radiative transfer model calculations of realistic PSC particle size distributions, geometries, and composition. The Bayesian classifier distinguishes between solid particles of ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as well as liquid droplets of super-cooled ternary solution (STS). The classification results are compared to coincident measurements from the space-borne lidar Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument over the temporal overlap of both satellite missions (June 2006-March 2012). Both datasets show a good agreement for the specific PSC classes, although the viewing geometries and the vertical and horizontal resolution are quite different. Discrepancies are observed between the CALIOP and the MIPAS ice class. The Bayesian classifier for MIPAS identifies substantially more ice clouds in the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex than CALIOP. This disagreement is attributed in part to the difference in the sensitivity on mixed-type clouds. Ice seems to dominate the spectral behaviour in the limb infrared spectra and may cause an overestimation in ice occurrence

  10. Formation of planetesimals in collapsing pebble clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlberg Jansson, K.; Johansen, A.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are remnant planetesimals from the epoch of planet formation. Their physical properties hold important clues to understanding how minor bodies formed in the Solar Nebula. The first stage of the planet formation process is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm-cm-sized pebbles. Due to the interaction with the gas in the protoplanetary disk, these pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound particle pebble 'clouds'. Pebbles in the cloud collide with each other, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it contracts, and one would expect the particles to move faster and faster due to the negative heat capacity nature of self-gravitating systems. However, for high-mass clouds, the collapse is limited by free-fall and the cloud does not have time to virialize. This in turn leads to lower collision speeds but thanks to increased density also to increased collision rates and a runaway collapse. We investigate three important properties of the collapse: (i) the time-scale to collapse to solid density, (ii) the temporal evolution of the size spectrum of the pebbles, and (iii) the multiplicity of the resulting planetesimals. We find that planetesimals larger than 100 km in radius collapse on the free-fall time-scale of about 25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision time-scales and hence collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10-km-scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1-km-scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the structure of the resulting planetesimal. The collision speed among the pebbles in low- mass clouds is below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble- pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the nebula. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone

  11. Correlating Polar Stratospheric Cloud Occurrence at the South Pole with Transport and Polar Geopotential Height Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Sassen, K.

    2007-12-01

    In a recent paper, we describe the macrophysical and thermodynamic properties of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) at the South Pole based on continuous eye-safe lidar measurements made over five seasons (2000, 2003-2006). In this paper, we describe the relationship between PSC occurrence and the propensity for transport within the austral polar vortex. The southern lower-stratospheric polar airmass may be approximated as a closed system from May to September. Saturation vapor pressures for background concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid and water vapor are reached either through radiational cooling or isentropic lift. Once nucleated, PSC acquire fall-velocities that remove these compounds from these heights. Satellite measurements (e.g., MLS) depict the widening proximity of the depleted airmass through the polar night. Yet, our measurements show that PSC occurrence can occur up to 20 km late in the season, which suggests replenishment of these species in air originating near the edges of the vortex. We examine 120-h back-trajectories during July and August and temperature histories to identify conditions and circumstances favorable to this occurring. Furthermore, we describe geopotential height anomalies averaged along 60° - 90° S, and compared to a twenty-year mean, as a proxy for the dynamic character of the polar vortex. Negative/positive anomalies indicate a strong/weak and deep/shallow vortex where its circulation inhibits/promotes meridional transport, replenishment and the likelihood of PSC at South Pole. We test this hypothesis using our dataset and reach conclusions on the influence of the polar vortex on total PSC observed each season, which, in turn, may influence the severity of annual ozone losses.

  12. Simultaneous ozone and polar stratospheric cloud observations at South Pole Station during winter and spring 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.M.; Kjome, N.T.; Oltmans, S.J.

    1993-07-20

    Simultaneous polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) and ozone measurements were made over South Pole Station using a two-wavelength backscattersonde. This instrument produces aerosol profiles similar to those obtained with a ground-based lidar system but with higher vertical resolution. In one sounding, depolarization of the PSCs was also measured. The backscattersondes were supplemented with occasional frost point soundings. The measurements made before the appearance of PSCs do not show clear evidence of particle deliquescence, suggesting that the background sulfate particles may be frozen solids rather than liquids. PSCs began appearing at {approximately}20 km when the temperature at that altitude dropped to {minus}80{degrees}C (193 K). Initially, there was apparent evidence of supersaturation (with respect to nitric acid trihydrate) associated with some type I PSCs, while other examples indicated that the condensation of nitric acid was in quantitative agreement with that expected from the saturation vapor pressure and available nitric acid vapor. The apparent supersaturated layers (which occurred within the first 2 weeks of the onset of PSCs) can alternatively be interpreted as denitrified regions. In the polarization sensitive sounding, two varieties of type I PSCs were observed, one of which exhibited significant depolarization and another which produced very little depolarization. This observation would be consistent with the classification of types Ia and Ib, respectively. At the precise time that sunlight was returning to the stratosphere near South Pole Station, a strong inverse correlation in the structure of PSCs and ozone mixing ratio was observed. Using trajectory analysis, it is argued that the effect is probably the result of chemical depletion rather than transport processes. This chance observation is consistent with enhanced ozone depletion occurring in association with sunlit PSCs during the early spring. 36 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Using back-propagation neural networks to analyze hyperspatial and hypertemporal data to detect polar stratospheric clouds over antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Foschi, P.G.; Pagan, K.L.; Garcia, O.

    1996-11-01

    A study to support ozone depletion and climatic change research is briefly summarized. The goal of the study to to develop back-propagation neural network techniques for detection of optically thin polar stratospheric clouds in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer thermal infrared imagery. The neural networks are being used to analyze hyperspatial and hypertemporal data; these data sets are defined in the paper. Assessments of the neural network are very briefly described; these include verification, accuracy, and robustness over time.

  14. Retrieval of Polar Stratospheric Cloud Microphysical Properties From Lidar Measurements: Dependence on Particle Shape Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichardt, Susanne; Reichardt, Jens; Yang, Ping; McGee, Thomas J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of particle sizes and number densities of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) is highly important, because they are critical parameters for the modeling of the ozone chemistry of the stratosphere. In situ measurements of PSC particles are rare. the main instrument for the accumulation of PSC data are lidar systems. Therefore the derivation of some microphysical properties of PSCS from the optical parameters measured by lidars would be highly beneficial for ozone research. Inversion of lidar data obtained in the presence of PSCs formed from crystalline particles type 11 and the various nitric acid tri Ydrrate (NAT) types cannot be easily accomplished, because a suitable scattering theory for small faceted crystals has not been readily available tip to now. As a consequence, the T-matrix method is commonly used for the interpretation of these PSC lidar data. Here the assumption is made that the optical properties of an ensemble of spheroids resemble those of crystalline PSCs, and microphysical properties of the PSC are inferred from the optical signatures of the PSC at two or more wavelengths. The problem with the T-matrix approach is that the assumption of spheroidal instead of faceted particles can lead to dramatically wrong results: Usually cloud particle properties are deduced from analysis of lidar profiles of backscatter ratio and depolarization ratio. The particle contribution to the backscatter ratio is given by the product of the particle number density and the backscattering cross section. The latter is proportional to the value of the particle's scattering phase function at 180 degrees scattering angle. At 180 degrees however, the phase functions of rough, faceted crystals and of spheroids with same maximum dimension differ by a factor of 6. From this it follows that for a PSC consisting of faceted crystals, the particle number density is underestimated by roughly the same factor if spheroidal particles are unrealistically assumed. We are currently

  15. Molecular cloud cores and bimodal star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Shu, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of bimodal star formation is reviewed in the context of supercritical and subcritical states for molecular clouds that are supported against their self-gravitation by magnetic fields. The governing set of equations is derived subject to the quasi-static and axisymmetric approximations. The method of numerical solution and tests of the resultant computer code are outlined. The results of the evolutionary calculations are discussed, emphasizing time scales, masses, and typical sizes of modeled cores that can be compared with observations. For a fixed mass, it is found that the level or turbulent support determines whether a dense core forms or not. This is used to generalize the concept of a critical mass to account for the contributions of turbulence and thermal pressures to the support of a cloud.

  16. Qualitative analysis of the e-cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heifets, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of the electron cloud formation is presented. Two mechanisms of the cloud formation, generation of jets of primary photo-electrons and thermalization of electrons in the electron cloud, are analyzed and compared with simulations for the NLC damping ring.

  17. The effect of clouds on photolysis rates and ozone formation in the unpolluted troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photochemistry of the lower atmosphere is sensitive to short- and long-term meteorological effects; accurate modeling therefore requires photolysis rates for trace gases which reflect this variability. As an example, the influence of clouds on the production of tropospheric ozone has been investigated, using a modification of Luther's two-stream radiation scheme to calculate cloud-perturbed photolysis rates in a one-dimensional photochemical transport model. In the unpolluted troposphere, where stratospheric inputs of odd nitrogen appear to represent the photochemical source of O3, strong cloud reflectance increases the concentration of NO in the upper troposphere, leading to greatly enhanced rates of ozone formation. Although the rate of these processes is too slow to verify by observation, the calculation is useful in distinguishing some features of the chemistry of regions of differing mean cloudiness.

  18. Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy, V. N.; Boucher, O.; Quaas, M.; Niemeier, U.; Muri, H.; Quaas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Simulations from a multi-model ensemble for the RCP4.5 climate change scenario for the 21st century, and for two solar radiation management schemes (stratospheric sulfate injection, G3, and marine cloud brightening, G3SSCE) have been analyzed in terms of changes in the mean and extremes for surface air temperature and precipitation. The climate engineered (SRM 2060s - RCP4.5 2010s) and termination (2080s - 2060s) periods are investigated. During the climate engineering period, both schemes, as intended, offset temperature increases by about 60% globally, but are more effective in the low latitudes and exhibit some residual warming in the Arctic (especially in the case of marine cloud brightening that is only applied in the low latitudes). In both climate engineering scenarios, extreme temperatures changes are similar to the mean temperature changes over much of the globe. The exception is in Northern Hemisphere high latitudes, where high temperatures (90th percentile of the distribution) of climate engineering relative to RCP4.5 rise less than the mean and cold temperatures (10th percentile) much more than the mean. When defining temperature extremes by fixed thresholds, namely number of frost days and summer days, it is found that both climate engineering experiments are not completely alleviating the changes relative to RCP 4.5. The reduction in 2060s dry spell occurrence over land region in G3-SSCE is is more pronounced than over oceans. Experiment G3 exhibits same pattern as G3-SSCE albeit, stronger in magnitude. A strong termination effect is found for the two climate engineering schemes, with large temperature increases especially in the Arctic. Mean temperatures rise faster than the extremes, especially over oceans, with the exception of the Tropics. Conversely precipitation extremes rise much more than the mean, even more so over the ocean, and especially in the Tropics.

  19. The Formation of Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, C.; Stahler, S. W.

    1997-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a detailed, numerical study of gravitational condensation in an unbounded, magnetized medium. The calculation is intended to model each stage in the formation of a dense core, similar to those found within star-forming regions, out of its parent molecular cloud. We assume that the evolution proceeds quasi-statically, through the combined action of self-gravity and ambipolar diffusion. The condensation is followed from its origin as a small perturbation in an initially homogeneous background medium of density rho_0 , until the point when its central density is ~ 10(2) rho_0 . The evolution is characterized by three distinct epochs: (i) an early growth phase, in which the region of interest grows to a size somewhat larger than the Jeans' length in the background medium; (ii) a pivotal phase, marked by the detachment of the (now self-gravitating) cloud from the background; and (iii) a contracting phase, in which the central density rapidly increases, while the cloud continues to accrete gas from the background. We compare our results from phase (iii) with the properties inferred from molecular line studies.

  20. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, Gilberto C.; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ∼15 pc and masses ∼600 M {sub ☉} above density n ∼ 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} (∼2 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} at n > 50 cm{sup –3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ∼0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup –2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ∼30 M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} pc{sup –1}.

  1. A Lidar and Backscatter Sonde Aerosol Measurement Campaign at Table Mountain During February-March 1997: Observations of Stratospheric Background Aerosols and Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, G.; Gross, M.; Haner, D.; Kjome, N.; McDermid, I.; McGee, T.; Rosen, J.; Schafer, H. J.; Schrems, O.

    1999-01-01

    Altitude profiles of backscater ratio of the stratospheric background aerosol layer at altitudes between 15 and 25 km and high-altitude cirrus clouds at altitudes below 13 km are analyzed and discussed. Cirrus clouds were present on 16 of the 26 campaign nights.

  2. 21st Century Trends in Antarctic Temperature and Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Area in the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines trends in Antarctic temperature and APSC, a temperature proxy for the area of polar stratospheric clouds, in an ensemble of Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations of the 21st century. A selection of greenhouse gas, ozone-depleting substance, and sea surface temperature scenarios is used to test the trend sensitivity to these parameters. One scenario is used to compare temperature trends in two versions of the GEOS CCM. An extended austral winter season is examined in detail. In May, June, and July, the expected future increase in CO2-related radiative cooling drives temperature trends in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. At 50 hPa, a 1.3 K cooling is expected between 2000 and 2100. Ozone levels increase, despite this robust cooling signal and the consequent increase in APSC, suggesting the enhancement of stratospheric transport in future. In the lower stratosphere, the choice of climate change scenarios does not affect the magnitude of the early winter cooling. Midwinter temperature trends are generally small. In October, APSC trends have the same sign as the prescribed halogen trends. That is, there are negative APSC trends in "grealistic future" simulations, where halogen loading decreases in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and CO2 continues to increase. In these simulations, the speed of ozone recovery is not influenced by either the choice of sea surface temperature and greenhouse gas scenarios or by the model version.

  3. Effects of the El Chichon volcanic cloud in the stratosphere on the polarization of light from the sky.

    PubMed

    Coulson, K L

    1983-04-01

    A dense volcanic cloud from the El Chichon volcanic eruption has been observed in the stratosphere over Hawaii since it was first discovered at the Mauna Loa Observatory 9 Apr. 1982. Lidar observations have shown the cloud to have been dense and highly layered in its early stages, but as the cloud matured it became more homogeneous and the top portion underwent considerable enhancement. Measurements of the degree of polarization of skylight at the zenith and across the sky in the sun's vertical show that the polarization field is strongly modified by the effects of the cloud and that the modifications are of a different nature from those produced by high turbidity in the lower layers of the atmosphere. The degree of polarization at the zenith during twilight shows a secondary maximum at a solar depression D = 4.8-5 degrees, a secondary minimum at D = 4 degrees, a primary maximum at D = 1-2 degrees, and a rapid decrease to values generally <10% in the immediate sunrise period. The positions of the neutral points are strongly affected by the cloud, the Arago point being shifted from its normal position by as much as 15-20 degrees and the Babinet point being shifted even farther. Multiple Babinet points were observed on some occasions. The measurements indicate the polarization field to be modified more by the El Chichon cloud than it was by the clouds from previous eruptions which have occurred during this century. PMID:18195919

  4. Star formation triggered by cloud-cloud collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfour, S. K.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.; Jaffa, S. E.

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations in which two clouds, each having mass MO = 500 M⊙ and radius RO = 2 pc, collide head-on at relative velocities of ΔvO = 2.4, 2.8, 3.2, 3.6 and 4.0 km s-1. There is a clear trend with increasing ΔvO. At low ΔvO, star formation starts later, and the shock-compressed layer breaks up into an array of predominantly radial filaments; stars condense out of these filaments and fall, together with residual gas, towards the centre of the layer, to form a single large-N cluster, which then evolves by competitive accretion, producing one or two very massive protostars and a diaspora of ejected (mainly low-mass) protostars; the pattern of filaments is reminiscent of the hub and spokes systems identified recently by observers. At high ΔvO, star formation occurs sooner and the shock-compressed layer breaks up into a network of filaments; the pattern of filaments here is more like a spider's web, with several small-N clusters forming independently of one another, in cores at the intersections of filaments, and since each core only spawns a small number of protostars, there are fewer ejections of protostars. As the relative velocity is increased, the mean protostellar mass increases, but the maximum protostellar mass and the width of the mass function both decrease. We use a Minimal Spanning Tree to analyse the spatial distributions of protostars formed at different relative velocities.

  5. 3D Modeling of GJ1214b’s Atmosphere: Formation of Inhomogeneous High Clouds and Observational Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnay, B.; Meadows, V.; Misra, A.; Leconte, J.; Arney, G.

    2015-11-01

    The warm sub-Neptune GJ1214b has a featureless transit spectrum that may be due to the presence of high and thick clouds or haze. Here, we simulate the atmosphere of GJ1214b with a 3D General Circulation Model for cloudy hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, including cloud radiative effects. We show that the atmospheric circulation is strong enough to transport micrometric cloud particles to the upper atmosphere and generally leads to a minimum of cloud at the equator. By scattering stellar light, clouds increase the planetary albedo to 0.4-0.6 and cool the atmosphere below 1 mbar. However, the heating by ZnS clouds leads to the formation of a stratospheric thermal inversion above 10 mbar, with temperatures potentially high enough on the dayside to evaporate KCl clouds. We show that flat transit spectra consistent with Hubble Space Telescope observations are possible if cloud particle radii are around 0.5 μm, and that such clouds should be optically thin at wavelengths >3 μm. Using simulated cloudy atmospheres that fit the observed spectra we generate transit, emission, and reflection spectra and phase curves for GJ1214b. We show that a stratospheric thermal inversion would be readily accessible in near- and mid-infrared atmospheric spectral windows. We find that the amplitude of the thermal phase curves is strongly dependent on metallicity, but only slightly impacted by clouds. Our results suggest that primary and secondary eclipses and phase curves observed by the James Webb Space Telescope in the near- to mid-infrared should provide strong constraints on the nature of GJ1214b's atmosphere and clouds.

  6. On the growth of nitric and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under stratospheric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    A theory for the formation of frozen aerosol particles in the Antarctic stratosphere was developed and applied to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds. The theory suggests that the condensed ice particles are composed primarily of nitric acid and water, with small admixtures of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids in solid solution. The proposed particle formation mechanism is in agreement with the magnitude and seasonal behavior of the optical extinction observed in the winter polar stratosphere.

  7. A Long Data Record (1979-2003) of Stratospheric Ozone Derived from TOMS Cloud Slicing: Comparison with SAGE and Implications for Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemke, Jerry R.; Chandra, Sushil; Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally recognized that Stratospheric Aerosols and Gas Experiment (SAGE) stratospheric ozone data have become a standard long-record reference field for comparison with other stratospheric ozone measurements. This study demonstrates that stratospheric column ozone (SCO) derived from total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) Cloud Slicing may be used to supplement SAGE data as a stand-alone long- record reference field in the tropics extending to middle and high latitudes over the Pacific. Comparisons of SAGE I1 version 6.2 SCO and TOMS version 8 Cloud Slicing SCO for 1984-2003 exhibit remarkable agreement in monthly ensemble means to within 1-3 DU (1 - 1.5% of SCO) despite being independently-calibrated measurements. An important component of our study is to incorporate these column ozone measurements to investigate long-term trends for the period 1979-2003. Our study includes Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBW) version 8 measurements of upper stratospheric column ozone (i.e., zero to 32 hPa column ozone) to characterize seasonal cycles and seasonal trends in this region, as well as the lower stratosphere and troposphere when combined with TOMS SCO and total column ozone. The trend analyses suggest that most ozone reduction in the atmosphere since 1979 in mid-to-high latitudes has occurred in the Lower stratosphere below approx. 25 km. The delineation of upper and lower stratospheric column ozone indicate that trends in the upper stratosphere during the latter half of the 1979-2003 period have reduced to near zero globally, while trends in the lower stratosphere have become larger by approx. 5 DU decade%om the tropics extending to mid-latitudes in both hemispheres. For TCO, the trend analyses suggest moderate increases over the 25-year time record in the extra-tropics of both hemispheres of around 4-6 DU (Northern Hemisphere) and 6-8 DU (Southern Hemisphere).

  8. A Unified Satellite-Observation Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Database for Long-Term Climate-Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromm, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Alfred, Jerome

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the project team's activity and accomplishments during the period 12 February, 1999 - 12 February, 2000. The primary objective of this project was to create and test a generic algorithm for detecting polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), an algorithm that would permit creation of a unified, long term PSC database from a variety of solar occultation instruments that measure aerosol extinction near 1000 nm The second objective was to make a database of PSC observations and certain relevant related datasets. In this report we describe the algorithm, the data we are making available, and user access options. The remainder of this document provides the details of the algorithm and the database offering.

  9. Microphysical properties of synoptic-scale polar stratospheric clouds: in situ measurements of unexpectedly large HNO3-containing particles in the Arctic vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molleker, S.; Borrmann, S.; Schlager, H.; Luo, B.; Frey, W.; Klingebiel, M.; Weigel, R.; Ebert, M.; Mitev, V.; Matthey, R.; Woiwode, W.; Oelhaf, H.; Dörnbrack, A.; Stratmann, G.; Grooß, J.-U.; Günther, G.; Vogel, B.; Müller, R.; Krämer, M.; Meyer, J.; Cairo, F.

    2014-10-01

    In January 2010 and December 2011, synoptic-scale polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) fields were probed during seven flights of the high-altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica within the RECONCILE (Reconciliation of essential process parameters for an enhanced predictability of Arctic stratospheric ozone loss and its climate interaction) and the ESSenCe (ESSenCe: ESA Sounder Campaign) projects. Particle size distributions in a diameter range between 0.46 and 40μm were recorded by four different optical in situ instruments. Three of these particle instruments are based on the detection of forward-scattered light by single particles. The fourth instrument is a grayscale optical array imaging probe. Optical particle diameters of up to 35μm were detected with particle number densities and total particle volumes exceeding previous Arctic measurements. Also, gas-phase and particle-bound NOy was measured, as well as water vapor concentrations. The optical characteristics of the clouds were measured by the remote sensing lidar MAL (Miniature Aerosol Lidar) and by the in situ backscatter sonde MAS (Multiwavelength Aerosol Scatterometer), showing the synoptic scale of the encountered PSCs. The particle mode below 2μm in size diameter has been identified as supercooled ternary solution (STS) droplets. The PSC particles in the size range above 2μm in diameter are considered to consist of nitric acid hydrates, and the particles' high HNO3 content was confirmed by the NOy instrument. Assuming a particle composition of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the optically measured size distributions result in particle-phase HNO3 mixing ratios exceeding available stratospheric values. Therefore the measurement uncertainties concerning probable overestimations of measured particle sizes and volumes are discussed in detail. We hypothesize that either a strong asphericity or an alternate particle composition (e.g., water ice coated with NAT) could explain our observations. In particular

  10. Cloud acidity and acidic deposition in the lower troposphere and ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere: Modeling and data analysis regarding the role of atmospheric aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Nenghuei.

    1991-01-01

    This study focused on the role of atmospheric aerosols in determining the cloud acidity and acidic deposition in the lower troposphere and the ozone depletion in the Antarctic stratosphere. For the former, a cloud chemistry model is developed to study the in-cloud chemistry and acidity in cloud droplets. The cloud chemistry model includes the absorption of trace gases, the oxidation of aqueous phase SO{sub 2}, and the scavenging of atmospheric aerosols. A new scheme is developed to differentiate the acidity and chemical composition distributing in individual cloud droplets. The above cloud chemistry model is incorporated into a two-layer flow model in order to investigate the effects of mountain waves on the cloud acidity. Using the three-year database acquired at Mt. Mitchell site, the in-cloud chemistry and acidic deposition through dry, wet and cloud deposition pathways are investigated. The in-cloud scavenging of submicron aerosols such as sulfates and nitrates is parameterized as a function of cloud deposition rate. The deposition fluxes of sulfur (S) compounds are found primarily contributed by cloud capture mechanism followed by incident precipitation and dry deposition. A comparison of deposition estimates at Mt. Mitchell with those at other sites shows that the sulfate deposition at sites exceeding 1,200 m MSL in elevation in Bavaria (Germany) and eastern USA is almost identical within error limits. The features of the Antarctic stratospheric aerosols during the ozone depletion episode of October 1987 are investigated based on the SAGE 2 (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 2) data. The study focuses on (1) inferring the aerosol size spectrum using a modified randomized minimization-search-technique (RMST), and (2) investigating the vertical, zonal and columnar averages of aerosol properties, together with the ozone concentration.

  11. To examine the association between oscillations of the stratospheric aerosol layer peaks and different types of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, P. B.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol measurements have been carried out at Kolhapur (16°42'N, 74°14'E) by using newly designed Semiautomatic Twilight Photometer. The system is a ground based simple and inexpensive but very sensitive passive remote sensing technique. The altitudes of the Junge layer peaks on measurement days were derived from the aerosol vertical profiles. One attempt is made to examine the association between oscillations of the stratospheric aerosol layer peaks and different types of clouds. The values of AND for the Junge layer peaks for each observational day were also calculated. The graph between AND at peak point of Junge layer and day numbers was also studied in comparison with High, Medium and Low level clouds. There is an annual variation in the altitude of the peak of Junge layer also. Its maximum is observed during January. The annual variation of the altitude of the peak of Junge layer and the AND of Junge layer peak showed opposite phase relation.

  12. Climate extremes in multi-model simulations of stratospheric aerosol and marine cloud brightening climate engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathy, V. N.; Boucher, O.; Quaas, M.; Niemeier, U.; Muri, H.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Quaas, J.

    2015-08-01

    Simulations from a multi-model ensemble for the RCP4.5 climate change scenario for the 21st century, and for two solar radiation management (SRM) schemes (stratospheric sulfate injection (G3), SULF and marine cloud brightening by sea salt emission SALT) have been analysed in terms of changes in the mean and extremes of surface air temperature and precipitation. The climate engineering and termination periods are investigated. During the climate engineering period, both schemes, as intended, offset temperature increases by about 60 % globally, but are more effective in the low latitudes and exhibit some residual warming in the Arctic (especially in the case of SALT which is only applied in the low latitudes). In both climate engineering scenarios, extreme temperature changes are similar to the mean temperature changes over much of the globe. The exceptions are the mid- and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, where high temperatures (90th percentile of the distribution) of the climate engineering period compared to RCP4.5 control period rise less than the mean, and cold temperatures (10th percentile), much more than the mean. This aspect of the SRM schemes is also reflected in simulated reduction in the frost day frequency of occurrence for both schemes. However, summer day frequency of occurrence increases less in the SALT experiment than the SULF experiment, especially over the tropics. Precipitation extremes in the two SRM scenarios act differently - the SULF experiment more effectively mitigates extreme precipitation increases over land compared to the SALT experiment. A reduction in dry spell occurrence over land is observed in the SALT experiment. The SULF experiment has a slight increase in the length of dry spells. A strong termination effect is found for the two climate engineering schemes, with large temperature increases especially in the Arctic. Globally, SULF is more effective in reducing extreme temperature increases over land than SALT. Extreme

  13. Magmatic gas source for the stratospheric SO[sub 2] cloud from the June 15, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R. ); Gerlach, T.M. )

    1992-10-01

    A water-rich magmatic gas phase escaped explosively from Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991, taking with it a load of crystalline and molten material sufficient to form pumice and tephra deposits with an estimated total dense-rock-equivalent volume of 3-5 km[sup 3], and carrying in it enough sulfur to form a 20 Mt SO[sub 2] cloud in the stratosphere. Application of the petrologic method for estimating sulfur degassing during the climatic event from the sulfur content of trapped glass inclusions and matrix glasses in the pumice deposits requires an unacceptably large volume of erupted magma to account for SO[sub 2] in the stratospheric cloud. The ubiquitous presence of primary vapor bubbles in glass inclusions and unaltered anhydrite phenocrysts in the pumice suggest that sulfur was present in a separate H[sub 2]O-rich gas phase of the Pinatubo magma before eruption. Thus, for this eruption, and perhaps others, the petrologic method for estimating sulfur degassing is prone to substantial underestimation of sulfur release and the potential climatic impact of past explosive eruptions.

  14. Accretion phase of star formation in clouds with different metallicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Nakamura, Teppei

    2015-04-01

    The main accretion phase of star formation is investigated in clouds with different metallicities in the range 0 ≤ Z ≤ Z⊙, resolving the protostellar radius. Starting from a near-equilibrium prestellar cloud, we calculate the cloud evolution up to ˜100 yr after the first protostar forms. Star formation differs considerably between clouds with lower (Z ≤ 10-4 Z⊙) and higher (Z > 10-4 Z⊙) metallicities. Fragmentation frequently occurs and many protostars appear without a stable circumstellar disc in lower-metallicity clouds. In these clouds, although protostars mutually interact and some are ejected from the cloud centre, many remain as a small stellar cluster. In contrast, higher-metallicity clouds produce a single protostar surrounded by a nearly stable rotation-supported disc. In these clouds, although fragmentation occasionally occurs in the disc, the fragments migrate inwards and finally fall on to the central protostar. The difference in cloud evolution is due to different thermal evolutions and mass accretion rates. The thermal evolution of the cloud determines the emergence and lifetime of the first core. The first core develops prior to the formation of a protostar in higher-metallicity clouds, whereas no (obvious) first core appears in lower-metallicity clouds. The first core evolves into a circumstellar disc with a spiral pattern, which effectively transfers the angular momentum outwards and suppresses frequent fragmentation. In lower-metallicity clouds, the higher mass accretion rate increases the disc surface density within a very short time, rendering the disc unstable to self-gravity and inducing vigorous fragmentation.

  15. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES: CHARACTERIZING SIMULATED VERSUS OBSERVED CLOUD CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect

    Benincasa, Samantha M.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Wadsley, James; Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2013-10-10

    We present the results of a study of simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in a Milky Way-type galactic disk with a flat rotation curve. This simulation, which does not include star formation or feedback, produces clouds with masses ranging between 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} and 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We compare our simulated cloud population to two observational surveys: the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey and the BIMA All-Disk Survey of M33. An analysis of the global cloud properties as well as a comparison of Larson's scaling relations is carried out. We find that simulated cloud properties agree well with the observed cloud properties, with the closest agreement occurring between the clouds at comparable resolution in M33. Our clouds are highly filamentary—a property that derives both from their formation due to gravitational instability in the sheared galactic environment, as well as to cloud-cloud gravitational encounters. We also find that the rate at which potentially star-forming gas accumulates within dense regions—wherein n{sub thresh} ≥ 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}—is 3% per 10 Myr, in clouds of roughly 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}. This suggests that star formation rates in observed clouds are related to the rates at which gas can be accumulated into dense subregions within GMCs via filamentary flows. The most internally well-resolved clouds are chosen for listing in a catalog of simulated GMCs—the first of its kind. The cataloged clouds are available as an extracted data set from the global simulation.

  16. Letter to the Editor: A strange cloud in the Arctic summer stratosphere 1998 above Esrange (68 deg N), Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, J.; Timmis, C.; Vaughan, G.; Fricke, K. H.

    2000-04-01

    When the University of Bonn lidar on the Esrange (68 deg N, 21 deg E), Sweden, was switched on in the evening of July 18, 1998, a geometrically and optically thin cloud layer was present near 14 km altitude or 400 K potential temperature, where it persisted for two hours. The tropopause altitude was 4 km below the cloud altitude. The cloud particles depolarized the lidar returns, thus must they have been aspherical and hence solid. Atmospheric temperatures near 230 K were approximately 40 K too high to support ice particles at stratospheric water vapour pressures of a few ppmv. The isentropic back trajectory on 400 K showed the air parcels to have stayed clear of active major rocket launch sites. The air parcels at 400 K had traveled from the Aleutians across Canada and the Atlantic Ocean arriving above central Europe and then turned northward to pass over above the lidar station. Parcels at levels at +/-25 K from 400 K had come from the pole and joined the 400 K trajectory path above eastern Canada. Apparently the cloud existed in a filament of air with an origin different from those filaments both above and below. Possibly the 400 K level air parcels had carried soot particles from forest wild fires in northern Canada or volcanic ash from the eruption of the Korovin Volcano in the Aleutian Islands.

  17. Low Mass Star Formation in the Norma Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.; Nielbock, M.

    2008-12-01

    A small filamentary cloud in Norma hosts a number of young low-mass stars in various stages of evolution, from visible Hα emission stars to embedded sources detected only in the sub-millimeter regime. The best known source is V346 Nor, an FU Orionis star that brightened in the early 1980s. The morphology of the cloud complex and an apparent age gradient along the cloud suggests that star formation in this region was triggered by an external event.

  18. Do cloud-cloud collisions trigger high-mass star formation? I. Small cloud collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Takahira, Ken; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Habe, Asao

    2014-09-01

    We performed sub-parsec (∼0.06 pc) scale simulations of two idealized molecular clouds with different masses undergoing a collision. Gas clumps with densities greater than 10{sup –20} g cm{sup –3} (0.3 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}) were identified as pre-stellar cores and tracked throughout the simulation. The colliding system showed a partial gas arc morphology with core formation in the oblique shock front at the collision interface. These characteristics support NANTEN observations of objects suspected to be colliding giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We investigated the effect of turbulence and collision speed on the resulting core population and compared the cumulative mass distribution to cores in observed GMCs. Our results suggest that a faster relative velocity increases the number of cores formed but that cores grow via accretion predominately while in the shock front, leading to a slower shock being more important for core growth. The core masses obey a power-law relation with index γ = –1.6, in good agreement with observations. This suggests that core production through collisions should follow a similar mass distribution as quiescent formation, albeit at a higher mass range. If cores can be supported against collapse during their growth, then the estimated ram pressure from gas infall is of the right order to counter the radiation pressure and form a star of 100 M {sub ☉}.

  19. Drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds: effects of turbulent mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magaritz-Ronen, L.; Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism of drizzle formation in shallow stratocumulus clouds and the effect of turbulent mixing on this process are investigated. A Lagrangian-Eularian model of the cloud-topped boundary layer is used to simulate the cloud measured during flight RF07 of the DYCOMS-II field experiment. The model contains ~ 2000 air parcels that are advected in a turbulence-like velocity field. In the model all microphysical processes are described for each Lagrangian air volume, and turbulent mixing between the parcels is also taken into account. It was found that the first large drops form in air volumes that are closest to adiabatic and characterized by high humidity, extended residence near cloud top, and maximum values of liquid water content, allowing the formation of drops as a result of efficient collisions. The first large drops form near cloud top and initiate drizzle formation in the cloud. Drizzle is developed only when turbulent mixing of parcels is included in the model. Without mixing, the cloud structure is extremely inhomogeneous and the few large drops that do form in the cloud evaporate during their sedimentation. It was found that turbulent mixing can delay the process of drizzle initiation but is essential for the further development of drizzle in the cloud.

  20. Drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds: Effects of turbulent mixing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Magaritz-Ronen, L.; Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.

    2016-02-17

    The mechanism of drizzle formation in shallow stratocumulus clouds and the effect of turbulent mixing on this process are investigated. A Lagrangian–Eularian model of the cloud-topped boundary layer is used to simulate the cloud measured during flight RF07 of the DYCOMS-II field experiment. The model contains ~ 2000 air parcels that are advected in a turbulence-like velocity field. In the model all microphysical processes are described for each Lagrangian air volume, and turbulent mixing between the parcels is also taken into account. It was found that the first large drops form in air volumes that are closest to adiabatic andmore » characterized by high humidity, extended residence near cloud top, and maximum values of liquid water content, allowing the formation of drops as a result of efficient collisions. The first large drops form near cloud top and initiate drizzle formation in the cloud. Drizzle is developed only when turbulent mixing of parcels is included in the model. Without mixing, the cloud structure is extremely inhomogeneous and the few large drops that do form in the cloud evaporate during their sedimentation. Lastly, it was found that turbulent mixing can delay the process of drizzle initiation but is essential for the further development of drizzle in the cloud.« less

  1. Stratospheric Cooling and Arctic Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.

    1998-01-01

    We present sensitivity studies using the AER( box model for an idealized parcel in the lower stratosphere at 70 N during winter/spring with different assumed stratospheric coolings and chlorine loadings. Our calculations show that stratospheric cooling could further deplete ozone via increased polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and retard its expected recovery even with the projected chlorine loading decrease. We introduce the concept of chlorine-cooling equivalent and show that a 1 K cooling could provide the same local ozone depletion as an increase of chlorine by 0.4-0.7 ppbv for the scenarios considered. Thus, sustained stratospheric cooling could further reduce Arctic ozone content and delay the anticipated ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere even with the realization of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments.

  2. Stratospheric Cooling and Arctic Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.

    1998-01-01

    We present sensitivity studies using the AER box model for an idealized parcel in the lower stratosphere at 70 deg N during winter/spring with different assumed stratospheric cooling and chlorine loadings. Our calculations show that stratospheric cooling could further deplete ozone via increased polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and retard its expected recovery even with the projected chlorine loading decrease. We introduce the concept of chlorine-cooling equivalent and show that a 1 K Cooling could provide the same local ozone depletion as an increase of chlorine by 0.4-0.7 ppbv for the scenarios considered. Thus, sustained stratospheric cooling could further reduce Arctic ozone content and delay the anticipated ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere even with the realization of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments.

  3. In-situ measurements of total reactive nitrogen, total water vapor, and aerosols in polar stratospheric clouds in the Antarctic stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Kelly, K. K.; Ferry, G. V.; Poole, L. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Murphy, D. M.; Chan, K. Roland

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of total reactive nitrogen, NOy, total water vapor, and aerosols were made as part of the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. The measurements were made using instruments located onboard the NASA ER-2 aircrafts which conducted twelve flights over the Antarctic continent reaching altitudes of 18 km at 72 S latitude. Each instrument utilized an ambient air sample and provided a measurement up to 1 Hz or every 200 m of flight path. The data presented focus on the flights of Aug. 17th and 18th during which Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) were encountered containing concentrations of 0.5 to 1.0 micron diameter aerosols greater than 1 cm/cu. The temperature pressure during these events ranged as low as 184 K near 75 mb pressure, with water values near 3.5 ppm by volume (ppmv). With the exception of two short periods, the PSC activity was observed at temperatures above the frost point of water over ice. The data gathered during these flights are analyzed and presented.

  4. The Sensitivity of Arctic Ozone Loss to Polar Stratospheric Cloud Volume and Chlorine and Bromine Loading in a Chemistry and Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Polansky, B. C.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of Arctic ozone loss to polar stratospheric cloud volume (V(sub PSC)) and chlorine and bromine loading is explored using chemistry and transport models (CTMs). A simulation using multi-decadal output from a general circulation model (GCM) in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) CTM complements one recycling a single year s GCM output in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Winter polar ozone loss in the GSFC CTM depends on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) and polar vortex characteristics (temperatures, descent, isolation, polar stratospheric cloud amount). Polar ozone loss in the GMI CTM depends only on changes in EESC as the dynamics repeat annually. The GSFC CTM simulation reproduces a linear relationship between ozone loss and Vpsc derived from observations for 1992 - 2003 which holds for EESC within approx.85% of its maximum (approx.1990 - 2020). The GMI simulation shows that ozone loss varies linearly with EESC for constant, high V(sub PSC).

  5. Simulation studies of the physical and chemical processes occurring in the stratospheric clouds of the Mount St. Helens eruptions of May and June 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, C.; Keesee, R. G.; Hamill, P.

    1982-01-01

    The large and diverse set of observational data collected in the high-altitude clouds of May 18, May 25, and June 13, 1980 was organized and analyzed for trends which reveal the processes at work. The data were used to guide and constrain model simulations of the volcanic eruptions. A comprehensive one-dimensional model of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, sulfur precursor gases, and volcanic ash and dust particles is utilized which accounts for homogeneous and heterogeneous chemistry in the clouds, aerosol nucleation and growth, and cloud expansion. Computational results are given for the time histories of the gaseous species concentrations, sulfate aerosol size dispersions, and ash burdens in the eruption clouds. The long-term buildup of stratospheric aerosols in the Northern Hemisphere and the persistent effects of injected chlorine and water vapor on ozone are discussed. It is concluded that SO2, water vapor, and ash are the most important substances injected by the volcano into the stratosphere, with respect to both the widespread effects on composition and the impact on climate. It is found that the volcano probably had little influence on the climate ( 0.05 K global surface cooling) or on stratospheric ozone ( 0.2 percent maximum hemispherical reduction).

  6. Simulation of the climate effects of a geoengineered stratospheric sulfate cloud with the NASA GEOSCCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, L.; Aquila, V.; Colarco, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Suggested solar radiation management (SRM) methods to mitigate global warming include the injection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) in the stratosphere. We present the results from SRM simulation ensemble performed with the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We focus on the response of the stratosphere to a stratospheric SO2 injection. In particular, we investigate the changes of the stratospheric dynamics and composition, and the impact of an increased aerosol layer on ozone recovery. As prescribed for experiment G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), we inject 5 Tg/year of SO2 from 2020 to 2070. The location of the injection is the equator at 0° longitude between 16 km and 25 km altitude. After 2070, we interrupt the SO2 injection and simulate the readjustment until 2090. The emissions scenario is RCP4.5, which predicts a radiative forcing of about 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. This is considered a "medium-low" scenario in terms of radiative forcing. GEOSCCM does not include an interactive ocean model, therefore we use the sea surface temperatures forecasted by the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) for RCP4.5.

  7. Polar stratospheric clouds in the 1998-2003 Antarctic vortex: Microphysical modeling and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, C. M.; Drdla, K.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Shettle, E. P.; Alfred, J.; Hoppel, K. W.

    2006-09-01

    The Integrated Microphysics and Aerosol Chemistry on Trajectories (IMPACT) model is used to study polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and evolution in the Antarctic vortex. The model is applied to individual air parcel trajectories driven by UK Met Office (UKMO) wind and temperature fields. The IMPACT model calculates the parcel microphysics, including the formation and sedimentation of ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT), and supercooled ternary solution (STS) aerosols. Model results are validated by comparison with data obtained by the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III solar occultation instrument and are examined for 6 years of POAM data (1998-2003). Comparisons of POAM water vapor and aerosol extinction measurements to the model results help to constrain three microphysical parameters influencing the formation and growth of both type I and type II PSCs. Principally, measurements of aerosol extinction prove to be valuable in differentiating model runs; the relationship of aerosol extinction to temperature is determined by the various particle types as they form and grow. Comparison of IMPACT calculations of this relationship to POAM measurements suggests that the initial fraction of nuclei available for heterogeneous NAT freezing is approximately 0.02% of all aerosols. Constraints are also placed on the accommodation coefficient of ice and the NAT-ice lattice compatibility. However, these two parameters have similar effects on the extinction-temperature relationship, and thus a range of values are permissible for each.

  8. New Particle Formation in and Around Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axisa, D.; Reeves, J. M.; Wilson, J. C.; Lawson, P.; Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Schiller, C.; Kraemer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The MACPEX mission permitted observation of aerosol size distributions in the 4 to 1000 nm diameter range, cloud particles and water vapor in and around clouds in the mid-latitude upper troposphere. The NMASS consists of 5 condensation particle counters (cpcs) operating in parallel. The 5 cpcs have lower detection limits of approximately 4 nm, 8 nm, 16 nm, 32 nm and 50 nm. The FCAS measures the optical size of particles in the 100 nm to 1000 nm range. The data from these instruments are combined to provide size distributions from 4 to 1000 nm. Size distributions that show a local maximum in the smallest size range are evidence for recent new particle formation since the lifetime of particles in this size range is short due to coagulation. Size distributions showing evidence of new particle formation were observed inside and near clouds in the altitude range from 10 to 14 km. The cloud particles in these high clouds are expected to be ice. Care was taken to avoid interpreting shattering of ice on the aerosol inlets as new particles. The size distributions showing new particle formation are contrasted with size distributions that do not show new particle formation in and out of the clouds. Temperature, relative humidity and trace gas abundances in air parcels exhibiting new particle formation are contrasted with those in air parcels not showing new particle formation.

  9. How Temperature and Water levels affect Polar Mesospheric Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. L.; Randall, C. E.; Harvey, V.

    2012-12-01

    Using the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument data, which is part of the Aeronomy in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission, we compare the albedo and ice water content measurements of CIPS with the Navy Operation Global Atmospheric Prediction System - Advanced Level Phyiscs and High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) temperature and water vapor data in order to derive a greater understanding of cloud formation and physics. We particularly focus on data from June 2007 and July 2007 in this case study because of particular cloud structures and formations during this time period for future studies.

  10. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Karna M.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Dluger, William; Katz, Marshall; Wong, Tony; Looney, Leslie W.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Hughes, Annie; Muller, Erik; Ott, Juergen; Pineda, Jorge L.

    2010-08-15

    It has often been suggested that supernova remnants (SNRs) can trigger star formation. To investigate the relationship between SNRs and star formation, we have examined the known sample of 45 SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) to search for associated young stellar objects (YSOs) and molecular clouds. We find seven SNRs associated with both YSOs and molecular clouds, three SNRs associated with YSOs but not molecular clouds, and eight SNRs near molecular clouds but not associated with YSOs. Among the 10 SNRs associated with YSOs, the association between the YSOs and SNRs either can be rejected or cannot be convincingly established for eight cases. Only two SNRs have YSOs closely aligned along their rims; however, the time elapsed since the SNR began to interact with the YSOs' natal clouds is much shorter than the contraction timescales of the YSOs, and thus we do not see any evidence of SNR-triggered star formation in the LMC. The 15 SNRs that are near molecular clouds may trigger star formation in the future when the SNR shocks have slowed down to <45 km s{sup -1}. We discuss how SNRs can alter the physical properties and abundances of YSOs.

  11. Fourier transform infrared studies of model polar stratospheric cloud surfaces - Growth and evaporation of ice and nitric acid/ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier-transform infrared surface studies are used to probe the microphysical properties of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and ice films representative of type I and II polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). Experiments indicate that, on initial exposure to 1.8 microtorr of HNO3, a layer of ice is quantitatively converted to NAT. However, conversion of ice to NAT does not proceed indefinitely, but rather the system reaches saturation. For longer exposures or higher HNO3 pressures, NAM becomes the dominant nitric acid containing species on the surface. Evaporation studies were performed to test the feasibility of a recent denitrification mechanism. The results indicate that ice coated with 0.20 micron of NAT evaporates at a temperature of about 4 C higher than uncoated ice.

  12. Lidar observations of Arctic polar stratospheric clouds, 1988 - Signature of small, solid particles above the frost point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.; Osborn, M. T.; Hunt, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents recent (January 1988) Arctic airborne lidar data which suggest that Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are composed of small solid particles with radii on the order of 0.5 micron. PSCs were observed remotely in the 21-24 km altitude range north of Greenland during a round-trip flight from Andenes, Norway on January 29, 1988, aboard the NASA Wallops Flight Facility P-3 Orion aircraft. Synoptic analyses at the 30-mb level show local temperatures of 191-193 K, which are well above the estimated frost point temperature of 185 K; this suggests that the PSCs were probably of the binary HNO3-H2O (Type I) class.

  13. Temperature dependent optical constants from aerosol spectroscopy: Applications to stratospheric clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Niedziela, R.F.; Miller, R.E.

    1996-10-01

    The refractive indices of various atmospheric condensates are of great importance in both modeling and remote sensing. In the past, data of this type was only available from thin film measurements made on substrates. The applicability of these data for the study of atmospheric aerosols has really never been tested in detail. We have developed a new approach that allows for the direction determination of frequency dependent refractive indices directly from aerosol spectra. In this paper we discuss the application of this methodology to the study of laboratory generated aerosols of interest in stratospheric heterogeneous chemistry. In particular, we report studies on water, nitric and sulfuric acid aerosols. In the latter case, we report temperature and composition dependent optical constants over the range of conditions appropriate for the stratosphere.

  14. Laboratory analyses of meteoric debris in the upper stratosphere from settling bolide dust clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Della Corte, V.; Ferrari, M.; Rotundi, A.; Brunetto, R.

    2016-03-01

    Bolide and fireball fragmentation produce vast amounts of dust that will slowly fall through the stratosphere. DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval) was designed to intercept the nanometer to micrometer meteoric dust from these events for laboratory analyses while it is still in the upper stratosphere. This effort required extraordinary precautions to avoid particle contamination during collection and in the laboratory. Here we report dust from the upper stratosphere that was collected during two campaigns one in 2008 and another in 2011. We collected and characterized forty five uncontaminated meteoric dust particles. The collected particles are alumina, aluminosilica, plagioclase, fassaite, silica, CaCO3, CaO, extreme F-rich Csbnd Osbnd Ca particles, and oxocarbon particles. These particles are found in friable CI and CM carbonaceous chondrite, and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteoroids that are the most common source of bolides and fireballs. The oxocarbons have no meteorite counterparts. Some F-bearing CaCO3 particles changed shape when they interacted with the ambient laboratory atmosphere which might indicate their highly unequilibrated state as a result of fragmentation. Equilibrium considerations constrain the thermal regime experienced by the collected particles between ∼2000 °C and ∼1000 °C, as high as 3700 °C and as low as ∼650 °C after 9 s, followed by rapid quenching (μs) to below 1600 °C, but equilibrium conditions during these events is most unlikely. So far the observed thermal conditions in these events put the temperatures between ∼4300 °C and ∼430 °C for 5 s and high cooling rates. Such conditions are present in the immediate wake of meteors and fireballs.

  15. Cloud-particle galactic gas dynamics and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Galactic gas dynamics, spiral structure, and star formation are discussed in relation to N-body computational studies based on a cloud-particle model of the interstellar medium. On the small scale, the interstellar medium is seen as cloud-dominated and supernova-perturbed. It is noted that the cloud-particle model simulates cloud-cloud collisions, the formation of stellar associations, and supernova explosions as dominant local processes. On the large scale, in response to a spiral galactic gravitational field, global density waves and galactic shocks develop having large-scale characteristics similar to those found in continuum gas dynamical studies. Both the system of gas clouds and the system of young stellar associations forming from the clouds figure in the global spiral structure. However, with the attributes of neither assuming a continuum of gas (as in continuum gas dynamical studies) or requiring a prescribed equation of state (such as the isothermal condition), the cloud-particle picture retains much of the detail lost in earlier work. By detail is meant the small-scale features and structures so important in understanding the local, turbulent state of the interstellar medium as well as the degree of raggedness often seen to be superposed on the global spiral structure.

  16. Molecular Clouds, Star Formation and Galactic Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Nick; Young, Judith S.

    1984-01-01

    Radio observations show that the gigantic clouds of molecules where stars are born are distributed in various ways in spiral galaxies, perhaps accounting for the variation in their optical appearance. Research studies and findings in this area are reported and discussed. (JN)

  17. On the detectability of acid formation in clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, T.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Daum, P.H.

    1987-03-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of detecting by means of field measurements the occurrence of acid forming reactions in natural clouds. This evaluation is performed by calculating the changes in reagent and product concentrations expected from four potentially important in-cloud acid production mechanisms, in representative cloud types, and comparing those changes with concentration differences detectable by available analytical methods. The four acid production mechanisms considered are: aqueous-phase reactions of SO/sub 2/ with O/sub 3/ and with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and gas-phase reactions of NO/sub 2/ with OH radical and with O/sub 3/, the latter leading to acid formation by reaction of N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ with cloud liquid water. The cloud types considered are fog, stratus, cumulus, and mountain lee wave. This evaluation indicates that oxidation of SO/sub 2/ by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ should be detectable in a wide variety of cloud conditions, but that oxidation of SO/sub 2/ by O/sub 3/ is unlikely to be detected by field measurements. The reactions oxidizing NO/sub 2/ may be detectable in fog and stratus clouds, which provide long in-cloud residence times. The paper includes discussion of factors which favor or hinder detection of acid production in clouds, and reviews evidence from published field studies on the occurrence of such production.

  18. Effect of Stellar Encounters on Comet Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, A.; Kokubo, E.

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the effect of stellar encounters on the formation and disruption of the Oort cloud using the classical impulse approximation. We calculate the evolution of a planetesimal disk into a spherical Oort cloud due to the perturbation from passing stars for 10 Gyr. We obtain the empirical fits of the e-folding time for the number of Oort cloud comets using the standard exponential and Kohlrausch formulae as functions of the stellar parameters and the initial semimajor axes of planetesimals. The e-folding time and the evolution timescales of the orbital elements are also analytically derived. In some calculations, the effect of the Galactic tide is additionally considered. We also show the radial variations of the e-folding times to the Oort cloud. From these timescales, we show that if the initial planetesimal disk has the semimajor axes distribution {dn}/{da}\\propto {a}-2, which is produced by planetary scattering, the e-folding time for planetesimals in the Oort cloud is ∼10 Gyr at any heliocentric distance r. This uniform e-folding time over the Oort cloud means that the supply of comets from the inner Oort cloud to the outer Oort cloud is sufficiently effective to keep the comet distribution as {dn}/{dr}\\propto {r}-2. We also show that the final distribution of the semimajor axes in the Oort cloud is approximately proportional to {a}-2 for any initial distribution.

  19. Polar stratospheric clouds observed at Eureka (80°N, 86°W) in the Canadian Arctic during the 1994/1995 winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; Uchino, O.; Itabe, T.; Shibata, T.; Mizutani, K.; Fujimoto, T.

    1997-09-01

    A lidar system was installed at Eureka (80°N, 86°W) in January 1993 to monitor stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). In the winter of 1994/1995, PSCs were found at altitudes of around 20km in the middle of December. In early January 1995, PSCs were observed at altitudes from 14.3 km to 16 km, where the temperature ranged from 199K to 202K. Since this range is higher than the frost point of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), the particles in these PSCs may have consisted of sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT).

  20. Microturbulence, systematic motions, and line formation in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Microturbulence and systematic motions are viewed as simplifying assumptions made to facilitate treatment of line formation in molecular clouds, and line intensities calculated in the two approximations are compared to estimate how uncertainties about the actual line-broadening mechanism affect the interpretation of molecular emission lines. For lines formed by two-level molecules in an isothermal homogeneous cloud, the alternative assumptions lead to peak and integrated line intensities which agree within the differences (up to a factor of 3) associated with the ignorance of cloud geometry. New multilevel calculations for CO in the same cloud model bear out the generality of this result. It follows that, within the geometrical uncertainties, the Sobolev (1960) approximation may be used confidently in the numerous applications for which this simple cloud model suffices.

  1. The Role of Gravity Waves in the Formation and Organization of Clouds during TWPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, Michael J.; Lane, Todd P.; Hankinson, Mai Chi Nguyen

    2013-09-27

    All convective clouds emit gravity waves. While it is certain that convectively-generated waves play important parts in determining the climate, their precise roles remain uncertain and their effects are not (generally) represented in climate models. The work described here focuses mostly on observations and modeling of convectively-generated gravity waves, using the intensive observations from the DoE-sponsored Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which took place in Darwin, from 17 January to 13 February 2006. Among other things, the research has implications the part played by convectively-generated gravity waves in the formation of cirrus, in the initiation and organization of further convection, and in the subgrid-scale momentum transport and associated large-scale stresses imposed on the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis shows two groups of inertia-gravity waves are detected: group L in the middle stratosphere during the suppressed monsoon period, and group S in the lower stratosphere during the monsoon break period. Waves belonging to group L propagate to the south-east with a mean intrinsic period of 35 h, and have vertical and horizontal wavelengths of about 5-6 km and 3000-6000 km, respectively. Ray tracing calculations indicate that these waves originate from a deep convective region near Indonesia. Waves belonging to group S propagate to the south-south-east with an intrinsic period, vertical wavelength and horizontal wavelength of about 45 h, 2 km and 2000-4000 km, respectively. These waves are shown to be associated with shallow convection in the oceanic area within about 1000 km of Darwin. The intrinsic periods of high-frequency waves are estimated to be between 20-40 minutes. The high-frequency wave activity in the stratosphere, defined by mass-weighted variance of the vertical motion of the sonde, has a maximum following the afternoon local convection indicating that these waves are generated by local convection

  2. Numerical models of Oort Cloud formation and comet delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaib, Nathan A.

    I use a newly designed numerical algorithm to simulate the dynamics of the Oort Cloud. The processes I model are the formation of the cloud, the current delivery of comets to the planetary region, and long-period comet production during comet showers. Concerning the cloud's formation, I find that the Sun's birth environment dramatically affects the structure of the inner Oort Cloud as well as the amount of material trapped in this region. In addition, the structure of this reservoir is also sensitive to the Sun's orbital history in the Milky Way. This raises the possibility that constraining our inner Oort Cloud's properties can constrain the Sun's dynamical history. In this regard, I use my simulations of comet delivery to better understand what the population of comets passing through the planetary region can tell us about the inner Oort Cloud. I find that the inner Oort Cloud (rather than the scattered disk) dominates the production of planet-crossing TNOs with perihelia beyond 15 AU and semimajor axes greater than a few hundred AU. My results indicate that two objects representing this population (2000 00 67 and 2006 SQ 372 ) have already been detected, and the detection of many analogous objects can constrain the inner Oort Cloud. In addition, these simulations of comet delivery also demonstrate that, contrary to previous understanding, the inner Oort Cloud is a significant and perhaps the dominant source of known long-period comets. This result can be used to place the first observationally motivated upper limit on the inner Oort Cloud's population. Finally, with this maximum population value, I use my comet shower simulations to show that comet showers are unlikely to be responsible for more than one minor extinction event since the Cambrian Explosion.

  3. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Stratospheric Middleworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry; Jensen, Eric; Sachse, Glenn; Podolske, James; Schoeberl, Mark; Browell, Edward; Ismail, Syed; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Water vapor in the winter arctic stratospheric middleworld is import-an: for two reasons: (1) the arctic middleworld is a source of air for the upper Troposphere because of the generally downward motion, and thus its water vapor content helps determine upper tropospheric water, a critical part of the earth's radiation budget; and (2) under appropriate conditions, relative humidities will be large, even to the point of stratospheric cirrus cloud formation, leading to the production of active chlorine species that could destroy ozone. On a number of occasions during SOLVE, clouds were observed in the stratospheric middleworld by the DC-8 aircraft. These tended to coincide with regions of low temperatures, though some cases suggest water vapor enhancements due to troposphere-to-stratosphere transport. The goal of this work is to understand the importance of processes in and at the edge of the arctic stratospheric middleworld in determining water vapor at these levels. Specifically, is water vapor at these levels determined largely by the descent of air from above, or are clouds both within and at the edge of the stratospheric middleworld potentially important? How important is troposphere-to-stratosphere transport of air in determining stratospheric middleworld water vapor content? To this end, we will first examine the minimum saturation mixing ratios along theta/EPV tubes during the SOLVE winter and compare these with DC-8 water vapor observations. This will be a rough indicator of how high relative humidities can get, and the likelihood of cirrus cloud formation in various parts of the stratospheric middleworld. We will then examine saturation mixing ratios along both diabatic and adiabatic trajectories, comparing these values with actual aircraft water vapor observations, both in situ and remote. Finally, we will attempt to actually predict water vapor using minimum saturation mixing ratios along trajectories, cloud injection (derived from satellite imagery) along

  4. Electric field measuring and display system. [for cloud formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtasinski, R. J.; Lovall, D. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus is described for monitoring the electric fields of cloud formations within a particular area. It utilizes capacitor plates that are alternately shielded from the clouds for generating an alternating signal corresponding to the intensity of the electric field of the clouds. A synchronizing signal is produced for controlling sampling of the alternating signal. Such samplings are fed through a filter and converted by an analogue to digital converter into digital form and subsequently fed to a transmitter for transmission to the control station for recording.

  5. Schmidt's conjecture and star formation in molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan; Lombardi, Marco; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos; Alves, João F. E-mail: marco.lombardi@unimi.it E-mail: jan.forbrich@univie.ac.at

    2013-12-01

    We investigate Schmidt's conjecture (i.e., that the star formation rate (SFR) scales in a power-law fashion with the gas density) for four well-studied local molecular clouds (giant molecular clouds, GMCs). Using the Bayesian methodology, we show that a local Schmidt scaling relation of the form Σ{sub ∗}(A{sub K})=κA{sub K}{sup β} (protostars pc{sup –2}) exists within (but not between) GMCs. Further, we find that the Schmidt scaling law does not by itself provide an adequate description of star formation activity in GMCs. Because the total number of protostars produced by a cloud is given by the product of Σ{sub *}(A {sub K}) and S'(> A {sub K}), the differential surface area distribution function, integrated over the entire cloud, the cloud's structure plays a fundamental role in setting the level of its star formation activity. For clouds with similar functional forms of Σ{sub *}(A {sub K}), observed differences in their total SFRs are primarily due to the differences in S'(> A {sub K}) between the clouds. The coupling of Σ{sub *}(A {sub K}) with the measured S'(> A {sub K}) in these clouds also produces a steep jump in the SFR and protostellar production above A{sub K} ∼ 0.8 mag. Finally, we show that there is no global Schmidt law that relates the SFR and gas mass surface densities between GMCs. Consequently, the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt scaling relation for disk galaxies is likely an artifact of unresolved measurements of GMCs and not a result of any underlying physical law of star formation characterizing the molecular gas.

  6. The Mechanism of First Raindrops Formation in Deep Convective Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, Alexander; Prabha, Thara; Benmoshe, Nir; Pandithurai, G.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2013-08-22

    The formation of first raindrops in deep convective clouds is investigated. A combination of observational data analysis and 2-D and 3-D numerical bin microphysical simulations of deep convective clouds suggests that the first raindrops form at the top of undiluted or slightly diluted cores. It is shown that droplet size distributions in these regions are wider and contain more large droplets than in diluted volumes. The results of the study indicate that the initial raindrop formation is determined by the basic microphysical processes within ascending adiabatic volumes. It allows one to predict the height of the formation of first raindrops considering the processes of nucleation, diffusion growth and collisions. The results obtained in the study explain observational results reported by Freud and Rosenfeld (2012) according to which the height of first raindrop formation depends linearly on the droplet number concentration at cloud base. The results also explain why a simple adiabatic parcel model can reproduce this dependence. The present study provides a physical basis for retrieval algorithms of cloud microphysical properties and aerosol properties using satellites proposed by Rosenfeld et al. ( 2012). The study indicates that the role of mixing and entrainment in the formation of the first raindrops is not of crucial importance. It is also shown that low variability of effective and mean volume radii along horizontal traverses, as regularly observed by in situ measurements, can be simulated by high-resolution cloud models, in which mixing is parameterized by a traditional 1.5 order turbulence closure scheme.

  7. Thermal instabilities in diffuse molecular clouds - Formation of molecular cloud cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziani, Frank R.; Black, David C.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of diffuse clouds to thermal instabilities is examined using the semiempirical cooling function derived by Tarafdar et al. (1985) for these clouds. It is found that diffuse clouds which obey such a cooling function are susceptible to thermal instability at densities n of less than about 70-80/cu cm. The growth rate for instability is large and the mass contained in unstable regions ranges from about 0.001 to 1 solar mass. It is suggested that such instabilities may trigger formation of molecular cloud cores of the type found in low-mass molecular clouds (e.g., TMC-2). Criteria for thermal instability in self-gravitating systems are also derived.

  8. The vapor pressures of supercooled NHO3/H2O solutions. [in polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure utilizing the Gibbs-Duhem relation is used to extrapolate vapor pressures of supercooled HNO3 mixtures to 190 K. Values of A and B from the equation logP = A - B/T are presented for solutions between 0.20 and 0.25 mole fraction HNO3. In the stratosphere, if sufficient HNO3 vapor is present because it has not come into equilibrium with the nitric acid trihydrate, supercooled nitric acid solutions could condense at temperatures up to 1.5 + or - 0.8 K above the ice point.

  9. Balloon borne Antarctic frost point measurements and their impact on polar stratospheric cloud theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, James M.; Hofmann, D. J.; Carpenter, J. R.; Harder, J. W.; Oltsmans, S. J.

    1988-01-01

    Balloon-borne frost point measurements were performed over Antarctica during September-October 1987 as part of the NOZE II effort at McMurdo. The results show water mixing ratios on the order of 2 ppmv in the 20 km region, suggesting that models of the springtime Antarctic stratosphere should be based on approximately 2 ppmv water vapor. Evidence indicating that some PSCs form at temperatures higher than the frost point in the 15 to 20 km region is discussed. This supports the binary HNO3-H2O theory of PSC composition.

  10. Ice supersaturation and cirrus cloud formation from global in-situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Minghui

    Water vapor, clouds and aerosols are three major components in the atmosphere that largely influence the Earth's climate and weather systems. However, there is still a lack of understanding on the distribution and interaction of these components. Large uncertainties still remain in estimating the magnitude and direction of the aerosol indirect effect on cloud radiative forcing, which potentially can either double or cancel out all anthropogenic greenhouse gas effect. In particular, a small variation in water vapor mixing ratio and cloud distribution in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) can generate large impacts on the Earth's surface temperature. Yet the understanding of water vapor and clouds in the UT/LS is still limited due to difficulties in observations. To improve our understanding of these components, observations are needed from the microscale (~100 m) to the global scale. The first part of my PhD work is to provide quality-controlled, high resolution (~200 m), in situ water vapor observations using an open-path, aircraft-based laser hygrometer. The laboratory calibrations of the laser hygrometer were conducted using complementary experimental systems. The second part is to compare the NASA AIRS/AMSU-A water vapor and temperature retrievals with aircraft-based observations from the surface to the UT/LS at 87°N-67°S in order to understand the accuracy and uncertainties in remote sensing measurements. The third part of my research analyzes the spatial characteristics and formation condition of ice supersaturation (ISS), the birthplace of cirrus clouds, and shows that water vapor horizontal heterogeneities play a key role in determining the spatial distribution of ISS. The fourth part is to understand the formation and evolution of ice crystal regions (ICRs) in a quasi-Lagrangian view. Finally, to help estimate the hemispheric differences in ice nucleation, the ISS distribution and ICR evolution are compared between the two hemispheres

  11. Precipitation factors leading to arc cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    The combined efforts of three graduate students and the principal investigator are presented. Satellite observations and interpretation have become increasingly important in the areas of weather research and operational forecasting. One reason is that geostationary satellite imagery is the only meteorological observing tool that can follow the evolution of clouds from the synoptic scale down to the cumulas scale. Therefore, it can depict atmospheric activity which is up to two orders of magnitude smaller than can be resolved by conventional meteorological observations. This unique ability of the satellite provides the meteorologist a mechanism to infer weather events down to the mesoscale. This evolution is the subject of this report.

  12. Connecting the density structure of molecular clouds and star formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, Jouni

    2015-08-01

    In the current paradigm of turbulence-regulated interstellar medium (ISM), star formation rates of entire galaxies are intricately linked to the density structure of the individual molecular clouds in the ISM. This density structure is essentially encapsulated in the probability distribution function of volume densities (rho-PDF), which directly affects the star formation rates predicted by analytic models. Contrasting its fundamental role, the rho-PDF function and its evolution have remained virtually unconstrained by observations. I describe in this contribution our recent progress in attaining observational constraints for the rho-PDFs of molecular clouds. Specifically, I review our first systematic determination of the rho-PDFs in Solar neighborhood molecular clouds. I will also present new evidence of the time evolution of the projected rho-PDFs, i.e., column density PDFs. These results together enable us to build the first observationally constrained link between the evolving density structure of molecular clouds and the star formation within. Finally, I discuss our work to expand the analysis into a Galactic context and to observationally connect the physical processes acting at the scale of molecular clouds with star formation at the scale of galaxies.

  13. Development of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Model within the Community Earth System Model using constraints on Type I PSCs from the 2010-2011 Arctic winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunqian; Toon, Owen B.; Lambert, Alyn; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Brakebusch, Matthias; Bardeen, Charles G.; Mills, Michael J.; English, Jason M.

    2015-06-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are critical elements of Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion. We establish a PSC microphysics model using coupled chemistry, climate, and microphysics models driven by specific dynamics. We explore the microphysical formation and evolution of STS (Supercooled Ternary Solution) and NAT (Nitric Acid Trihydrate). Characteristics of STS particles dominated by thermodynamics compare well with observations. For example, the mass of STS is close to the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption when the particle surface area is >4 µm2/cm3. We derive a new nucleation rate equation for NAT based on observed denitrification in the 2010-2011 Arctic winter. The homogeneous nucleation scheme leads to supermicron NAT particles as observed. We also find that as the number density of NAT particles increases, the denitrification also increases. Simulations of the PSC lidar backscatter, denitrification, and gas phase species are generally within error bars of the observations. However, the simulations are very sensitive to temperature, which limits our ability to fully constrain some parameters (e.g., denitrification, ozone amount) based on observations.

  14. Simulations of Carbon Dioxide Cloud Formation at the Martian Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaprete, A.; Toon, O. B.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) experiment flying onboard the Mars Global Surveyor has observed echoes from cloud tops above the north polar cap. Due to the location and time of year that these clouds are forming, it has been assumed that these clouds consist primarily of carbon dioxide ice particles. The structure of these echoes suggests that a number of these clouds may be the product of buoyancy or gravity waves (Zuber et al., 1998). While the presence of carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere is generally accepted, how and where they form is still not understood and little is known about the physics of carbon dioxide particle formation. Recently, Glandorf et al. (personal communication) measured the critical saturation ratio required for carbon dioxide to nucleate onto ice. From this measurement, using nucleation theory, the contact parameter between ice and carbon dioxide under Martian conditions was determined. Using the nucleation rates measured by Glandorf et al. we have developed a 2D time dependent microphyical simulation of carbon dioxide clouds forming in the Mars polar regions. In this simulation we explore the mechanism of cloud initiation by orographic waves and compare our results to MOLA observations.

  15. Collapsing molecular clouds and their evolving star formation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    I will discuss the evidence suggesting that molecular clouds (MCs) may be in global, hierarchical gravitational collapse, and the regulation of their star formation rate (SFR) by stellar feedback. The evidence includes observations of multi-scale collapse in MCs, and numerical simulations of MC evolution, from their formation to the onset of gravitational collapse, then the onset of star formation, and, finally, the clouds' destruction by stellar feedback. In this scenario, the SFR evolves in time, increasing until the feedback begins to destroy the clouds, at which point it drops significantly, or stops altogether. This evolution of the SFR explains the observed form of the age histograms of embedded clusters, the evolutionary sequence observed for giant MCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and the locus of clouds in the SFR vs. mass diagram of Gao & Solomon. Finally, this scenario implies that the material that at one time conforms a low-mass star-forming MC such as Perseus, will constitute the massive-SF clumps embedded in a massive GMC, and that MCs constitute a regime of flow rather than well defined objects.

  16. A study of the effect of overshooting deep convection on the water content of the TTL and lower stratosphere from Cloud Resolving Model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosvenor, D. P.; Choularton, T. W.; Coe, H.; Held, G.

    2007-09-01

    Simulations of overshooting, tropical deep convection using a Cloud Resolving Model with bulk microphysics are presented in order to examine the effect on the water content of the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) and lower stratosphere. This case study is a subproject of the HIBISCUS (Impact of tropical convection on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere at global scale) campaign, which took place in Bauru, Brazil (22° S, 49° W), from the end of January to early March 2004. Comparisons between 2-D and 3-D simulations suggest that the use of 3-D dynamics is vital in order to capture the mixing between the overshoot and the stratospheric air, which caused evaporation of ice and resulted in an overall moistening of the lower stratosphere. In contrast, a dehydrating effect was predicted by the 2-D simulation due to the extra time, allowed by the lack of mixing, for the ice transported to the region to precipitate out of the overshoot air. Three different strengths of convection are simulated in 3-D by applying successively lower heating rates (used to initiate the convection) in the boundary layer. Moistening is produced in all cases, indicating that convective vigour is not a factor in whether moistening or dehydration is produced by clouds that penetrate the tropopause, since the weakest case only just did so. An estimate of the moistening effect of these clouds on an air parcel traversing a convective region is made based on the domain mean simulated moistening and the frequency of convective events observed by the IPMet (Instituto de Pesquisas Meteorológicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista) radar (S-band type at 2.8 Ghz) to have the same 10 dBZ echo top height as those simulated. These suggest a fairly significant mean moistening of 0.26, 0.13 and 0.05 ppmv in the strongest, medium and weakest cases, respectively, for heights between 16 and 17 km. Since the cold point and WMO (World Meteorological Organization) tropopause in this region lies at ~15.9 km

  17. STAR FORMATION LAWS: THE EFFECTS OF GAS CLOUD SAMPLING

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Liu, G.; Koda, J.

    2012-06-20

    Recent observational results indicate that the functional shape of the spatially resolved star formation-molecular gas density relation depends on the spatial scale considered. These results may indicate a fundamental role of sampling effects on scales that are typically only a few times larger than those of the largest molecular clouds. To investigate the impact of this effect, we construct simple models for the distribution of molecular clouds in a typical star-forming spiral galaxy and, assuming a power-law relation between star formation rate (SFR) and cloud mass, explore a range of input parameters. We confirm that the slope and the scatter of the simulated SFR-molecular gas surface density relation depend on the size of the sub-galactic region considered, due to stochastic sampling of the molecular cloud mass function, and the effect is larger for steeper relations between SFR and molecular gas. There is a general trend for all slope values to tend to {approx}unity for region sizes larger than 1-2 kpc, irrespective of the input SFR-cloud relation. The region size of 1-2 kpc corresponds to the area where the cloud mass function becomes fully sampled. We quantify the effects of selection biases in data tracing the SFR, either as thresholds (i.e., clouds smaller than a given mass value do not form stars) or as backgrounds (e.g., diffuse emission unrelated to current star formation is counted toward the SFR). Apparently discordant observational results are brought into agreement via this simple model, and the comparison of our simulations with data for a few galaxies supports a steep (>1) power-law index between SFR and molecular gas.

  18. Observations of cloud microphysics and ice formation during COPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Blyth, A. M.; Liu, Z.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Williams, P. I.; Dorsey, J. R.; Flynn, M. J.; Bennett, L. J.; Huang, Y.; French, J.; Korolev, A.; Brown, P. R. A.

    2015-06-01

    Intense rainfall generated by convective clouds causes flash flooding in many parts of the world. Understanding the microphysical processes leading to the formation of precipitation is one of the main challenges to improving our capability to make quantitative precipitation forecasts. Here, we present microphysics observations of cumulus clouds measured over the Southwest Peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) in August 2013, which are framed into a wider context using ground-based and airborne radar measurements. Two lines of cumulus clouds formed in the early afternoon along convergence lines aligned with the peninsula. The lines became longer and broader during the afternoon as a result of new cell formation and stratiform regions forming downwind of the convective cells. Aircraft penetrations at -5 °C showed that all the required conditions of the Hallett-Mossop (H-M) ice multiplication process were met in developing regions, and ice concentrations up to 350 L-1 were measured in the mature stratiform regions, indicating that secondary ice production was active. Detailed sampling focused on an isolated liquid cloud that glaciated as it matured to merge with a band of cloud downwind. In the initial cell, a few drizzle drops were measured, some of which froze to form graupel; the ice images are most consistent with freezing drizzle, rather than smaller cloud drops forming the first ice. As new cells developed in and around the cloud, ice concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than the predicted ice nuclei concentrations began to be observed and the cloud glaciated over a period of 12-15 min. Ice splinters were captured by supercooled drizzle drops causing them to freeze to form instant-rimers. Graupel and columns were observed in cloud penetrations up to the -12 °C level, though many ice particles were mixed-habit due to riming and growth by vapour diffusion at multiple temperatures. Frozen drizzle

  19. Formation of young massive clusters from turbulent molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Michiko; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2015-08-01

    We simulate the formation and evolution of young star clusters using smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and direct N-body methods. We start by performing SPH simulations of the giant molecular cloud with a turbulent velocity field, a mass of 10^4 to 10^6 M_sun, and a density between 17 and 1700 cm^-3. We continue the SPH simulations for a free-fall time scale, and analyze the resulting structure of the collapsed cloud. We subsequently replace a density-selected subset of SPH particles with stars. As a consequence, the local star formation efficiency exceeds 30 per cent, whereas globally only a few per cent of the gas is converted to stars. The stellar distribution is very clumpy with typically a dozen bound conglomerates that consist of 100 to 10000 stars. We continue to evolve the stars dynamically using the collisional N-body method, which accurately treats all pairwise interactions, stellar collisions and stellar evolution. We analyze the results of the N-body simulations at 2 Myr and 10 Myr. From dense massive molecular clouds, massive clusters grow via hierarchical merging of smaller clusters. The shape of the cluster mass function that originates from an individual molecular cloud is consistent with a Schechter function with a power-law slope of beta = -1.73 at 2 Myr and beta = -1.67 at 10 Myr, which fits to observed cluster mass function of the Carina region. The superposition of mass functions have a power-law slope of < -2, which fits the observed mass function of star clusters in the Milky Way, M31 and M83. We further find that the mass of the most massive cluster formed in a single molecular cloud with a mass of M_g scales with 6.1 M_g^0.51 which also agrees with recent observation in M51. The molecular clouds which can form massive clusters are much denser than those typical in the Milky Way. The velocity dispersion of such molecular clouds reaches 20 km/s and it is consistent with the relative velocity of the molecular clouds observed near NGC 3603

  20. Giant Molecular Cloud Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C.; Van Loo, Sven; nakamura, fumitaka; Bruderer, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a potentially dominant mechanism for galactic star formation: triggering via collisions between giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We create detailed numerical simulations of this process, utilizing the Enzo code with magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), including non-ideal effects, and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to explore how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments, clumps and stars. We implement photo-dissociation region (PDR) based density/temperature/extinction-dependent heating and cooling functions that span the atomic to molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. We first carried out a parameter space study via a suite of 2D simulations, which track the fate of an initially stable clump embedded within one of the clouds. We have then extended these calculations to 3D, including introduction of initial turbulence into the clouds and magnetically-regulated sub-grid models for star formation. Different magnetic field strengths and orientations are considered, as is the role of cloud collisions at various velocities and impact parameters. We examine the effects of including ambipolar diffusion. Between isolated and colliding cases, the density and kinematic structure are visualized and characterized, in addition to magnetic field configuration. We discuss observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, focusing on 13CO(J=2-1), 13CO(J=3-2), and 12CO(J=8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra, which we synthesize from our simulation outputs. We find the ratio of J=8-7 to lower-J emission to be a powerful diagnostic probe of GMC collisions. We also analyze magnetic field orientation relative to filamentary structure, comparing to observations within the Galaxy. Finally, we examine the level of star formation activity that is induced by collisions and distinguishing kinematic properties of the stars that form by this mechanism.

  1. Open-cell cloud formation over the Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    What atmospheric scientists refer to as open cell cloud formation is a regular occurrence on the back side of a low-pressure system or cyclone in the mid-latitudes. In the Northern Hemisphere, a low-pressure system will draw in surrounding air and spin it counterclockwise. That means that on the back side of the low-pressure center, cold air will be drawn in from the north, and on the front side, warm air will be drawn up from latitudes closer to the equator. This movement of an air mass is called advection, and when cold air advection occurs over warmer waters, open cell cloud formations often result. This MODIS image shows open cell cloud formation over the Atlantic Ocean off the southeast coast of the United States on February 19, 2002. This particular formation is the result of a low-pressure system sitting out in the North Atlantic Ocean a few hundred miles east of Massachusetts. (The low can be seen as the comma-shaped figure in the GOES-8 Infrared image from February 19, 2002.) Cold air is being drawn down from the north on the western side of the low and the open cell cumulus clouds begin to form as the cold air passes over the warmer Caribbean waters. For another look at the scene, check out the MODIS Direct Broadcast Image from the University of Wisconsin. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Electron cloud experiments at Fermilab: Formation and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    We have performed a series of experiments at Fermilab to explore the electron cloud phenomenon. The Main Injector will have its beam intensity increased four-fold in the Project X upgrade, and would be subject to instabilities from the electron cloud. We present measurements of the cloud formation in the Main Injector and experiments with materials for the mitigation of the Cloud. An experimental installation of Titanium-Nitride (TiN) coated beam pipes has been under study in the Main Injector since 2009; this material was directly compared to an adjacent stainless chamber through electron cloud measurement with Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs). Over the long period of running we were able to observe the secondary electron yield (SEY) change and correlate it with electron fluence, establishing a conditioning history. Additionally, the installation has allowed measurement of the electron energy spectrum, comparison of instrumentation techniques, and energydependent behavior of the electron cloud. Finally, a new installation, developed in conjunction with Cornell and SLAC, will allow direct SEY measurement of material samples irradiated in the accelerator.

  3. Formation and destruction of clouds and spurs in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Rahul; Ostriker, E. C.

    We investigate the formation of clouds and substructure in spiral galaxies using high resolution global MHD simulations, including gas self gravity. Previously, local modeling by Kim and Ostriker (2002) has shown that self gravity and magnetic fields cause the growth of high density clumps in the spiral arms rather rapidly; subsequently, these clumps result in the formation of sheared, feather like structures in the interarms, known as spurs. Recently, Shetty and Ostriker (2006) performed global simulations and found that gas self gravity can cause the growth of sheared features regardless of the strength of the external spiral potential. However, a sufficiently strong spiral potential is required to produce arm clouds, as well as spurs, which are the filamentary structures distinctly associated with the spiral arms, having near-perpendicular intersections with the main dust lane. Here, we use higher resolution modeling to study the detailed properties of the clouds and spurs. We analyze the resulting masses, angular momenta, and magnetic fields of the clouds, and their relation to the background dynamics. We also include a feedback mechanism, representing turbulent forcing via supernovae, to destroy the clouds. We thus assess the role of turbulence on the clump properties. Further, we also follow how subsequent spur morphology evolves under quasi-steady conditions. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant AST-0507315.

  4. Facet shapes and thermo-stabilities of H₂SO₄•HNO₃ hydrates involved in polar stratospheric clouds.

    PubMed

    Verdes, Marian; Paniagua, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    The nucleation, ice crystal shapes and thermodynamic stability of polar stratospheric clouds particles are interesting concerns owing to their implication in the ozone layer destruction. Some of these particles are formed by conformers of H2O, HNO3, and H2SO4. We carried out calculations using density functional theory (DFT) to obtain optimized structures. Several stable trimers are achieved -divided in two groups, one with HNO3 moiety, second with H2SO4 moiety- after pre-optimization at B3LYP/6-31G and subsequently optimization at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. For both most stable conformers five H2O molecules are added to their optimized trimers to calculate hydrated geometries. The OH stretching harmonic frequencies are provided for all aggregates. The zero-point energy correction (ZEPC), relative electronic energies (∆E), relative reaction Gibbs free energies ∆(∆G)k-relative, and cooling constant (K cooling ) are reported at three temperatures: 188 K, 195 K, and 210 K. Shapes given in our calculations are compared with various experimental shapes as well as comparisons with their thermo-stabilities. PMID:26287119

  5. Changes in the character of Polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Deshler, T.; Johnson, B.J.; Rozier, W.R. )

    1994-02-15

    Vertical profiles of aerosol concentration were measured on 8 occasions from McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78[degrees]S), between late August and early October 1992. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) were observed on 6 of these soundings. The characteristics of PSCs, and ozone, were quite different above and below about 16 km. Above 16 km PSCs were variable in time, with particles > 1.0 [mu]m radius contributing significantly to the surface area, generally < 8 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3]. Below 16 km PSCs were much more stable and were dominated by high concentrations of smaller particles, < 1.0 [mu]m, with surface areas of 20-30 [mu]m[sup 2] cm[sup [minus]3]. This lower layer coincided with the altitude of the primary Pinatubo volcanic aerosol as measured in mid September and October, and with the 4 km region of the atmosphere where ozone was virtually completed destroyed over Antarctica in 1992. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  6. One-dimensional cloud fluid model for propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the propagation of star formation (SF) with a self-consistent deterministic model for the interstellar gas. The questions of under what conditions does star formation propagate in this model and what are the mechanisms of the propagation are explored. Here, researchers used the deterministic Oort-type cloud fluid model of Scalo and Struck-Marcell (1984, also see the review of Struck-Marcell, Scalo and Appleton 1987). This cloud fluid approach includes simple models for the effects of cloud collisional coalescence or disruption, collisional energy dissipation, and cloud disruption and acceleration as the result of young star winds, HII regions and supernovae. An extensive one-zone parameter study is presented in Struck-Marcell and Scalo (1987). To answer the questions above, researchers carried out one-dimensional calculations for an annulus within a galactic disk, like the so-called solar neighborhood of the galactic chemical evolution. In the calculations the left-hand boundary is set equal to the right hand boundary. The calculation is obviously idealized; however, it is computationally convenient to study the first order effects of propagating star formation. The annulus was treated as if it were at rest, i.e., in the local rotating frame. This assumption may remove some interesting effects of a supersonic gas flow, but was necessary to maintain a numerical stability in the annulus. The results on the one-dimensional propagation of SF in the Oort cloud fluid model follow: (1) SF is propagated by means of hydrodynamic waves, which can be generated by external forces or by the pressure generated by local bursts. SF is not effectively propagated via diffusion or variation in cloud interaction rates without corresponding density and velocity changes. (2) The propagation and long-range effects of SF depend on how close the gas density is to the critical threshold value, i.e., on the susceptibility of the medium.

  7. Convective Formation of Pileus Cloud Near the Tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Timothy J.; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Liu, Chuntao; Barnett, Brian K.; Mace, Gerald G.; Baumgardner, Darrel G.; Webster, Christopher R.; Bui, T. Paul; Read, William G.; Minnis, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Pileus clouds form where humid, stably stratified air is mechanically displaced vertically ahead of rising convection. This paper describes convective formation of pileus cloud in the tropopause transition layer (TTL), and explores a possible link to the formation of long-lasting cirrus at cold temperatures. In-situ measurements from off the coast of Honduras during the July 2002 CRYSTALFACE experiment show an example of TTL cirrus associated with, and penetrated by, deep convection. The cirrus was enriched with total water compared to its surroundings, but composed of extremely small ice crystals with effective radii between 2 and 4 m. Through gravity wave analysis, and intercomparison of measured and simulated cloud microphysics, it is argued that the TTL cirrus in this case originated neither from convectively-forced gravity wave motions nor environmental mixing alone. Rather, it is hypothesized that some combination was involved in which, first, convection forced pileus cloud to form from TTL air; second, it punctured the pileus layer, contributing larger ice crystals through interfacial mixing; third, the addition of condensate inhibited evaporation of the original pileus ice crystals in the warm phase of the ensuing gravity wave; fourth, through successive pulses, deep convection formed the observed layer of TTL cirrus. While the general incidence and longevity of pileus cloud remains unknown, in-situ measurements, and satellite-based Microwave Limb Sounder retrievals, suggest that much of the tropical TTL is sufficiently humid to be susceptible to its formation. Where these clouds form and persist, there is potential for an irreversible repartition from water vapor to ice at cold temperatures.

  8. Variability of water vapour in the Arctic stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thölix, L.; Backman, L.; Kivi, R.; Karpechko, A.

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluates the stratospheric water vapour distribution and variability in the Arctic. A FinROSE chemistry climate model simulation covering years 1990-2013 is compared to observations (satellite and frostpoint hygrometer soundings) and the sources of stratospheric water vapour are studied. According to observations and the simulations the water vapour concentration in the Arctic stratosphere started to increase after year 2006, but around 2011 the concentration started to decrease. Model calculations suggest that the increase in water vapour during 2006-2011 (at 56 hPa) is mostly explained by transport related processes, while the photochemically produced water vapour plays a relatively smaller role. The water vapour trend in the stratosphere may have contributed to increased ICE PSC occurrence. The increase of water vapour in the precense of the low winter temperatures in the Arctic stratosphere led to more frequent occurrence of ICE PSCs in the Arctic vortex. The polar vortex was unusually cold in early 2010 and allowed large scale formation of the polar stratospheric clouds. The cold pool in the stratosphere over the Northern polar latitudes was large and stable and a large scale persistent dehydration was observed. Polar stratospheric ice clouds and dehydration were observed at Sodankylä with accurate water vapour soundings in January and February 2010 during the LAPBIAT atmospheric sounding campaign. The observed changes in water vapour were reproduced by the model. Both the observed and simulated decrease of the water vapour in the dehydration layer was up to 1.5 ppm.

  9. Formation of compact HII regions possibly triggered by cloud-cloud collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohama, Akio; Torii, Kazufumi; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Fukui, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Compact HII regions are ionized by young high-mass star(s) and ~1000 compact HII regions are cataloged in the Galaxy (Urquhart et al. MNRAS 443, 1555-1586 (2014)). Compact HII regions are one of the major populations of Galactic HII regions. The molecular environments around compact HII regions are however not well understood due to lack of extensive molecular surveys. In order to better understand formation of exciting stars and compact HII regions, we have carried out a systematic study of molecular clouds toward compact HII regions by using the 12CO datasets obtained with the JCMT and NANTEN2 telescopes for l = 10 - 56, and present here the first results.In one of the present samples, RCW166, we have discovered that the HII region is associated with two molecular clouds whose velocity separation is ~10 km s-1 the two clouds show complimentary spatial distributions, where one of the clouds have a cavity-like distribution apparently embracing the other. We present an interpretation that the two clouds collided with each other and the cavity-like distribution represents a hole created by the collision in the larger cloud as modeled by Habe and Ohta (1992). Similar molecular distributions are often found in the other compact HII regions in the present study.A recent study by Torii et al. (2015, arXiv:1503.00070) indicates that the Spitzer bubble RCW120 was formed by cloud-cloud collision where the inside of the cavity is fully ionized by the exiting stars. RCW166, on the other hand, shows that only a small part of the cavity, the compact HII region, is ionized. We thus suggest that RCW166 represents an evolutionary stage corresponding to an earlier phase of RCW120 in the collision scenario.

  10. Nucleation and growth of crystals under cirrus and polar stratospheric cloud conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallett, John; Queen, Brian; Teets, Edward; Fahey, James

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory studies examine phase changes of hygroscopic substances which occur as aerosol in stratosphere and troposphere (sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, nitric acid, sulfuric acid), under controlled conditions, in samples volume 1 to 10(exp -4) ml. Crystallization of salts from supersaturated solutions is examined by slowly evaporating a solution drop on a substrate, under controlled relative humidity, until self nucleation occurs; controlled nucleation of ice in a mm capillary U-tube gives a measured ice crystallization velocity at known supercooling. Two states of crystallization occur for regions where hydrates exist. It is inferred that all of the materials readily exist as supersaturated/supercooled solutions; the degree of metastability appears to be slightly enhanced by inclusion of aircraft produced soot. The crystallization velocity is taken as a measure of viscosity. Results suggest an approach to a glass transition at high molality, supersaturation and/or supercooling within the range of atmospheric interest. It is hypothesized that surface reactions occur more readily on solidified particles - either crystalline or glass, whereas volume reactions are more important on droplets with sufficiently low viscosity and volume diffusivity. Implications are examined for optical properties of such particles in the atmosphere. In a separate experiment, crystal growth was examined in a modified thermal vapor diffusion chamber over the range of cirrus temperature (-30 to -70 C) and under controlled supersaturation and air pressure. The crystals grew at a velocity of 1-2 microns/s, thickness 60-70 micron, in the form of thin column crystals. Design criteria are given for a system to investigate particle growth down to -100 C, (PSC temperatures) where nitric acid particles can be grown under similar control and in the form of hydrate crystals.